Publications by authors named "Xinwei Li"

212 Publications

Two novel nomograms based on inflammatory cytokines or lymphocyte subsets to differentially diagnose severe or critical and Non-Severe COVID-19.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 19;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China.

We intend to evaluate the differences of the clinical characteristics, cytokine profiles and immunological features in patients with different severity of COVID-19, and to develop novel nomograms based on inflammatory cytokines or lymphocyte subsets for the differential diagnostics for severe or critical and non-severe COVID-19 patients. We retrospectively studied 254 COVID-19 patients, 90 of whom were severe or critical patients and 164 were non-severe patients. Severe or critical patients had significantly higher levels of inflammatory cytokines than non-severe patients as well as lower levels of lymphocyte subsets. Significantly positive correlations between cytokine profiles were observed, while they were all significantly negatively correlated with lymphocyte subsets. Two effective nomograms were developed according to two multivariable logistic regression cox models based on inflammatory cytokine profiles and lymphocyte subsets separately. The areas under the receiver operating characteristics of two nomograms were 0.834 (95% CI: 0.779-0.888) and 0.841 (95% CI: 0.756-0.925). The bootstrapped-concordance indexes of two nomograms were 0.834 and 0.841 in training set, and 0.860 and 0.852 in validation set. Calibration curves and decision curve analyses demonstrated that the nomograms were well calibrated and had significantly more clinical net benefits. Our novel nomograms can accurately predict disease severity of COVID-19, which may facilitate the identification of severe or critical patients and assist physicians in making optimized treatment suggestions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203307DOI Listing
July 2021

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of the clonal lineage ST5-SCCmecII-t2460 was associated with high mortality in a Wuhan hospital.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important human pathogen that can cause serious infectious diseases. An emerging MRSA strain, ST5-SCCmecII spa-type-t2460 (SMRSA), has spread rapidly since its recent emergence in China, but little information is available about this lineage. In this study, 91 MRSA isolates were collected from patients treated in the Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, from 2018 to 2019, and investigated for their molecular characteristics, antibiotic resistance profiles, and clinical characteristics. The predominant lineage, SMRSA, accounted for 37.4% (34/91) of the isolates, followed by ST239-SCCmecIII-t030 (19.8%, 18/91) and ST59-SCCmecIV-t437 (8.8%, 8/91). In contrast to the latter two non-SMRSA (nSMRSA) lineages, which are among the main MRSA found in Chinese settings, SMRSA exhibited small colony variant (SCV) phenotype and had extremely high resistance rates to erythromycin (100.0%), clindamycin (100.0%), levofloxacin (100.0%), tetracycline (97.1%), moxifloxacin (97.1%), and ciprofloxacin (100%), but was more susceptible to rifampicin (resistance rate 3%). The levels of white blood cells (WBC) and procalcitonin (PCT) and the 30-day mortality in patients infected with SMRSA were (12.54 ± 6.61) × 10/L, 0.66 ng/mL, and 52.9%, respectively, which were much higher than those in patients infected with nSMRSA. In addition, patients infected with SMRSA were more frequently admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and submitted to invasive procedures than those infected with nSMRSA. In conclusion, SMRSA showed SCV phenotype and exhibited multiple antibiotic-resistance profiles. In this study, SMRSA was associated with serious infections and poor prognosis. Compared with ST239, ST59, or other nSMRSA strains, patients infected with SMRSA strains have higher 30-day mortality, increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers, and more frequent ICU hospitalization and invasive procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00557-5DOI Listing
July 2021

[Design and simulation of dynamic hip prosthesis based on remote motion center mechanism].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;38(3):549-555

School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, P.R.China.

The rotation center of traditional hip disarticulation prosthesis is often placed in the front and lower part of the socket, which is asymmetric with the rotation center of the healthy hip joint, resulting in poor symmetry between the prosthesis movement and the healthy lower limb movement. Besides, most of the prosthesis are passive joints, which need to rely on the amputee's compensatory hip lifting movement to realize the prosthesis movement, and the same walking movement needs to consume 2-3 times of energy compared with normal people. This paper presents a dynamic hip disarticulation prosthesis (HDPs) based on remote center of mechanism (RCM). Using the double parallelogram design method, taking the minimum size of the mechanism as the objective, the genetic algorithm was used to optimize the size, and the rotation center of the prosthesis was symmetrical with the rotation center of the healthy lower limb. By analyzing the relationship between the torque and angle of hip joint in the process of human walking, the control system mirrored the motion parameters of the lower on the healthy side, and used the parallel drive system to provide assistance for the prosthesis. Based on the established virtual prototype simulation platform of solid works and Adams, the motion simulation of hip disarticulation prosthesis was carried out and the change curve was obtained. Through quantitative comparison with healthy lower limb and traditional prosthesis, the scientificity of the design scheme was analyzed. The results show that the design can achieve the desired effect, and the design scheme is feasible.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202007042DOI Listing
June 2021

Cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images strengthens smokers' inhibitory control under smoking-related background in Go/NoGo task.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Education and Human Development, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Road, Jinhua, 321004, Zhejiang, China.

Rationale: Reduced inhibitory control is more pronounced during substance-related cue exposure among addicts. However, it is inconclusive whether smokers' inhibitory control would be impaired by smoking-related background. Furthermore, few studies explored whether the cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images would alleviate the negative effect of smoking-related cues on smokers' inhibitory control.

Objective: Experiment 1 investigated the effect of smoking-related background on inhibitory control in cigarette smokers with a modified Go/NoGo task and experiment 2 explored whether cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images would alleviate the negative effect of smoking-related background on smokers' inhibitory control.

Method: Sixty-two male participants (32 smokers and 30 non-smokers) were recruited in experiment 1 and 51 male smokers were recruited in experiment 2.

Results: Experiment 1 found that compared to neutral background, smokers made more commission errors (i.e., executing a response to a no-go target) under smoking-related background, indicating that smoking-related background has a negative effect on smokers' inhibitory control. Experiment 2 found that after experiencing cigarette-specific disgust, smokers made fewer commission errors at post-mood induction than pre-mood induction, indicating that cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images alleviates the negative effect of smoking-related background on smokers' inhibitory control.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the negative effect of smoking-related cues on smokers' inhibitory control would be alleviated by cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images, which emphasizes the important role of cigarette-specific disgust in strengthening smokers' inhibitory control towards smoking-related cues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-021-05898-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Discovery, Structure-Activity Relationship, and Mechanistic Studies of 1-((3,4)-3-((Dimethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxy-4-(3-methoxyphenyl)piperidin-1-yl)-2-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)ethan-1-one as a Novel Potent Analgesic.

J Med Chem 2021 Jul 21;64(13):9458-9483. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China.

Management of moderate to severe pain relies heavily on opioid analgesics such as morphine, oxycodone, and fentanyl in clinics. However, their prolonged use was associated with undesirable side effects. Many new strategies to reduce side effects have been proposed, but not without disadvantages. Using a hot plate model as a phenotypic screening method, our studies identified (3,4)- with a new scaffold as a potent analgesic with ED values of 0.54 mg/kg and 0.021 mg/kg in hot plate and antiwrithing models, respectively. Mechanistic studies showed that it elicited its analgesic effect via the active metabolite (3,4)-. The mechanism of (3,4)--induced activation of the μ opioid receptor (MOR) was proposed by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00722DOI Listing
July 2021

Loneliness and Mobile Phone Addiction Among Chinese College Students: The Mediating Roles of Boredom Proneness and Self-Control.

Psychol Res Behav Manag 2021 11;14:687-694. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Jinhua Advanced Research Institute, Jinhua, 321004, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Mobile phones bring convenience to people's lives, but also affect their physical and mental health (especially in college students). Previous studies have revealed that mobile phone addiction is positively related to loneliness. This study further explored the mediating effects of boredom proneness and self-control on the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction.

Methods: A cross-sectional design was conducted in the present study. The investigation employed the Chinese version of the UCLA Loneliness Self-report Scale, Boredom Proneness Scale-Short Form, the Chinese version of the Self-control scale, and the Mobile Phone Addiction Index. Out of 1122 college students, 1078 completed the questionnaire survey and became our final subjects. PROCESS macro of SPSS 21 was used to conduct explore the mediating roles of boredom proneness and self-control in the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction.

Results: Loneliness, boredom proneness, and mobile phone addiction were significantly and positively correlated with each other, as well as significantly negatively correlated with self-control. Boredom proneness and self-control, when operating in parallel, partially mediated the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction. By contrast, when occurring sequentially, they fully mediated the relationship between loneliness and mobile phone addiction.

Conclusion: Mobile phone addiction among lonely college students can be eliminated by exercising self-control and alleviating boredom proneness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S315879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206064PMC
June 2021

Discovery of novel N-sulfonamide-tetrahydroisoquinolines as potent retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt agonists.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jun 1;222:113585. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, No. 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai, 201203, China. Electronic address:

Cancer immunotherapy has become a research hotspot in recent years. A variety of targets were developed for small molecule immuno-oncology agents, including retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t (RORγt), chemokine receptor, stimulator of interferon genes (Sting), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), toll-like receptors (TLR), etc. Among them, the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) has gradually attracted more attention in these years. In particular, LYC-55716 (cintirorgon), a small molecule RORγt agonist developed by Lycera, has entered the phase II clinical study. In this work, starting from compound 7, compound 28 was obtained after 4 rounds of compound design, synthesis and SAR studies, which had an EC of 0.021 ± 0.002 μM in dual Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (dual-FRET) assay and an EC of 0.021 ± 0.002 μM in mouse Th17 cell differentiation assay. It indicated that compound 28 had excellent RORγt agonistic activity and was expected to be developed as a new type of small molecule drug for cancer immunotherapy. The molecular dynamic simulation revealed that the agonist 28 formed a strong HYF triplet intramolecular interaction to stabilize H12, which helped RORγt to form the protein-binding site and therefore made the receptor ready to recruit coactivator. When the inverse agonist s27 bound with RORγt, the steric hindrance between s27 and H479 caused the destruction of the HYF triplet, leading to the collapse of H12, thus the transcription function of RORγt was interrupted due to the failure of recruiting a coactivator molecule. The triplet HYF in RORγt and the rigidity of 28 and s27 were identified to be the structural determinants for the functional switch of RORγt.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113585DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy of Electroacupuncture Therapy in Patients With Postherpetic Neuralgia: Study Protocol for a Multicentre, Randomized, Controlled, Assessor-Blinded Trial.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 21;8:624797. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, China.

The efficacy of conventional treatments for treating postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) remains unsatisfactory. Thus, this multicentre, randomized controlled, assessor-blinded trial aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy in patients with PHN. This multicentre randomized controlled trial will enroll 132 patients with PHN from 3 hospitals. All patients will be randomly assigned to either the EA combined with medication group or medication group through a computerized central randomization system in a 1:1 ratio. Outcome measures will be assessed before intervention, at 2, 4, 6 weeks after intervention and at the end of 8-week follow-up. Primary outcomes will be sensory thresholds and pain intensity. Secondary outcomes will include dosage of analgetic, quality of life, anxiety, and depression severity and sleep quality. All adverse effects will be assessed during the trial. This study will provide evidence to ascertain whether EA is effective and safe for treating PHN. Ethics approval (No.ZSLL-KY-2017-025) has been obtained from the Ethics Committee of The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University. Informed consent will be signed prior to subject enrolment. The results will be submitted to international peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. The study protocol has been registered in the clinicaltrials registry with the identification code NCT04594226.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.624797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175774PMC
May 2021

Atypical sulcal pattern in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Chongqing Post-doctoral Research Station of Medical Electronics and Information Technology, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, China.

Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are often accompanied by disrupted cortical folding. We applied a quantitative sulcal pattern analysis technique using graph structures to study the atypical cortical folding at the lobar level in ADHD brains in this study. A total of 183 ADHD patients and 167 typical developmental controls matched according to age and gender were enrolled. We first constructed sulcal graphs at the brain lobar level and then investigated their similarity to the typical sulcal patterns. The within-group variability and interhemispheric similarity in sulcal patterns were also compared between the ADHD and TDC groups. The results showed that, compared with controls, the left frontal, right parietal, and temporal lobes displayed altered similarities to the typical sulcal patterns in patients with ADHD. Moreover, the sulcal patterns in ADHD seem to be more heterogeneous than those in controls. The results also identified the disruption of the typical asymmetric sulcal patterns in the frontal lobe between the ADHD and control groups. Taken together, our results revealed the atypical sulcal pattern in boys with ADHD and provide new insights into the neuroanatomical mechanisms of ADHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25552DOI Listing
May 2021

Smooth muscle cell-specific knockout of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) receptor attenuates intimal hyperplasia via STAT1-KLF4 activation.

Life Sci 2021 May 25:119651. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Intimal hyperplasia is a main contributor to in-stent restenosis. Previous researches have shown that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory factor, plays a pathological role in intimal hyperplasia. However, the specific role and molecular mechanism of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)-derived IFN-γ receptor in intimal hyperplasia remains unknown.

Methods: We examined the distribution of IFN-γ receptor in human restenosis arteries. Then, the role of IFN-γ receptor in intimal hyperplasia was detected using VSMC-specific IFN-γ receptor-knock out carotid ligation injury models. We performed immunostaining, transwell assay and EdU staining to identify the role of IFN-γ in VSMCs proliferation and migration. The effect of IFN-γ on VSMCs phenotype switching was also investigated. Finally, we evaluated whether the mechanism of IFN-γ on intimal hyperplasia is STAT1-KLF4 dependent.

Results: The distribution of IFN-γ receptor in human restenosis arteries with VSMC-rich neointima is eventually upregulated. Specific deletion of IFN-γ receptor exhibits thinner intima and lesser proliferating VSMCs. In vitro, treatment with IFN-γ promotes human aortic VSMC (HAVSMCs) proliferation and migration, whereas specifically knock out IFN-γ receptor results in the opposite effect. Deficiency of IFN-γ receptor regulates VSMCs phenotypic switching, such as upregulated contractile markers and downregulated proliferation markers. Mechanistic studies suggest that ablation of IFN-γ receptor prevents VSMCs proliferation, migration and dedifferentiation via STAT1-KLF4 activation.

Conclusion: These results reveal that knockout of VSMC-derived IFN-γ receptor potentiates neointimal hyperplasia by preventing VSMCs proliferation, migration and dedifferentiation. Our finding implies that targeting IFN-γ-STAT1-KLF4 signaling could provide a new therapeutic strategy to attenuate vessel restenosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119651DOI Listing
May 2021

Ultrastrong magnon-magnon coupling dominated by antiresonant interactions.

Nat Commun 2021 May 25;12(1):3115. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX, USA.

Exotic quantum vacuum phenomena are predicted in cavity quantum electrodynamics systems with ultrastrong light-matter interactions. Their ground states are predicted to be vacuum squeezed states with suppressed quantum fluctuations owing to antiresonant terms in the Hamiltonian. However, such predictions have not been realized because antiresonant interactions are typically negligible compared to resonant interactions in light-matter systems. Here we report an unusual, ultrastrongly coupled matter-matter system of magnons that is analytically described by a unique Hamiltonian in which the relative importance of resonant and antiresonant interactions can be easily tuned and the latter can be made vastly dominant. We found a regime where vacuum Bloch-Siegert shifts, the hallmark of antiresonant interactions, greatly exceed analogous frequency shifts from resonant interactions. Further, we theoretically explored the system's ground state and calculated up to 5.9 dB of quantum fluctuation suppression. These observations demonstrate that magnonic systems provide an ideal platform for exploring exotic quantum vacuum phenomena predicted in ultrastrongly coupled light-matter systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23159-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149649PMC
May 2021

Disruption of endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis exacerbates liver injury in clinically ketotic cows.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Aug 15;104(8):9130-9141. Epub 2021 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun, Jilin Province, 130062, China. Electronic address:

Disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, a condition termed "ER stress," contributes to the development of liver injury in nonruminants. Because liver injury is a prominent pathological feature associated with overproduction of ketone bodies in dairy cows with ketosis, understanding the ER stress state and its functional consequences on liver injury is of particular interest. Here, 30 multiparous cows (within 3 wk postpartum) classified based on blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as healthy (n = 15, BHB <0.6 mM) or clinically ketotic (n = 15, BHB >3.0 mM) were used. Compared with healthy cows, ketotic cows had greater levels of serum fatty acids and activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase but lower serum glucose. Furthermore, dairy cows with ketosis had greater protein abundance of ER stress markers in liver tissue, including protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring protein-1α (IRE1α), and cleaved activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6). Cows with ketosis also had higher mRNA levels of hepatic 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and spliced X-box binding protein 1 (sXBP1). These data confirmed an enhanced ER stress state in clinically ketotic cows. To explore whether enhanced hepatic ER stress was induced by elevated ketone bodies and the possible contribution of ER stress to liver injury, in vitro experiments were then performed using isolated primary calf hepatocytes treated with incremental concentrations of BHB (0, 0.6, 1.2, 3.0, and 4.8 mM) for 12 h with or without overexpression of GRP78 (the master regulator of unfolded protein response). Phosphorylation levels of PERK and IRE1α proteins, level of cleaved ATF6 protein, and mRNA abundance of GRP78 and sXBP1 in hepatocytes increased after treatment with high (3.0 and 4.8 mM) BHB, indicating a mechanistic link between excessive BHB and enhanced hepatic ER stress. Furthermore, treatment with 3.0 and 4.8 mM BHB markedly elevated activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in cell supernatant, indicating exacerbated hepatocyte damage after ER stress was enhanced. Overexpression of GRP78 attenuated both BHB-induced ER stress and the ensuing cellular damage, suggesting that hepatocyte damage caused by excessive BHB can be mediated via enhanced ER stress. Overall, the present study revealed that ER stress may exacerbate liver injury development in clinically ketotic cows, underscoring the biological relevance of this pathway in the context of liver injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2021-20238DOI Listing
August 2021

Propionate alleviates palmitic acid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress by enhancing autophagy in calf hepatic cells.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Aug 15;104(8):9316-9326. Epub 2021 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun 130062, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

Negative energy balance-induced high blood concentrations of free fatty acids during the early postpartum period in dairy cows is a major cause of liver injury. Cows in severe negative energy balance often have suboptimal intakes of feed, which contributes to shortfalls in production of ruminal propionate and circulating glucose. Although increasing propionate production by the rumen through feed additives such as propylene glycol is effective in helping cows alleviate the shortfall in dietary energy supply, mechanisms whereby propionate affects liver function beyond gluconeogenesis are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether propionate could protect calf hepatic cells from palmitic acid (PA)-induced lipotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. Calf hepatic cells were isolated from 5 healthy calves (1 d old, female, 30-40 kg, fasting) and treated with various concentrations of PA (0, 100, 200, or 400 μM) and propionate (0, 1, 2, or 4 mM) after being administered with or without autophagic inhibitor. Propionate enhanced autophagic activity in calf hepatic cells, as indicated by elevated expression of autophagy markers LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II, encoded by MAP1LC3) and decreased expression of SQSTM1 (sequestosome-1, also called p62). Conversely, PA suppressed autophagic activity and decreased cell viability, which was improved by propionate in calf hepatic cells. In addition, propionate decreased the phosphorylation of proteins EIF2AK3 (kinase R/PKR like ER kinase) and ERN1 (inositol-requiring enzyme 1α) and cleaved ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6) in PA-treated calf hepatic cells, indicating the suppression effect of propionate on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, inhibition of autophagic activity by chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 impede the beneficial effects of propionate on ER stress and cell viability. These results demonstrated that propionate alleviates ER stress and elevates cell viability in PA-treated calf hepatic cells by enhancing autophagy, which implies that autophagy may be a promising target in improving liver injury of dairy cows during transition period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19969DOI Listing
August 2021

The efficient enrichment of marine peptides from the protein hydrolysate of the marine worm Urechis unicinctus by using mesoporous materials MCM-41, SBA-15 and CMK-3.

Anal Methods 2021 06 17;13(21):2405-2414. Epub 2021 May 17.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, Liaoning 116023, China.

Peptides found in marine life have various specific activities due to their special growth environment, and there is increasing interest in the isolation and concentration of these biofunctional compounds. In this study, the protein hydrolysate of the marine worm Urechis unicinctus was prepared by enzymolysis and enriched by using mesoporous materials of silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 and carbon CMK-3. The differences in pore structures and elemental composition of these materials lead to differences in surface area and hydrophobicity. The adsorption capacities of peptides were 459.5 mg g, 431.3 mg g, and 626.3 mg g for MCM-41, SBA-15 and CMK-3, respectively. Adsorption kinetics studies showed that the pseudo-second-order model fit the adsorption process better, where both external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion affected the adsorption, while the Langmuir model better fit the adsorption of peptides on MCM-41 and SBA-15 and the Freundlich model was more suitable for CMK-3. Aqueous acetonitrile (ACN, 50/50, v/v) yielded the most extracted peptides. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of the extracted peptides showed that the three mesoporous materials, especially the CMK-3, gave good enrichment results. This study demonstrates the great potential of mesoporous materials in the enrichment of marine biofunctional peptides.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ay00616aDOI Listing
June 2021

Microlattice Metamaterials with Simultaneous Superior Acoustic and Mechanical Energy Absorption.

Small 2021 Jun 13;17(24):e2100336. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117575, Singapore.

The advent of 3D printing brought about the possibilities of microlattice metamaterials as advanced materials with the potentials to surpass the functionalities of traditional materials. Sound absorbing materials which are also tough and lightweight are of particular importance as practical engineering materials. There are however a lack of attempts on the study of metamaterials multifunctional for both purposes. Herein, we present four types of face-centered cubic based plate and truss microlattices as novel metamaterials with simultaneous excellent sound and mechanical energy absorption performance. High sound absorption coefficients nearing 1 and high specific energy absorption of 50.3 J g have been measured. Sound absorption mechanisms of microlattices are proposed to be based on a "cascading resonant cells theory", an extension of the Helmholtz resonance principle that we have conceptualized herein. Characteristics of absorption coefficients are found to be essentially geometry limited by the pore and cavity morphologies. The excellent mechanical properties in turn derive from both the approximate membrane stress state of the plate architecture and the excellent ductility and strength of the base material. Overall, this work presents a new concept on the specific structural design and materials selection for architectured metamaterials with dual sound and mechanical energy absorption capabilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100336DOI Listing
June 2021

A Novel Chemiluminescence Probe for Sensitive Detection of Fibroblast Activation Protein-Alpha In Vitro and in Living Systems.

Anal Chem 2021 04 18;93(16):6501-6507. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bioactive Small Molecules & Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, P. R. China.

Fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAPα) is a key modulator of the microenvironment in multiple pathologies and is becoming the next pan-cancer target for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Chemiluminescence (CL) luminophores are considered as one of the most sensitive families of probes for detection and imaging applications due to their high signal-to-noise ratio. Until now, however, no such effective CL probe was reported for FAPα detection. Herein, we developed a novel CL probe for the detection of endogenous FAPα activity by incorporating FAPα-specific dipeptide substrates (glycine-proline) to the improved Schaap's adamantylidene-dioxetane. In this manner, we designed three CL probes (, , and ) with the dipeptide substrate blocked by N-terminal benzyloxycarbonyl, --butoxycarbonyl or -quinoline-4-carboxylic acid, respectively, which was used as the masking group to restrain the chemiexcitation energy. Probe exhibited the optimal specificity for the discrimination of FAPα from dipeptidase IV and prolyl oligopeptidase, which was elucidated by molecular docking simulation. Upon FAPα cleavage, was turned on for the highly selective and sensitive detection of FAPα with a limit of detection of 0.785 ng/mL. Furthermore, the ability of to image FAPα was effectively demonstrated in vitro, including various biological samples (plasma and tissue preparations), and in living systems (tumor cells and tumor-bearing mice). Furthermore, this newly established probe could be easily extended to evaluate FAPα inhibitors. Overall, we anticipate that probe will offer a facile and cost-effective alternative in the early detection of pathologies, individual tailoring of drug therapy, and drug screening.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00413DOI Listing
April 2021

Scenario for the use of effusion-peritoneal shunt necessary against subdural effusion secondary to decompressive craniectomy.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 11;203:106598. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xia Sha Campus of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310016, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to summarize the surgical strategies for subdural effusion secondary to decompressive craniectomy (SESDC) and discuss the applicable scenarios of effusion-peritoneal shunt (EP shunt).

Methods: A total of 53 consecutive patients with SESDC were screened out of 7569 cases. The SESDC was divided into five types, and the treatment methods of each type were analyzed and compared. According to the implementation strategy of cranioplasty (CP), patients were divided into CP-first and delayed-CP groups. The differences in surgical methods were compared between the two groups.

Results: All patients with SESDC in this cohort had undergone cranioplasty. Subcutaneous puncture and aspiration (SPAA) proved ineffective. Only 2/30 patients in the CP-first group used EP shunt, while 6/19 patients in the delayed-CP group used EP shunt; the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.03). A significant difference was found in the use of EP shunt among type 1, type 2, and type 5 SESDC (χ = 6.778, P = 0.034).

Conclusions: CP combined with other treatments could cure most SESDC. EP shunt should be used preferentially in some specific scenarios in which CP cannot be performed first, rather than as a backup measure that can only be used when other preceding treatments fail.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2021.106598DOI Listing
April 2021

Enhanced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the mammary gland of cows with clinical ketosis.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jun 11;104(6):6909-6918. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun, 130062, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder in high-producing dairy cows during the peripartal period. Negative energy balance leads to increased circulating levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), consequently increasing the risk of ketosis. It is well-known that NEFA and BHB can induce lipotoxicity and oxidative stress in bovine tissues/organs including the liver and adipose tissue. Although the mammary gland is one important site for NEFA and BHB metabolism, whether an overload in their concentrations within mammary cells causes oxidative stress during ketosis remains unclear. Thus, the present study compared oxidative stress status and mitochondrial function in mammary tissues harvested by biopsy from healthy (n = 15) and clinically ketotic (n = 15) dairy cows within 2 to 3 wk postpartum. Compared with healthy cows, ketotic cows had depressed daily milk yield (median: 28.92 vs. 21.56 kg) and dry matter intake (median: 22.36 vs. 19.92 kg/d), accompanied by elevated plasma NEFA (median: 0.32 vs. 1.26 mM), BHB (median: 0.52 vs. 3.69 mM), and lower plasma glucose (median: 4.55 vs. 2.13 mM). As detected by a commercial kit, a greater level of reactive oxygen species in mammary epithelial cells of ketotic cows, and greater oxidant indices including hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde coupled with lower antioxidant indices including glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities as detected by the respective biochemical kits in the homogenate of mammary tissue of ketotic cows indicated increased oxidative stress status. Lower citrate synthase activity and ATP production as detected by the respective commercial kits coupled with lower mRNA and protein abundance of mitochondrial respiratory chain oxidative phosphorylation complexes I-V (CO I-V) in ketotic cows suggested an impairment of mitochondrial function. This was supported by lower mRNA and protein abundance of nucleus-derived mitochondrial function regulators including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 α, mitofusin 2, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A. Lower mitochondrial membrane potential evaluated via the tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) labeling method and swollen mitochondria in mammary epithelial cells of ketotic cows suggested the existence of mitochondrial damage. Overall, the present study revealed extensive mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the mammary gland of clinically ketotic cows. As such, data suggest that reduced milk yield in cows with ketosis is partly due to enhanced oxidative stress along with mitochondrial dysregulation in the mammary gland.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19964DOI Listing
June 2021

Inhibition of cell death inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector c (CIDEC) by tumor necrosis factor-α induces lipolysis and inflammation in calf adipocytes.

J Dairy Sci 2021 May 6;104(5):6134-6145. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Key Laboratory of Zoonoses Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun, Jilin Province 130062, China. Electronic address:

Dairy cows with ketosis exhibit signs of pronounced adipose tissue lipolysis and systemic inflammation, both of which exacerbate this metabolic disorder. In nonruminants, CIDEC plays a pivotal role in the formation of large unilocular lipid droplets. The present study aimed to ascertain the role of CIDEC in the lipolytic and inflammatory response of white adipose tissue (WAT) in vivo and in vitro. Subcutaneous adipose tissue and blood samples were collected from 15 healthy cows (blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration < 1.2 mM) and 15 cows with clinical ketosis (blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration > 3.0 mM) that had a similar number of lactations (median = 3, range = 2-4) and days in milk (median = 6 d, range = 3-9). Adipocytes isolated from 5 healthy Holstein calves (1 d old, female, 30-40 kg) were used for in vitro studies. Isolated adipocytes were treated with 0, 0.1, 1, or 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 3 h, transfected with CIDEC small interfering RNA for 48 h, or transfected with CIDEC overexpression adenovirus for 48 h followed by treatment with TNF-α (0.1 ng/mL) for 3 h. Serum concentrations of fatty acids were greater, and dry matter intake, milk yield, and serum glucose concentrations lower in cows with clinical ketosis. Protein and mRNA abundance of CIDEC were lesser in subcutaneous WAT of clinically ketotic versus healthy cows. Furthermore, the ratio of phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (p-LIPE) to LIPE, phosphorylated RELA (p-RELA) to RELA, and protein abundance of PNPLA2 and phosphorylated inhibitor of κBα (p-NFKBIA) were greater in dairy cows with clinical ketosis. The mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines TNFA and IL1B were greater, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 was lower in WAT of dairy cows with clinical ketosis. In calf adipocytes, exogenous TNF-α (0.1, 1, or 10 ng/mL) decreased protein and mRNA abundance of CIDEC. In addition, exogenous TNF-α or knockdown of CIDEC reduced the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, but increased the ratio of p-LIPE to LIPE, p-RELA to RELA, protein abundance of PNPLA2 and p-NFKBIA, glycerol content, and the secretion of IL-1β in calf adipocytes. Overexpression of CIDEC in TNFα-treated adipocytes attenuated lipolysis and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Overall, these data suggest that inhibition of lipid droplet-associated protein CIDEC by TNF-α contributes to the pronounced lipolysis and inflammation of calf adipocytes, and CIDEC is a relevant target in clinically ketotic cows.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19319DOI Listing
May 2021

Facet Engineering of Pd Nanocrystals for Enhancing Photocatalytic Hydrogenation: Modulation of the Schottky Barrier Height and Enrichment of Surface Reactants.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 17;13(11):13044-13054. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fujian Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Engineering Research Center of Polymer Green Recycling of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, P. R. China.

Metal cocatalyst loading is one of the most widely explored strategies in promoting photocatalytic solar energy conversion. Engineering surface-active facets of metal cocatalyst and exploring how they modulate the reactivity is crucial for the further development of advanced photocatalysts. In this work, through controlled hybridization of two-dimensional (2D) TiO nanosheets with well-designed Pd nanocube (Pd NC) with exposed {100} facet and Pd nano-octahedron (NO) with exposed {111} facet, we unravel the distinct crystal facet effect of Pd cocatalyst in promoting the selective hydrogenation of nitroarenes to amines of TiO photocatalyst. The activity tests show that the Pd NO with {111} facet is a more efficient cocatalyst than the Pd NC with exposed {100} facet. The prepared TiO-Pd NO composite displays a 900% enhancement of photocatalytic hydrogenation rate in comparison with bare TiO, while the TiO-Pd NC sample only shows a 200% photoactivity enhancement. Microscopic mechanism study discloses that the distinctive photoactivity improvement of Pd NO is ascribed to the concurrent modulation of the Schottky barrier height and enrichment of surface reactants: (i) the Pd NO with a lower Fermi level could result in steeper band bending of TiO (i.e., higher Schottky barrier) than the Pd NC, which is more efficient in boosting interfacial separation and inhibiting the recombination of photoexcited charge pairs; and (ii) the {111} facet of Pd has higher nitroarenes adsorption ability and especially stronger hydrogen enrichment capability, thus accelerating the surface hydrogenation process and contributing to a higher reaction rate. This work emphasizes the rational facet control of cocatalysts for enhancing the photocatalytic hydrogenation performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c19260DOI Listing
March 2021

Hepatic autophagy and mitophagy status in dairy cows with subclinical and clinical ketosis.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 5;104(4):4847-4857. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Key Laboratory of Zoonoses Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, 130062, China. Electronic address:

Severe negative energy balance around parturition is an important contributor to ketosis, a metabolic disorder that occurs most frequently in the peripartal period. Autophagy and mitophagy are important processes responsible for breaking down useless or toxic cellular material, and in particular damaged mitochondria. However, the role of autophagy and mitophagy during the occurrence and development of ketosis is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate autophagy and mitophagy in the livers of cows with subclinical ketosis (SCK) and clinical ketosis (CK). We assessed autophagy by measuring the protein abundance of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II; encoded by MAP1LC3) and sequestosome-1 (p62, encoded by SQSTM1), as well as the mRNA abundance of autophagy-related genes 5 (ATG5), 7 (ATG7), and 12 (ATG12), beclin1 (BECN1), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3 (PIK3C3). Mitophagy was evaluated by measuring the protein abundance of the mitophagy upstream regulators PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin. Liver and blood samples were collected from healthy cows [n = 15; blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration <1.2 mM], cows with SCK (n = 15; blood BHB concentration 1.2 to 3.0 mM) and cows with CK (n = 15; blood BHB concentration >3.0 mM with clinical signs) with similar lactation numbers (median = 3, range = 2 to 4) and days in milk (median = 6, range = 3 to 9). The serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was greater in cows with CK than in healthy cows. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide were also higher in liver tissue from ketotic cows (SCK and CK) than from healthy cows. Compared with cows with CK and healthy cows, the hepatic mRNA abundance of MAP1LC3, SQSTM1, ATG5, ATG7, ATG12, and PIK3C3 was upregulated in cows with SCK. Compared with healthy cows, cows with SCK had a lower abundance of p62 and a greater abundance of LC3-II, but levels of both were higher in cows with CK. The mRNA abundance of ATG12 was lower in cows with CK than in healthy cows. Furthermore, the hepatic protein abundance of PINK1 and Parkin was greater in cows with SCK and slightly lower in cows with CK than in healthy cows. These data demonstrated differences in the hepatic activities of autophagy and mitophagy in cows with SCK compared with cows with CK. Although the precise mechanisms for these differences could not be discerned, autophagy and mitophagy seem to be involved in ketosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-19150DOI Listing
April 2021

A Machine Learning-Based Investigation of Gender-Specific Prognosis of Lung Cancers.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jan 22;57(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

College of Computer Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Symbolic Computation and Knowledge Engineering of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.

Background And Objective: Primary lung cancer is a lethal and rapidly-developing cancer type and is one of the most leading causes of cancer deaths.

Materials And Methods: Statistical methods such as Cox regression are usually used to detect the prognosis factors of a disease. This study investigated survival prediction using machine learning algorithms. The clinical data of 28,458 patients with primary lung cancers were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database.

Results: This study indicated that the survival rate of women with primary lung cancer was often higher than that of men ( < 0.001). Seven popular machine learning algorithms were utilized to evaluate one-year, three-year, and five-year survival prediction The two classifiers extreme gradient boosting (XGB) and logistic regression (LR) achieved the best prediction accuracies. The importance variable of the trained XGB models suggested that surgical removal (feature "Surgery") made the largest contribution to the one-year survival prediction models, while the metastatic status (feature "N" stage) of the regional lymph nodes was the most important contributor to three-year and five-year survival prediction. The female patients' three-year prognosis model achieved a prediction accuracy of 0.8297 on the independent future samples, while the male model only achieved the accuracy 0.7329.

Conclusions: This data suggested that male patients may have more complicated factors in lung cancer than females, and it is necessary to develop gender-specific diagnosis and prognosis models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57020099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911834PMC
January 2021

Assessment of Strategies and Epidemiological Characteristics of Tuberculosis in Henan Province, China: Observational Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 01 22;7(1):e24830. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: In 2005, China established an internet-based Tuberculosis Information Management System (TBIMS) to monitor changes in tuberculosis (TB). Many scholars have conducted epidemiological research using TBIMS; however, few studies assessing control strategies have been performed based on this platform data. Henan province is a high TB incidence area in China where, in addition to following the nationwide TB strategies, a series of local intervention combinations have been implemented.

Objective: Our study aims to evaluate the impact of nationwide TB intervention combinations on epidemiological changes and determine whether Henan province can achieve the World Health Organization's (WHO) goal of reducing TB incidence by 50% and TB mortality by 75% by the year 2025.

Methods: We used descriptive statistical methods to show the spatial and temporal distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) reported to the TBIMS database from 2005 to 2018, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors of bacteriological-positive TB. The dynamic compartmental model and Bayesian melding approach was adopted to estimate the burden of TB under the impact of different TB control policies.

Results: In total, 976,526 PTB cases were notified to the TBIMS in Henan in a period of 14 years. Although the overall incidence of PTB declined from 91.4/10 to 58.5/10, and the overall incidence of bacteriological-positive PTB declined from 44.5/10 to 14.7/10, the WHO's 2025 goal could not be met. The distribution of high incidence and poverty-stricken counties were basically overlapped. Men, farmers and herdsmen (in rural areas), and subjects aged ≥60 years were more likely to develop bacteriological-positive PTB. The increasing treatment success for drug-susceptible tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has not provided the desired reduction in incidence and mortality.

Conclusions: To achieve the targeted goal, while improving the cure rate of TB, new active (rather than passive) detection and intervention strategies should be formulated based on epidemiological characteristics in Henan province.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/24830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864773PMC
January 2021

Correction: Enhanced brightness and electron affinity of terrylenediimide with sulfone-bridged substituents on the bay region.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jan;57(6):813

Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei, China. and Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis (Ministry of Education), Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei, China.

Correction for 'Enhanced brightness and electron affinity of terrylenediimide with sulfone-bridged substituents on the bay region' by Yan Zhang et al., Chem. Commun., 2021, DOI: 10.1039/d0cc06956f.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc90010bDOI Listing
January 2021

Enhanced brightness and electron affinity of terrylenediimide with sulfone-bridged substituents on the bay region.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jan;57(5):651-654

Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei, China. and Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis (Ministry of Education), Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei, China.

Terrylenediimide with electron-withdrawing groups (TDI4SF) was synthesized by the attachment of sulfone substituents on the bay region of terrylenediimide. The electron-withdrawing sulfone groups enhance the electron affinity, reduce the LUMO level to -4.37 eV, and endow TDI with excellent anti-oxidation ability. With sulfone substituents, TDI4SF has a red-shifted emission maximum with a peak at 702 nm and high photoluminescence quantum yield.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc06956fDOI Listing
January 2021

Nicotine Dependence, Perceived Behavioral Control, Descriptive Quitting Norms, and Intentions to Quit Smoking among Chinese Male Regular Smokers.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 7;56(1):145-152. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Institute of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang, China.

Background: The association between nicotine dependence and intentions to quit smoking is well established. However, the underlying mechanisms and psychosocial factors that moderate this relationship have not been adequately delineated. Reinforcement theory, social learning theory, the theory of planned behavior, and the focus theory of normative conduct suggest that perceived behavioral control (PBC) over smoking cessation is a central mechanism that underlies the relationship between nicotine dependence and quitting intentions. The present study tested a moderated mediation model to examine the roles of PBC over smoking cessation and social norms, in the relationship between nicotine dependence and quit intentions among male regular smokers. Self-report measures of nicotine dependence, PBC over smoking cessation, descriptive and injunctive quitting norms, and intentions to quit smoking were administered to 204 Chinese male regular smokers. Nicotine dependence was negatively related to quit intentions, and this relationship was mediated by PBC over smoking cessation. Further, the relationship between nicotine dependence and PBC was moderated by descriptive rather than injunctive quitting norms. The negative effects of nicotine dependence on PBC over smoking cessation were not significant among male regular smokers who reported strong descriptive quitting norms. Poor PBC over smoking cessation underlies the negative effects of nicotine dependence, and descriptive quitting norms act as a buffer against the adverse effects of nicotine dependence on PBC over smoking cessation. These findings have implications for smoking cessation interventions for male regular smokers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2020.1846195DOI Listing
June 2021

Potential hemo-biological identification markers to the left displaced abomasum in dairy cows.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Dec 2;16(1):470. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Jilin, 130062, Changchun, China.

Background: Left displaced abomasum (LDA) occurs at high frequency in the early postpartum period and can affect production performance of dairy cows. Clinical diagnosis of LDA is usually done by abdominal auscultation and percussion. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential applicability of blood biomarkers for early warning and diagnosis of LDA in dairy cows.

Results: Twenty early postpartum healthy cows and thirty early postpartum LDA cows of similar parity were used. A receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) method was used to analyze the sensitivity of hematological biomarkers to LDA including energy balance metabolic biomarkers, liver/kidney function biomarkers, and minerals. A cut-off point was defined for each of the selected hematological biomarkers deemed sensitive markers of LDA. Compared with healthy cows, body condition score (BCS), dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were lower in LDA cows. Among energy metabolism markers, serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), insulin (INS), and revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) levels were lower while serum glucagon (GC) was greater in LDA cows. Among the liver/kidney function biomarkers, activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the ratio of AST/ALT and levels of total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin (IBIL), albumin (ALB), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and total protein (TP) were greater in LDA cows. Among minerals analyzed, serum Cl, Ca, and K were lower in LDA cows. After ROC analysis, it was determined that serum Ca, INS, RQUICKI, ALT, GGT, and creatinine are potential indicators for early warning and diagnosis of LDA for early postpartum dairy cows.

Conclusions: Dairy cows with LDA were under severe negative energy balance (NEB), had signs of liver damage and potentially lower insulin sensitivity. A combination of multi-hematological biomarkers including Ca, INS, RQUICKI, ALT, GGT and creatinine has the potential to help identify cows at risk of LDA in the early postpartum period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02676-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709353PMC
December 2020

Comparison of efficacy and safety of two fixed-dose combination regimens for tuberculosis in the Chinese population.

Infez Med 2020 Dec;28(4):565-571

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

To date, there have been few studies on the dosage of fixed-dose combination (FDC) for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two FDC regimens in two provinces with a high tuberculosis burden. A total of 2,353 newly diagnosed active pulmonary TB patients were recruited from Shandong Province (n=1,223) and Jilin Province (n=1,130). Participants received FDC treatment for six months (intensive phase and continuation phase). The difference in the two regimens was the dosage of FDC in the continuation phase. For Shandong Province, the cure rate was 96.4% (370/384). In all, 1,172 patients successfully completed the treatment, the success rate being 95.8% (1,172/1,223). For Jilin Province, the cure rate was 92.5% (345/373): 1,109 patients successfully completed the treatment and the treatment success rate was 98.1% (1,109/1,130). Significant differences were observed in the cure rate (X2=5.382, p=0.020) and the treatment success rate (X2=10.581, p=0.001) between the two provinces. The integral analysis showed that both regimens had similar efficacy, but the regimen of Jilin Province was inferior to that of Shandong Province in terms of safety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
December 2020

The complete chloroplast genome sequences of five pinnate-leaved Primula species and phylogenetic analyses.

Sci Rep 2020 11 27;10(1):20782. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, China.

The six pinnate-leaved species are a very particular group in the genus Primula. In the present paper, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the chloroplast genomes of five of them (P. cicutarrifolia, P. hubeiensis, P. jiugongshanensis, P. merrilliana, P. ranunculoides). The five chloroplast genomes ranged from ~ 150 to 152 kb, containing 113 genes (four ribosomal RNA genes, 29 tRNA genes and 80 protein-coding genes). The six pinnate-leaved species exhibited synteny of gene order and possessed similar IR boundary regions in chloroplast genomes. The gene accD was pseudogenized in P. filchnerae. In the chloroplast genomes of the six pinnate-leaved Primula species, SSRs, repeating sequences and divergence hotspots were identified; ycf1 and trnH-psbA were the most variable markers among CDSs and noncoding sequences, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the six Primula species were separated into two distant clades: one was formed by P. filchnerae and P. sinensis and the other clade was consisting of two subclades, one formed by P. hubeiensis and P. ranunculoides, the other by P. merrilliana, P. cicutarrifolia and P. jiugongshanensis. P. hubeiensis was closely related with P. ranunculoides and therefore it should be placed into Sect. Ranunculoides. P. cicutarrifolia did not group first with P. ranunculoides but with P. merrilliana, although the former two were once united in one species, our results supported the separation of P. ranunculoides from P. cicutarrifolia as one distinct species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77661-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699626PMC
November 2020