Publications by authors named "Xinxin Liu"

284 Publications

Cardiac microvascular functions improved by MSC-derived exosomes attenuate cardiac fibrosis after ischemia-reperfusion via PDGFR-β modulation.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Cardiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, China; Key Laboratory of Myocardial Ischemia, Ministry of Education, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, China.

Microvascular dysfunction caused by cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) leads to multiple severe cardiac adverse events, such as heart failure and ventricular modeling, which plays a critical role in outcomes. Though marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has been proven effective for attenuating I/R injury, the limitations of clinical feasibility cannot be ignored. Since exosomes are recognized as the main vehicles for MSCs' paracrine effects, we assumed that MSC-derived exosomes could prevent microvascular dysfunction and further protect cardiac function. By establishing a rat cardiac I/R model in vivo and a cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) hypoxia-reperfusion (H/R) model in vitro, we demonstrated that MSC-derived exosomes enhanced microvascular regeneration under stress, inhibited fibrosis development, and eventually improved cardiac function through platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β) modulation. Furthermore, we found that MSC-derived exosomes possessed better therapeutic effects than MSCs themselves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.09.017DOI Listing
September 2021

Cattail fibers as source of cellulose to prepare a novel type of composite aerogel adsorbent for the removal of enrofloxacin in wastewater.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

School of Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051, PR China.

In this study, cattail was researched as a natural cellulose source to extract cellulose. Dewaxing, alkali and bleaching treatments were carried out for the cattail fibers (CFs). The FTIR, SEM and XRD results indicated that hemicellulose and lignin were successfully removed from the CFs, and the content of cattail cellulose increased from 41.66 ± 1.11% to 89.72 ± 1.07%. Subsequently, cellulose aerogel was prepared by the extracted cattail cellulose. The Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was uniformly loaded onto the surface of cellulose aerogel by the in situ growth, and ZIF-8 Cattail Cellulose Aerogel (ZCCA) was finally prepared. The SEM, FTIR, XRD and TGA results further confirmed the successful preparation of ZCCA. Additionally, the results of the adsorption experiment showed that ZCCA had excellent adsorption performance for enrofloxacin, and the maximum adsorption capacity of enrofloxacin reached 172.09 mg·g while showing good reusability. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption of enrofloxacin was a spontaneous endothermic reaction and that the adsorption mechanism involves the interaction of hydrogen bonds, electrostatic and π-π stacking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.09.022DOI Listing
September 2021

When nanoparticle and microbes meet: The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on microbial community and nutrient cycling in hyperaccumulator system.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 28;423(Pt A):126947. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Carbon nanotubes can potentially stimulate phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by promoting plant biomass and root growth. Yet, the regulating mechanism of carbon nanotubes on the rhizosphere microenvironment and their potential ecological risks remain poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MCNT) on the diversity and structure of rhizosphere soil bacterial and fungal communities, as well as soil enzyme activities and nutrients, in Solanum nigrum L. (S. nigrum)-soil system. Here, S. nigrum were cultivated in heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils applied with MCNT (100, 500, and 1000 mg kg by concentration, none MCNT addition as control) for 60 days. Our results demonstrated more significant urease, sucrase, and acid phosphatase activities in MCNT than in control soils, which benefit to promoting plant growth. Also, there were significant reductions in available nitrogen and available potassium contents with the treatment of MCNT, while the organic carbon and available phosphorus were not affected by MCNT application. Notably, the alpha diversity of bacterial and fungal communities in the MCNT treatments did not significantly vary relative to control. However, the soil microbial taxonomic compositions were changed under the application of MCNT. Compared to the control, MCNT application increased the relative abundances of the Micrococcaceae family, Solirubrobacteraceae family, and Conexibacter genus, which were positively correlated with plant growth. In addition, the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis revealed that the community structure of bacterial and fungal communities did not significantly change among all the treatments, and bacterial community structure was significantly correlated with soil organic carbon. At the same time, sucrase activity had the highest relation to fungal community structure. This study highlighted soil microbes have strong resistance and adaptation ability to carbon nanotubes with existence of plants, and revealed linkage between the rhizosphere microenvironment and plant growth, which well improved our understanding of carbon nanotubes in heavy metal phytoremediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126947DOI Listing
August 2021

Ag immobilized lignin-based PU coating: A promising candidate to promote the mechanical properties, thermal stability, and antibacterial property of paper packaging.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 28;189:690-697. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, 510640, Guangdong, China; Guangzhou Yinnovator Biotech Co.Ltd, Tianhe North Road 233, Tianhe District, Guangzhou, 510620, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

A lignin-based PU coating was prepared for paper-based green packaging. Two representative diisocyanate were used to prepare the coatings. Due to the rigid aromatic, the physical properties of the TDI system reached the maximum below the lignin content of 40%. The HDI that contains flexible aliphatic chains alleviated the brittleness of coating, and it showed physical advantages when the lignin content was more than 50%. Owing to the high lignin content, the coating presented enhanced thermal stability. After coated with the lignin-based PU coatings, the dry tensile strength of coated paper was improved by 126%. Amazingly, the wet strength was increased from 0.31 to 12.6 MPa with an improvement nearly 40 times. Based on the coordination of lignin, Ag was introduced into the PU matrix, which imparted the coating with excellent antibacterial ability. The colony forming units of E. coli and S. aureus were both less than 1. However, no inhibition halo was observed, which indicated that the Ag was firmly anchored on the coating and the antibacterial ability is only available when the bacterial contact the coating surface. The lignin-based PU coating with favorable sustainability and properties shows great potential in paper-based green packaging fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.184DOI Listing
August 2021

[A short-form scale for quality of working life among caregivers].

Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1539/sangyoeisei.2021-024-CDOI Listing
August 2021

Targeting GluN2B/NO Pathway Ameliorates Social Isolation-Induced Exacerbated Attack Behavior in Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:700003. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medicine and Life Sciences, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Exacerbated attack behavior has a profound socioeconomic impact and devastating social consequences; however, there is no satisfactory clinical management available for an escalated attack behavior. Social isolation (SI) is widespread during this pandemic and may exert detrimental effects on mental health, such as causing heightened attack behavior. To explore the therapeutic approaches that alleviate the SI-induced heightened attack behavior, we utilized pharmacological methods targeting the GluN2B/NO signaling pathway during the attack behavior. Ifenprodil and TAT-9C peptide targeting GluN2B showed that the inhibition of GluN2B mitigated the SI-induced escalated attack behavior and the SI-induced aberrant nitric oxide (NO) level in the brain. Additionally, the potentiation of the NO level by L-arginine reversed the effects of the inhibition of GluN2B. Moreover, we showed that high doses of L-NAME and 7-NI and subeffective doses of L-NAME in combination with ifenprodil or TAT-9C or subeffective doses of 7-NI plus ifenprodil or TAT-9C all decreased the SI-induced escalated attack behavior and reduced the NO level, further supporting the idea that GluN2B/NO signaling is a crucial modulator of the escalated attack behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.700003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322622PMC
July 2021

Plasma nontargeted peptidomics discovers potential biomarkers for major depressive disorder.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2021 Jul 30:e2000058. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, China.

Purpose: There are great demands for identifying biomarkers of major depressive disorder (MDD), a common mental illness with a prevalence of approximately 6%. Finding potential biomarkers to aid MDD diagnosis is in high demand.

Experimental Design: In this study, a combination of pretreatment methods named salt-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and nontargeted peptidomics based on nano-LC-Orbitrap/MS was primarily employed to discover the candidate peptide markers from the plasma of 238 subjects.

Results: Many peptides were enriched and identified from the plasma, 42 of which showed significant differences between MDD patients and controls by univariate statistical analysis. A binary logistic regression (BLR) model combined four peptide markers (P1, P9, P17, P29) was established, yielding an overall prediction accuracy of 91.7% and 82.2% in the discovery and validation sets, respectively.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: In conclusion, the excellent performance of the BLR model in both discovery and validation sets demonstrates the robustness of the four peptide markers panel. It is very valuable for quantification of the absolute content of four peptides and further verification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.202000058DOI Listing
July 2021

Prospective changes in sleep problems in response to the daily rest period among Japanese daytime workers: A longitudinal web survey.

J Sleep Res 2021 Jul 26:e13449. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan Organization of Occupational Health and Safety, Kawasaki, Japan.

The daily rest period (DRP) is the daily inter-work interval and can include a sleep opportunity, leisure time, and other non-work time. A longer DRP may allow workers to increase time in bed (TIB) and adjust sleep timing, and that may reduce sleep problems such as short sleep duration, sleep debt, social jetlag, and poor sleep quality. The present study examined the longitudinal association between the DRP and these sleep problems among Japanese daytime workers. The DRP, TIB on workdays, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), sleep debt and social jetlag were measured in November 2016 (n = 10,000) and February 2019 (n = 3,098). Of these, 955 permanent daytime workers were divided into five groups based on the change in the DRP duration: shortened ≥2 hr, shortened ≥1 hr, no change (<1 hr), extended ≥1 hr and extended ≥2 hr. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed significant interaction (group × time) effects on the TIB, PSQI score and sleep debt (all p < 0.001), but not on social jetlag (p = 0.476). Post hoc comparisons revealed that the TIB was decreased, and the sleep debt was increased in the shortened ≥2 hr group, whereas the TIB was increased and PSQI score was improved in the extended ≥2 hr group (all p < 0.01). These findings suggest that an extension of the DRP improves sleep quantity and quality but not sleep debt and social jetlag. Aside from extending the DRP, ensuring a sufficient sleep duration and adjusting sleep timing during the DRP may also be needed to prevent sleep problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13449DOI Listing
July 2021

Correction to: Fine-tuning Flowering Time via Genome Editing of Upstream Open Reading Frames of Heading Date 2 in Rice.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Jul 20;14(1):69. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, 150081, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-021-00511-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292468PMC
July 2021

Comparison of efficacy and safety of complementary and alternative therapies for essential hypertension with anxiety or depression disorder.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(7):e0254699. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of First College of Clinical Medicine, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Essential hypertension (EH) with anxiety or depression belongs to the category of psycho-cardiology. Hypertension is closely related to anxiety and depression. The adverse reactions of Western medicine are apparent and the compliance is poor. Supplementary and replacement therapies have accumulated rich experience in clinical practices, which can reduce side effects and improve clinical efficacy. This study intends to use the Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) analysis method for the first time to gather randomized controlled trials (RCTs) related to complementary and alternative therapies in the treatment of hypertension with anxiety or depression disorder and rank efficacy and safety, to provide a reference basis for the treatment of hypertension with anxiety or depression disorder.

Methods: All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registered and ongoing trials of Chinese and English databases, related to supplementation and replacement therapies of EH with anxiety or depression disorder, published from initial state to February 2021, will be collected in the form of computer retrieval. Two researchers will independently screen the literature, extracting data, assessing bias risk and assessing heterogeneity. We will use software WinBUGS 1.4.3 and Stata 16.0 for pairwise meta-analysis and NMA to comprehensively evaluate various interventions. The quality of evidence will be evaluated through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE).

Results: This NMA will comprehensively compare and rank the efficacy and safety of a series of complementary and alternative therapies in treating EH with anxiety or depression disorder.

Conclusion: Supplementary and replacement therapies have accumulated rich experience of clinical practices in improving EH with anxiety or depression disorder. We expect that this NMA will guide practice and research by providing reliable evidence of evidence-based medicine for the treatment of EH with anxiety or depression disorder.

Protocol Registration Number: INPLASY202120068.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254699PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284674PMC
July 2021

FABP5, a Novel Immune-Related mRNA Prognostic Marker and a Target of Immunotherapy for Multiple Myeloma.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:667525. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Hematology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Taian, China.

Multiple myeloma is an incurable hematological malignancy. It is imperative to identify immune markers for early diagnosis and therapy. Here, this study analyzed immune-related mRNAs and assessed their prognostic value and therapeutic potential. Abnormally expressed immune-related mRNAs were screened between multiple myeloma and normal bone marrow specimens in the GSE47552 and GSE6477 datasets. Their biological functions were then explored. Survival analysis was presented for assessing prognosis-related mRNAs. CIBERSORT was utilized for identifying 22 immune cell compositions of each bone marrow specimen. Correlation between FABP5 mRNA and immune cells was then analyzed in multiple myeloma. Thirty-one immune-related mRNAs were abnormally expressed in multiple myeloma, which were primarily enriched in B cells-related biological processes and pathways. Following validation, FABP5 mRNA was a key risk factor of multiple myeloma. Patients with its up-regulation usually experienced unfavorable outcomes. There were distinct differences in the infiltration levels of B cells naïve, B cells memory, plasma cells, T cells CD4 naïve, resting memory CD4 T cells, activated memory CD4 T cells, Tregs, resting NK cells, M0 macrophages, M1 macrophages, M2 macrophages, and neutrophils between multiple myeloma and normal samples. FABP5 mRNA had correlations to B cells memory, B cells naïve, dendritic cells activated, macrophages M0, macrophages M1, macrophages M2, neutrophils, activated NK cells, resting memory CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells and Tregs. Collectively, our data showed that FABP5 mRNA was related to immune microenvironment, which could be a target of immunotherapy and prognostic marker for multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.667525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266212PMC
June 2021

Polyphenols from blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea var. edulis) berry inhibit lipid accumulation in adipocytes by suppressing lipogenesis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 8;279:114403. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Cardiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, PR China; Key Laboratory of Myocardial Ischemia, Ministry of Education, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea var. edulis) berry has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections, gastrointestinal disorders, and metabolic diseases. There is evidence to support its pharmacological effects in improving diabetes, fatty liver, and obesity.

Aim Of Study: To investigate the effect of blue honeysuckle berry extract (BHBE) on lipid accumulation in adipocytes and the underlying mechanism.

Materials And Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to analyze the polyphenolic compounds in BHBE. 3T3-L1 cells were used to induce into adipocytes. Oil Red O staining combined with triglyceride (TG) content determination were carried out to evaluate intracellular lipid accumulation. Western blot was used to determine the expression of lipogenic enzymes and transcription factors. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression of lipolytic enzymes and adipocyte markers.

Results: The primary polyphenols in BHBE are flavonoids (mainly flavonols and anthocyanins). BHBE dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation in adipocytes by reducing the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and increasing the phosphorylation level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Moreover, BHBE was found to promote the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and further reduce the expression of lipogenic transcription factors (PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c), while the selective AMPK inhibitor attenuated the suppressive effect of BHBE on lipogenesis. In addition, BHBE increased the expression of beige adipocyte markers (Cd137 and Tmem26) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) without affecting the expression of brown adipocyte markers (Ebf3 and Eva1).

Conclusion: BHBE inhibits lipid accumulation in adipocytes by suppressing lipogenesis via AMPK activation as well as by promoting beiging of adipocytes, which supports the anti-obesity potential of blue honeysuckle berry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114403DOI Listing
October 2021

Genomic diversity, life strategies and ecology of marine HTVC010P-type pelagiphages.

Microb Genom 2021 Jul;7(7)

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Agroecological Processing and Safety Monitoring, College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, PR China.

SAR11 bacteria dominate ocean surface bacterioplankton communities, and play an important role in marine carbon and nutrient cycling. The biology and ecology of SAR11 are impacted by SAR11 phages (pelagiphages) that are highly diverse and abundant in the ocean. Among the currently known pelagiphages, HTVC010P represents an extremely abundant but under-studied phage group in the ocean. In this study, we have isolated seven new HTVC010P-type pelagiphages, and recovered 77 nearly full-length HTVC010P-type metagenomic viral genomes from marine metagenomes. Comparative genomic and phylogenomic analyses showed that HTVC010P-type pelagiphages display genome synteny and can be clustered into two major subgroups, with subgroup I consisting of strictly lytic phages and subgroup II mostly consisting of phages with potential lysogenic life cycles. All but one member of the subgroup II contain an integrase gene. Site-specific integration of subgroup II HTVC010P-type pelagiphage was either verified experimentally or identified by genomic sequence analyses, which revealed that various SAR11 tRNA genes can serve as the integration sites of HTVC010P-type pelagiphages. Moreover, HTVC010P-type pelagiphage integration was confirmed by the detection of several Global Ocean Survey (GOS) fragments that contain hybrid phage-host integration sites. Metagenomic recruitment analysis revealed that these HTVC010P-type phages were globally distributed and most lytic subgroup I members exhibited higher relative abundance. Altogether, this study significantly expands our knowledge about the genetic diversity, life strategies and ecology of HTVC010P-type pelagiphages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mgen.0.000596DOI Listing
July 2021

Fine-tuning Flowering Time via Genome Editing of Upstream Open Reading Frames of Heading Date 2 in Rice.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Jun 29;14(1):59. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Key Laboratory of Soybean Molecular Design Breeding, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, 150081, China.

Flowering time of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is among the most important agronomic traits for region adaptation and grain yield. In the process of rice breeding, efficient and slightly modulating the flowering time of an elite cultivar would be more popular with breeder. Hence, we are interested in slightly increasing the expression of flowering repressors by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. It was predicated there were three uORFs in 5' leader sequence of Hd2. In this study, through editing Hd2 uORFs, we got four homozygous mutant lines. Phenotypic analysis showed that the hd2 urf edited lines flowered later by 4.6-11.2 days relative to wild type SJ2. Supporting the later flowering phenotype, the expression of Ehd1, Hd3a, and RFT1 is significantly decreased in hd2 urf than that in wild type. Moreover, we found that the transcription level of Hd2 is not affected, whereas the Hd2 protein level was increased in hd2 urf compared with wild type, which indicated that Hd2 uORFs indeed affect the translation of a downstream Hd2 pORF. In summary, we developed a efficient approach for delaying rice heading date based on editing uORF region of flowering repressor, which is time and labor saving compared to traditional breeding. In future, uORF of other flowering time related genes, including flowering promoter and flowering repressor genes, can also be used as targets to fine-tune the flowering time of varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-021-00504-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241947PMC
June 2021

Phosphorus elevation erodes ectomycorrhizal community diversity and induces divergence of saprophytic community composition between vegetation types.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 18;793:148502. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China; Shanghai Yangtze River Delta Eco-Environmental Change and Management Observation and Research Station, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Ecosystem Research Station, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Phosphorus (P) is a critical macronutrient that is essential for many life-sustaining processes. Despite decades of work on plant performance under P deficiency and the importance of microbes in ecosystem processes, little is known about how bacterial and fungal flora respond to P gradients and determine the vegetation health. In current study, we examined soil edaphic conditions and microbial communities in 39 untouched natural forests representing phosphorous deficient (Pp) and phosphorus rich (Pr) soils (due to naturally occurring phosphate rocks) in Yunnan Province, China. We also considered the effect of plant functional types by including the dominant tree species. Bacterial and fungal diversity was greater across the Pp sites compared with Pr sites. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes was higher across Pp sites, while Chlamydiae and Verrucomicrobia showed the opposite pattern, with greater relative abundance across the Pr sites. Bacterial taxa that were observed in low P soils were more likely having oligotrophic life history strategies. Interestingly, ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity was promoted in the Pp sites, indicating that the decreasing soil P concentration and the increasing host P demand foster stimulated the ECM species for hyphal soil exploration. Moreover, the high P level caused saprophytic fungi (SAP) to diverge, causing its enrichment only under Q. variabilis compared to low P soil, where there is no difference in relative abundance of SAP between the two tree species. This likely resulted in an enhanced decomposition process by SAP and elevation of soil properties (Carbon and Nitrogen) under Q. variabilis across the Pr sites. Taken together, our findings highlight the highly diverse microbiome in low P soils. The higher soil P caused shifts of fungal functional guilds, which likely influence tree growth and health (ECM), along with divergence of ecosystem services between tree functional types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148502DOI Listing
November 2021

Design and Preparation of Multiple Function-Integrated Lignin/Tannin/ZnONP Composite Coatings for Paper-Based Green Packaging.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Aug 24;22(8):3251-3263. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Wushan Road 381, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, China.

Lignin/tannin/ZnONP composite coatings were designed for paper-based green packaging. Multiple functions, such as high strength, moisture resistance, low air permeance, heat endurance, UV aging resistance, and antibacterial/mold properties, were successfully integrated into one biobased coating. Prepolymerization improved the physical properties of coatings at high lignin contents. The best ingredient ratio was: 40% lignin, 15% tannin, and 10% ZnONPs (based on tannin weight), and the as-prepared biocoating was labeled LTZn-10. After coated with LTZn-10, the tensile strength and bursting strength of the packaging were efficiently enhanced by more than 3 times and were dramatically increased by 51.6 and 5.6 times at the wet state, respectively, which reveals that the packaging has favorable moisture resistance and it can be used in high humidity environments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) proved that most of the pores on the paper were blocked by the coatings, which helped to decrease the air permeance by 10.3 times. Meanwhile, ZnONPs were evenly spread on the coatings, which endowed the packaging with excellent antibacterial/mold performance. No colony or mycelium was found in the test against Gram-negative/positive bacteria and eight common molds. Besides, antibacterial activity is only available while the bacteria come in contact with the coating and no active substances were released into the culture medium, which is a good property that can keep the cargo from contamination of antibacterial agents. In addition, the coated paper presented an improved and thermal degradation temperature, indicating that the coated package has favorable thermostability and can maintain its outstanding physical properties in a wider temperature range. Lignin and tannin promoted the UV stability and service life of the coated paper, as a rare physical decrease was observed after UV aging for 72 h. The function-integrated biobased coating with favorable sustainability is a good candidate to be widely used in paper-based green packaging fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.1c00340DOI Listing
August 2021

[Research progress of extracellular vesicle microRNA in acute lung injury].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 May;33(5):633-637

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563000, Guizhou, China. Corresponding author: Chen Miao, Email:

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are characterized by the destruction of the barrier function of alveolar epithelial cells and capillary endothelial cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells, which leads to alveolar and interstitial edema, hyaline membrane formation and inflammatory infiltration of the lungs, etc. The mechanism is not completely defined. The current treatment plan focuses on comprehensive treatments such as ventilator support treatment, fluid management, and nutritional support, but the prognosis is still poor. Studies have shown that extracellular vesicle microRNA (miRNA) from different sources participate in regulating the function of epithelial cells, endothelial cells and phagocytes in different ways, thus aggravating or improving ALI, and have diagnostic, differential diagnosis and the therapeutic value. In this article, the mechanism, diagnostic and differerntial value of extracellular vesicle miRNA from different sources in ALI and the therapy of extracellular vesicle miRNA from stem cell in ALI are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20200727-00544DOI Listing
May 2021

Prophylactic Intra-Peritoneal Drainage After Pancreatic Resection: An Updated Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:658829. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of General Surgery, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Prophylactic intra-peritoneal drainage has been considered to be an effective measure to reduce postoperative complications after pancreatectomy. However, routinely placed drainage during abdominal surgery may be unnecessary or even harmful to some patients, due to the possibility of increasing complications. And there is still controversy about the prophylactic intra-peritoneal drainage after pancreatectomy. This meta-analysis aimed to analyze the incidence of complications after either pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) or distal pancreatectomy (DP) in the drain group and no-drain group.

Methods: Data were retrieved from four electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science up to December 2020, including the outcomes of individual treatment after PD and DP, mortality, morbidity, clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF), bile leak, wound infection, postoperative hemorrhage, delayed gastric emptying (DGE), intra-abdominal abscess, reoperation, intervened radiology (IR), and readmission. Cochrane Collaboration Handbook and the criteria of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale were used to assess the quality of studies included.

Results: We included 15 studies after strict screening. 13 studies with 16,648 patients were analyzed to assess the effect of drain placement on patients with different surgery procedures, and 4 studies with 6,990 patients were analyzed to assess the effect of drain placement on patients with different fistula risk. For patients undergoing PD, the drain group had lower mortality but higher rate of CR-POPF than the no-drain group. For patients undergoing DP, the drain group had higher rates of CR-POPF, wound infection and readmission. There were no significant differences in bile leak, hemorrhage, DGE, intra-abdominal abscess, and IR in either overall or each subgroup. For Low-risk subgroup, the rates of hemorrhage, DGE and morbidity were higher after drainage. For High-risk subgroup, the rate of hemorrhage was higher while the rates of reoperation and morbidity were lower in the drain group.

Conclusions: Intraperitoneal drainage may benefit some patients undergoing PD, especially those with high pancreatic fistula risk. For DP, current evidences suggest that routine drainage might not benefit patients, but no clear conclusions can be drawn because of the study limitations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.658829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172774PMC
May 2021

Influences of wing gate turnstiles' characteristics on pedestrian evacuation based on agent-based egress model.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211018058

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of High Efficient Utilization of Rare Earth Resources, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China.

Wing gate turnstiles are widely used in airports, subway stations, railway stations, movie theaters, parks, etc., and influence the pedestrian evacuation greatly while accidents happen. Thus, doing some researches on how to improve the evacuation speed for wing gate turnstiles are meaningful and necessary. In response to this issue, the influences of the wing gate turnstiles on pedestrian evacuation are investigated by pathfinder in this paper. Pathfinder is an agent-based egress simulator that uses steering behaviors to model occupant motion. First of all, by Pathfinder, two evacuation models with flat-shaped and wedge-shaped hosts wing gate turnstiles, respectively, are established, and the simulations of pedestrian evacuation are carried out by computer. The results show the evacuation speed obtained by the wedge-shaped host is faster than that obtained by the flat-shaped host. Moreover, the longest evacuation time is obtained when the channels' width is 90 cm, and the shortest is obtained when the channels' width is 51.4 cm. For a small number of evacuees, the evacuation time is mainly influenced by the original distributions of the evacuees, however, as the number of the evacuees increases, the evacuation time is mainly influenced by the number of the evacuees. Furthermore, the wing gate turnstiles with widened hosts can get less evacuation time no matter whether the hosts are flat-shaped or wedge-shaped, however, the evacuation-time-saved rate obtained by wedge-shaped host is much higher than that obtained by flat-shaped host. Then, the influences of the wedge angle on the pedestrian evacuation are discussed, and the optimal wedge angle is obtained. The obtained results can not only provide helps for managers to evacuate crowds under emergency, but also offer some assistances for designers to design those gate turnstiles or building exits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211018058DOI Listing
May 2021

Correlation between TGF-β2/3 promoter DNA methylation and Smad signaling during palatal fusion induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 May 30:15353702211012288. Epub 2021 May 30.

School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, China.

2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo--dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent organic pollutant that is strongly associated with a number of human diseases and birth defects, including cleft palate. Transforming growth factor (TGF) plays a significant role during mammalian palatogenesis. However, the epigenetic mechanism of transforming growth factors in the process of TCDD-induced cleft palate is unclear. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship and potential mechanism between TGF-β2/3 promoter DNA methylation and Smad signaling during TCDD-induced cleft palate. Pregnant C57BL/6N mice were exposed to 64 µg/kg TCDD on gestational day 10 (GD10) to establish the cleft palate model and palatal tissues of embryos were collected on GD13, GD14, and GD15 for subsequent experiments. TGF-β2/3 mRNA expression, TGF-β2/3 promoter methylation, and Smad signaling molecules expression were assessed in the palate of the two groups. The results showed that the incidence of cleft palate was 94.7% in the TCDD-treated group whereas no cleft palate was found in the control group. TCDD-treated group altered specific CpG sites of TGF-β2/3 promoter methylation. Compared to the control group, the proliferation of mouse embryonic palate mesenchymal stromal cells (MEPM), the expressions of TGF-β2/3, p-Smad2, and Smad4 were all reduced, while the expression of Smad7 was significantly increased in the atAR group. Smad signaling was downregulated by TCDD. Therefore, we suggest that TGF-β2/3 promoter methylation and Smad signaling may be involved in TCDD-induced cleft palate formation in fetal mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15353702211012288DOI Listing
May 2021

MPC-based high-speed trajectory tracking for 4WIS robot.

ISA Trans 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China.

Compared to omnidirectional wheel robots and Mecanum wheel robots, four-wheel independent steering (4WIS) robots are more efficient. In recent years, 4WIS robot become the best choice for high-speed maneuverable mobile robots. However, the delay of the steering motor action and the control command exceeding the maximum speed of the steering motor make it difficult for the 4WIS robot to perform high-precision high-speed trajectory tracking. This paper proposes a high-speed trajectory tracking method combining the dynamics of the 4WIS robot. The A* algorithm is used for path planning, and then combined with the robot dynamics performance for trajectory planning. A 4WIS robot kinematics model and a model predictive control (MPC) controller with dynamic constraints are established. Simulations and experiments support the effectiveness and practicability of the trajectory tracking method. The high-speed trajectory tracking control of the 4WIS robot is realized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.05.018DOI Listing
May 2021

Selenium-driven enhancement of synergistic cancer chemo-/radiotherapy by targeting nanotherapeutics.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jul 21;9(13):4691-4700. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurology and Stroke Center of The First Affiliated Hospital, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China. and The Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Imaging for Clinical Translation, Guangzhou 510632, China.

To overcome drug resistance in hypoxic tumors and the limitations of radiation impedance and radiation dose, we developed a nano-radiosensitizer to improve the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy. We used multifunctional mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) as the carriers for a novel anticancer selenadiazole derivative (SeD) and modified its surface with folic acid (FA) to enhance its cervical cancer-targeting effects, forming the nanosystem named [email protected] Upon radiation, [email protected] inhibits the growth of cervical cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through the death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathway and S phase arrest, significantly improving the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells to X-ray radiation. The combined activity of [email protected] and radiation can promote excessive production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induce cell apoptosis by affecting p53, protein kinase B (AKT), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Furthermore, [email protected] can effectively inhibit tumor growth of xenografted HeLa tumors in nude mice. The toxicity analysis of [email protected] nanoparticles in vivo and the histological analysis performed in the mouse model showed that under the current experimental conditions, the nanoparticles induced no significant damage to the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, or other major organs. Taken together, this study provides a translational nanomedicine-based strategy for the simultaneous chemo- and radiotherapy of cervical cancer and sheds light on potential mechanisms that can be used to overcome radiotherapeutic resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00348hDOI Listing
July 2021

Inhibits the Development of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma By Downregulating in A431 Cells.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan City, China.

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) is the most deadly disease among nonmelanoma skin cancers. plays a role in various cancers, but its role in CSCC has not been reported so far. The expression of and in cells was detected by RT-qPCR. CCK-8 and colony formation assay were used to detect the proliferation of cells. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of proliferation-, invasion-, and migration-related proteins. Wound Healing and Transwell experiments detected the ability of cell invasion and migration. In animal experiments, a tumor-bearing model was established in nude mice, and tumor volume was measured and photographed. The expression levels of proliferation-, invasion-, and migration-related proteins were detected by western blot. The expression of was significantly decreased in CSCC cell lines. The overexpression of at the cellular level inhibited the proliferation and migration of CSCC cell line A431 by downregulating the expression of . The overexpression of in animals inhibited the tumor volume of nude mice by downregulating the expression of to inhibit the expression of proliferation- and migration-related proteins. inhibits the development of CSCC by downregulating .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2020.4325DOI Listing
April 2021

Changes in risk factors for severe low-back pain among caregivers in care facilities in Japan from 2014 to 2018.

Ind Health 2021 Sep 3;59(4):260-271. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Japan.

In Japan, the practice of the no-lift policy, which states that care recipients should be lifted with care equipment rather than by human power, has been increasing since around 2014. The purpose of this study was to examine whether severe low back pain (LBP) risk factors in caregivers changed between 2014 and 2018. A questionnaire survey targeting administrators and caregivers working in care facilities for the elderly was conducted in 2014 and 2018. A total of 612 facilities and 2,712 caregivers responded to the questionnaires in 2014, and 504 facilities and 3,478 caregivers completed the questionnaires in 2018. The percentage of caregivers who experienced severe LBP did not differ significantly between 2014 (37.3%) and 2018 (38.3%). However, the number of facilities that introduced care equipment for transfer increased in 2018. Moreover, the number of participants who received training on care methods and using care equipment increased. Lifting a facility resident using human power and taking an unsuitable posture were associated with severe LBP in 2014, but only taking an unsuitable posture was associated with severe LBP in 2018. As taking an unsuitable posture remains to be a primary risk factor for severe LBP, it needs to be addressed in care facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2021-0026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8426539PMC
September 2021

The role of MEG3 in the proliferation of palatal mesenchymal cells is related to the TGFβ/Smad pathway in TCDD inducing cleft palate.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 05 1;419:115517. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Cleft palate (CP) is a common birth defect with a high incidence of occurrence in humans. The 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a highly toxic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon, with a strong CP effect on mice. Increasing recent evidences have shown that long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in several diseases, including CP. However, there is a paucity of studies on the role of lncRNA MEG3 in the occurrence and development of TCDD-induced CP. In this study, the relationship between MEG3 and the proliferation of palatal mesenchymal cells and the underlying molecular mechanism were studied by establishing fetal CP with TCDD (64 μg/kg) in C57BL/6N mice. The results revealed that MEG3 was highly expressed during the critical period of CP formation and that the fetal mesenchymal proliferation was significantly inhibited at certain critical periods in the mice receiving TCDD. In addition, we noted a possibility of a crosstalk between MEG3 and the TGF-β/Smad pathway, such that the inhibition of the TGF-β/Smad pathway was induced by TCDD. Cumulatively, our study suggests that TCDD-induced CP may be caused by MEG3 inhibition of the proliferation of palatal mesenchymal cells involving the TGFβ/Smad pathway, which may provide a novel perspective to understand the pathogenesis of CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2021.115517DOI Listing
May 2021

Habitat Elevation Shapes Microbial Community Composition and Alter the Metabolic Functions in Wild Sable () Guts.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Faculty of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, 15140 Lahti, Finland.

In recent decades, wild sable (Carnivora Mustelidae ) habitats, which are often natural forests, have been squeezed by anthropogenic disturbances such as clear-cutting, tilling and grazing. Sables tend to live in sloped areas with relatively harsh conditions. Here, we determine effects of environmental factors on wild sable gut microbial communities between high and low altitude habitats using Illumina Miseq sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Our results showed that despite wild sable gut microbial community diversity being resilient to many environmental factors, community composition was sensitive to altitude. Wild sable gut microbial communities were dominated by Firmicutes (relative abundance 38.23%), followed by Actinobacteria (30.29%), and Proteobacteria (28.15%). Altitude was negatively correlated with the abundance of Firmicutes, suggesting sable likely consume more vegetarian food in lower habitats where plant diversity, temperature and vegetation coverage were greater. In addition, our functional genes prediction and qPCR results demonstrated that energy/fat processing microorganisms and functional genes are enriched with increasing altitude, which likely enhanced metabolic functions and supported wild sables to survive in elevated habitats. Overall, our results improve the knowledge of the ecological impact of habitat change, providing insights into wild animal protection at the mountain area with hash climate conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11030865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002971PMC
March 2021

Comparison of efficacy and safety of complementary and alternative therapies for coronary heart disease complicated with anxiety or depression disorder: A protocol for Bayesian network meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(12):e25084

Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing.

Background: With the acceleration of the pace of life, the phenomenon of anxiety and depression in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) is more and more common, and "psycho-cardiology" arises spontaneously. At present, the drug treatments of psycho-cardiology are difficult to achieve satisfactory results, and the side effects are obvious. Complementary and replacement therapies of CHD complicated with anxiety or depression disorder play an increasingly positive role, but there is a lack of comparison among different complementary and alternative therapies. In this study, Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) analysis method will be used for the first time to synthesize all the evidences of direct and indirect comparison among a variety of interventions, and rank their effectiveness and safety.

Methods: Two independent researchers will search from the beginning to January 2021 mainly including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and closely related ongoing RCTs of complementary and alternative therapies for CHD complicated with anxiety or depression disorder. And then identify, select and extract the data. The primary outcome measures are frequency of acute attack angina, severity of angina pectoris; the changed score in the validated scales, which can assess severity of anxiety or depression. Secondary outcomes include total efficacy rate, electrocardiogram improvement, traditional Chinese medicine symptoms score, changes of dosage of nitroglycerin and adverse effects. Using softwares WinBUGS 1.4.3 and STATA 16.0 for pairwise meta-analysis and NMA to comprehensively evaluate various interventions. The quality of evidences will be evaluated through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation.

Results: This NMA will comprehensively compare and rank the efficacy and safety of a series of complementary and alternative therapies in the treatment of CHD complicated with anxiety or depression disorder.

Conclusion: Supplementary and replacement therapies play an essential role in improving CHD complicated with anxiety or depression disorder. We expect that the NMA will provide reliable evidences of evidence-based medicine for treatment of CHD complicated with anxiety or depression disorder.

Protocol Registration Number: INPLASY202120046.

Ethical Approval: This review does not require ethical approval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025084DOI Listing
March 2021

Laboratory Predictors of COVID-19 Mortality: A Retrospective Analysis from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 23;2021:6687412. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China.

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly progressed to a global pandemic. Currently, there are limited effective medications approved for this deadly disease.

Objective: To investigate the potential predictors of COVID-19 mortality and risk factors for hyperinflammation in COVID-19.

Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out in 1,149 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China, from 1/13/2020 to 3/15/2020.

Results: We found significant differences in the rates of hyperuricemia (OR: 3.17, 95% CI: 2.13-4.70; < 0.001) and hypoalbuminemia (OR: 5.68, 95% CI: 3.97-8.32; < 0.001) between deceased and recovered patients. The percentages of hyperuricemia in deceased patients and recovered patients were 23.6% and 8.9%, respectively, which were higher than the reported age-standardized prevalence of 6.2% in Chinese population. Of note, the percentages of both IL-6 and uric acid levels in survived COVID-19 patients were above 90%, suggesting that they might be good specificity for indicators of mortality in COVID-19 patients. The serum level of uric acid (UA) was positively associated with ferritin, TNF-, and IL-6 but not with anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, the levels of these proinflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients showed a trend of reduction after uric acid lowering therapy.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that uric acid, the end product of purine metabolism, was increased in deceased patients with COVID-19. In addition, the serum level of uric acid was positively associated with inflammatory markers. Uric acid lowering therapy in COVID-19 patients with hyperuricemia may be beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6687412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906000PMC
March 2021

Progesterone Suppresses -Induced Inflammation Through Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome Pathway in THP-1 Cells and Murine Models.

Front Microbiol 2021 9;12:570093. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Dermatology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Asymptomatic/subclinical gonococcal infections in females continue to be prevalent within the general population, thus emerging as a global health problem. However, the reasons for these clinical manifestations are unknown. Our group had previously found out that in females, asymptomatic gonococcal infections correlate with higher serum progesterone (P4) levels and lower IL-1β levels in cervical secretions. We used murine infection model and THP-1 cells to determine whether P4 exerts anti-inflammatory effects on gonococcal infections. In the murine infection model, P4 (1 mg/day) inhibited the inflammatory effects induced by gonococcal infections which led to decreased neutrophil infiltration, reduced polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) numbers, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels in vaginal secretions. In addition, P4 down-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, associated with lower mRNA levels of pro-IL-1β, repressed caspase-1 activity in genital tissues and THP-1 cells. Moreover, P4 suppressed the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB and attenuated (, gonococci or GC)-induced ROS generation. This is consistent with the two signals required for activation of the NLRP3 (NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3) inflammasome. In conclusion, our result shows that P4 suppresses the gonococci induced-inflammation, especially through the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, and partially explains the pathogenesis of asymptomatic GC infection in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.570093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900005PMC
February 2021
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