Publications by authors named "Xingyu Zhang"

171 Publications

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapeutic effects of cationic amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4i on Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Sep 20:102539. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Stomatology, The Fourth Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 37 Yiyuan Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is considered to be among the principal pathogens in periodontal disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by cationic amino acid-porphyrin conjugate 4i on P. gingivalis METHODS: The uptake of 4i by P. gingivalis over different times of incubation was evaluated by optical density using a microplate reader. Laser radiation at λ=650nm-660nm with I =50 mW/cm at doses of 0, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0, and 12 J/cm was used for aPDT. A colony-counting method and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to observe the neutralization of P. gingivalis. The fluorescent molecular probe 3'(p-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorescein and the reagent Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green were used to measure the quantities of HO• and O produced by 4i after irradiation with different light energies.

Results: The 4i conjugate was absorbed gradually by P. gingivalis, reaching a maximum at 30 mins. A clear cytotoxic effect on P. gingivalis was observed with aPDT using 62.5 µM 4i, with colony counts dropping by a factor of 3.35 log, indicating a sterilization rate of 99.95%. Light irradiation resulted principally in the production of HO• by 4i. A live/dead viability assay demonstrated substantial red fluorescence in P. gingivalis treated with aPDT.

Conclusions: The results suggest that 4i-aPDT caused substantial cytotoxicity in P. gingivalis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102539DOI Listing
September 2021

Emergency Department Visits by Patients with Substance Use Disorder in the United States.

West J Emerg Med 2021 Aug 19;22(5):1076-1085. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

University of Michigan School of Nursing, Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

Introduction: We aimed to characterize emergency department (ED) utilization and clinical characteristics of patients with substance use disorder (SUD) seeking emergency care for all reasons.

Methods: Using 2016-2017 ED data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, we investigated demographics, ED resource utilization, and clinical characteristics of patients with SUD vs those without SUD.

Results: Of all adult ED visits (N = 27,609) in the US in 2016-2017, 11.1% of patients had SUD. Among ED patients with SUD, they were mostly non-Hispanic White (62.5%) and were more likely to be male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.80 confidence interval [CI], 1.66-1.95). Emergency department patients with SUD were also more likely to return to the ED within 72 hours (aOR 1.32, CI, 1.09-1.61) and more likely to be admitted to the hospital (aOR 1.28, CI, 1.14-1.43) and intensive care unit (aOR 1.40, CI, 1.05-1.85).

Conclusion: Patients with SUD have specific demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics associated with their ED visits. These findings highlight the importance of recognizing co-existing SUD as risk factors for increasing morbidity in acutely ill and injured patients, and the potential role of the ED as a site for interventions aimed at reducing harm from SUD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2021.3.50839DOI Listing
August 2021

Synthesis and Characterizations of Two Tellurides β-BaGaTe and BaGaGeTe with Flexible Chain Structure.

Inorg Chem 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Beijing Center for Crystal Research and Development, Key Lab of Functional Crystals and Laser Technology, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, P.R. China.

Demands for IR birefringent materials are increasing due to the rapid developments of IR laser applications. Herein, two new chain tellurides β-BaGaTe and BaGaGeTe have been discovered. β-BaGaTe crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group (no. 74) with unit cell constants of = 23.813(3) Å, = 11.9673(19) Å, and = 6.7215(9) Å, while BaGaGeTe crystallizes in the monoclinic space group 2/ (no. 14) with unit cell constants of = 13.6540(3) Å, = 9.6705(2) Å, and = 23.1134(7) Å. The structure of β-BaGaTe can be considered to be the antiparallel arrangement of one-dimensional (1D) [GaTe] chains formed by edge-sharing GaTe tetrahedra, which are separated by Ba cations. In the crystal structure of BaGaGeTe, two kinds of 1D chains, namely chain 1 [(GaGe)Te] and chain 2 [(GaGe)Te], are stacked alternately and put together by the coulomb force with Ba cations. In addition, First-principles calculations indicate that β-BaGaTe has a large birefringence, ∼0.325 at 2050 nm, derived from the superposition of the polarizabilities of GaTe tetrahedra, implying that it has potential as an IR birefringent material. This work may provide some guidance for exploring new IR birefringent crystals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c02045DOI Listing
September 2021

Potential of testis-derived circular RNAs in seminal plasma to predict the outcome of microdissection testicular sperm extraction in patients with idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia.

Hum Reprod 2021 Sep;36(10):2649-2660

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

Study Question: Do testis-derived circular RNAs (circRNAs) in seminal plasma have potential as biomarkers to predict the outcome of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in patients with idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA)?

Summary Answer: Testis-derived circRNAs in the seminal plasma can indeed be used for predicting the outcome of micro-TESE in patients with idiopathic NOA.

What Is Known Already: Micro-TESE is an effective method to obtain sperm samples from patients with idiopathic NOA. However, its success rate is only 40-50% in such patients.

Study Design, Size, Duration: Six idiopathic NOA patients with different micro-TESE results were included as the discovery cohort. Their testicular tissues were used for extracting and sequencing circRNAs. Five circRNAs with the most significantly different expression levels were selected for further verification.

Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: Fifty-two patients with idiopathic NOA were included as the validation cohort. Preoperative seminal plasma samples of 52 patients with idiopathic NOA and 25 intraoperative testicular tissues were collected and divided into 'success' and 'failure' groups according to the results of micro-TESE. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to verify differences in the expression levels of the selected circRNAs between the two groups in the testicular tissues and seminal plasma.

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: Whether at the seminal plasma or testicular tissue level, the differences in the expression levels of the three circRNAs (hsa_circ_0000277, hsa_circ_0060394 and hsa_circ_0007773) between the success and failure groups were consistent with the sequencing results. A diagnostic receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis of the AUC indicated excellent diagnostic performance of these circRNAs in seminal plasma in predicting the outcome of micro-TESE (AUC values: 0.920, 0.928 and 0.891, respectively). On the basis of least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression, the three circRNAs were combined to construct a new prediction model. The diagnostic ROC curve analysis of the model showed an AUC value of 0.958. The expression levels of these circRNAs in seminal plasma using three normospermic volunteer samples remained stable after 48 h at room temperature.

Large Scale Data: NA.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: This was a single-center retrospective study with relatively few cases. The functions of these circRNAs, as well as their relationship with spermatogenesis, have not yet been established.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: Testis-derived circRNAs in seminal plasma can reflect the microenvironment of the testis and can be used as reliable biomarkers to screen patients with idiopathic NOA who might be suitable for micro-TESE.

Study Funding/competing Interest(s): This article was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 81871151). There were no competing interests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deab196DOI Listing
September 2021

Non-π-Conjugated Deep-Ultraviolet Nonlinear Optical Crystal KZn(SO)(HSO)F.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Sep 23;12(34):8280-8284. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

Deep-ultraviolet (deep-UV) (wavelengths of <200 nm) nonlinear optical (NLO) materials are playing an increasingly important role because of their significant technological applications in advanced scientific instruments. In recent years, the non-π-conjugated systems have received extensive attention as new emerging sources of deep-UV NLO materials. Here, a new non-π-conjugated deep-UV NLO material, KZn(SO)(HSO)F, has been successfully obtained by the hydrothermal method. It has a layered structure formed by [Zn(SO)(HSO)F] layers bridged via K-O and K-F bonds. Powder second-harmonic generation shows that KZn(SO)(HSO)F can achieve phase matching, and the response is ∼0.3 times that of KHPO. Remarkably, the single-crystal transmittance spectrum confirms that the absorption edge of KZn(SO)(HSO)F is below 200 nm, and the experimentally measured birefringence is 0.0126 at λ = 546 nm. In-depth first-principles calculations illustrate well the microscopic origin of the optical properties. This work enriches the structrual diversity of non-π-conjugated deep-UV NLO materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01533DOI Listing
September 2021

Editorial: Computational Solutions for Microbiome and Metagenomics Sequencing Analyses.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 30;8:698384. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Centre for High Performance Computing, Joint Engineering Research Center for Health Big Data Intelligent Analysis Technology, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.698384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361491PMC
July 2021

Recent trends in overweight and obesity in adolescents aged 12 to 15 years across 21 countries.

Pediatr Obes 2021 Aug 5:e12839. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Thomas E.Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: There is limited information on recent country-specific trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents.

Objective: We aimed to identify country-specific trends in overweight and obesity in a study of 137 995 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years from 21 countries based on Global School-Based Student Health Surveys from 2005 to 2017.

Methods: The World Health Organization criteria were used to define paediatric overweight and obesity. The weighted country-specific prevalence of and trends in overweight and obesity across the survey years were evaluated. Random- or fixed-effect meta-analyses were used to calculate pooled trends across 21 countries.

Results: A significant upward trend was observed in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 10 countries, whereas a significant downward trend was observed in 2 countries (p  < 0.05). The pooled prevalence of overweight and obesity in the first and last surveys was 24.8% and 27.7%, respectively. A significant upward pooled trend was observed in the prevalence of overweight and obesity across 21 countries (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 1.22 [1.11, 1.35]). An increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was specifically observed in high-, upper-middle- and lower-middle-income countries.

Conclusion: This study confirms a significant upward trend in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 12- to 15-year-old adolescents, thus emphasizing the urgent need for interventions to mitigate overweight and obesity in this demographic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijpo.12839DOI Listing
August 2021

Long-term liver transplant outcomes for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1: The Pittsburgh experience.

Pediatr Transplant 2021 Aug 2:e14108. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1) arises from biallelic variants in the ATP8B1 gene that annul FIC1 activity, resulting in progressive liver disease. Liver transplant (LT) is indicated in refractory disease; however, post-LT complications including worsening diarrhea and steatohepatitis progressing to fibrosis with graft loss have been reported. We aim to describe long-term outcomes of PFIC1 LT recipients at our center, focusing on the histological changes of the allografts.

Methods: We assessed 7 PFIC1 patients post-LT at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (CHP). All pre-transplant, explant, and sequential post-transplant pathology samples were reviewed. Continuous data are presented as the mean ± SD. We compared the pre- and post-transplant height and weight z-scores using Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Results: Seven (29% male) patients with PFIC1 received a LT (n = 6) or had post-LT care (n = 1) at CHP. Six had confirmed or suspected identical genetic. At a mean follow-up of 10.9 years, both patient survival and graft survival were 100%. Diarrhea persisted (n = 3) or newly developed (n = 4) in all patients after LT contributing to ongoing growth failure, with mean z-scores -2.63 (weight) and -2.98 (height) at follow-up. Histologically, allograft steatosis was common but was not accompanied by significant inflammation, ballooning, or fibrosis.

Conclusion: We show that extrahepatic disease persists and near-universal allograft steatosis occurs. However, at a mean follow-up period of over 10 years, no patients developed steatohepatitis or significant fibrosis, and both patient survival and graft survival are excellent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/petr.14108DOI Listing
August 2021

Prehabilitation-Driven Changes in Frailty Metrics Predict Mortality in Patients With Advanced Liver Disease.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Introduction: Frailty is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Although evidence for prehabilitation is promising, the data for liver transplant (LT) candidates are limited. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel prehabilitation strategy on changes in frailty metrics and survival in LT candidates. The secondary aim was to determine liver-related and extrahepatic conditions associated with frailty.

Methods: In this ambispective cohort study, all patients underwent frailty assessment using the liver frailty index (LFI), 6-minute walk test, and gait speed test performed by a dedicated physical therapist. Home-based exercise prescription was individualized to each patient's baseline physical fitness.

Results: We included 517 patients (59% men, median age 61 years, and a model for end-stage liver disease score of 12) evaluated during 936 PT visits. Frailty metrics were affected by age, sex, and liver-related parameters, but not by model for end-stage liver disease. Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcohol-related cirrhosis had worse frailty metrics by all tools. We demonstrated the feasibility of prehabilitation in improving both LFI and 6-minute walk test, particularly in adherent patients. A median LFI improvement of 0.3 in frail patients was associated with improved survival in univariate analysis. Compliance with physical therapist visits (hazards ratio = 0.35 [0.18-0.67] for 2 visits and hazards ratio = 0.54 [0.31-0.94] for ≥3 visits) was independently associated with increased survival.

Discussion: Prehabilitation improves frailty metrics in LT candidates and is associated with a survival advantage. Our findings provide a framework for the standardized prehabilitation program in LT candidates while prioritizing compliance, adherence, and on-training LFI goal accomplishment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000001376DOI Listing
July 2021

Large-area TaN superconducting microwire single photon detectors for X-ray detection.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):21400-21408

With the development of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors, increasing numbers of important applications are being explored, covering not only low-energy optical photon detection but also high-energy photon and particle detection. In this work, 100-nm-thick TaN superconducting microwire single photon detectors (SMSPDs) with large active areas were prepared for X-ray detection, and their response characteristics to X-rays were studied. The results showed that our TaN SMSPDs were able to detect X-rays at a wide range of bias currents and working temperatures. The detectors could distinguish different energy X-rays under suitable working conditions, and the energy resolving power was strongly related to the bias current.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.422581DOI Listing
July 2021

Combining C reactive protein and serum albumin to predict 90-day mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus with serious community-acquired infections.

Lupus Sci Med 2021 07;8(1)

Department of Emergency, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine Affiliated Renji Hospital, Shanghai, China

Objective: Serious infections in SLE are common and have emerged as the major cause of death. However, effective methods to identify poor prognosis are still lacking. Therefore, we aimed to determine the predictive value of C reactive protein (CRP) plus albumin (ALB) in SLE with serious infections.

Methods: From May 2015 to December 2018, consecutive patients with SLE presenting with serious infections in our emergency department were prospectively recruited. Serum CRP and ALB were measured within 24 hours of admission. The outcome was defined as mortality rate at 90 days. A CRP plus ALB score (2-6) was assigned based on the CRP and ALB concentrations. We performed univariate and multivariate regression analyses to detect the independent effects of CRP plus ALB on 90-day mortality (all-cause and infection-related). Subgroup analyses were used to show the effects stratified by lupus nephritis.

Results: A total of 150 patients were included, and the all-cause 90-day mortality rate was 38% (n=57), 41 of which was infection-related. The predominant infection sites were pulmonary (79.3%) and bloodstream infection (20.7%). Serum CRP and ALB levels were significantly different in non-surviving patients compared with those in surviving patients (p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). In the fully adjusted logistic regression model, the CRP plus ALB score was associated with decreased 90-day survival (adjusted OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.13; p=0.017).

Conclusions: CRP plus ALB was associated with the risk of all-cause and infection-related 90-day mortality in SLE with serious infections. Although this finding requires further verification, the two parameters may be useful for predicting poor outcomes in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/lupus-2021-000505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276300PMC
July 2021

Immunogenicity and safety of a live attenuated varicella vaccine in children 1-12 years of age: A randomized, blinded, controlled, non-inferiority phase 3 clinical trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 08 19;107:106489. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Institute of Expanded Programme on Immunization, Guizhou Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guiyang 550004, Guizhou Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a live attenuated varicella vaccine produced using a cell factory process.

Methods: In this randomized, blinded, controlled, non-inferiority phase 3 clinical trial conducted in Guizhou, healthy children aged 1-12 years were randomly assigned in a 2: 1 ratio to receive one dose of experimental or control vaccine. Physical examination and first blood collection were performed preimmunization on day 0. Diary cards were collected after day 15. Contact cards and second blood samples were collected on day 30. The primary immunogenicity endpoint was the positive conversion rate of the anti-varicella virus antibody at 30 days postimmunization in susceptible children. Secondary endpoints were the fourfold increase rate, positive conversion rate, geometric mean titer, and geometric mean increase at 30 days after immunization in the total cohort.

Results: Of the 900 children assessed for eligibility, 894 received an experimental or control vaccine. Both the full analysis and safety analysis sets included 894 subjects. The seroconversion rate in the susceptible population was 95.84% in the experimental and 94.76% in the control group. The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval difference was -2.37%, which was greater than the non-inferiority margin set by the program (-10%). No significant difference in solicited adverse reactions was found between the groups. Within 6 months postimmunization, a total of 24 serious adverse events were reported, none related to the studied vaccine.

Conclusion: The live attenuated varicella vaccine produced using a cell factory process was highly immunogenic, safe, and non-inferior to the product in the market. Further studies need to be implemented in the immune persistence, the epidemiological effectiveness and the rare adverse reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2021.106489DOI Listing
August 2021

Monitoring Diagnostic Safety Risks in Emergency Departments: Protocol for a Machine Learning Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jun 14;10(6):e24642. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Health Care Delivery Research, Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Background: Diagnostic decision making, especially in emergency departments, is a highly complex cognitive process that involves uncertainty and susceptibility to errors. A combination of factors, including patient factors (eg, history, behaviors, complexity, and comorbidity), provider-care team factors (eg, cognitive load and information gathering and synthesis), and system factors (eg, health information technology, crowding, shift-based work, and interruptions) may contribute to diagnostic errors. Using electronic triggers to identify records of patients with certain patterns of care, such as escalation of care, has been useful to screen for diagnostic errors. Once errors are identified, sophisticated data analytics and machine learning techniques can be applied to existing electronic health record (EHR) data sets to shed light on potential risk factors influencing diagnostic decision making.

Objective: This study aims to identify variables associated with diagnostic errors in emergency departments using large-scale EHR data and machine learning techniques.

Methods: This study plans to use trigger algorithms within EHR data repositories to generate a large data set of records that are labeled trigger-positive or trigger-negative, depending on whether they meet certain criteria. Samples from both data sets will be validated using medical record reviews, upon which we expect to find a higher number of diagnostic safety events in the trigger-positive subset. Machine learning will be used to evaluate relationships between certain patient factors, provider-care team factors, and system-level risk factors and diagnostic safety signals in the statistically matched groups of trigger-positive and trigger-negative charts.

Results: This federally funded study was approved by the institutional review board of 2 academic medical centers with affiliated community hospitals. Trigger queries are being developed at both organizations, and sample cohorts will be labeled using the triggers. Machine learning techniques such as association rule mining, chi-square automated interaction detection, and classification and regression trees will be used to discover important variables that could be incorporated within future clinical decision support systems to help identify and reduce risks that contribute to diagnostic errors.

Conclusions: The use of large EHR data sets and machine learning to investigate risk factors (related to the patient, provider-care team, and system-level) in the diagnostic process may help create future mechanisms for monitoring diagnostic safety.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/24642.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/24642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240801PMC
June 2021

Is a Hub lncRNA ceRNA in Hearts With Tetralogy of Fallot Which Regulates Congenital Heart Disease Genes Transcriptionally and Epigenetically.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:630634. Epub 2021 May 11.

Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Heart development requires robust gene regulation, and the related disruption could lead to congenital heart disease (CHD). To gain insights into the regulation of gene expression in CHD, we obtained the expression profiles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in 22 heart tissue samples with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) through strand-specific transcriptomic analysis. Using a causal inference framework based on the expression correlations and validated microRNA (miRNA)-lncRNA-mRNA evidences, we constructed the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA)-mediated network driven by lncRNAs. Four lncRNAs (, , , and ) were identified as hub lncRNAs in the network. was selected for further study since all its targets were CHD-related genes (, , and ). Both and could bind with hsa-miR-421, which has been validated using dual-luciferase reporter assays. Knockdown of not only significantly reduced and expression in HEK 293 and the fetal heart cell line (CCC-HEH-2) but also increased the transcription of its interacted miRNAs in a cell-specific way. Besides ceRNA mechanism, RNAseq and ATACseq results showed that might play repression roles in heart development by transcriptionally regulating CHD-related genes. In conclusion, we identified a ceRNA network driven by lncRNAs in heart tissues of TOF patients. Furthermore, we proved that , one hub lncRNA in the TOF heart ceRNA network, regulates multiple genes transcriptionally and epigenetically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.630634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144506PMC
May 2021

Long Noncoding RNA Activates Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Through Small Heat Shock Proteins HSPA6 and CRYAB.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 10;9:660576. Epub 2021 May 10.

Pediatric Translational Medicine Institute, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defects worldwide. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most common microdeletion disorder that has been frequently associated with conotruncal malformations. By now, the dosage-sensitive gene has been adopted as the major pathogenic gene responsible for 22q11.2 deletion, which is regulated by canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in heart outflow tract development. Here, we report the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) , which is encompassed in the 22q11.2 region, that can activate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by protecting β-catenin from degradation, which could result from decreased ubiquitination. Such effects were mediated by two short heat shock proteins HSPA6 and α-β-crystallin (CRYAB), whose expression was regulated by through a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism. In clinical practice, the pathogenesis of copy number variation (CNV) was always attributed to haploinsufficiency of protein-coding genes. Here, we report that the 22q11.2 lncRNA significantly activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which has major roles in cardiac outflow tract development and should act upstream of . Our results suggested that lncRNAs should contribute to the etiology of CNV-related CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.660576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141806PMC
May 2021

Amphiphysin I cleavage by asparagine endopeptidase leads to tau hyperphosphorylation and synaptic dysfunction.

Elife 2021 May 21;10. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau and synaptic dysfunction are characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we identified Amphiphysin I mediates both tau phosphorylation and synaptic dysfunction in AD. Amphiphysin I is cleaved by a cysteine proteinase asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) at N278 in the brains of AD patients. The amount of AEP-generated N-terminal fragment of Amphiphysin I (1-278) is increased with aging. Amphiphysin I (1-278) inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis and induces synaptic dysfunction. Furthermore, Amphiphysin I (1-278) binds p35 and promotes its transition to p25, thus activates CDK5 and enhances tau hyperphosphorylation. Overexpression of Amphiphysin I (1-278) in the hippocampus of Tau P301S mice induces synaptic dysfunction, tau hyperphosphorylation, and cognitive deficits. However, overexpression of the N278A mutant Amphiphysin I, which resists the AEP-mediated cleavage, alleviates the pathological and behavioral defects. These findings suggest a mechanism of tau hyperphosphorylation and synaptic dysfunction in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.65301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139826PMC
May 2021

A γ-adducin cleavage fragment induces neurite deficits and synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 Aug 13;203:102074. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430060, China. Electronic address:

Neurite deficits and synaptic dysfunction contribute to cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that γ-adducin, a cytoskeleton-associated protein that assembles the spectrin-actin framework, is cleaved by a lysosomal cysteine proteinase named asparagine endopeptidase (AEP). AEP is upregulated and activated during aging and cleaves γ-adducin at N357, disrupting spectrin-actin assembly. Moreover, γ-adducin (1-357) fragment downregulates the expression of Rac2, leading to defects in neurite outgrowth. Expression of the γ-adducin (1-357) fragment in the hippocampus of tau P301S transgenic mice resulted in significant AD-like pathology and cognitive deficits. In summary, AEP-mediated fragmentation of γ-adducin plays a vital role in AD. Blocking the activity of AEP might be a novel therapeutic target for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2021.102074DOI Listing
August 2021

Prevalence of and Trends in the Co-Existence of Obesogenic Behaviors in Adolescents From 15 Countries.

Front Pediatr 2021 22;9:664828. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Applied Biostatistics Laboratory, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.

The global epidemic of pediatric obesity is well-known, but data on co-existence of obesogenic behaviors are limited. We aim to report the prevalence of and trends in the co-existence of obesogenic behaviors in adolescents from 15 countries. This study was based on the Global School-based Student Health Survey 2003-2017 and included 121,963 adolescents aged 12-15 years from 15 countries where at least 2 cross-sectional surveys were conducted. We used sampling weights and calculated the country-level prevalence of and trends in the co-existence of obesogenic behaviors (low fruit and vegetable intake, anxiety-induced insomnia, no physical activity, and sedentary behavior) during survey years. Pooled prevalence and trend estimates were calculated with random-effects models. Pooled prevalence of exposure ≥ 1, ≥2, and ≥3 obesogenic behaviors was 88.2, 44.9, and 9.8% in the first survey and 88.4, 46.4, and 10.2% in the last survey, respectively. Plateauing, increasing, and decreasing trends in the co-existence of obesogenic behaviors were observed in different countries. Specifically, we identified a plateauing pooled trend in the exposure ≥ 1, ≥2, and ≥3 obesogenic behaviors [odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.03 (0.93, 1.14), 1.05 (0.97, 1.13), and 1.06 (0.95, 1.18), respectively]. Trends in the prevalence of the co-existence of obesogenic behaviors varied significantly across different countries, but the prevalence remained high in most countries. These findings suggest the need for behavioral interventions to mitigate obesogenic behaviors in adolescents for overweight and obesity prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.664828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100235PMC
April 2021

A characterization and prognosis prediction model for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid.

Gland Surg 2021 Apr;10(4):1325-1338

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid (PSCCTh) is a sporadic malignancy arising from the thyroid gland. The factors that affect treatment and survival in patients with PSCCTh remain unclear. Our study aims to characterize PSCCTh and establish a prognosis prediction model for patients with PSCCTh.

Methods: Clinical data and follow-up information for 277 patients from 1973 to 2016 were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) 18-registry database (RRID:SCR_003293). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses and nomogram modeling of potential prognostic factors were conducted.

Results: Among the collected patient cases, 57% were female and 43% were male. The median survival of all cases was 6 months; by gender, median survival was 5 and 8 months in the female and male groups, respectively. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses revealed that age, extent of disease (EOD), T stage, N stage, and treatment were independent prognostic indicators for overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with PSCCTh. In addition, it was confirmed that the established nomogram model had good consistency and discrimination for PSCCTh prognosis as measured by the concordance index (C-index), area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), and calibration curves.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that age, EOD, T stage, N stage, and treatment may correlate with OS and DSS in patients with PSCCTh. Importantly, our nomogram prediction model, constructed using parameters including age, T stage, N stage, and treatment, may assist physicians in evaluating patients' prognoses and providing precise therapy for PSCCTh.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-20-847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102235PMC
April 2021

Improving Patient\Population Health: Using 'Why' to Develop a Transformative Research Center.

SAGE Open Nurs 2021 Jan-Dec;7:23779608211008603. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Systems, Populations and Leadership, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Unites States.

Introduction: Novel approaches to address the most vexing problems facing patients and vulnerable populations are needed. The purpose of this project was to establish an innovative research Center based on the principles of transformational organizations.

Methods: A new Center formed included faculty members with expertise in cancer, serious illness, and population health. Applying Sinek's "why, how, and what" framework, members developed and refined a purpose statement and strategic objectives. The Center now includes members representing diverse disciplines. Year 1 accomplishments included a refined mission and vision statement, two funded research proposals, one submitted training grant, one administrative hire, and active recruitment of two-research faculty to support Center activities.

Conclusions: The newly-formed Center for Improving Patient and Population Health has enabled scholars within a research-intensive school of nursing to forge new partnerships to compete successfully for larger, complicated grant proposals on shorter deadlines. Opportunities exist to integrate students and research staff more fully into Center operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23779608211008603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053749PMC
April 2021

Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr. And other common Orchidaceae medicinal plants.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Aug 28;276:114143. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Key Laboratory of Functional Molecular Engineering of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Arundina graminifolia (Orchidaceae) has been widely used for heat clearance and detoxification, anti-inflammatory diuretic, and anti-microbes for two thousand years in national minorities, especially among the Dai people. It was known as "Zhuyelan" (Chinese: ), "Wenshanghai" (Chinese: ) and "Baiyangjie" (Chinese: ) in the Dai nationality, and mainly used as antidote, which is characterized by "relieving the poison before getting sick and treating illness". Therefore, it has been typically applied in the treatment of food poisoning, snake bites, rheumatism, stomachache and traumatic injuries. It is also used to treat bronchitis, tuberculosis and pneumonia in the Bulang and the Wa ethnic people.

Aim Of This Review: This review aims to provide up-to-date information about the botanical characterization, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of A. graminifolia, and the related importantly medicinal plants (e.g. Bletilla striata, Cremastra appendiculata, and Dendrobium officinale) of the same Orchidaceae family. Our work aims to further promote scientific cognition, basic research and in-depth discovery of potential drug candidates for Minority Medicine of our nation.

Materials And Methods: Relevant information was obtained via piles of resources including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and worldwide accepted scientific databases including Web of Science, Pubmed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Elsevier, Springer, NCBI, ACS Publications, CNKI and Wanfang data.

Results: Phytochemical investigations have been intensively performed for these two decades, over 134 compounds, mainly include stilbenoids, phenanthrenes, quinones, ketones, phenolic acids, and glycosides, have been isolated and identified from A. graminifolia. The literature surveys exhibited that the ethnomedicinal uses of A. graminifolia, such as detoxification, anti-inflammation and the ability to cure trauma and pain associated with infections, are correlated with its modern pharmacological activities, including antibacterial, anti-oxidation, anti-lipid peroxidation. Stilbenoids and phenanthrenes have been regarded as the main active substances, among which stilbenoids with open ring style have superior antitumor activity. Furthermore, phytochemical investigations, biological activities, as well as the main molecular mechanism involved the coexisted stilbenoids and phenanthrenes from other most common used medicinal plants of the same Orchidaceae family were presented, compared and discussed together.

Conclusions: This review presents the current research findings of A. graminifolia and three other related medicinal plants of the same family. Some of the traditional uses of A. graminifolia have been assessed by pharmacological studies. Despite A. graminifolia is used as an antidote and anti-aging dote, a few unsolved problems including the molecular mechanism underlying biological activities, pharmacokinetics, and in vivo detoxification tests still need to be settled extensively. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive survey and collect investigation information on A. graminifolia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114143DOI Listing
August 2021

Updated analysis of pediatric clinical studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, 2008-2019.

BMC Pediatr 2021 04 30;21(1):212. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, West China School of Public Health and West China fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Since the national clinical trials registry ( ClinicalTrials.gov ) launched in February 2000, more than 360,000 research studies in the United States and over 200 countries have registered. As the characteristics of pediatric clinical studies keep changing over time and the results-reporting mechanism is under evolving, to know about the relevant updates of data elements and the effect of policies on the quality of reporting results is significant.

Methods: In this research, 53,060 clinical studies related to children registered from January 2008 to December 2019 were downloaded from ClinicalTrials.gov on August 1st, 2020. Different types of studies and critical categorical variables were identified, based on which, Cochran-Armitage test was performed to explore temporal trend of study characteristics and common pediatric clinical conditions in four time subsets. Further, to examine heterogeneity among subgroups (funding sources, funding sites, pediatric clinical conditions,etc), chi-squared test was applied.

Results: A total of 36,136 clinical trials and 16,692 observational studies were identified during the study period. The pediatric clinical trials increased from 7,029 (January 2008-December 2010) to 11,738 (January 2017-December 2019). The number of missing data has declined, with the maximum extent decline from 3.7 to 0.0% (Z = - 15.90, p <  0.001). Drug trials decreased from 48.8 to 28.9% (Z = - 24.68, p <  0.001). Behavioral trials, on the other hand, increased from 12.6 to 20.4% (Z = 12.28, p <  0.001). Most pediatric clinical trials were small-scale (58.9% enrolling 1-100 participants), single-site (61.4%) and funded neither by industry nor by the NIH (59.2%). The proportion of reporting study results varied by study type (χ = 1,256.8, p <  0.001), lead sponsor (χ = 4,545.6, p <  0.001), enrollment (χ = 29.4, p <  0.001) and trial phase (χ = 218.8, p <  0.001).

Conclusion: Pediatric clinical studies registered in ClinicalTrials.gov were dominated by small-scale interventional trials, containing significant heterogeneity in funding sources, funding sites, pediatric clinical conditions and study characteristics. Although the results database has evolved in the past decade, efforts to strengthen the practice of systematic reporting must be continued.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02658-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086350PMC
April 2021

Positive Influence of Liquid Sodium Silicate on the Setting Time, Polymerization, and Strength Development Mechanism of MSWI Bottom Ash Alkali-Activated Mortars.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 12;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 21116, No 1, Daxue Road, Xuzhou 221116, China.

Setting time and mechanical properties are key metrics needed to assess the properties of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash alkali-activated samples. This study investigated the solidification law, polymerization, and strength development mechanism in response to NaOH and liquid sodium silicate addition. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to identify the formation rules of polymerization products and the mechanism of the underlying polymerization reaction under different excitation conditions. The results identify a strongly alkaline environment as the key factor for the dissolution of active substances as well as for the formation of polymerization products. The self-condensation reaction of liquid sodium silicate in the supersaturated state (caused by the loss of free water) is the major reason for the rapid coagulation of alkali-activated samples. The combination of both NaOH and liquid sodium silicate achieves the optimal effect, because they play a compatible coupling role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14081927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069498PMC
April 2021

Magnetic nanocarriers as a therapeutic drug delivery strategy for promoting pain-related motor functions in a rat model of cartilage transplantation.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2021 Mar 31;32(4):37. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Cartilage is an avascular tissue with low cellularity and insufficient self-repair response. In clinical practice, a large articular cartilage defect is usually fixed by cartilage transplantation. Importantly, the fast repair process has been demanded postoperatively in the area between the host cartilage and the transplanted cartilage. In the past few years, magnetic nanoparticles have drawn great attention due to their biocompatible, biodegradable, and nontoxic properties. In addition, the nanoparticles can easily pass through the cell plasma membrane and increase the cellular uptake efficiency. Here, a therapeutic drug delivery strategy was proposed for cartilage repair. The prepared kartogenin (KGN)-conjugated magnetic nanocarriers ([email protected]) promoted the viability of chondrocytes in vitro. In a rat model of cartilage transplantation, intra-articularly delivered [email protected] generated cartilage with a flat surface and a high level of aggrecan in vivo. Notably, [email protected] were also capable of improving the pain-related motor functions. They promoted the motor functional parameters including the print area and intensity to restore to a normal level compared with the single KGN. Therefore, these therapeutic drug nanocarriers provided the potential for cartilage repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10856-021-06508-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012338PMC
March 2021

Enhanced cavity coupling to silicon vacancies in 4H silicon carbide using laser irradiation and thermal annealing.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(12)

John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138;

The negatively charged silicon monovacancy [Formula: see text] in 4H silicon carbide (SiC) is a spin-active point defect that has the potential to act as a qubit in solid-state quantum information applications. Photonic crystal cavities (PCCs) can augment the optical emission of the [Formula: see text], yet fine-tuning the defect-cavity interaction remains challenging. We report on two postfabrication processes that result in enhancement of the [Formula: see text] optical emission from our PCCs, an indication of improved coupling between the cavity and ensemble of silicon vacancies. Below-bandgap irradiation at 785-nm and 532-nm wavelengths carried out at times ranging from a few minutes to several hours results in stable enhancement of emission, believed to result from changing the relative ratio of [Formula: see text] ("dark state") to [Formula: see text] ("bright state"). The much faster change effected by 532-nm irradiation may result from cooperative charge-state conversion due to proximal defects. Thermal annealing at 100 °C, carried out over 20 min, also results in emission enhancements and may be explained by the relatively low-activation energy diffusion of carbon interstitials [Formula: see text], subsequently recombining with other defects to create additional [Formula: see text]s. These PCC-enabled experiments reveal insights into defect modifications and interactions within a controlled, designated volume and indicate pathways to improved defect-cavity interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021768118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000350PMC
March 2021

Asparagine endopeptidase cleaves synaptojanin 1 and triggers synaptic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 07 4;154:105326. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Neurology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, which is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. Synaptic dysfunction impairs dopamine turnover and contributes to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic dysfunction and dopaminergic neuronal vulnerability in PD are not clear. Here, we report that synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1), a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase concentrated at nerve terminals, is a substrate of a cysteine proteinase, asparagine endopeptidase (AEP). SYNJ1 is cleaved by the cysteine proteinase AEP at N599 in the brains of PD patients. AEP-mediated cleavage of SYNJ1 disrupts neuronal phosphoinositide homeostasis and causes synaptic dysfunction. Overexpression of the AEP-generated fragments of SYNJ1 triggers synaptic dysfunction and the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, inducing motor defects in the α-synuclein transgenic mice. Blockage of AEP-mediated cleavage of SYJN1 alleviates the pathological and behavioral defects in a mouse model of PD. Our results demonstrate that the fragmentation of SYNJ1 by AEP mediates synaptic dysfunction and dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2021.105326DOI Listing
July 2021

Emergency department use by patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States.

BMC Emerg Med 2021 03 2;21(1):25. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Systems, Populations, and Leadership, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Background: We sought to describe the national characteristics of ED visits by patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the United States in order to improve the emergency treatment and screening of ESRD patients.

Methods: We analyzed data from 2014 to 2016 ED visits provided by the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We sampled adult (age ≥ 18 years) ED patients with ESRD. By proportion or means of weighted sample variables, we quantified annual ED visits by patients with ESRD. We investigated demographics, ED resource utilization, clinical characteristics, and disposition of patients with ESRD and compared these to those of patients without ESRD. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between these characteristics and ESRD ED visits.

Results: Approximately 722,692 (7.78%) out of 92,899,685 annual ED visits represented ESRD patients. Males were more likely to be ESRD patients than females (aOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.09-1.66). Compare to whites, non-Hispanic Blacks were 2.55 times more likely to have ESRD (aOR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.97-3.30), and Hispanics were 2.68 times more likely to have ESRD (95% CI: 1.95-3.69). ED patients with ESRD were more likely to be admitted to the hospital (aOR: 2.70; 95% CI: 2.13-3.41) and intensive care unit (ICU) (aOR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.45-3.38) than patients without ESRD. ED patients with ESRD were more likely to receive blood tests and get radiology tests.

Conclusion: We described the unique demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics of ED patients with ESRD, using the most comprehensive, nationally representative study to date. These patients' higher hospital and ICU admission rates indicate that patients with ESRD require a higher level of emergency care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12873-021-00420-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927369PMC
March 2021

Conditioned medium of human bone marrow-derived stem cells promotes tendon-bone healing of the rotator cuff in a rat model.

Biomaterials 2021 04 11;271:120714. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Sports Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China. Electronic address:

Rotator cuff repair is a common surgery in sports medicine. During the surgery, torn tendon was re-fixed onto the bony surface. The majority of patients gain good results. However, re-tear occurs in some patients. The reason under this phenomenon is that the normal tendon-bone enthesis cannot be reconstructed. In order to strengthen the tendon-bone healing and promote enthesis regeneration, numerous manners are tested, among which stem cell related therapies are preferred. Stem cells, due to the ability of multi-lineage differentiation, are widely used in regenerative medicine. However, safety and ethics concerns limit its clinical use. Recent studies found that it is the secretome of stem cells that is biologically effective. On ground of this, we, in the current study, collected the conditioned medium of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hBMSC-CM) and tested whether this acellular method could promote tendon-bone healing in a rat model of rotator cuff repair. By using histological, radiological, and biomechanical methods, we found that hBMSC-CM promoted tendon-bone healing of the rat rotator cuff. Then, we noticed that hBMSC-CM exerted an impact on macrophage polarization both in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting M1 phenotype and promoting M2 phenotype. Further, we proved that the benefit of hBMSC-CM on tendon-bone healing was related to its regulation on macrophage. Finally, we proved that, hBMSC-CM influenced macrophage polarization, which was, at least partially, related to Smad2/3 signaling pathway. Based on the experiments above, we confirmed the benefit of hBMSC-CM on tendon-bone healing, which relied on its immune-regulative property. Considering the accessibility and safety of acellular hBMSC-CM, we believe it is a promising candidate clinically for tendon-bone healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120714DOI Listing
April 2021

Case Report: Prenatal Diagnosis of a Fetus With Harlequin Ichthyosis Identifies Novel Compound Heterozygous Variants: A Case Report.

Front Genet 2020 12;11:608196. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Center of Medical Prenatal Diagnosis, Lishui Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Lishui, China.

Background: Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is the most severe form of the keratinizing disorders, and it is characterized by whole-body hard stratum corneum. has been identified as the major disease-causing gene of HI.

Methods: A case of HI was prenatally diagnosed by ultrasonography and genetic tests. The fetus had been found with dentofacial deformity and profound thickening of the palm and plantar soft tissues. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) and whole exome sequencing (WES) were then performed on the amniotic fluid to identify germline pathogenic variants for the fetus. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.

Results: Compound heterozygous frameshift variants (p.Q719QfsX21; p.F2286LfsX6) of were identified for the fetus, suggesting the former variants were maternally inherited and the latter paternally inherited. The fetus was terminated.

Conclusion: A prenatal molecular diagnosis is an important approach for the prevention of HI. In the study, we provided a successful case of genetic counseling for a family with an HI baby.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.608196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835937PMC
January 2021

How maternity waiting home use influences attendance of antenatal and postnatal care.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(1):e0245893. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

As highlighted in the International Year of the Nurse and the Midwife, access to quality nursing and midwifery care is essential to promote maternal-newborn health and improve survival. One intervention aimed at improving maternal-newborn health and reducing underutilization of pregnancy services is the construction of maternity waiting homes (MWHs). The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was a significant change in antenatal care (ANC) and postnatal care (PNC) attendance, family planning use, and vaccination rates before and after implementation of the Core MWH Model in rural Zambia. A quasi-experimental controlled before-and-after design was used to evaluate the impact of the Core MWH Model by assessing associations between ANC and PNC attendance, family planning use, and vaccination rates for mothers who gave birth to a child in the past 13 months. Twenty health care facilities received the Core MWH Model and 20 were identified as comparison facilities. Before-and-after community surveys were carried out. Multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the association between Core MWH Model use and ANC and PNC attendance. The total sample includes 4711 mothers. Mothers who used the Core MWH Model had better ANC and PNC attendance, family planning use, and vaccination rates than mothers who did not use a MWH. All mothers appeared to fare better across these outcomes at endline. We found an association between Core MWH Model use and better ANC and PNC attendance, family planning use, and newborn vaccination outcomes. Maternity waiting homes may serve as a catalyst to improve use of facility services for vulnerable mothers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245893PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822518PMC
June 2021
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