Publications by authors named "Xinru Zhou"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HucMSC exosome-delivered 14-3-3ζ alleviates ultraviolet radiation-induced photodamage via SIRT1 pathway modulation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 21;13(8):11542-11563. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine of Jiangsu Province, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC-ex) are nano-sized membrane-bound vesicles that have been reported to facilitate skin regeneration and repair. However, the roles played by hucMSC-ex in ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin photodamage and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To investigate the functions of hucMSC-ex in a rat model of acute skin photodamage, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot, and gene silencing assays were performed. We found that the subcutaneous injection of hucMSC-ex elicited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects against UV radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. Further studies showed that the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression level in skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) decreased in a time- and dose-dependent manner under UV radiation induced-oxidative stress conditions, which could be reversed by treatment with hucMSC-ex. The activation of SIRT1 significantly attenuated UV- and HO-induced cytotoxic damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and promoting the activation of autophagy. Our study found that 14-3-3ζ protein, which was delivered by hucMSC-ex, exerted a cytoprotective function via the modulation of a SIRT1-dependent antioxidant pathway. Collectively, our findings indicated that hucMSC-ex might represent a new potential agent for preventing or treating UV radiation-induced skin photodamage and aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202851DOI Listing
April 2021

Extracellular Vesicles: Novel Roles in Neurological Disorders.

Stem Cells Int 2021 17;2021:6640836. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medicine of Jiangsu Province, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, 212013 Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by almost all cells, which have been recognized as a novel platform for intercellular communication in the central nervous system (CNS). Exosomes are capable of transferring proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and metabolites between neurons and glial cells, contributing to CNS development and maintenance of homeostasis. Evidence shows that exosomes originating from CNS cells act as suppressors or promoters in the initiation and progression of neurological disorders. Moreover, these exosomes have been shown to transfer molecules associated with diseases through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and thus can be detected in blood. This unique feature enables exosomes to act as potential diagnostic biomarkers for neurological disorders. In addition, a substantial number of researches have indicated that exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have repair effects on neurological disorders. Herein, we briefly introduce the roles of exosomes under physiological and pathological conditions. In particular, novel roles of exosomes as potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic tools for neurological disorders are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6640836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904361PMC
February 2021

Shikonin inhibits migration and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition via miR-17-5p/PTEN/Akt pathway.

J Cancer 2021 1;12(1):76-88. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic Medicine, Hangzhou Medical College, No.481 Binwen Road, Hangzhou 310053, People's Republic of China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a great threat to global women's health due to its high metastatic potential. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered as a key event in the process of metastasis. So the pharmacological targeting of EMT might be a promising strategy in improving the therapeutic efficacy of TNBC. Here, we investigated the effect of shikonin exerting on EMT and consequently the metastasis of TNBC cells and its underlying mechanism. The invasive and migratory capacities of MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells were tested using transwell invasion and wound healing assay. MiR-17-5p expression was examined by qRT-PCR. MiR-17-5p targeted genes were predicted with different bioinformatic algorithms from four databases (TargetScan, miRanda, PITA and picTar) and further screened by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. The differential expressions of predicted genes and their correlations with miR-17-5p were identified in breast cancer patients based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The interaction between phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and miR-17-5p was analyzed by luciferase reporter assay. The overexpression vector and small interfering RNA were constructed to investigate the role PTEN played in metastasis and EMT regulation. The expressions of EMT markers, protein kinase B (Akt) and phospho-Akt (p-Akt) were evaluated by western blot. Shikonin suppressed the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells and meanwhile the corresponding alterations of EMT biomarkers were observed in shikonin treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Shikonin inhibited the expression of miR-17-5p, which was upregulated in breast cancer. The 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of PTEN was found to be direct binding target of miR-17-5p by luciferase reporter assays. PTEN functioned as a suppressor both in the metastasis and EMT of TNBC cells. Moreover, Akt and p-Akt (Ser473) were involved in the process of inhibition in cancer cell migration, invasion and EMT by shikonin. Shikonin inhibits migration and invasion of TNBC cells by suppressing EMT via miR-17-5p/PTEN/Akt pathway. This suggests shikonin as a promising therapeutic agent to counteract metastasis in the TNBC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.47553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738816PMC
January 2021

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell exosomes alleviate sepsis-associated acute kidney injury via regulating microRNA-146b expression.

Biotechnol Lett 2020 Apr 11;42(4):669-679. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Zhenjiang Key Laboratory of High Technology Research on Exosomes Foundation and Transformation Application, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, 301 Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (HucMSC-Ex) are a promising tool for the repair of acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by cisplatin and ischemia/reperfusion. However, the roles of hucMSC-Ex in sepsis-associated AKI repair and its mechanism are largely unknown. Hence, we constructed a sepsis model through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), testing the benefits of hucMSC-Ex in the sepsis in terms of survival rate, serum renal markers levels, morphological changes and apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry staining and immunofluorescence assay were used to investigate the role of NF-κB activity in the repair of sepsis-associated AKI with hucMSC-Ex. HK-2 cells were transfected with microRNA-146b (miR-146b) mimics and inhibitors, respectively, and the regulatory effect of miR-146b on NF-κB activity was studied. We found that hucMSC-Ex treatment significantly decreased the serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, ameliorated the morphological damage and inhibited renal tubular cells apoptosis. More importantly, the survival rate at 72 h was 28% in CLP group and 45% in hucMSC-Ex group, respectively. Treatment with hucMSC-Ex improved survival in mice with sepsis. These effects of hucMSC-Ex were mediated by the inhibition of NF-κB activity and the lessening of pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, hucMSC-Ex significantly increased miR-146b expression in kidney tissues. Conversely, interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK1) level, which is the target gene of miR-146b, clearly decreased in hucMSC-Ex group. In brief, this study showed that treatment with hucMSC-Ex decreased IRAK1 expression through the up-regulation of miR-146b level, led to the inhibition of NF-κB activity, and eventually alleviated sepsis-associated AKI and improved survival in mice with sepsis. HucMSC-Ex may be a novel therapeutic agent for the reduction of sepsis-associated AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-020-02831-2DOI Listing
April 2020

Application of stem cells and chitosan in the repair of spinal cord injury.

Int J Dev Neurosci 2019 Aug 11;76:80-85. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Zhenjiang Key Laboratory of High Technology Research on Exosomes Foundation and Transformation Application, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Cytology and histology obstacles have been the main barriers to multiple tissues injury repair. In search of the most promising treatment strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI), stem cell-based transplantation coupled with various materials/technologies have been explored extensively to enhance SCI repair. Chitosan (CS) has demonstrated immense potential for widespread application in the form of scaffolds and micro-particles for SCI repair. The current review summarizes the evidences for stem cell-based transplantation and CS in SCI repair. Stem cells transplantation, which plays a key role in the repair of SCI, mainly results from its neural differentiation potential and neurotrophic effects. Application of CS enhances the survival of grafted stem cells, upregulates the expression level of neurotrophic factors and heightens the neural differentiation of stem cells as well as the functional recovery of spinal cord. Meanwhile, CS can also be exploited as growth factors/RNA carriers to control the release of regenerating molecules which are beneficial to damage spinal cord repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2019.07.005DOI Listing
August 2019

Stoichiometric modeling of aboveground-belowground interaction of herbaceous plant.

Math Biosci Eng 2018 12;16(1):25-55

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun, Jilin, 130024, China.

Grassland ecosystems are the most widely distributed terrestrial ecosystems of the world. Many studies focus on aboveground grassland, but the belowground grassland is less explored because of the difficulty of sampling. Furthermore, the above-and-below ground biomass allocation mechanism of herbs is still disputed between the isometric growth hypothesis and the optimal partitioning hypothesis. In this study, a regrowth dynamic model, based on nutrient dynamics and stoichiometry, is proposed and analyzed to investigate the interaction between the aboveground and belowground herbaceous plants. The global dynamics of the belowground and aboveground biomass is well analyzed. Numerical simulations conclude that the herbaceous plant's biomass allocation mechanism for the aboveground and the belowground is in conformity with optimal partitioning at the beginning of growth, when the environment changes, it conforms to the constraints of isometric growth. Moreover, the dynamics of the model agree well with experimental data, which reveals that the model can express the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass. Finally, a regrowth-herbivore model is established to explore the effects of nutrition and light intensity on the dynamics of plant and herbivore biomass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2019002DOI Listing
December 2018

TGF-β1 promotes colorectal cancer immune escape by elevating B7-H3 and B7-H4 via the miR-155/miR-143 axis.

Oncotarget 2016 10;7(41):67196-67211

Jiangsu Institute of Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) suppresses T cell function, promoting tumor immune escape. Yet, whether the depression of TGF-β1 on T cell function is mediated by co-inhibitory molecules B7-H3 and B7-H4 remains largely unclear. Here, we demonstrated that TGF-β1 elevated the expression of miR-155 in colorectal cancer cells through SMAD3 and SMAD4. The upregulated miR-155 attenuated miR-143 by inhibiting its direct target, the transcription factor CEBPB. Consequently, the direct target genes of miR-143, B7-H3 and B7-H4, were augmented in the cytoplasm and membrane of tumor cells. Over-expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 in HCT-116 cells induced T cells to secrete TGF-β1 and the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17. Restoration of miR-143 inhibited the growth of HCT-116 xenograft tumors in mice, and also repressed the expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 in the tumors. Thus, this study reveals the mechanism by which TGF-β1 leads to T cell-mediated tumor evasion through an increase in B7-H3 and B7-H4 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341868PMC
October 2016

Transcriptome profiling of the spl5 mutant reveals that SPL5 has a negative role in the biosynthesis of serotonin for rice disease resistance.

Rice (N Y) 2015 30;8:18. Epub 2015 May 30.

College of Chemistry & Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, 321004 China.

Background: Rice mutant, spl5 (spotted leaf 5), has spontaneous hypersensitive-like lesions on its leaves and shows enhanced resistance to pathogens, indicating that SPL5 plays a role in programmed cell death (PCD) and disease resistance. To understand the molecular mechanism of SPL5 gene, we investigated the transcriptome profiles of the spl5 mutant leaves with few lesions (FL) and leaves with many lesions (ML) compared to the wild-type (WT) leaves respectively by microarray.

Results: The data from microarray revealed that 243 and 896 candidate genes (Fold change ≥ 3.0) were up- or down-regulated in the spl5-FL and spl5-ML, respectively, and a large number of these genes involved in biotic defense responses or reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Interestingly, according to our microarray and real-time PCR assays, the expressions of a transcription factor OsWRKY14 and genes responsible for the biosynthesis of serotonin, anthranilate synthase (AS), indole-3-glycerolphosphate synthase (IGPS), tryptophan synthase (TS) and tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC) were significantly up-regulated in the spl5 mutant. It has been reported previously that TS and TDC expressions are regulated by OsWRKY14 in rice, which raises the possibility that OsWRKY14 regulates serotonin production through the up-regulation of TS and TDC. Our HPLC analysis further confirmed that serotonin levels were higher in the leaves of spl5 mutant than that in WT.

Conclusions: Since the serotonin plays a critical role in inducing disease-resistance, the increased serotonin level may contribute, at least partly, to the disease resistance in spl5. The SPL5 gene may act as a negative regulatory factor activating the serotonin metabolic pathway, and these results might provide a new insight into the spl5-induced defense response mechanisms in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-015-0052-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449350PMC
June 2015

The polymorphic terminal-loop of pre-miR-1307 binding with MBNL1 contributes to colorectal carcinogenesis via interference with Dicer1 recruitment.

Carcinogenesis 2015 Aug 14;36(8):867-75. Epub 2015 May 14.

Center of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China, Department of Oncology and Department of Clinical Laboratory, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Wuxi 214062, China, Department of Gastroenterology and Jiangsu Institute of Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China and Department of Pharmacy, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Nanjing 210000, China

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. Studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA genes (miRSNPs) are involved in the occurrence of cancers. However, the relationship between the miRSNPs within the terminal-loops of microRNA precursors and the development of CRC is still largely unknown. In this study, we found that a miRSNP rs7911488 T>C in the terminal-loop of pre-miR-1307 was significantly associated with the occurrence of CRC. The C allele of rs7911488 is more prevalent in CRC patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001), and this C allele prevalence is related to low level of miR-1307 expression. A RNA-binding protein MBNL1 binds with a 'UGCUGC' motif in the terminal-loop of the C-allelic pre-miR-1307 and blocks Dicer processing, resulting in downregulation of miR-1307 expression. Consequently, the antiapoptosis protein Bcl2, which is a direct target of miR-1307, is overexpressed in CRC. Furthermore, MBNL1 participates in processing of both C-allelic and T-allelic pre-miR-1307. In summary, our results show that rs7911488 C-allelic pre-miR-1307 binds to MBNL1 and infers with Dicer processing, leading to reduced miR-1307 and increased Bcl2 expression, thus representing an important process in the initiation of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgv066DOI Listing
August 2015

Five functional polymorphisms of B7/CD28 co-signaling molecules alter susceptibility to colorectal cancer.

Cell Immunol 2015 Jan 6;293(1):41-8. Epub 2014 Dec 6.

Jiangsu Institute of Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China.

Polymorphisms within the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of genes have been proved to contribute to the risk of cancers. Here, we determined 16 putatively functional polymorphisms in the 3'-UTR of 11 B7/CD28 genes in 382 colorectal cancer patients and 714 healthy controls. Statistical analysis revealed that ICOS rs4404254-C-allele carriers (p=0.0014), rs1559931-A-allele carriers (p=0.0027), and rs4675379-C-allele carriers (p=0.026) were significantly fewer in patients than those in controls. B7-H4-rs13505-GG homozygotes were more prevalent in patients (p=0.03). CD80-rs7628626-GT was apparently less in the patients with lymph node metastasis (p=0.004) or in advanced stage (p=0.037). Furthermore, we found that these polymorphisms impacted the regulatory role of miR-21-3p, miR-186-5p, miR-323b-5p, miR-1207-5p, miR-1279, miR-2117, and miR-3692-3p in the expression of the B7/CD28 molecules. Our findings suggest that rs7628626, rs13505, rs4404254, rs1559931, and rs4675379, through disrupting the regulatory role of miRNAs in the expression of B7/CD28 molecules, contribute to the occurrence and progress of colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2014.11.006DOI Listing
January 2015

A functional variant at miR-132-3p, miR-212-3p, and miR-361-5p binding site in CD80 gene alters susceptibility to gastric cancer in a Chinese Han population.

Med Oncol 2014 Aug 1;31(8):60. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Department of Oncology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Wuxi, 214062, China.

A number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the 3'-UTR of genes have been shown to relate to the occurrence of cancers. In this study, by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length analysis method, we determined an SNP rs1599795 in the 3'-UTR of CD80 gene in 183 gastric cancer patients and 348 healthy controls. Statistical analysis results showed that SNP rs1599795 genotypes were significantly correlated with the risk of gastric cancer. Compared with the AA homozygotes, the TA heterozygotes were significantly more prevalent in the patients (OR 1.44, 95 % CI 0.98-2.11) with a larger tumor size (P = 0.001), deeper infiltration (P = 1.5 × 10(-5)), higher possibility of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003), and more in the late stage (TNM stage III and IV; P = 0.003); the TT homozygotes had larger tumor size (P = 0.001) and lower degree of differentiation (P = 2.2 × 10(-4)). Dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-132-3p, miR-212-3p, and miR-361-5p inhibited the expression of CD80 through binding with the CD80 3'-UTR, and this inhibitory role of miR-132-3p, miR-212-3p, and miR-361-5p was impacted by rs1599795. Our findings have shown that the SNP rs1599795 in CD80 3'-UTR, through disrupting the regulatory role of miR-132-3p, miR-212-3p, and miR-361-5p in CD80 expression, contributed to the occurrence of gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-014-0060-2DOI Listing
August 2014