Publications by authors named "Xinyu Zhang"

732 Publications

The pilot of a new patient classification-based payment system in China: The impact on costs, length of stay and quality.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Sep 20;289:114415. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Health Technology Assessment (Fudan University), Ministry of Health, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

With the urgent need to regulate provider behaviors, China developed a novel patient classification with global budget payment system, expecting to achieve both easy implementation and cost containment. The new system, called "diagnosis-intervention packet (DIP)" payment, is based on a deterministic patient classification approach, which groups patients according to the combination of principal diagnosis ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) codes and procedure ICD-9-CM3 (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) codes and links each group to relative historical costs market-wide. This study investigated the impact of the DIP-based payment on inpatient costs, length of stay, and quality of care in the largest DIP pilot city of China. In 2018, the city changed from the "fixed rate per admission with a cap on annual total compensation" policy to DIP with global budget for all insured inpatients. A difference-in-differences approach was employed to identify changes in outcome variables before and after the DIP policy among insured relative to uninsured patients. We found an average of 8.5% (p = 0.000) increase in inpatient costs per case (as intended), trivial changes in length of stay, and a 3.6% (p = 0.046) reduction in postoperative complication rate in response to DIP adoption among patients with high severity. Our findings suggested that the DIP-based payment helped regulate provider behaviors when treating high-risk patients. And the new payment has the potential for rapid rollout in resource-limited areas where lack a uniform coding practice or high-quality historical data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114415DOI Listing
September 2021

Biochanin A from Chinese Medicine: An Isoflavone with Diverse Pharmacological Properties.

Am J Chin Med 2021 Sep 16:1-21. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery, System of the Education Ministry, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced, Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China.

Biochanin A (BCA) is a dietary isoflavone, isolated from the leaves and stems of L and many other herbs of Chinese medicine. Recent findings indicated BCA as a promising drug candidate with diverse bioactive effects. On the purpose of evaluating the possibility of BCA in clinical application, this review is trying to provide a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological actions of BCA. The publications collected from PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Wiley databases were summarized for the last 10 years. Then, the potential therapeutic use of BCA on the treatment of various diseases was discussed according to its pharmacological properties, namely, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity effects as well as neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, and osteoprotective effects. BCA might mainly regulate the MAPK, PI3K, NRF2, and NF-kB pathways, respectively, to exert its bioactive effects. However, the limited definitive targets, poor biological availability, and insufficient safety evaluation might block the clinical application of BCA. This review may provide new insights for the development of BCA in the application of related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500750DOI Listing
September 2021

NIR light-responsive bacteria with live bio-glue coatings for precise colonization in the gut.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(11):109690

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. Electronic address:

Recombinant bacterial colonization plays an indispensable role in disease prevention, alleviation, and treatment. Successful application mainly depends on whether bacteria can efficiently spatiotemporally colonize the host gut. However, a primary limitation of existing methods is the lack of precise spatiotemporal regulation, resulting in uncontrolled methods that are less effective. Herein, we design upconversion microgels (UCMs) to convert near-infrared light (NIR) into blue light to activate recombinant light-responsive bacteria (Lresb) in vivo, where autocrine "functional cellular glues" made of adhesive proteins assist Lresb inefficiently colonizing the gut. The programmable engineering platform is further developed for the controlled and effective colonization of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in the gut. The colonizing bacteria effectively alleviate DSS-induced colitis in mice. We anticipate that this approach could facilitate the clinical application of engineered microbial therapeutics to accurately and effectively regulate host health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109690DOI Listing
September 2021

Unmethylated CpG motif-containing genomic DNA fragments of bacillus calmette-guerin improves immune response towards a DNA vaccine for COVID-19.

Vaccine 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Institute for Biological Product Control, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) and WHO Collaborating Center for Standardization and Evaluation of Biologicals, No.31 Huatuo Street, Daxing District, Beijing 102629, China. Electronic address:

The development of an effective vaccine to control the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus- 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is of utmost importance. In this study, a synthetic DNA-based vaccine candidate, known as pSV10-SARS-CoV-2, expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was designed and tested in 39 BALB/c mice with BC01, an adjuvant derived from unmethylated CpG motif-containing DNA fragments from the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin genome. Mice vaccinated with pSV10-SARS-CoV-2 with BC01 produced early neutralizing antibodies and developed stronger humoral and cellular immune responses compared to mice that received the DNA vaccine only. Moreover, sera from mice vaccinated with pSV10-SARS-CoV-2 with BC01 can neutralize certain variants, including 614G, 614G + 472 V, 452R, 483A, 501Y.V2, and B.1.1.7. The results of this study demonstrate that the addition of BC01 to a DNA-vaccine for COVID-19 could elicit more effective neutralizing antibody titers for disease prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.08.103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413458PMC
September 2021

Recent Development of Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensor for Detecting Hematological Malignancies-Associated Biomarkers: A Mini-Review.

Front Chem 2021 25;9:735668. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Key Laboratory of Biopharmaceuticals, Engineering Laboratory of Polysaccharide Drugs, Shandong Academy of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jinan, China.

Hematologic malignancies are a group of malignant diseases of the hematologic system that seriously endanger human health, mainly involving bone marrow, blood and lymphatic tissues. However, among the available treatments for malignant hematologic diseases, low detection rates and high recurrence rates are major problems in the treatment process. The quantitative detection of hematologic malignancies-related biomarkers is the key to refine the pathological typing of the disease to implement targeted therapy and thus improve the prognosis. In recent years, bioelectrochemical methods for tumor cell and blood detection have attracted the attention of an increasing number of scientists. The development of biosensor technology, nanotechnology, probe technology, and lab-on-a-chip technology has greatly facilitated the development of bioelectrochemical studies of cells, especially for blood and cell-based assays and drug resistance differentiation. To improve the sensitivity of detection, graphene is often used in the design of electrochemical sensors. This mini-review provides an overview of the types of hematological malignancies-associated biomarkers and their detection based on graphene assisted electrochemical sensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.735668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423913PMC
August 2021

Silencing of lncRNA XIST impairs angiogenesis and exacerbates cerebral vascular injury after ischemic stroke.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Dec 16;26:148-160. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, Gongli Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, 219 Miaopu Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 200135, PR China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST) in cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS). The impact of lncRNA XIST on CIS was evaluated in acute CIS patients, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) mice, and oxygen-glucose deprivation and restoration brain endothelial cells. Our results demonstrated that the expression of lncRNA XIST decreased during the early stages of CIS but then increased in the later stages in CIS patients and ischemic models and . In addition, the serum levels of lncRNA XIST negatively correlated with severity of neurological impairment of CIS patients. Further studies exhibited that lncRNA XIST regulated the expression of proangiogenic factor-integrin α5 (Itgα5) and anti-inflammation factor-Kruppel-like transcription factor 4 (KLF4) by targeting microRNA-92a (miR-92a). Silencing of lncRNA XIST impaired angiogenesis and exacerbated cerebral vascular injury following CIS, leading to larger infarcts and worse neurological deficits in transient MCAO mice. Mechanistic analysis revealed that lncRNA XIST modulated angiogenesis and alleviated cerebral vascular injury following CIS through mediating the miR-92a/Itgα5 or KLF4 axis, respectively. These data indicate that lncRNA XIST confers protection against CIS, providing a valuable target for future prevention and treatment of CIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.06.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413678PMC
December 2021

A multi-scale gated multi-head attention depthwise separable CNN model for recognizing COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 09 10;11(1):18048. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Electrical Information and Automation, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300222, China.

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a new acute respiratory disease that has spread rapidly throughout the world. In this paper, a lightweight convolutional neural network (CNN) model named multi-scale gated multi-head attention depthwise separable CNN (MGMADS-CNN) is proposed, which is based on attention mechanism and depthwise separable convolution. A multi-scale gated multi-head attention mechanism is designed to extract effective feature information from the COVID-19 X-ray and CT images for classification. Moreover, the depthwise separable convolution layers are adopted as MGMADS-CNN's backbone to reduce the model size and parameters. The LeNet-5, AlexNet, GoogLeNet, ResNet, VGGNet-16, and three MGMADS-CNN models are trained, validated and tested with tenfold cross-validation on X-ray and CT images. The results show that MGMADS-CNN with three attention layers (MGMADS-3) has achieved accuracy of 96.75% on X-ray images and 98.25% on CT images. The specificity and sensitivity are 98.06% and 96.6% on X-ray images, and 98.17% and 98.05% on CT images. The size of MGMADS-3 model is only 43.6 M bytes. In addition, the detection speed of MGMADS-3 on X-ray images and CT images are 6.09 ms and 4.23 ms for per image, respectively. It is proved that the MGMADS-3 can detect and classify COVID-19 faster with higher accuracy and efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97428-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433233PMC
September 2021

Deacetylated Sp1 improves β-glycerophosphate-induced calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Oct 10;22(4):1152. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Cardiology, The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, P.R. China.

The aging of the population has led to an annual increase in the incidence of vascular calcification (VC). Specific protein 1 (Sp1) is a transcriptional activator that serves an important role in VC. The deacetylation of transcription factors represses their binding to the promoters of downstream genes, thereby causing their downregulation. The present study aimed to investigate the role of deacetylated Sp1 in the development of VC. In the present study, western blotting and immunoprecipitation (IP) were performed to detect the protein levels of acetylated Sp1. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze phenotypic switching in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Alizarin red S, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium content assays were used to assess calcium deposition in VSMCs. Western blotting, flow cytometry, TUNEL staining and caspase3 activity assay were used to evaluate apoptosis of VSMCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to detect Sp1 binding to the BMP2 promoter. The results indicated that, in a β-glycerophosphate (β-GP)-induced VSMC calcification model, the level of acetylated Sp1 was increased. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining results showed that, compared with the Sp1 overexpression group (Sp1-WT), deacetylated Sp1 (Sp1-K704A) downregulated the expression of osteogenic markers runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), and upregulated the expression of contraction marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and calponin 1. In addition, deacetylated Sp1 also reduced the ALP activity and calcium content of calcified VSMCs, and the Alizarin red S assay revealed that the calcium crystallization of Sp1-K704A group was markedly decreased. Western blotting, flow cytometry, TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activity assay were detected to indicate that the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein ratio was increased, and caspase-3 activity and the apoptotic rate of VSMCs were decreased, in the Sp1-K704A group, as compared with the Sp1-WT group. ChIP assay revealed that Sp1 binding to the BMP2 promoter was downregulated in the Sp1-K704A group, compared with that in theSp1-WT group. In conclusion, a deacetylated mutant of Sp1 decreased Sp1 binding to the BMP2 promoter, thus decreasing apoptosis, phenotypic switching and calcium deposition in calcified VSMCs. This finding may indicate potential therapeutic targets for VC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8394101PMC
October 2021

Long noncoding RNA LINC01703 exacerbates the malignant properties of non-small-cell lung cancer by upregulating MACC1 in a microRNA-605-3p-mediated manner.

Oncol Res 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Long intergenic nonprotein coding RNA 1703 (LINC01703) has diagnostic significancein lung adenocarcinoma. However, its specific roles in non-small-cell lung cancer(NSCLC) and downstream mechanisms have not been investigated. In the current study,we characterized the role of LINC01703 in NSCLC malignancy and elucidated itsdetailed mechanism of action. LINC01703 expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Theregulatory effects of LINC01703 on the malignancy of NSCLC cells were assessed bymultiple functional experiments. The targeted interaction was confirmed by RNAimmunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays. Herein, overexpression ofLINC01703 in NSCLC was indicated in the TCGA database and further proven in ourcohort. Functional studies revealed that knocking down LINC01703 repressed cellproliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro, which wasaccompanied by the induction of apoptosis. The tumor growth of LINC01703-silencedcells was also inhibited in vivo. Mechanistic analyses revealed that LINC01703functioned as a competing endogenous RNA for microRNA-605-3p (miR-605-3p) inNSCLC cells, which thereby upregulated the miR-605-3p target metastasis associatedwith colon cancer 1 (MACC1). Rescue experiments highlighted that the regulatoryactions of LINC01703 ablation on NSCLC cells were abolished in response to miR-605-3p downregulation or MACC1 overexpression. In conclusion, LINC01703enhanced the aggressiveness of NSCLC cells by altering miR-605-3p/MACC1. Ourwork suggests the therapeutic potential of LINC01703/miR-605-3p/MACC1 in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096504021X16310057751016DOI Listing
September 2021

The in-situ Calibration Method for Ambient dose Equivalent Dosemeters.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Radiation Metrology Center of China Institute of Atomic Energy 102413.

Ambient dose equivalent dosemeters are widely distributed in nuclear facilities for routine continuous monitoring or nuclear accident emergency monitoring, they are inconvenient to be disassembled and sent to the metrology laboratory for calibration. To ensure the accuracy of such dosemeters, the research of in-situ calibration method has been carried out. Ambient dose equivalent secondary standard ionization chamber and portable gamma ray irradiation facility have been designed for in-situ calibration. The experiments of in-situ calibration were carried out in five typical sites located in China Institute of Atomic Energy, results showed that the relative deviation between in-situ calibration factors and metrology laboratory calibration factors are within 5%.The combined standard uncertainty of the in-situ calibration factor is 2.8%, and the expanded uncertainty is 5.6% (k=2).The in-situ calibration method can meet the calibration requirements of the fixed ambient dose equivalent dosemeters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncab130DOI Listing
September 2021

Involvement of a mycothiol-dependent reductase NCgl0018 in oxidative stress response of Corynebacterium glutamicum.

J Gen Appl Microbiol 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

College of Life Sciences, Qufu Normal University.

Corynebacterium glutamicum is an important industrial strain for amino acids and a key model organism for human pathogens. The study of C. glutamicum oxidoreductases, such as mycoredoxin 1 (Mrx1), dithiol-disulfide isomerase DsbA, and DsbA-like Mrx1, is helpful for understanding the survival, pathogenic infection, and stress resistance of its homologous species. However, the action mode and enzymatic function of C. glutamicum NCgl0018 preserving the Cys-Pro-Phe-Cys motif, annotated as a putative DsbA, have remained enigmatic. Here, we report that the NCgl0018-deleted strain increased sensitivity to various oxidative stresses. The ncgl0018 expression was induced in the stress-responsive extracytoplasmic function-sigma (ECF-σ) factor SigH- and organic peroxide- and antibiotic-sensing regulator (OasR)-dependent manner by stress. NCgl0018 reduced S-mycothiolated mixed disulfides and intramolecular disulfides via a monothiol-disulfide mechanism preferentially linking the mycothiol/mycothione reductase/NADPH electron pathway. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed Cys107 was the resolving Cys residue, while Cys104 was the nucleophilic cysteine that was oxidized to a sulfenic acid and then could form an intramolecular disulfide bond with Cys107 or a mixed disulfide with mycothiol under stress. Biochemical analyses indicated that NCgl0018 lacked oxidase properties like the classical DsbA. Further, enzymatic rates and substrate preferences of NCgl0018 were highly similar to those of DsbA-like Mrx1. Collectively, our study presented the first evidence that NCgl0018 protected against stresses by functioning as a novel DsbA-like Mrx1 but not DsbA and Mrx1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2323/jgam.2021.03.005DOI Listing
September 2021

High-throughput screening of single metal atom anchored on N-doped boron phosphide for N reduction.

Nanoscale 2021 Aug 29;13(31):13437-13450. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei, China.

Developing eco-friendly and highly-efficient catalysts for the electrochemical nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) under ambient conditions to replace the energy-intensive and environment-polluting Haber-Bosch process is of great significance, while remaining a long-standing challenge in the field of energy conversion today. Herein, through the first principles high-throughput screening, we systematically investigated the catalytic activity of a series of single metal atom immobilized on N-doped boron phosphide (N-BP) for N reduction, denoted as MN-BP. In particular, a "four-step" screening strategy, involving the structural stability, N chemisorption, low energy cost, as well as good selectivity, was adopted for the stringent screening of the promising MN-BP candidates for NRR. Our results unveil that among these candidates, MoN-BP eventually stands out, benefiting from its high selectivity and activity, as well as accompanying a considerably favorable limiting potential of -0.25 V for NRR. More impressively, the NRR activity origin of various candidates was revealed by the descriptor φ and ICOHP. Overall, our work not only accelerates the discovery of SACs for converting N into sustainable NH but also provides an exciting impetus for the rational design of NRR catalysts with high stability, high activity, and high selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02883aDOI Listing
August 2021

Tc-99m PYP scintigraphy identified multi-organ disease associated with transthyretin Phe64Ser mutation.

J Nucl Cardiol 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Nuclear Medicine, Sichuan University West China Hospital, Chengdu, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12350-021-02773-wDOI Listing
August 2021

A supramolecular polymeric heterojunction composed of an all-carbon conjugated polymer and fullerenes.

Chem Sci 2021 Aug 14;12(31):10506-10513. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Hefei National Laboratory of Physical Science at the Microscale, CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) 96 Jinzhai Road Hefei Anhui Province 230026 P. R. China +86-551-63606207.

Herein, we design and synthesize a novel all-carbon supramolecular polymer host () containing conjugated macrocycles interconnected by a linear poly(-phenylene) backbone. Applying the supramolecular host and fullerene C as the guest, we successfully construct a supramolecular polymeric heterojunction (⊃C). This carbon structure offers a means to explore the convex-concave π-π interactions between and C. The produced was characterized by gel permeation chromatography, mass spectrometry, FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, and other spectroscopies. The polymeric segment can be directly viewed using a scanning tunneling microscope. Femtosecond transient absorption and fluorescence up-conversion measurements revealed femtosecond (≪300 fs) electron transfer from photoexcited to C, followed by nanosecond charge recombination to produce the C triplet excited state. The potential applications of ⊃C in electron- and hole-transport devices were also investigated, revealing that C incorporation enhances the charge transport properties of . These results expand the scope of the synthesis and application of supramolecular polymeric heterojunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc03410cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8356743PMC
August 2021

Characteristics of Corneal Higher-Order Aberrations in Congenital Ectopia Lentis Patients.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 Aug;10(9):24

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in patients with congenital ectopia lentis (CEL).

Methods: Clinical characteristics and HOAs of 60 patients with CEL and 75 healthy controls at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center in China were retrospectively analyzed. The Q value and the corneal HOAs in the CEL group and the controls were measured by using Pentacam and compared value between the CEL and control groups. The correlation between HOAs and age was investigated using the Pearson correlation analysis.

Results: The Q value of anterior corneal surface in the CEL group was larger than that in the controls (-0.41 ± 0.17 vs. -0.32 ± 0.13, P = 0.001); the total corneal horizontal coma in the CEL group were larger than that in the controls (0.24 ± 0.18 vs. -0.05 ± 0.14, P < 0.001); both the primary spherical aberrations of the anterior and total corneal surface were lower in the CEL group than that in the controls (for anterior corneal surface: 0.15 ± 0.08 vs. 0.27 ± 0.08 µm, P < 0.001; for total corneal surface: 0.10 ± 0.09 vs. 0.23 ± 0.09 µm, P < 0.001), the anterior and total corneal horizontal coma were negatively associated with age, whereas the anterior and total corneal spherical aberrations were positively associated with age in patients with CEL.

Conclusions: Patients with CEL had higher corneal horizontal coma and lower corneal vertical coma primary spherical aberrations than healthy controls.

Translational Relevance: These findings are informative for the clinical managements in patients with CEL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.9.24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383910PMC
August 2021

Comparison of the mucosal adjuvanticities of two Toll-like receptor ligands for recombinant adenovirus-delivered African swine fever virus fusion antigens.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Sep 9;239:110307. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

The College of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for High-Tech Research and Development of Veterinary Biopharmaceuticals, Jiangsu Agri-animal Husbandry Vocational College, Taizhou, 225300, China. Electronic address:

The mucosal immunity plays an important role against African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection and the efficacy of mucosal vaccination is highly dependent on the adjuvant. However, the mucosal adjuvant for ASFV vaccination is poorly studied. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as the FlaB flagellin from Vibrio vulnificus and the heat shock protein 70 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (mHsp70) hold a great promise as novel vaccine adjuvant. However, the mucosal adjuvanticities of such TLR ligands have not been studied in pigs. In this study, three recombinant Adenovirus (rAd) vectors, namely rAd-F1, rAd-FlaB-F1 and rAd-F1-Hsp70, were constructed by fusing the FlaB or mHsp70 to ASFV CD2v-p30-p54 fusion antigen. Western blotting showed that the three fusion proteins expressed in rAd-infected cells reacted positively with ASFV antibodies. After intranasal immunization of pigs with the three rAd vectors, the antigen-specific IgG antibodies were detectable from day 7 after primary immunization, which were significantly boosted by the secondary immunization. Strong Th1/Th2 cytokine responses were detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Compared to immunization with the control rAd-F1, significantly higher levels of the antigen-specific IgA antibodies were detected in the nasal fluids, tracheal washes and lung lavages. Compared to immunization with rAd-Flab-F1, immunization with rAd-F1-Hsp70 induced significantly stronger mucosal IgA antibody response. Cytokine detection of the pig lung lavages showed that the elevated IgA antibody responses were correlated mainly with IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-α, which were confirmed by the significantly increased antigen-recall cytokine expression in the porcine alveolar macrophages. These data suggest that mHsp70 has potent mucosal adjuvanticity in pigs, and the fusion rAd vector can be used for ASFV mucosal vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2021.110307DOI Listing
September 2021

PROZ May Serve as a Prognostic Biomarker for Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Int J Gen Med 2021 6;14:4209-4218. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Huizhou Central People's Hospital, Huizhou, 516001, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate potential diagnostic or prognostic markers for early HCC by applying bioinformatic analysis.

Methods: The gene expression profiles of early HCC and normal tissues from a TCGA dataset were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and then analysed by weighted gene coexpression network analysis. The integrated genes were selected to construct the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and determine the hub genes. The prognostic impact of the hub genes was then analysed.

Results: A total of 508 integrated genes were selected from the 615 DEGs and 8956 genes in the turquoise module. A PPI network was constructed, and the top 20 hub genes, including apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA4), fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG), vitamin K-dependent protein Z (PROZ), secreted phosphoprotein 24 (SPP2) and fetuin-B (FETUB), were identified. Only PROZ was significantly associated with the prognosis of early HCC.

Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated that the expression of PROZ was decreased in early HCC compared with normal liver controls, and low PROZ expression might result in poor overall survival of early HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S311959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354773PMC
August 2021

Transcriptome and microbiome analyses of the mechanisms underlying antibiotic-mediated inhibition of larval development of the saprophagous insect Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 9;223:112602. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Shandong First Medical University (Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences), No. 619, Changcheng Road, Taian 271016, Shandong, China; School of Basic Medical Science, Shandong First Medical University (Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences), Taian 271016, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Antibiotics are designed to treat bacterial infections in humans and animals; however, the overuse of various antibiotics and consequent contamination in the environment can have adverse effects on aquatic, soil, and saprophytic organisms. The house fly, an important decomposer in ecosystems, has been used for bioconversion of human and animal waste. Vermireactors have been used to remove antibiotics from waste for pollution control, but the effects of antibiotics on fly larvae are unclear. In the present work, we aimed to reveal the mechanism underlying the effects of antibiotics on larval growth in house flies at the transcriptome and microbiome levels and the relationships between genes and the microbiota. Observation of house flies after antibiotic exposure showed that gentamicin sulfate and levofloxacin hydrochloride inhibited larval development to a greater extent than amoxicillin. Transcriptome analysis revealed that biological pathways related to protein synthesis and the metabolism of fatty acids, pentose, and glucuronate were significantly enriched in flies exposed to gentamicin sulfate and levofloxacin hydrochloride. Crucial genes in these pathways were identified as candidates for future study. Microbiome analysis revealed three key bacteria that were closely correlated with gentamicin sulfate and levofloxacin hydrochloride exposure. The correlation network between the differentially expressed genes and bacteria identified an important microbic effector, Pseudomonas and its associated genes. This work will improve the knowledge about the mechanism underlying the effects of antibiotics on the larval development of house flies in the environment and provide guidance for improving the application of house fly bioconversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112602DOI Listing
October 2021

A metabolomic aging clock using human CSF.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Statistics and Applied Probability, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA.

Quantifying the physiology of aging is essential for improving our understanding of age-related disease and the heterogeneity of healthy aging. Recent studies have shown that in regression models using "-omic" platforms to predict chronological age, residual variation in predicted age is correlated with health outcomes, and suggest that these "omic clocks" provide measures of biological age. This paper presents predictive models for age using metabolomic profiles of cerebrospinal fluid from healthy human subjects, and finds that metabolite and lipid data are generally able to predict chronological age within 10 years. We use these models to predict the age of a cohort of subjects with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease and find an increase in prediction error, potentially indicating that the relationship between the metabolome and chronological age differs with these diseases. However, evidence is not found to support the hypothesis that our models will consistently over-predict the age of these subjects. In our analysis of control subjects, we find the carnitine shuttle, sucrose, biopterin, vitamin E metabolism, tryptophan, and tyrosine to be the most associated with age. We showcase the potential usefulness of age prediction models in a small dataset (n = 85), and discuss techniques for drift correction, missing data imputation, and regularized regression, which can be used to help mitigate the statistical challenges that commonly arise in this setting. To our knowledge, this work presents the first multivariate predictive metabolomic and lipidomic models for age using mass spectrometry analysis of cerebrospinal fluid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab212DOI Listing
August 2021

Bacteriophage: A Useful Tool for Studying Gut Bacteria Function of Housefly Larvae, Musca domestica.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Sep 11;9(1):e0059921. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Shandong First Medical University (Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences), Taian, China.

Beneficial symbiotic bacteria have positive effects on some insects' (such as mosquitoes, cockroaches, and flies) biological activities. However, the effects of a lack of one specific symbiotic bacterium on the life activities of some insects and their natural gut microbiota composition remain unclear. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically target and kill bacteria and have the potential to shape gut bacterial communities. In previous work, Pseudomonas aeruginosa that naturally colonized the intestines of housefly larvae was shown to be essential to protect housefly larvae from entomopathogenic fungal infections, leading us to test whether a deficiency in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains in housefly larvae that was specifically caused using bacteriophages could remold the composition of the intestinal bacteria and affect the development of housefly larvae. Our research revealed that the phage, with a titer of 10 PFU/ml, can remove 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the gut. A single feeding of low-dose phage had no effect on the health of housefly larvae. However, the health of housefly larvae was affected by treatment with phage every 24 h. Additionally, treating housefly larvae with bacteriophages every 24 h led to bacterial composition changes in the gut. Collectively, the results revealed that deficiency in one symbiotic gut bacteria mediated by precise targeting using bacteriophages indirectly influences the intestinal microbial composition of housefly larvae and has negative effects on the development of the host insect. Our results indicated the important role of symbiotic gut bacteria in shaping the normal gut microbiota composition in insects. The well-balanced gut microbiota ensures appropriate development of the host insect, such as mosquitoes, cockroaches, and flies. Various intestinal symbiotic bacteria have different influences on the host gut community structure and thus exert different effects on host health. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the contributions of one specific bacterial symbiont to the gut microbiota community structure and insect health. Bacteriophages that target certain bacteria are effective tools that can be used to analyze gut bacterial symbionts. However, experimental evidence for phage efficacy in regulating insect intestinal bacteria has been little reported. In this study, we used phages as precision tools to regulate a bacterial community and analyzed the influence on host health after certain bacteria were inhibited by bacteriophage. The ability of phages to target intestinal-specific bacteria in housefly larvae and reduce the levels of target bacteria makes them an effective tool for studying the function of gut bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/Spectrum.00599-21DOI Listing
September 2021

Revisiting financial development and renewable energy electricity role in attaining China's carbon neutrality target.

J Environ Manage 2021 Nov 6;297:113335. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

European University of Lefke, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Department of Banking and Finance, Lefke, Northern Cyprus, TR-10 Mersin, Turkey. Electronic address:

During the last few decades, China's transformation from a low-income country to an emerging economy causes carbon emission to rise extensively. Being the largest carbon emitter, China's continuous economic growth may inevitably cause more carbon emissions in the future. To achieve carbon neutrality targets, the country is striving to promote cleaner technologies. However, to finance these environmentally friendly projects, a well-developed financial system is a pre-requisite. This study examines the role of financial development along with output, financial risk index, renewable energy electricity and human capital on carbon emissions. This study uses updated time series data from 1988 to 2018 for China employing novel econometric approaches, i.e., Narayan and Pop unit root test with structural breaks, Maki cointegration and frequency domain causality test for long, short and medium run causality. The empirical outcome shows that improvement in financial development, renewable energy electricity, and human capital index cause to limit carbon emissions. In contrast, gross domestic product, financial risk index and structural break of 2001 increase carbon emissions. Moreover, structural break year of 2008 and financial development index reduces carbon emissions. The negative association between financial development and carbon emissions supports the positive school of thoughts of financial development that promotes a sustainable environment. This study recommends the promotion of quality human capital and green financial development along with increasing the shares of renewable energy in electricity for achieving China 2030 climate targets of reducing pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113335DOI Listing
November 2021

Enterotoxigenic Bacteroidesfragilis Promotes Intestinal Inflammation and Malignancy by Inhibiting Exosome-Packaged miR-149-3pf.

Gastroenterology 2021 Aug 8. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai, China; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Shanghai, China; Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is strongly associated with the occurrence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colitis-associated colorectal cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of ETBF-induced intestinal inflammation and tumorigenesis remains unclear.

Methods: microRNA sequencing was used to detect the differentially expressed microRNAs in both ETBF-treated cells and exosomes derived from ETBF-inoculated cells. Cell Counting Kit 8 assays were used to evaluate the effect of ETBF and exosomes on CRC cell proliferation. The biological role and mechanism of ETBF-mediated miR-149-3p in colitis and colon carcinogenesis were determined both in vitro and in vivo.

Results: ETBF promoted CRC cell proliferation by down-regulating miR-149-3p both in vitro and in vivo. ETBF-down-regulated miR-149-3p depended on METTL14-mediated mA methylation. As the target gene of miR-149-3p, PHF5A transactivated SOD2 through regulating KAT2A messenger RNA alternative splicing after ETBF treatment in CRC cells. miR-149-3p could be released in exosomes and mediated intercellular communication by modulating T-helper type 17 cell differentiation. The level of plasma exosomal miR-149-3p was gradually decreased from healthy control individuals to patients with IBD and CRC. miR-149-3p, existing in plasma exosomes, negatively correlated with the abundance of ETBF in patients with IBD and CRC.

Conclusions: Exosomal miR-149-3p derived from ETBF-treated cells facilitated T-helper type 17 cell differentiation. ETBF-induced colorectal carcinogenesis depended on down-regulating miR-149-3p and further promoting PHF5A-mediated RNA alternative splicing of KAT2A in CRC cells. Targeting the ETBF/miR-149-3p pathway presents a promising approach to treat patients with intestinal inflammation and CRC with a high amount of ETBF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.08.003DOI Listing
August 2021

Engineering cellulose nanopaper with water resistant, antibacterial, and improved barrier properties by impregnation of chitosan and the followed halogenation.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Oct 25;270:118372. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, China. Electronic address:

This work demonstrated a facile and sustainable approach to functionalize cellulose nanopaper (CNP) by impregnation of chitosan (CS) and the followed halogenation. It was found that the tensile strength of the functionalized CNP (CNP/CS-Cl) was enhanced by 38.3% and 512.6% at dry and wet conditions, respectively. Meanwhile, the total transmittance (at 550 nm) of CNP/CS-Cl was increased from 75% of pure CNP to 85%, with 35% decrease in optical haze. Moreover, the CNP/CS-Cl exhibited significant enhancement in barrier properties. Importantly, part of the amino groups on CS were transformed into N-halamines during the halogenation process, which endowed the CNP/CS-Cl with excellent antibacterial performance against both S. aureus and E. coli with 100% bacterial reduction after 10 min of contact. Thus, this work provides a simple and efficient approach to functionalize CNP with water resistance, high transparency, excellent antibacterial and barrier properties, which will expand the potential applications of CNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118372DOI Listing
October 2021

Crossmodal Audiovisual Emotional Integration in Depression: An Event-Related Potential Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 20;12:694665. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Hubei University, Wuhan, China.

Depression is related to the defect of emotion processing, and people's emotional processing is crossmodal. This article aims to investigate whether there is a difference in audiovisual emotional integration between the depression group and the normal group using a high-resolution event-related potential (ERP) technique. We designed a visual and/or auditory detection task. The behavioral results showed that the responses to bimodal audiovisual stimuli were faster than those to unimodal auditory or visual stimuli, indicating that crossmodal integration of emotional information occurred in both the depression and normal groups. The ERP results showed that the N2 amplitude induced by sadness was significantly higher than that induced by happiness. The participants in the depression group showed larger amplitudes of N1 and P2, and the average amplitude of LPP evoked in the frontocentral lobe in the depression group was significantly lower than that in the normal group. The results indicated that there are different audiovisual emotional processing mechanisms between depressed and non-depressed college students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.694665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329241PMC
July 2021

Two Birds with One Stone: Boosting Zinc-Ion Insertion/Extraction Kinetics and Suppressing Vanadium Dissolution of VO via La Incorporation Enable Advanced Zinc-Ion Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 3;13(32):38416-38424. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China.

Aqueous zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) with cost-effective and safe features are highly competitive in grid energy storage applications, but plagued by the sluggish Zn diffusion kinetics and poor cyclability of cathodes. Herein, a one-stone-two-birds strategy of La incorporation (La-VO) is developed to motivate Zn insertion/extraction kinetics and stabilize vanadium species for VO. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal the incorporated La ions in VO can not only serve as pillars to expand the interlayer distance (11.77 Å) and lower the Zn migration energy barrier (0.82 eV) but also offer intermediated level and narrower band gap (0.54 eV), thus accelerating the electron/ion diffusion kinetics. Importantly, the steadily doped La ions effectively stabilize the V-O bonds by shortening the bond length, thereby inhibiting vanadium species dissolution. Therefore, the resulting La-VO-ZIBs deliver an exceptional rate capacity of 405 mA h g (0.1 A g), long-term stability with 93.8% retention after 5000 cycles (10 A g), and extraordinary energy density of 289.3 W h kg, outperforming various metal-ions-doped VO cathodes. Moreover, the La-VO pouch cell presents excellent electrochemical performance and impressive flexibility and integration ability. The strategies of incorporating rare-earth-metal ions provide guidance to other well-established aqueous ZIBs cathodes and other advanced electrochemical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c11531DOI Listing
August 2021

Silver-Catalyzed Regioselective Synthesis of Highly Substituted 2-Trifluoromethyl Pyrroles.

Org Lett 2021 Aug 2;23(16):6352-6356. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Fujian Engineering Research Center of New Chinese lacquer Material, Ocean College, Minjiang University, Fuzhou, 350108, China.

An efficient and regioselective synthesis of highly substituted 2-trifluoromethyl pyrrole derivatives via silver-catalyzed cyclization of vinyl azides with ethyl 4,4,4-trifluoro-3-oxobutanoate is reported. Various α-(heteo)aryl, alkyl, β-aryl, as well as α,β-disubstituted vinyl azides, participate in this transformation. The reaction mechanism likely involves the addition of generated 2-azirine to the diketone species, followed by intramolecular addition, N-C cleavage, and elimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c02136DOI Listing
August 2021

Decline in neutralising antibody responses, but sustained T-cell immunity, in COVID-19 patients at 7 months post-infection.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 26;10(7):e1319. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center Fudan University Shanghai China.

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific humoral responses and T-cell responses in patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to understand the natural protective immune responses and to facilitate the development of vaccines.

Methods: We conducted a combined assessment of the changes in neutralising antibody levels and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses over time in 27 patients up to 7 months after infection.

Results: The neutralising antibody remained detectable in 96.3% of the patients at their second visit at about 7 months post-onset of symptoms. However, their humoral responses, including titres of the spike receptor-binding domain IgG and neutralising antibody, decreased significantly compared with those at first clinic visit. By contrast, the proportions of spike-specific CD4 T cells, but not CD8 T cells, in COVID-19 patients after recovery were persistently higher than those in healthy controls. No significant change was observed in the proportion of spike-specific CD4 T cells in patients who had recovered from COVID-19 within 7 months.

Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immune responses persisted, while the neutralising antibodies decayed. Further studies are needed to extend the longevity of neutralising antibodies and to evaluate whether these T cells are sufficient to protect patients from reinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cti2.1319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313961PMC
July 2021

Negative Impact of Y12 on Its Host .

Front Microbiol 2021 14;12:691158. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Collaborative Innovation Center for the Origin and Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Shandong First Medical University (Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences), Tai'an, China.

High concentrations of Y12 significantly inhibit the development of housefly larvae and accelerate larvae death. In this study, the dynamic distribution of the gut microbiota of housefly larvae fed different concentrations of Y12 was investigated. Compared with low-concentration diets, orally administered high-concentration diets caused higher mortality and had a greater impact on the community structure and interaction network of intestinal flora in housefly larvae. The bacterial community of the gut microbiota in housefly larvae was reconstructed in 4 days. Bacterial abundance and diversity were significantly reduced in housefly larvae fed high concentrations of . With the growth of larvae, the relative abundances of , , , , and increased significantly in housefly larvae fed with high concentrations of , while the relative abundances of , , , , , and were significantly reduced. To analyze the role of the gut microorganisms played on housefly development, a total of 10 cultivable bacterial species belonging to 9 genera were isolated from the intestine of housefly larvae among which , , , , and promoted the growth of larvae through feeding experiments. This study is the first to analyze the influence of high concentrations of on the gut microbiota of houseflies. Our study provides a basis for exploring the pathogenic mechanism of high concentrations of Y12 in houseflies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.691158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317488PMC
July 2021

The role of PAC adsorption-catalytic oxidation in the ultrafiltration performance for treating natural water: Efficiency improvement, fouling mitigation and mechanisms.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 13;284:131561. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, PR China.

Powdered activated carbon (PAC) has turned out to be an efficient adsorbent in drinking water treatment, whereas its application integrated with membrane filtration is still controversial because of the combined fouling effect between organic pollutants and PAC. To this end, an integrated process of combining PAC adsorption-catalytic oxidation and membrane filtration was proposed for natural surface water treatment. The synergistic effect of PAC and peroxymonosulfate (PMS) was confirmed through the generation of reactive oxidation species, and both radical oxidative pathways (OH, SO and O) and nonradical (O and PMS) pathways involved in the process. The removal efficiency of DOC and UV was significantly strengthened by PAC/PMS, with removal rates of 56.1% and 64.9%, respectively. The integration of PAC and PMS could significantly enhance the reduction of fluorescent organics, and pollutants with varying molecular weights. The fouling condition of membrane was dramatically alleviated, with the flux increased by 38.9%, and the reversible and irreversible resistances declined by 79.7% and 48.3%, respectively. The major fouling mechanism was significantly changed, and complete pore blocking always played a dominant role, rather than cake filtration. The effectiveness of PAC/PMS was further verified by the characterization of membrane surface morphologies and functional groups. Moreover, the attractive interactions between foulants and membrane were converted to repulsive interactions with the pretreatment of PAC/PMS. The proposed synergistic process was efficient and convenient, which could significantly improve the purification efficiency of conventional PAC-UF system in drinking water treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131561DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of acute hypoxia and reoxygenation on oxygen sensors, respiratory metabolism, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in hybrid yellow catfish "Huangyou-1".

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

College of Marine Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Province Engineering Research Center for Aquatic Animals Breeding and Green Efficient Aquacultural Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, Jiangsu, China.

The regulation mechanism of the hybrid yellow catfish "Huangyou-1" was assessed under conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation by examination of oxygen sensors and by monitoring respiratory metabolism, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The expressions of genes related to oxygen sensors (HIF-1α, HIF-2α, VHL, HIF-1β, PHD2, and FIH-1) were upregulated in the brain and liver during hypoxia, and recovered compared with control upon reoxygenation. The expressions of genes related to glycolysis (HK1, PGK1, PGAM2, PFK, and LDH) were increased during hypoxia and then recovered compared with control upon reoxygenation. The mRNA levels of CS did not change during hypoxia in the brain and liver, but increased during reoxygenation. The mRNA levels of SDH decreased significantly only in the liver during hypoxia, but later increased compared with control upon reoxygenation in both tissues. Under hypoxic conditions, the expressions of genes related to oxidative stress (SOD1, SOD2, GSH-Px, and CAT) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px) and MDA were upregulated compared with control. The expressions of genes related to apoptosis (Apaf-1, Bax, Caspase 3, Caspase 9, and p53) were higher than those in control during hypoxic exposure, while the expressions of Bcl-2 and Cyt C were decreased. The findings of the transcriptional analyses will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of hybrid yellow catfish "Huangyou-1" under conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation. Overall, these findings showed that oxygen sensors of "Huangyou-1" are potentially useful biomarkers of environmental hypoxic exposure. Together with genes related to respiratory metabolism, oxidative stress and apoptosis occupy a quite high position in enhancing hypoxia tolerance. Our findings provided new insights into the molecular regulatory mechanism of hypoxia in "Huangyou-1."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-021-00989-8DOI Listing
July 2021
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