Publications by authors named "Xinru Zhang"

42 Publications

Small cell lung cancer transformation during antitumor therapies: A systematic review.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 11;16(1):1160-1167. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Pharmacy, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, No.218 Ziqiang Street, Nanguan District, Changchun, Jilin, 130041, China.

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are the two major histological categories of lung cancers. Drug resistance is a great challenge for cancer treatment, and histological transformation from NSCLC to SCLC is one of the mechanisms underlying drug resistance in NSCLC patients. SCLC-transformed patients show combined characteristics of NSCLC and SCLC; however, they lack timely diagnoses and effective treatment strategies. Thus, we reviewed the clinical characteristics of SCLC transformation patients with a literature search to enhance clinical consciousness, diagnosis, and personalized treatment for patients with it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2021-0321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8359904PMC
August 2021

Polyhexamethylene guanidine aerosol triggers pulmonary fibrosis concomitant with elevated surface tension via inhibiting pulmonary surfactant.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 13;420:126642. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Environmental chemicals inhalation exposure could induce pulmonary fibrosis, which is characterized by the excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and accumulation of extracellular matrix components, in which surface tension usually plays vital roles. Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) was first recognized as a potential hazard ingredient in humidifier disinfectants, which caused an outbreak of pulmonary fibrosis in South Korea. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in PHMG-induced pulmonary fibrosis have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study mainly focuses on the effect of PHMG on surface tension to unveil the influence and involved mechanisms in PHMG-induced pulmonary fibrosis. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to sub-acute PHMG aerosol for 8 weeks. The results indicated that PHMG induced pulmonary fibrosis combined with elevated surface tension. Results from in vitro study further confirmed PHMG elevated surface tension by inhibited pulmonary surfactant. Mechanistically, PHMG suppressed the key surfactant protein SP-B and SP-C by inhibiting protein expression and block their active sites. The present study, for the first time, revealed the molecular mechanism of PHMG-induced pulmonary fibrosis based on pulmonary surfactant inhibition mediated surface tension elevated. And pulmonary surfactant may be a potential target for further intervention to prevent PHMG-induced fibrosis or alleviate the symptom of relevant patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126642DOI Listing
July 2021

Indole-Terpenoids With Anti-inflammatory Activities From sp. HFF16 Associated With the Rhizosphere Soil of Decne.

Front Microbiol 2021 9;12:710364. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agriculture University, Tai'an, China.

Four new indole-terpenoids named encindolene A, 18--methyl-encindolene A, encindolene B, and encindolene C, as well as three known analogs , were isolated from the fungus sp. HFF16 from the rhizosphere soil of Decne. The structures of compounds including absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity evaluation revealed that compounds inhibit the production of nitric oxide with IC values of 79.4, 49.7, 81.3, 40.2, 86.7, 90.1, and 54.4 μM, respectively, and decrease the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 contents in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.710364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302409PMC
July 2021

Curriculum Innovation in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Thinking-Based Instruction Theory and Its Application.

Front Psychol 2021 12;12:601607. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Key Laboratory of Modern Teaching Technology (Ministry of Education), Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

At the beginning of 2020, to stop the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to the campus, the Ministry of Education of China launched a policy "Suspension of classes without suspending schooling" for the spring semester of 2020. However, the drawbacks of online teaching (e.g., students' inadequate autonomous learning, the lack of effective online instruction) forced us to modify teaching strategies during this special period, especially developing courses that are suitable for student learning at home and improving their key competencies. In order to solve these problems, this study introduces some theoretical exploration and practical work of curriculum design under the guidance of thinking-based instruction theory (TBIT) during the pandemic. We firstly introduce TBIT, and elaborate on the curriculum design under the TBIT theoretical frame. Then we describe a series of TBIT-based micro-courses with the pandemic as background. A descriptive study is reported to illustrate the effects of three micro-courses. Results showed that, compared to national curricula, the TBIT-based micro-courses not only improved the course quality but also enhanced students' motivation and facilitated their online learning behavior (such as interactive communication) for the online courses. The current study has important implications for how to design effective and interesting online courses suitable under pandemic and capable of improving students' thinking abilities and key competencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.601607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071859PMC
April 2021

Multistage Defense System Activated by Tetrachlorobiphenyl and its Hydroxylated and Methoxylated Derivatives in .

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 22;55(8):4889-4898. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.

Crops can initiate various defense responses to environmental stresses. The process is often accompanied by extensive transcriptional and metabolic changes to reallocate metabolites. However, it remains unclear how organic pollutants activate the defense systems to reallocate metabolites in crops. The current study demonstrates that three defense systems, including the cytochrome P450s (CYP450s), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, were sequentially activated after was exposed to 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobipheny l (PCB 61) and its derivatives 4'-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (OH-PCB 61) and 4'-methoxy-2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (MeO-PCB 61), respectively. Genes encoding CYP76Ms and CYP72As were significantly upregulated after 0.5 h of exposure, followed by the GST-coding gene , suggesting that the biotransformation and detoxification of PCB 61, OH-PCB 61, and MeO-PCB 61 occurred. Subsequently, and involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were activated after 12 h, potentially reducing the oxidative stress induced by PCB 61 and its derivatives. Furthermore, β-d-glucan exohydrolase involved in both phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and starch and sucrose metabolism was significantly downregulated by 7.04-fold in the OH-PCB 61-treated group, potentially contributing to the inhibition of sugar hydrolysis. These findings provide insights into increasing rice adaptability to organic pollutants by reinforcing the enzyme-mediated defense systems, characterizing a novel and critical strategy that enables augmented crop outputs and quality in environments stressed by organic contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08265DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of Gene Polymorphisms and Amlodipine-Induced Peripheral Edema in Chinese Han Patients with Essential Hypertension.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2021 2;14:189-197. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Amlodipine is one of the most used members of calcium channel blockers (CCB), available to treat hypertension. It is mainly metabolized by the Cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5) in the liver. Peripheral edema emerges as the major adverse drug reaction to amlodipine and is the primary reason for discontinuation of amlodipine therapy. However, genetic changes in may lead to changes in the tolerability of amlodipine.

Purpose: In this study, we were interested whether variants in CYP3A5 have a role to play in amlodipine-induced peripheral edema.

Methods: A total number of 240 Chinese Han patients that have experienced hypertension were included in the study. Sixty-four patients had experienced amlodipine-induced peripheral edema, while the remaining 176 patients with no history of edema formed the control group. Twenty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of gene were sequenced by targeted region sequencing method. The relationship of these genetic variants with amlodipine-induced peripheral edema risk was assessed using logistic regression.

Results: The allele frequencies of (rs15524), (rs4646453) and (rs776746) were significantly different between cases and controls (<0.05). The (CC) or (AA) carriers showed an increased risk of amlodipine-induced peripheral edema in dominant model. Meanwhile, patients carrying (AC/AA) showed a reduced risk of peripheral edema. Furthermore, we found a strong linkage disequilibrium among rs15524, rs4646453 and rs776746.

Conclusion: Our study reveals for the first time that and were associated with amlodipine-induced peripheral edema in Chinese Han patients with hypertension. However, further studies comprising larger number of samples, more related genes and other factors are wanted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PGPM.S291277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866951PMC
February 2021

BCI-Based Rehabilitation on the Stroke in Sequela Stage.

Neural Plast 2020 13;2020:8882764. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Institute for Neural Computation and Institute of Engineering in Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Stroke is the leading cause of serious and long-term disability worldwide. Survivors may recover some motor functions after rehabilitation therapy. However, many stroke patients missed the best time period for recovery and entered into the sequela stage of chronic stroke.

Method: Studies have shown that motor imagery- (MI-) based brain-computer interface (BCI) has a positive effect on poststroke rehabilitation. This study used both virtual limbs and functional electrical stimulation (FES) as feedback to provide patients with a closed-loop sensorimotor integration for motor rehabilitation. An MI-based BCI system acquired, analyzed, and classified motor attempts from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The FES system would be activated if the BCI detected that the user was imagining wrist dorsiflexion on the instructed side of the body. Sixteen stroke patients in the sequela stage were randomly assigned to a BCI group and a control group. All of them participated in rehabilitation training for four weeks and were assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) of motor function.

Results: The average improvement score of the BCI group was 3.5, which was higher than that of the control group (0.9). The active EEG patterns of the four patients in the BCI group whose FMA scores increased gradually became centralized and shifted to sensorimotor areas and premotor areas throughout the study.

Conclusions: Study results showed evidence that patients in the BCI group achieved larger functional improvements than those in the control group and that the BCI-FES system is effective in restoring motor function to upper extremities in stroke patients. This study provides a more autonomous approach than traditional treatments used in stroke rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8882764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7752268PMC
December 2020

Analyzing microalgal biofilm structures formed under different light conditions by evaluating cell-cell interactions.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Feb 25;583:563-570. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Energy Saving and Emission Reduction of Metallurgical Industry, Beijing 100083, China.

Biofilm structure plays an important role in microalgae biofilm-based culture. This work aims to understand microalgal biofilm structures formed under different light conditions. Here, Scenedesmus obliquus was biofilm cultured under the light spectra of white, blue, green, and red, and the photoperiods of 5:5 s, 30:30 min, and 12:12 h (light : dark period). Biofilms were observed with confocal laser scanning microscopes and profilometry, then the porosity and roughness of biofilm were determined. We found that cells under white light formed a heterogeneous biofilm with many voids, high porosity, and roughness. While under red and blue lights, cells formed homogeneous biofilms with low porosity. Biofilm structures formed under different photoperiods were different. The mechanism of forming different biofilm structures under different light conditions was interpreted from the aspect of cell-cell interactions. Moreover, the results revealed that biomass accumulation increased with the increasing biofilm porosity due to the high effective diffusion coefficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.09.057DOI Listing
February 2021

Intractable Ocular Diseases and Treatment Progress.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2020 Aug 14;21(6):236. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, No.639, Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, 211198, People's Republic of China.

In recent years, with the aging of the population and the frequent use of electronic devices, many eye diseases have shown a linear upward trend, such as dry eye disease, glaucoma, cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. These diseases are often chronic and difficult to cure. Based on the structure and barrier of the human eye, this review describes the pathogenesis and treatments of several intractable eye diseases and summarizes the advanced ocular drug delivery systems to provide new treatment ideas for these diseases. Finally, we also look forward to the prospect of RNAi therapy in the treatment of eye diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-020-01774-1DOI Listing
August 2020

Progress on ocular siRNA gene-silencing therapy and drug delivery systems.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2021 Feb 8;35(1):4-24. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, No.639, Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, 211198, People's Republic of China.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma are global ocular diseases with high blindness rate. RNA interference (RNAi) is being increasingly used in the treatment of these disorders with siRNA drugs, bevasiranib, AGN211745 and PF-04523655 for AMD, and SYL040012 and QPI-1007 for glaucoma. Administration routes and vectors of gene drugs affect their therapeutic effect. Compared with the non-viral vectors, viral vectors have limited payload capacity and potential immunogenicity. This review summarizes the progress of the ocular siRNA gene-silencing therapy by focusing on siRNA drugs for AMD and glaucoma already used in clinical research, the main routes of drug delivery and the non-viral vectors for siRNA drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12561DOI Listing
February 2021

Cell Surface Energy Affects the Structure of Microalgal Biofilm.

Langmuir 2020 03 20;36(12):3057-3063. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Microalgae biofilm-based culture systems have wide applications in environmental engineering and biotechnology. Biofilm structure is critical for the transport of nutrients, gas, and signaling molecules in a microalgal biofilm. This work aims to understand the influence of cell surface energy (SE) on the microalgal biofilm structure. Three microalgae species were used as model cells in the study: sp., , and . First, by mediating biofilm culture conditions, we obtained sp. cells with SEs of 40.4 ± 1.5, 44.7 ± 1.0, and 62. 7 ± 1.2 mJ/m, cells with SEs of 47.7 ± 0.5, 41.1 ± 1.0, and 62.6 ± 1.2 mJ/m, and cells with SEs of 64.0 ± 0.6, 62.1 ± 0.7, and 62.8 ± 0.6 mJ/m. Then, based on the characterizations of biofilm structures, we found that cell SE can significantly affect the microalgae biofilm structure. When the cell SEs ranged from 40 to 50 mJ/m, the microalgae cells formed heterogeneous biofilms with a large number of open voids, and the biofilm porosity was higher than 20%. Alternatively, when the cell SEs ranged from 50 to 65 mJ/m, the cells formed a flat, homogeneous biofilm with the porosity lower than 20%. Finally, the influencing mechanism of cell SE on biofilm structure was interpreted based on the thermodynamic theory via analyzing the co-adhesion energy between cells. The study has important implications in understanding factors that influence the biofilm structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00274DOI Listing
March 2020

Folate receptor-targeted RNAi nanoparticles for silencing STAT3 in tumor-associated macrophages and tumor cells.

Nanomedicine 2020 04 18;25:102173. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, PR China.

We developed a STAT3 silencing siRNA to both tumor cells and M2 macrophages. The dual-targeting system prepared by electronic self-assembly was composed of folic acid-conjugated carboxymethyl chitosan for targeting and cationic chitosan derivatives for siRNA package. The effects of siRNA delivery was investigated in M2 macrophages and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC). Due to the enhanced delivery efficiency, the dual-targeting delivery system exhibited a higher efficacy compared with non-targeting nanoparticles, resulting in a dramatically reduction of STAT3 expression in both cells, and a successful shift from M2 phenotypes (pro-tumor) to M1 phenotypes (anti-tumor) for macrophages. Additionally, the influence of the nanoparticles on LLC cells co-cultured with M2 macrophages was also investigated. The increased apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation of LLC cells were observed. In vivo therapeutic effect was also evaluated in s.c. tumor models, tumor growth was effectively inhibited and the level of M2 macrophages in tumor tissues was dramatically reduced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2020.102173DOI Listing
April 2020

Complete genome sequence and genome-scale metabolic modelling of Acinetobacter baumannii type strain ATCC 19606.

Int J Med Microbiol 2020 Apr 5;310(3):151412. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Infection & Immunity Program and Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3800, Australia. Electronic address:

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is a critical threat to global health. The type strain ATCC 19606 has been widely used in studying the virulence, pathogenesis and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii. However, the lack of a complete genome sequence is a hindrance towards detailed bioinformatic studies. Here we report the generation of a complete genome for ATCC 19606 using PacBio sequencing. ATCC 19606 genome consists of a 3,980,848-bp chromosome and a 9,450-bp plasmid pMAC, and harbours a chromosomal dihydropteroate synthase gene sul2 conferring resistance to sulphonamides and a plasmid-borne ohr gene conferring resistance to peroxides. The genome also contains 69 virulence genes involved in surface adherence, biofilm formation, extracellular phospholipase, iron uptake, immune evasion and quorum sensing. Insertion sequences ISCR2 and ISAba11 are embedded in a 36.1-Kb genomic island, suggesting an IS-mediated large-scale DNA recombination. Furthermore, a genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) iATCC19606v2 was constructed using the complete genome annotation. The model iATCC19606v2 incorporated a periplasmic compartment, 1,422 metabolites, 2,114 reactions and 1,009 genes, and a set of protein crowding constraints taking into account enzyme abundance limitation. The prediction of bacterial growth on 190 carbon and 95 nitrogen sources achieved a high accuracy of 85.6% compared to Biolog experiment results. Based upon two transposon mutant libraries of AB5075 and ATCC 17978, the predictions of essential genes reached the accuracy of 87.6% and 82.1%, respectively. Together, the complete genome sequence and high-quality GSMM iATCC19606v2 provide valuable tools for antimicrobial systems pharmacological investigations on A. baumannii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2020.151412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263877PMC
April 2020

Anisotropic Thermally Conductive Perfluoroalkoxy Composite with Low Dielectric Constant Fabricated by Aligning Boron Nitride Nanosheets via Hot Pressing.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Oct 10;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 10.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083, China.

Thermal management has become a critical challenge in electronics and portable devices. To address this issue, polymer composites with high thermal conductivity (TC) and low dielectric property are urgently needed. In this work, we fabricated perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) composite with high anisotropic TC and low dielectric constant by aligning boron nitride nanosheets (BNNs) via hot pressing. We characterized the thermal stability, microstructure, in-plane and through-plane TCs, heat dissipation capability, and dielectric property of the composites. The results indicate that the BNNs-PFA composites possessed good thermal stability. When the BNNs content was higher than 10 wt %, the BNNs were well layer aligned in the PFA matrix, and the composites showed obvious anisotropic TC. The in-plane TC and through-plane TCs of 30 wt % BNNs-PFA composite were 4.65 and 1.94 W m K, respectively. By using the composite in thermal management of high-power LED, we found that alignment of BNNs in composite significantly improves the heat dissipation capability of composite. In addition, the composites exhibited a low dielectric property. This study shows that hot pressing is a facile and low-cost method to fabricate bulk composite with anisotropic TC, which has wide applications in electronic packaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11101638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6835865PMC
October 2019

Graphene-Perfluoroalkoxy Nanocomposite with High Through-Plane Thermal Conductivity Fabricated by Hot-Pressing.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 Sep 15;9(9). Epub 2019 Sep 15.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

With the rapid development of electronics and portable devices, polymer nanocomposites with high through-plane thermal conductivity (TC) are urgently needed. In this work, we fabricated graphene nanosheets-perfluoroalkoxy (GNs-PFA) composite sheets with high through-plane TCs via hot-pressing followed by mechanical machining. When the GNs content exceeded 10 wt%, GNs were vertically aligned in the PFA matrix, and the through-plane TCs of nanocomposites were 10-15 times higher than their in-plane TCs. In particular, the composite with 30 wt% GNs exhibited a through-plane TC of 25.57 W/(m·K), which was 9700% higher than that of pure PFA. The composite with 30 wt% GNs was attached to the surface of a high-power light-emitting diode (LED) to assess its heat-dissipation capability. The composite with vertically aligned GNs lowered the LED surface temperature by approximately 16 °C compared with pure PFA. Our facile, low-cost method allows for the large-scale production of GNs-PFA nanocomposites with high through-plane TCs, which can be used in various thermal-management applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9091320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781095PMC
September 2019

A complete depolymerization of scrap tire with supercritical water participation: A molecular dynamic simulation study.

Waste Manag 2019 Jun 23;93:83-90. Epub 2019 May 23.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

The growth of scrap tire (ST) has become an urgent environmental problem. In this work, the depolymerization process of ST in supercritical water (SCW) was studied with the ReaxFF molecular dynamic simulation. The depolymerization process and reaction pathway of ST in SCW were revealed. The simulation results indicated that the SCW molecules could promote the depolymerization of rubber into smaller molecules by releasing the OH radicals. After providing the OH radicals, the SCW molecules banded with the free H and turned into HO radicals which were the main resources to produce H. In the ST-SCW reaction system, more than 95% organic components in ST depolymerized into the valuable fuel (oil and fuel gas). The main compound in oil product was light oil with low viscosity. The gas products included the H, CO and C1-C4 gas. It was found that reaction temperature could dominate the component of final products from ST. In order to produce more oil, the optimal temperature to recycle ST with SCW participation was 647-659 K. This study demonstrates the feasibility of SCW in recovering the chemical products from ST, and provides a theoretical support for its further development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.05.030DOI Listing
June 2019

Straddle injuries to the bulbar urethra: What is the best choice for immediate management?

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 10;87(4):892-897

From the Department of Urology (X.P., H.G., X.Z., J.W.), Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Eastern Institute for Urologic Anastomosis and Reconstruction, Shanghai, China; and Department of Urology (X.P., H.G.), Children's Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Cystostomy, endoscopic realignment, and emergency anastomosis are three methods used to treat bulbous urethral injury (BUI). The aim of the study is to determine the optimal management.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 328 male patients with blunt straddle injury to the perineum. In total, 304 patients were included in the analysis due to strict criteria. Among these 304 patients, 197 had partial urethral disruption diagnosed, and 107 had complete urethral disruption. Group placement of the patients was based on the extent of injury. Each group was further divided into two subgroups based on the immediate management. Propensity score matching was used to correct for differences in baseline characteristics.

Results: In the partial disruption group, the propensity score-matched subgroups set comprised of 164 patients. Of the 82 patients treated with endoscopic realignment, 34 (41.5%) patients required no urethral surgery, in contrast to 12 (14.6%) patients with cystostomy (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the other respects (p > 0.05). In the complete disruption group, the propensity score-matched subgroups set comprised of 104 patients. The success rate of emergency anastomosis was 90.4% (47 patients), and urethral stricture occurred in five patients (96%), while urethral stricture developed in all 52 patients in the cystostomy subgroup. With regard to surgical management of complications, the choice of management methods significantly differed between the two subgroups (all, p < 0.05). The time to natural urination and duration of hospital stay were significantly shorter in the emergency anastomosis subgroup (29.1 ± 5.4 days vs. 57.1 ± 6.4 days; 7.2 ± 3.1 days vs. 12.5 ± 2.3 days; each p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Endoscopic realignment is associated with a lower stricture rate than cystostomy as immediate management for partial disruption. Emergency anastomosis provides better clinical outcomes for patients with complete disruption.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002388DOI Listing
October 2019

Reductions in gut microbiota‑derived metabolite trimethylamine N‑oxide in the circulation may ameliorate myocardial infarction‑induced heart failure in rats, possibly by inhibiting interleukin‑8 secretion.

Mol Med Rep 2019 Jul 27;20(1):779-786. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Ultrasound, Jining No. 1 People's Hospital, Jining, Shandong 272000, P.R. China.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of chronic heart failure (HF). Increasing evidence has revealed that trimethylamine N‑oxide (TMAO), a gut‑microbiota‑derived metabolite, contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease by promoting inflammation. Elevated levels of circulating TMAO have been reported in patients following MI and were associated with unfavorable outcomes. The present study examined whether reductions in circulating TMAO could attenuate the progression of HF in rats following MI. Sprague‑Dawley rats underwent coronary ligation to induce MI or a sham operation. Echocardiography confirmed MI and cardiac dysfunction one day following coronary ligation. MI and sham rats were then treated with either vehicle (tap water) or 1.0% 3,3‑dimethyl‑1‑butanol (DMB, a trimethylamine formation inhibitor) in tap water, for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, TMAO plasma levels were markedly elevated in vehicle‑treated MI rats compared with vehicle‑treated sham rats; however, TMAO plasma levels were reduced in DMB‑treated MI rats compared with vehicle‑treated MI rats. Both MI groups exhibited cardiac hypertrophy, lung congestion, left ventricular remodeling and impaired cardiac function, according to the results of anatomical analysis, echocardiography and left ventricular hemodynamics; however, these manifestations of MI‑induced HF were significantly improved in DMB‑treated MI rats compared with vehicle‑treated MI rats. The plasma levels of the chemokine interleukin (IL)‑8, and cardiac expression of IL‑8 and its receptors were significantly increased in vehicle‑treated MI rats compared with vehicle‑treated sham rats; however, these were normalized in DMB‑treated MI rats. In addition, elevated TMAO plasma level was positively correlated with increased IL‑8 plasma level in MI groups. Notably, DMB treatment of sham rats also reduced plasma TMAO, but did not alter other parameters. These results indicated that reducing circulating TMAO may ameliorate the development of chronic HF following MI in rats, potentially by inhibiting IL‑8 secretion. The results from the present study suggested that inhibition of TMAO synthesis may be considered as a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of patients with chronic MI‑induced HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10297DOI Listing
July 2019

Determining the Surface Tension of Two-Dimensional Nanosheets by a Low-Rate Advancing Contact Angle Measurement.

Langmuir 2019 Jun 17;35(25):8308-8315. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Because of their atomic thinness, two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets need be bound to a substrate or be dispersed in material in various applications. The surface tension (ST) of a 2D nanosheet is critical for analyzing the physicochemical interactions between 2D nanosheets and other materials. To date, the determination of the ST of 2D nanosheets has relied mainly on the contact angle (CA) method. However, because of the difficulty in measuring the thermodynamically significant Young?s CA, which is the only meaningful CA that can be used to determine the ST, significant differences exist in reported STs of 2D nanosheets. In this study, we obtained such unique Young?s CAs on graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulfide, and tungsten disulfide nanosheets by a low-rate advancing contact angle measurement using a rigorously designed experimental setup. By interpreting the CA with Neumann?s equation of state, we determined the STs of these four nanosheets to be 29.7 ? 0.6, 30.9 ? 0.7, 27.8 ? 0.7, and 29.1 ? 0.8 mJ/m, respectively. The surface energies of these 2D nanosheets were estimated to be in the range 95?120 mJ/m by considering the contribution of ST and surface entropy. The accuracy of these determined STs was validated by the exfoliation and dispersion of 2D nanosheets in liquids with a series of STs. The study may have important implications for understanding the physicochemical interactions between 2D nanosheets and other materials and the development of 2D nanosheet-based devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b04104DOI Listing
June 2019

Preparation of Graphene-Perfluoroalkoxy Composite and Thermal and Mechanical Properties.

Polymers (Basel) 2018 Jun 25;10(7). Epub 2018 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) material exhibits perfect corrosion resistance under both acid or alkaline circumstances; thus, steel heat exchangers are being substituted by those made of PFA in high corrosion atmospheres. However, the low thermal conductivity of PFA degrades its heat transfer efficiency. Based on the extremely high heat conductivity of graphene, a novel grapheme-PFA composite was proposed to simultaneously meet the demands of heat transfer and corrosion resistance. Ultrasonic dispersion technology was used to disperse the aggregated graphene in the composite. Graphene⁻PFA composites with different graphene contents and using different dispersing solvents were prepared with a hot pressing method, and thermal conductivity, abrasion resistance, crystallization and pyrolysis properties were investigated. The thermal conductivity of PFA composites with graphene content of 20 wt % reached 5.017 W (m·k), which is 21.88 times that of pure PFA. The relationship between the abrasion loss and the friction coefficient of the composites with different graphene contents was obtained. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to investigate the crystallization and pyrolysis behavior of the composites; correspondingly, the temperature range that composites work in was determined. The heat conduction mechanism was analyzed through the thermal conductivity model of composite materials. The composite material is expected to play an important role in the development of high-performance thermal equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym10070700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403853PMC
June 2018

Schizandrin A inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of thyroid cancer cell line TPC-1 by down regulation of microRNA-429.

Cancer Biomark 2019 ;24(4):497-508

Objective: Schizandrin A (SchA) exerts anticancer potential. However, the effects of SchA on thyroid cancer (TC) have not been clear illuminated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of SchA on TC cell line TPC-1 and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: TPC-1 cells were treated with SchA and/or transfected with miR-429 mimic, anti-miR-429 and their corresponding negative controls (NC). Cell viability, proliferation, migration, invasion and cell apoptosis were examined by CCK-8 assay, bromodeoxyuridine, modified two-chamber migration assay, Millicell Hanging Cell Culture and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. The expression of miR-429, p16, Cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases 4 (CDK4), matrix metalloprotein (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and Vimentin was detected by qRT-PCR. All protein expression was examined by western blot.

Results: SchA inhibited cell proliferation, metastasis and induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, SchA negatively regulated miR-429 expression. Treatment with miR-429 mimic and SchA reversed the results led by SchA and NC. Furthermore, the phosphorylation β-catenin, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) were statistically down-regulated by SchA while co-treatment with miR-429 mimic and SchA led to the opposite trend. Moreover, miR-429 knockdown showed contrary results.

Conclusion: SchA inhibits cell proliferation, migration, invasion and inactivates Wnt/β-catenin and MEK/ERK signaling pathways by down regulating miR-429.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-182222DOI Listing
August 2019

Analyzing the effect of pH on microalgae adhesion by identifying the dominant interaction between cell and surface.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2019 May 16;177:479-486. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Energy Saving and Emission Reduction of Metallurgical Industry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China.

Microalgae adhesion plays a critical role in developing effective photobioreactors for large-scale production of microalgae biofuel. This study focused on elucidating the influencing mechanism of liquid medium pH on microalgae adhesion by identifying the dominant interactions between cell and substratum using a criterion. Herein, the adhesion of three microalgae onto two substrata at a series of pH was observed using a flow chamber. The results indicated that the adhesion of freshwater Chlorella sp. onto PVC and glass and marine Chlorella sp. and N. oculata onto glass decreased with increasing pH, because these adhesions were dominated by the EL interaction, and the pH would influence the adhesion primarily by affecting the ζ potential of the cell and substratum. Whereas, the adhesion of marine Chlorella sp. and N. oculata onto PVC increased with increasing pH, because these adhesions were dominated by Lewis acid-base (AB) interaction, and the pH would influence the adhesion primarily by affecting the components of surface free energy of cell. The study demonstrated that the influencing mechanism of pH on adhesion can be conclusively elucidated by identifying the dominant interaction between the cell and the surface, and may have significant implications for predicting cell adhesion in various applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2019.02.023DOI Listing
May 2019

Quantitative Criterion to Predict Cell Adhesion by Identifying Dominant Interaction between Microorganisms and Abiotic Surfaces.

Langmuir 2019 03 8;35(9):3524-3533. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Cell adhesion is ubiquitous and plays an important role in various scientific and engineering problems. Herein, a quantitative criterion to predict cell adhesion was proposed by identifying the dominant interaction between microorganisms and abiotic surfaces. According to the criterion, the dominant interaction in cell adhesion could be identified as a Lewis acid-base (AB) interaction or electrostatic (EL) interaction via comparison of two expressions containing the electron-donor characteristics of the microorganism (γ) and abiotic surface (γ) and their ζ potentials (ζ, ζ). The results revealed that when dominated by the AB interaction, adhesion would decrease with increasing [Formula: see text]. However, when the EL interaction was dominant, adhesion would decrease with increasing (ζ + ζ). We have verified the criterion based on the adhesion of microalgae, bacteria, and fungi onto various surfaces obtained via our experiments and available in literature studies. The results demonstrated that the criterion had important implications in the prediction of cell adhesion in various applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b03465DOI Listing
March 2019

Effects of Tip Sonication Parameters on Liquid Phase Exfoliation of Graphite into Graphene Nanoplatelets.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2018 Aug 17;13(1):241. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China.

Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) can be produced by exfoliating graphite in solvents via high-power tip sonication. In order to understand the influence of tip sonication parameters on graphite exfoliation to form GNPs, three typical flaked graphite samples were exfoliated into GNPs via tip sonication at power of 60, 100, 200, or 300 W for 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, or 180 min. The concentration of GNP dispersions, the size and defect density of the produced GNPs, and the sedimentation behavior of GNP dispersions produced under various tip sonication parameters were determined. The results indicated that the concentration of the GNP dispersions was proportional to the square root of sonication energy input (the product of sonication power and time). The size and I/I values (determined by Raman spectrum) of GNPs produced under various tip sonication powers and times ranged from ~ 1 to ~ 3 μm and ~ 0.1 to ~ 0.3, respectively, which indicated that all the produced GNPs were of high quality. The sedimentation behavior of GNP dispersions showed that the dispersions were favorably stable, and the concentration of each GNP dispersion was ~ 70% of its initial concentration after sedimentation for 96 h. Moreover, the TEM images and electron diffraction patterns were used to confirm that the produced GNPs were few-layer. This study has important implications for selecting the suitable tip sonicating parameters in exfoliating graphite into GNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-018-2648-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6097981PMC
August 2018

Sudden onset flank pain: a case report of retroperitoneal hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured adrenal hemangioma.

J Pain Res 2018 31;11:1421-1424. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Urology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China,

Background: Acute abdominal pain is a common complaint of patients presenting at the emergency department (ED). It can be caused by a broad spectrum of diseases. Providing care for patients with acute abdominal pain requires familiarity with the epidemiology, prevalence, and presentation of abdominal pathology, as well as a working knowledge of the differential diagnoses.

Case Report: In this article, we discuss a case of spontaneous rupture of adrenal hemangioma with large retroperitoneal hemorrhage in a 31-year-old female.

Discussion: Emergency physicians regularly encounter uncommon causes of abdominal pain. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal hemangioma is an extremely rare cause of abdominal pain, but proper understanding of the disease process will aid clinicians to make a final diagnosis and ensure appropriate treatment. In this study, presentations and risk factors for spontaneous, atraumatic rupture of adrenal hemangioma as well as ED management and definitive treatment options are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S160661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6074836PMC
July 2018

Impact of surface tension of wastewater on biofilm formation of microalgae Chlorella sp.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Oct 25;266:498-506. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Energy Saving and Emission Reduction of Metallurgical Industry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

The organic matter and surfactants in wastewater may cause variations in the surface tension of wastewater (STW) ranging between ∼40 and ∼70 mJ·m. This study focused on the influence of STW on microalgae biofilm formation. A theoretical analysis was first conducted, and then microalgae biofilm formation on hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrata in liquid and real wastewater with different surface tensions was studied. The results demonstrated that STW affected microalgae biofilm formation remarkably. When the surface tension of liquid medium (γ) was approximately equal to the average value of surface free energy of microalgae and substrata, biofilm formation reached the minimum. Microalgae biofilm formation on a hydrophilic surface first decreased (from ∼2200 to ∼1500 cells/mm) and then increased (from ∼1500 to 3100 cells/mm) with the decrease in γ (from ∼70 to ∼40 mJ·m), whereas biofilm on a hydrophobic surface continued to decrease (from ∼2500 to 1000 cells/mm).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2018.06.082DOI Listing
October 2018

A multicomponent kinetic model established for investigation on atmospheric new particle formation mechanism in HSO-HNO-NH-VOC system.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Mar 21;616-617:1414-1422. Epub 2017 Oct 21.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Secondary new particle formation (NPF) plays a significant role in atmospheric particulate matters (e.g., PM2.5), and has been studied over the past decades. However, the mechanism of NPF still remains ambiguous, setting significant barrier for PM2.5 mitigations, especially in complex atmosphere with multi-pollutants. Since the NPF process can hardly be observed directly by experiment methods due to the measuring limitations, a multicomponent kinetic model (MKM), which can be used to analyze the process and the mechanism of NPF in HSO-HNO-NH-VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) system, has been developed in this paper. According to MKM, seven cases with initial concentrations of total precursor vapors (CPV) in the range of 10-10cm were calculated to analyze the NPF process. Firstly, the 3nm particle (PM) formation rate was calculated via MKM, which showed a good agreement with the previous measurements. Moreover, according to MKM calculation, it is found that the peak value of PM formation rate, i.e., J, is proportional to [CPV], while the time at which J occurred, i.e., t, is proportional to [CPV], indicating that the increases in CPV would lead to a significant increase of J and decrease of t. That's why NPF bursts immediately and PM2.5 pollution occurs suddenly in heavily pollutant areas. Afterwards, the roles of precursors in HSO-HNO-NH-VOC system were identified. It indicates that HSO, NH and VOC mainly contribute to the early stage of the NPF, while the growth of the nuclei is mainly driven by HNO and NH. And HNO makes increasing contributions at the early stage of NPF with CPV rising (especially above 10cm). Thus in high CPV areas, especially for China, HNO should be paid the same attention as HSO, NH and VOC. The findings provide important implications for haze mitigations in China and other industrializing countries with multi-pollutant emission sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.174DOI Listing
March 2018

Establishment of the U.L.T.R.A. measurement rating system for anterior urethral stricture.

Int Urol Nephrol 2017 Jul 2;49(7):1201-1207. Epub 2017 May 2.

Department of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, Shanghai, 200033, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Anterior urethral stricture treatments are various, and comprehensive consideration should be given in selecting individualized treatment programs, which must be combined with the patient's stricture, length, complexity, and other factors. At present, there is no standard for the clinical description of the anterior urethral stricture for the selection of the characteristic index, and most of the indicators are qualitative information. In order to achieve consistent decisions and effective comparisons, it is imperative to establish a standardized description system. We used ultrasound contrast technology in the diagnosis of urethral stricture to establish a reliable measurement scoring system, for the refinement grading of the treatment, so as to objectively guide the establishment of treatment decisions.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective search of PubMed English literatures on anterior urethral stricture (January 1975-September 2016) was conducted, combined with a large number of clinical practice experience. We screened the five most closely related and highly repeatable anatomical characteristic indicators of anterior urethral stricture as a base of establishing the U.L.T.R.A. measurement scoring system. With the evaluation system, individualized cases can be made according to the severity of the stenosis preoperative pathological state from the five aspects of refinement grading, and estimated results of the success rate and prognosis of different surgical treatments for patients according to the score.

Results: The evaluation system consists of five indicators: (U) urethral stricture site, (L) length, (T) urethral stricture scar thickness, (R) stricture and stricture with a 10-mm proximal urethral dilatation ratio (stricture diameter ratio for short), and (A) alone urethral stricture or multiple urethral stricture; as well as other characteristics. Suffix (l) refers specifically to anterior urethral stricture due to the lichen sclerosus.

Conclusion: The U.L.T.R.A. measurement scoring system proposed through urethral ultrasonography is a standardized system, which is a repeatable disease assessment tool. The five characteristic factors that were most associated with anterior urethral stricture were summarized. Through this, we can more accurately describe the degree of the disease and refinement grade the complexity of the treatment, and enable imaging technologists and surgeons to establish effective communication channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-017-1584-0DOI Listing
July 2017

Cyclophilin A mediates the ox-LDL-induced activation and apoptosis of macrophages via autophagy.

Int J Cardiol 2017 Mar 19;230:142-148. Epub 2016 Dec 19.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is the most common inflammatory factor that mediates the activation and apoptosis of macrophages. Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is expressed following oxidative stress, hypoxia, and infection. However, the role of CyPA in the activation and apoptosis of macrophages is unclear. The aims of the study were to determine whether CyPA mediates the ox-LDL-induced activation and apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells and to analyze potential mechanisms.

Methods And Results: Through Western blot and ELISA test, the expression of CyPA induced by ox-LDL is time-dependent in RAW264.7 cells. Gene silencing of CyPA reduced the generation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and downregulated the expression of the surface markers of macrophage activation, namely, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex class 2 antigen. Cell apoptosis is significantly decreased and the level of anti-apoptosis protein bcl-2 is increased in CyPA silent cells compared with the control group. Finally, autophagy-related protein LC3-II/LC3-I ratio level significantly decreased in CyPA silent cells with less autophagosome formation while the blocked autophagy flux was recovered. The differences in the activation and apoptosis between CyPA silent cells and the control cells were inhibited by pre-treatment with class III PI 3-kinase inhibitor 3-MA.

Conclusions: These results indicate that CyPA mediates the ox-LDL-induced activation and apoptosis in RAW264.7 cells by regulating autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.12.042DOI Listing
March 2017

Biomimetic Nanofluidic Diode Composed of Dual Amphoteric Channels Maintains Rectification Direction over a Wide pH Range.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2016 10;55(42):13056-13060

Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Beijing Energy, School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, P.R. China.

pH-gated ion channels in cell membranes play important roles in the cell's physiological activities. Many artificial nanochannels have been fabricated to mimic the natural phenomenon of pH-gated ion transport. However, these nanochannels show pH sensitivity only within certain pH ranges. Wide-range pH sensitivity has not yet been achieved. Herein, for the first time, we provide a versatile strategy to increase the pH-sensitive range by using dual amphoteric nanochannels. In particular, amphoteric polymeric nanochannels with carboxyl groups derived from a block copolymer (BCP) precursor and nanochannels with hydroxyl groups made from anodic alumina oxide (AAO) were used. Due to a synergistic effect, the hybrid nanochannels exhibit nanofluidic diode properties with single rectification direction over a wide pH range. The novel strategy presented here is a scalable, low-cost, and robust alternative for the construction of large-area membranes for nanofluidic applications, such as the separation of biomolecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201606469DOI Listing
October 2016
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