Publications by authors named "Xinyi Zhang"

215 Publications

F-PEG1-Vinyl Sulfone-Labeled Red Blood Cells as Positron Emission Tomography Agent to Image Intra-Abdominal Bleeding.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 5;8:646862. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

F-Labeled blood pool agents (BPAs) have attracted great attention for identifying bleeding sites. However, many BPAs are not sufficiently evaluated partially due to the limitations of labeling methods. In our previous work, we noticed that F-PEG1-vinyl sulfone (F-VS) could efficiently label red blood cells (RBCs) and . However, its application as BPA is not fully evaluated. In this study, we systematically explored the feasibility of using F-VS-labeled RBCs as a positron emission tomography (PET) BPA for intra-abdominal bleeding diagnosis. In brief, we first optimized the labeling conditions, which lead to an 80% labeling yield of RBCs after incubating with F-VS in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C for 20 min. F-VS-labeled RBCs were found to be stable , which could simplify its transportation/storage for applications. In normal rat PET study, the cardiovascular system could be clearly imaged up to 5 h post injection (p.i.). An intra-abdominal hemorrhage rat model demonstrated that the F-VS-labeled RBCs clearly showed the dynamic changes of extravascular radioactivity due to intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Validation in the model of gastrointestinal bleeding clearly demonstrated the great potential of using F-VS-labeled RBCs as a BPA, which could be further evaluated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.646862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287037PMC
July 2021

Protocol for the economic evaluation of the China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study (SSaSS).

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 20;11(7):e045929. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce blood pressure and the burden of CVD. To date, economic evidence has focused on sodium reduction in food industry or processed food with blood pressure as the primary outcome. This study protocol describes the planned within-trial economic evaluation of a low-sodium salt substitute intervention designed to reduce the risk of stroke in China.

Methods And Analyses: The economic evaluation will be conducted alongside the Salt Substitute and Stroke Study: a 5-year large scale, cluster randomised controlled trial. The outcomes of interest are quality of life measured using the EuroQol-5-Dimensions and major adverse cardiovascular events. Costs will be estimated from a healthcare system perspective and will be sought from the routinely collected data available within the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme. Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses will be conducted, resulting in the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio expressed as cost per cardiovascular event averted and cost per quality-adjusted life year gained, respectively.

Ethics And Dissemination: The trial received ethics approval from the University of Sydney Ethics Committee (2013/888) and Peking University Institutional Review Board (IRB00001052-13069). Informed consent was obtained from each study participant. Findings of the economic evaluation will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international conferences.

Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT02092090).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045929DOI Listing
July 2021

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 is a CROPs-associated receptor for Clostridioides difficile toxin B.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Biomedical Pioneering Innovation Center, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Genomics, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University Genome Editing Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

As the leading cause of worldwide hospital-acquired infection, Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection has caused heavy economic and hospitalized burden, while its pathogenesis is not fully understood. Toxin B (TcdB) is one of the major virulent factors of C. difficile. Recently, CSPG4 and FZD2 were reported to be the receptors that mediate TcdB cellular entry. However, genetic ablation of genes encoding these receptors failed to completely block TcdB entry, implicating the existence of alternative receptor(s) for this toxin. Here, by employing the CRISPR-Cas9 screen in CSPG4-deficient HeLa cells, we identified LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) as a novel receptor for TcdB. Knockout of LRP1 in both CSPG4-deficient HeLa cells and colonic epithelium Caco2 cells conferred cells with increased TcdB resistance, while LRP1 overexpression sensitized cells to TcdB at a low concentration. Co-immunoprecipitation assay showed that LRP1 interacts with full-length TcdB. Moreover, CROPs domain, which is dispensable for TcdB's interaction with CSPG4 and FZD2, is sufficient for binding to LRP1. As such, our study provided evidence for a novel mechanism of TcdB entry and suggested potential therapeutic targets for treating C. diff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-021-1943-9DOI Listing
July 2021

The role of extracellular vesicles in regulating local and systemic inflammation in cardiovascular disease.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 25;170:105692. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, Blood, and Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Department of Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles are heterogeneous structures surrounded by cell membranes and carry complex contents including nucleotides, proteins, and lipids. These proteins include cytokines and chemokines that are important for exaggerating local and systemic inflammation in disease. Extracellular vesicles are mainly categorized as exosomes and micro-vesicles, which are directly shed from the endosomal system or originated from the cell membrane, respectively. By transporting several bioactive molecules to recipient cells and tissues, extracellular vesicles have favorable, neutral, or detrimental impacts on their targets, such as switching cell phenotype, modulating gene expression, and controlling biological pathways such as inflammatory cell recruitment, activation of myeloid cells and cell proliferation. Extracellular vesicles mediate these functions via both autocrine and paracrine signaling. In the cardiovascular system, extracellular vesicles can be secreted by multiple cell types like cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, monocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and affect functions of cells or tissues in distant organs. These effects involve maintaining homeostasis, regulating inflammation, and triggering pathological process in cardiovascular disease. In this review, we mainly focus on the role of micro-vesicles and exosomes, two important subtypes of extracellular vesicles, in local and systemic inflammation in cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and heart failure. We summarize recent findings and knowledge on the effect of extracellular vesicles in controlling both humoral and cellular immunity, and the therapeutic approaches to harness this knowledge to control exacerbated inflammation in cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105692DOI Listing
June 2021

Contemporary Incidence of Medical Inoperability in Clinical Stage I Endometrial Cancer.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) staging is the standard treatment approach for clinical stage I endometrial cancer. Historical rates of inoperability in endometrial cancer are approximately 10%. Given surgical and medical advancements against increasing population obesity, we aimed to describe a contemporary incidence of medical inoperability in clinical stage I endometrial cancer.

Patients And Methods: Patients diagnosed with clinical stage I endometrial cancer of any histology from April 2014 to December 2018 were included in this retrospective cohort study. The primary outcome, medical inoperability, was defined as (1) patients deemed inoperable by a gynecologic oncologist at initial consultation, (2) patients deemed inoperable during preoperative clearance, or (3) an aborted hysterectomy. Fisher's exact or χ, and Student's t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test were used, as appropriate, for data analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was also employed.

Results: Overall, 767 patients were included, of which 4.6% (35/767) were determined to be inoperable. The inoperable group had a higher body mass index (52.7 vs. 33.9, p < 0.001), and increased rates of diabetes (62.8%, 22/35 vs. 27.1%, 199/732, p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (31.4%, 11/35 vs. 7.1%, 52/732, p < 0.001), and hypertension (94.3%, 33/35 vs. 70.2%, 514/732, p < 0.001). Of those with attempted surgical staging, hysterectomy was aborted intraoperatively in 0.68% (5/737). The overall complication rate was 11.6% (86/737).

Conclusions: With maximal surgical effort and MIS, hysterectomy is possible in > 95% of patients with newly diagnosed endometrial cancer treated at a high-volume center. Complication rates were comparable to other trials evaluating the safety of MIS staging for endometrial cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10313-6DOI Listing
June 2021

High-capacity and high-rate Ni-Fe batteries based on mesostructured quaternary carbon/Fe/FeO/FeO hybrid material.

iScience 2021 Jun 15;24(6):102547. Epub 2021 May 15.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, School of Chemistry, Monash University, VIC 3800, Australia.

The Ni-Fe battery is a promising alternative to lithium ion batteries due to its long life, high reliability, and eco-friendly characteristics. However, passivation and self-discharge of the iron anode are the two main issues. Here, we demonstrate that controlling the valence state of the iron and coupling with carbon can solve these problems. We develop a mesostructured carbon/Fe/FeO/FeO hybrid by a one-step solid-state reaction. Experimental evidence reveals that the optimized system with three valence states of iron facilitates the redox kinetics, while the carbon layers can effectively enhance the charge transfer and suppress self-discharge. The hybrid anode exhibits high specific capacity of 604 mAh⋅g at 1 A⋅g and high cyclic stability. A Ni-Fe button battery is fabricated using the hybrid anode exhibits specific device energy of 127 Wh⋅kg at a power density of 0.58 kW⋅kg and maintains good capacity retention (90%) and coulombic efficiency (98.5%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184513PMC
June 2021

Genetic variants of  and ischemic clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pharmacogenomics 2021 Jul 2;22(10):641-648. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Pharmacy Administration & Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, China.

The aim of this study was to assess the association between  polymorphisms and ischemic clinical outcomes. We searched the electronic database for articles on the relationship of SNPs and ischemic events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) up to October 2020. A total of 9914 patients with CAD from six studies focusing on 12 SNPs of PEAR1 were included in this study. The A allele of rs12041331 were associated with ischemic events (odds ratio: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.04-1.88; p = 0.03). The AA homozygotes of rs2768759 was related to a higher risk of ischemic events than carriers of the C allele (odds ratio: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.09-3.97; p = 0.03). PEAR1 rs12041331 and rs2768759 are significantly associated with ischemic events in patients with CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs-2021-0022DOI Listing
July 2021

Facet-controlled palladium nanocrystalline for enhanced nitrate reduction towards ammonia.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Oct 14;600:620-628. Epub 2021 May 14.

Key Laboratory of Eco-chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optic-electric Sensing and Analytical Chemistry of Life Science, Taishan Scholar Advantage and Characteristic Discipline Team of Eco Chemical Process and Technology, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, PR China; Shandong Engineering Research Center for Marine Environment Corrosion and Safety Protection, College of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, PR China. Electronic address:

Electrochemical nitrate reduction reaction (NORR) is considered an appealing way for producing ammonia (NH) under ambient conditions and solving environmental problems caused by nitrate, whereas the lack of adequate catalysts hampers the development of NORR. Here, we firstly demonstrate that the Pd nanocrystalline with a well-desired facet can act as a highly efficient NORR electrocatalyst for ambient ammonia synthesis. Pd (1 1 1) exhibits excellent activity and selectivity in reducing NO to NH with a Faradaic efficiency of 79.91% and an NH production of 0.5485 mmol h cm (2.74 mmol h mg) in 0.1 M NaSO (containing 0.1 M NO), which is 1.4 times higher than Pd (1 0 0) and 1.9 times higher than Pd (1 1 0), respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation reveals that the superior NORR activity of Pd (1 1 1) originates from its optimized activity of NO adsorption, smaller free energy change of the rate-limiting step (*NH to NH), and poorer hydrogen evolution reaction activity (HER, competitive reaction). This work not only highlights the potentials of Pd-based nanocatalysts for NORR but also provides new insight for the applications in NORR of other facet-orientation nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.05.061DOI Listing
October 2021

The changing characteristics of phytoplankton community and biomass in subtropical shallow lakes: Coupling effects of land use patterns and lake morphology.

Water Res 2021 Jul 12;200:117235. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, China.

The community composition and biomass of phytoplankton in shallow lakes are impacted by many environmental factors including water quality physicochemical parameters, land use in the watershed, and lake morphology. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated the relative importance of these factors on the effect of community composition and biomass of phytoplankton. The relative importance of the water quality physicochemical parameters (water temperature [WT], total nitrogen [TN], total phosphorus [TP], pH, dissolved oxygen [DO], electrical conductivity [EC], turbidity and Secchi depth [SD]), land use (built-up land, farmland, waters, forest, grassland, and unused land) in the watershed, and lake morphology (area and depth) on the composition and biomass of phytoplankton communities were assessed in 29 subtropical shallow lakes in Wuhan, China, during different seasons from December 2017 to November 2018. The results showed that phytoplankton in all 29 lakes was mainly composed of Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, and Bacillariophyta. Phytoplankton abundance was highest in summer and lowest in winter. We analyzed the relative importance of the three groups of variables to the community composition of the phytoplankton by variance decomposition. The results showed that the three groups of environmental variables had the highest explanation rate (> 80%) for the composition of the phytoplankton community in summer and autumn, and the explanation rates in spring and winter were 42.1% and 39.8%, respectively. The water quality physicochemical parameters were the most important variables affecting the composition of phytoplankton communities, followed by land use in the watershed. Through generalized additive model and structural equation model analysis, we found that the land use and lake morphology had minimal direct impact on the Chl-a and cell density of phytoplankton, mainly by altering the TN, TP, turbidity, SD, DO, and EC, which indirectly affected phytoplankton. WT and nutrients were still the main predictors of phytoplankton abundance. Built-up land was the main source of nitrogen and phosphorus in lakes. Correlation analysis found that forest and grassland had positive impacts on reducing lake nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This showed that increasing grassland and forest in the watershed could reduce the pollutants entering the lake. Our findings will contribute to water quality management and pollution control for subtropical shallow lakes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117235DOI Listing
July 2021

Baidu Index and COVID-19 Epidemic Forecast: Evidence From China.

Front Public Health 2021 5;9:685141. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Economics and Management, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China.

With the global spread of the Coronavirus epidemic, search engine data can be a practical tool for decision-makers to understand the epidemic's trends. This article uses trend analysis data from the Baidu search engine, the most widely used in China, to analyze the public's attention to the epidemic and the demand for N95 masks and other anti-epidemic materials and information. This kind of analysis has become an important part of information epidemiology. We have analyzed the use of the keywords "Coronavirus epidemic," "N95 mask," and "Wuhan epidemic" to judge whether the introduction of real-time search data has improved the efficiency of the Coronavirus epidemic prediction model. In general, the introduction of the Baidu index, whether in-sample or out-of-sample, significantly improves the prediction efficiency of the model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.685141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131679PMC
May 2021

Qianliexin capsule exerts anti-inflammatory activity in chronic non-bacterial prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia via NF-κB and inflammasome.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 13;25(12):5753-5768. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Life science and Bio-pharmaceuticals, Traditional Chinese Medicine College, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Liaoning, China.

Qianliexin capsule (QLX) is a standardized traditional Chinese herbal preparation that has long been used to treat chronic non-bacterial prostatitis (CNP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of QLX in improving lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with CNP and BPH. Rat models of CNP and BPH were induced by oestradiol or testosterone (hormonal imbalance) or chemical inflammation (carrageenan). QLX significantly relieved LUTS in CNP and BPH rat model by reducing prostate enlargement, epithelial thickness, pain response time, urine volume and bleeding time, and by improving prostatic blood flow. The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and inflammasome components (NLRP3, caspase-1 and ASC) in CNP and BPH tissues was reduced by QLX addition. QLX treatment was followed by reduced cellular malondialdehyde and increased superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity, consistent with antioxidant activity. Increases in Beclin-1 expression and the LC3II/I ratio following QLX treatment indicated that autophagy had been induced. QLX relieved LUTS in CNP and BPH rat models by inhibiting inflammation. The underlying mechanisms included inhibition of inflammasome activation, NF-κB activation, oxidant stress and autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184730PMC
June 2021

Insights into the Role of Dual-Interfacial Sites in Cu/ZrO Catalysts in 5-HMF Hydrogenolysis with Isopropanol.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 11;13(19):22292-22303. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, China.

In this work, we synthesized a series of Cu/ZrO catalysts with tunable V-Cu (oxygen vacancy adjacent to Cu metal) and V-Cu (zirconium vacancy adjacent to electron-deficient Cu species) dual-interface sites and investigated the role of the dual-interface sites in the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) hydrogenolysis reaction with isopropanol as the hydrogen source. By combining a series of infrared characterization and catalytic performance analysis, it is identified that V-Cu interface sites were responsible for activating isopropanol dehydrogenation and C═O dissociation of 5-HMF, while the V-Cu interface sites were responsible for the dehydroxylation of an intermediate product 5-methyl-2-furfuryl alcohol (5-MFA). Specifically, C-OH was first deprotonated on the V at the V-Cu interface site to reduce the activation energy of 5-MFA dehydroxylation and then adjacent Cu promoted the dissociation of the C-O bond by enhancing the adsorption energy while elongating the C-O bond, as confirmed by the density functional theory calculations. Because the dual-interface sites provided separate sites for activating intermediate products and reactants, the coupling reaction caused by competitive adsorption is thus well avoided. Therefore, the optimized Cu/ZrO catalyst with the most V-Cu and moderate V-Cu sites exhibited 98.4% of 2,5-dimethylfuran yield under the conditions of 180 °C and self-vapor pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01225DOI Listing
May 2021

Laser in Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension Trial (LIGHT) in China - A Randomized Controlled Trial: Design and Baseline Characteristics.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 2;230:143-150. Epub 2021 May 2.

From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, PRC. Electronic address:

Purpose: To describe the baseline characteristics of a trial to evaluate whether selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT), as a first-line treatment, provides superior economic and health-related quality of life outcomes to medical treatment in China.

Design: The LiGHT China trial is an unmasked, single-center, pragmatic, randomized controlled trial.

Methods: A total of 771 previously undiagnosed patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, 622 patients) or ocular hypertension (OHT, 149 patients) at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center were recruited from March 2015 to January 2019. Subjects were randomized to SLT-1st (followed by medication then surgery when required) or Medicine-1st (medication followed by surgery when required). The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQL). The secondary outcomes were clinical outcomes, cost, cost-effectiveness, Glaucoma Utility Index, Glaucoma Symptom Scale, visual function, and safety.

Results: The mean age of POAG patients was 49.8 years and 38.8 years for OHT. The median intraocular pressure was 20 mm Hg for the 1,105 POAG eyes and 24 mm Hg for the 271 OHT eyes. POAG eyes had thinner central cornea thickness (CCT, 536 µm) than OHT eyes (545 µm). Median mean deviation of the visual field in POAG eyes was -4.2 dB. Median refractive error was -1.5 D for OHT eyes and -1.25 D for POAG eyes. There was no difference between POAG and OHT patients on baseline scores of GUI, GSS and VF-14. The difference between OHT and POAG on the EQ-5D-5L was 0.024.

Conclusions: Compared with participants in the LiGHT UK trial, participants in this trial were younger, more myopic and had more severe visual field defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2021.04.020DOI Listing
May 2021

Amorphous NdIZO Thin Film Transistors with Contact-Resistance-Adjustable Cu S/D Electrodes.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

High-performance amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (AOS-TFT) with copper (Cu) electrodes are of great significance for next-generation large-size, high-refresh rate and high-resolution panel display technology. In this work, using rare earth dopant, neodymium-doped indium-zinc-oxide (NdIZO) film was optimized as the active layer of TFT with Cu source and drain (S/D) electrodes. Under the guidance of the Taguchi orthogonal design method from Minitab software, the semiconductor characteristics were evaluated by microwave photoconductivity decay (μ-PCD) measurement. The results show that moderate oxygen concentration (~5%), low sputtering pressure (≤5 mTorr) and annealing temperature (≤300 °C) are conducive to reducing the shallow localized states of NdIZO film. The optimized annealing temperature of this device configuration is as low as 250 °C, and the contact resistance (R is modulated by gate voltage (V) instead of a constant value when annealed at 300 °C. It is believed that the adjustable R with V is the key to keeping both high mobility and compensation of the threshold voltage (V). The optimal device performance was obtained at 250 °C with an I/I ratio of 2.89 × 10, a saturation mobility (μ) of 24.48 cm/(V·s) and V of 2.32 V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11050337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147199PMC
April 2021

The removal of Cu from wine by copolymer PVI/PVP: Impact on Cu fractions and binding agents.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 9;357:129764. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia; School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

Specific forms of Cu in wine can influence wine flavour and development. The co-polymer polyvinylimidazole/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVI/PVP) is known to remove Cu from wine, but its impact on different Cu forms is uncertain. In this study, three Cu fractions in white wine were determined by colorimetry and two Cu fractions in red wine were determined by diatomaceous earth depth filtration and atomic spectroscopy. PVI/PVP, with either silica or chitosan formulations, reduced all three fractions of Cu measured in white wines, and sulfide-bound Cu in red wines. The inefficient removal of organic acid-bound Cu in red wines was linked to the higher pH of red wines. After PVI/PVP treatment, wines showed lower concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, but minimal changes in weaker Cu binding agents. These results demonstrate that PVI/PVP efficiently removes the least desirable form of Cu present in wine, along with its detrimental binding agent (i.e., hydrogen sulfide).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129764DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of Physical Stimulation in the Field of Oral Health.

Scanning 2021 7;2021:5517567. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Stomatological Materials Laboratory, School of Stomatology, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Tai'an, Shandong 271016, China.

Physical stimulation has been widely used in clinical medicine and healthcare due to its noninvasiveness. The main applications of physical stimulation in the oral cavity include laser, ultrasound, magnetic field, and vibration, which have photothermal, cavitation, magnetocaloric, and mechanical effects, respectively. In addition, the above four stimulations with their unique biological effects, which can play a role at the gene, protein, and cell levels, can provide new methods for the treatment and prevention of common oral diseases. These four physical stimulations have been used as important auxiliary treatment methods in the field of orthodontics, implants, periodontal, dental pulp, maxillofacial surgery, and oral mucosa. This paper systematically describes the application of physical stimulation as a therapeutic method in the field of stomatology to provide guidance for clinicians. In addition, some applications of physical stimulation in specific directions are still at the research stage, and the specific mechanism has not been fully elucidated. To encourage further research on the oral applications of physical stimulation, we elaborate the research results and development history of various physical stimuli in the field of oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5517567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049832PMC
April 2021

Estimation of the binomial probabilities in a two-stage phase II clinical trial with two co-primary endpoints.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jun 2;105:106390. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Canadian Cancer Trials Group, Queen's University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada. Electronic address:

In cancer research, two-stage designs are usually used to assess the effect of a new agent in phase II clinical trials. Optimal two-stage designs with two co-primary endpoints have been proposed to assess the effects of new cancer treatments, such as cytostatic or molecularly targeted agents (MTAs), based on both response rate and early progression rate. Accurate estimation of response and early progression rates based on the data from the phase II trials conducted according to the optimal two-stage designs would be very useful for further testing of the agents in phase II trials. In this paper, we derive some estimation procedures, which include both standard and bias-corrected maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) and uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimate (UMVUE), for two binomial probabilities which are used to define the hypotheses for two co-primary endpoints tested in a two-stage phase II clinical trial. Simulation studies were performed to evaluate the performance of these procedures. These procedures are also applied to analyze the data from a phase II trial conducted by the Canadian Cancer Trials Group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2021.106390DOI Listing
June 2021

The complete mitogenome of 'Dongfang No.3', an important cultivar in China.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Mar 19;6(3):1098-1100. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Shandong Academy of Sciences, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan, PR China.

In this work, the complete mitogenome of cultivar 'Dongfang No.3' is reported. This mitogenome has a circular mapping organization with the length of 37,657 bp and contains 66 genes, including 35 protein-coding genes, three rRNAs, 25 tRNAs, and three open reading frames (s). The overall AT content is 64.73%, showing a higher AT content. The gene content and gene sequence are consistent with those reported varieties and cultivars of . Chinese main cultivars are analyzed by phylogenetic analysis. It indicates that 'Dongfang No.3' has a close relationship with , which strongly supports its genetic origin. The complete mitogenome analysis in this work would help in understanding the genetic background of Chinese cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1899863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995842PMC
March 2021

Layer-by-Layer assembled nano-drug delivery systems for cancer treatment.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):655-669

School of Pharmacy, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Nano-drug delivery systems (NDDS) are functional drug-loaded nanocarriers widely applied in cancer therapy. Recently, layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled NDDS have been demonstrated as one of the most promising platforms in delivery of anticancer therapeutics. Here, a brief review of the LbL assembled NDDS for cancer treatment is presented. The fundamentals of the LbL assembled NDDS are first interpreted with an emphasis on the formation mechanisms. Afterwards, the tailored encapsulation of anticancer therapeutics in LbL assembled NDDS are summarized. The state-of-art targeted delivery of LbL assembled NDDS, with special attention to the elaborately control over the passive and active targeting delivery, are represented. Then the controlled release of LbL assembled NDDS with various stimulus responsiveness are systematically reviewed. Finally, conclusions and perspectives on further advancing the LbL assembled NDDS toward more powerful and versatile platforms for cancer therapy are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.1905748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018551PMC
December 2021

Role of extracellular polymeric substances on nutrients storage and transfer in algal-bacteria symbiosis sludge system treating wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 19;331:125010. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Northwest Water Resource, Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China; International Science & Technology Cooperation Center for Urban Alternative Water Resources Development, Xi'an 710055, China.

This study reported the role and significance of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) on nutrients storage and transfer in an algal-bacteria symbiosis sludge (ABSS) system for wastewater treatment, and the novel algae-based sequencing batch suspended biofilm reactor (A-SBSBR, Ra) was selected as model of ABSS system. Results showed that compared to conventional SBSBR, the EPS of Ra performed better storage for NO-N, NO-N, total phosphorus and PO -P, with increase ratios of 43.7%, 36.0%, 34.1% and 14.7% in sludge phase and 174.0%, 147.4%, 150.4% and 122.0% in biofilm phase, respectively. The analysis of mechanisms demonstrated that microalgae active transport and uptake for divalent cations could enhance their local concentrations around ABS flocs and partially neutralized negative charge of EPSs, and more anions related to nutrients were absorbed in EPSs. Moreover, O produced by microalgae photosynthesis enhanced bacteria activity and improved the production of EPSs in both sludge and biofilm phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125010DOI Listing
July 2021

Detection of Urinary Albumin Using a "Turn-on" Fluorescent Probe with Aggregation-Induced Emission Characteristics.

Chem Asian J 2021 May 1;16(10):1245-1252. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Chemistry and Physics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Victoria, 3086, Australia.

Human serum albumin (HSA) is a broadly used biomarker for the diagnosis of various diseases such as chronic kidney disease. Here, a fluorescent probe TC426 with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics is reported as a sensitive and specific probe for HSA. This probe is non-emissive in aqueous solution, meanwhile it shows bright fluorescence upon interacting with HSA, which makes it applicable in detecting HSA with a high signal to noise ratio. Besides, the fluorescence of TC426 exhibits a high linear correlation with the concentration of albumin in the range of microalbumin (20-200 mg/L), which has a significant importance for the early diagnosis of glomerulus related diseases. Compared with previously reported HSA probes TPE-4TA and BSPOTPE, TC426 shows comparable anti-interference ability towards creatinine and other major components in urine but is excited by a longer excitation wavelength at the visible light range. Finally, with the established assay, TC426 shows excellent performance in detecting HSA in real human urine, indicating its great potential in practical urinalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100180DOI Listing
May 2021

Organophosphite Antioxidants in Mulch Films Are Important Sources of Organophosphate Pollutants in Farmlands.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 06 23;55(11):7398-7406. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria/Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300350, China.

Organophosphite antioxidants (OPAs) are important auxiliary antioxidants used in plastic polymers and can be oxidized to organophosphate esters (OPEs) during production and processing. In this work, the occurrence of OPAs and OPEs in farmlands with or without mulch film applications was investigated. Six OPAs and five OPEs were detected, with the median concentrations of 2.66 ng/g (∑OPAs) and 100 ng/g (∑OPEs) in the film-mulching soil and 1.16 ng/g (∑OPAs) and 47.9 ng/g (∑OPEs) in the nonfilm-mulching soil, respectively. The oxidative derivative of AO168 (tris (2,4-di--butylphenyl) phosphite), a typical OPA, AO168═O (tris (2,4-di--butylphenyl) phosphate) was frequently detected in farmlands at the concentrations of 0-731 ng/g, which is much higher than that of the commercial OPEs (0-12.1 ng/g). This suggests that the oxidation derivatives of OPAs (OPAs═O) might be important OPE contaminants in soils. Mulch films could be their important source. According to the simulation migration experiment, the emission risk ranges of AO168 and AO168═O from mulch films to soils in China were estimated to be 3.96-87.6 and 10.5-95.3 tons/year, respectively, which were much higher than those of OPEs from sewage sludge applications. Simulation experiments also demonstrated that oxidation was the major pathway for OPAs in soils. OPAs with small substituent groups could be potential sources for organophosphate diesters. For the first time, the serious pollution of OPAs and OPAs═O in soils has been reported, and mulch films have been identified as their potential source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08741DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparison of the Microsatellite Distribution Patterns in the Genomes of Euarchontoglires at the Taxonomic Level.

Front Genet 2021 26;12:622724. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Key Laboratory of Southwest China Wildlife Resources Conservation (Ministry of Education), China West Normal University, Nanchong, China.

Microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) instability within genes can induce genetic variation. The SSR signatures remain largely unknown in different clades within Euarchontoglires, one of the most successful mammalian radiations. Here, we conducted a genome-wide characterization of microsatellite distribution patterns at different taxonomic levels in 153 Euarchontoglires genomes. Our results showed that the abundance and density of the SSRs were significantly positively correlated with primate genome size, but no significant relationship with the genome size of rodents was found. Furthermore, a higher level of complexity for perfect SSR (P-SSR) attributes was observed in rodents than in primates. The most frequent type of P-SSR was the mononucleotide P-SSR in the genomes of primates, tree shrews, and colugos, while mononucleotide or dinucleotide motif types were dominant in the genomes of rodents and lagomorphs. Furthermore, (A)n was the most abundant motif in primate genomes, but (A)n, (AC)n, or (AG)n was the most abundant motif in rodent genomes which even varied within the same genus. The GC content and the repeat copy numbers of P-SSRs varied in different species when compared at different taxonomic levels, reflecting underlying differences in SSR mutation processes. Notably, the CDSs containing P-SSRs were categorized by functions and pathways using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations, highlighting their roles in transcription regulation. Generally, this work will aid future studies of the functional roles of the taxonomic features of microsatellites during the evolution of mammals in Euarchontoglires.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.622724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953163PMC
February 2021

Health behavior changes associated with weight gain among first-year international students studying at an American university.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Mar 2:1-10. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Objectives: To characterize the health behaviors and outcomes of first-year international students (FYIS) studying in the U.S. Three different cohorts of FYIS from a large midwestern university in the U.S. completed three laboratory visits between August and March. The study began in 2017 and ended in March 2020. Anthropometrics, acculturative stress, eating behaviors, sleep, physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. Fifty-four students completed the study. Females had a significant increase in percent body fat ( = .036) and a decrease in sleep quality ( = .006) at the final visit vs. baseline, and uncontrolled ( = .006) and emotional ( < .001) eating behaviors were higher. FYIS who gained more than the median 1.2 kg over the study period experienced higher acculturative stress ( = .004) and a decline in sleep quality ( = .003). Reducing acculturative stress and improving sleep quality should be explored as interventions to protect against undesirable changes in adiposity among FYIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2021.1891082DOI Listing
March 2021

Hypertension, BMI, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 21;16(1):149-155. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Jilin University, 232-1163 Xinmin Street, Changchun, 130021, Jilin, China.

Hypertension is associated with body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CCDs). Whether hypertension modifies the relationship between BMI and CCDs is still unclear. We examined the association between BMI and CCDs and tested whether effect measure modification was present by hypertension. We identified a population-based sample of 3,942 participants in Shuncheng, Fushun, Liaoning, China. Hypertension was defined as any past use of antihypertensive medication or having a measured systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg. BMI was calculated from measured body weight and body height. Data on diagnosed CCDs were self-reported and validated in the medical records. We used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between BMI and CCDs. Higher BMI was associated with increased odds of having CCDs (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31). This association was significantly modified by hypertension ( for interaction <0.001), with positive associations observed among hypertensive individuals (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.14-1.42). Age, sex, and diabetic status did not modify the relationship between BMI and CCDs (all for interaction >0.10). Although higher BMI was associated with increased odds of CCDs, the relationship was mainly limited to hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2021-0014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862997PMC
January 2021

Research progress and the biotechnological applications of multienzyme complex.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Mar 10;105(5):1759-1777. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

School of Bioengineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, 250353, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

The multienzyme complex system has become a research focus in synthetic biology due to its highly efficient overall catalytic ability and has been applied to various fields. Multienzyme complexes are formed by cascading complexes, which are multiple functionally related enzymes that continuously and efficiently catalyze the production of substrates. Compared with current mainstream microbial cell catalytic systems, in vitro multienzyme molecular machines have many advantages, such as fewer side reactions, a high product yield, a fast reaction speed, easy product separation, a tolerable toxic environment, and robust system operability, showing increasing competitiveness in the field of biomanufacturing. In this review, the research progress of multienzyme complexes in nature and multienzyme cascades in vivo or in vitro will be introduced, and the discovered enzyme cascades concerning scaffolding proteins will also be discussed. This review is expected to provide a more theoretical basis for the modification of multienzyme complexes and broaden their application in the field of synthetic biology. KEY POINTS: • The cascade reactions of some natural multienzyme complexes are reviewed. • The main approaches of constructing artificial multienzyme complexes are summarized. • The structure and application of cellulosomes are discussed and prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11121-4DOI Listing
March 2021

SNRNP200 Mutations Cause Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 21;7:588991. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

The Clinical Research Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.

The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 200 kDa (SNRNP200) gene plays a key role in the maturation of pre-message RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing with the indication for the etiology of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Gene recognition can facilitate the diagnosis of these patients for better clinical management, treatment and counseling. This study aimed to outline the causative mutation in a Chinese family and the pathogenic mechanism of this SNRNP200 mutation in RP. Eighteen individuals from the affected family underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was conducted to identify the pathogenic variant in the proband, which was then confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Expression of the SNRNP200 transcript in zebrafish was identified via whole mount hybridization. Morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) and SNRNP200 wild and mutant mRNA were injected into zebrafish embryos followed by analyses of the systemic changes and retinal phenotypes using immunofluorescence. Heterozygous SNRNP200 (p.Arg2030Cys) mutation was ascertained in two members of this family: the proband and his father (II-2). Overexpression of SNRNP200, but not SNRNP200 caused systemic deformities in the wild-type zebrafish embryos with the retina primarily injured, and significantly increased death rates in the morphant embryos, in which the orthologous zebrafish SNRNP200 gene was blocked. In conclusion, this study reports a novel heterozygous SNRNP200 mutation, which is evidenced to cause RP via a dominant-negative effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.588991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859630PMC
January 2021

Soil fungal networks moderate density-dependent survival and growth of seedlings.

New Phytol 2021 06 26;230(5):2061-2071. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Ecology, School of Life Sciences/State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.

Pathogenic and mutualistic fungi have contrasting effects on seedling establishment, but it remains unclear whether density-dependent survival and growth are regulated by access to different types of mycorrhizal fungal networks supported by neighbouring adult trees. Here, we conducted an extensive field survey to test how mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungal colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) seedlings in a subtropical forest respond to density of neighbouring adult trees. In addition, we undertook a hyphal exclusion experiment to explicitly test the role of soil fungal networks in driving density-dependent effects on seedling growth and survival. Conspecific adult density was a strong predictor for the relative abundance of putative pathogens, which was greater in roots of AM than of ECM seedlings, while mycorrhizal fungal abundance and colonization were not consistently affected by conspecific adult density. Both ECM and AM fungal networks counteracted conspecific density-dependent mortality, but ECM fungi were more effective at weakening the negative effects of high seedling density than AM fungi. Our findings reveal a critical role of common fungal networks in mitigating negative density-dependent effects of pathogenic fungi on seedling establishment, which provides mechanistic insights into how soil fungal diversity shapes plant community structure in subtropical forests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17237DOI Listing
June 2021

Health Behaviors of Higher Education Students from 7 Countries: Poorer Sleep Quality during the COVID-19 Pandemic Predicts Higher Dietary Risk.

Clocks Sleep 2021 Jan 15;3(1):12-30. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

Health behaviors of higher education students can be negatively influenced by stressful events. The global COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique opportunity to characterize and compare health behaviors across multiple countries and to examine how these behaviors are shaped by the pandemic experience. Undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in universities in China, Ireland, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, the Netherlands and the United States (USA) were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Eligible students filled out an online survey comprised of validated tools for assessing sleep quality and duration, dietary risk, alcohol misuse and physical activity between late April and the end of May 2020. Health behaviors were fairly consistent across countries, and all countries reported poor sleep quality. However, during the survey period, the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the health behaviors of students in European countries and the USA more negatively than Asian countries, which could be attributed to the differences in pandemic time course and caseloads. Students who experienced a decline in sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic had higher dietary risk scores than students who did not experience a change in sleep quality ( = 0.001). Improved sleep quality was associated with less sitting time ( = 0.010). Addressing sleep issues among higher education students is a pressing concern, especially during stressful events. These results support the importance of making education and behavior-based sleep programming available for higher education students in order to benefit students' overall health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/clockssleep3010002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838912PMC
January 2021

Konjac glucomannan with probiotics acts as a combination laxative to relieve constipation in mice by increasing short-chain fatty acid metabolism and 5-hydroxytryptamine hormone release.

Nutrition 2021 04 13;84:111112. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery/Department of Clinical Nutrition, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Various probiotics and natural products can help to relieve constipation. This study aimed to explore the constipation-relieving effects and potential mechanism of a combination laxative of konjac glucomannan and probiotics.

Methods: This study evaluated the gastrointestinal-tract viability of probiotics in vitro. A constipation model was constructed in BALB/c mice, and the efficacies of the combinations verified in terms of their bowel movement-promoting effects, including the first black-stool defecation time and gastrointestinal transit rates of mice. Colonization by the probiotics was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, gas chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot were also used for analysis.

Results: Lactobacillus paracasei X11 (X11) and L. casei YRL577 (YRL577) had outstanding gastrointestinal-tract viability. Konjac glucomannan (KGM) + X11, Prunus persica + X11, and Prunus persica + YRL577 significantly relieved constipation. In addition, KGM promoted the colonization of X11. Meanwhile, KGM + X11 effectively promoted the metabolism of short-chain fatty acids in mice better than other combinations, and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) content in the KGM + X11 group was the highest among all the groups. Therefore, KGM + X11 was selected for further research. The combination laxative promoted the secretion of 5-HT, up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of 5-HT receptor 4 and serotonin transporter via the 5-HT pathway, and effectively relieved constipation.

Conclusions: The combination laxative konjac glucomannan-probiotic (KGM + X11) promoted defecation in constipated mice, possibly by increasing short-chain fatty acid metabolism and 5-HT hormone release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.111112DOI Listing
April 2021