Publications by authors named "Xingyu Li"

93 Publications

Topology Selectivity in On-Surface Dehydrogenative Coupling Reaction: Dendritic Structure Porous Graphene Nanoribbon.

ACS Nano 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, Department of Chemical Physics and Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Chemistry and Energy Catalysis of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, P.R. China.

Selective control on the topology of low-dimensional covalent organic nanostructures in on-surface synthesis has been challenging. Herein, with combined scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we report a successful topology-selective coupling reaction on the Cu(111) surface by tuning the thermal annealing procedure. The precursor employed is 1,3,5-tris(2-bromophenyl)benzene (TBPB), for which Ullmann coupling is impeded due to the intermolecular steric hindrance. Instead, its chemisorption on the Cu(111) substrate has triggered the C-H bond activation and the following dehydrogenative coupling at room temperature (RT). In the slow annealing experimental procedure, the monomers have been preorganized by their self-assembly at RT, which enhances the formation of dendritic structures upon further annealing. However, the chaotic chirality of dimeric products (obtained at RT) and hindrance from dense molecular island make the fabrication of high-quality porous two-dimensional nanostructures difficult. In sharp contrast, direct deposition of TBPB molecules on a hot surface led to the formation of ordered porous graphene nanoribbons and nanoflakes, which is confirmed to be the energetically favorable reaction pathway through density functional theory-based thermodynamic calculations and control experiments. This work demonstrates that different thermal treatments could have a significant influence on the topology of covalent products in on-surface synthesis and presents an example of the negative effect of molecular self-assembly to the ordered covalent nanostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c08920DOI Listing
February 2021

Social listening - revealing Parkinson's disease over day and night.

BMC Neurol 2021 Jan 4;21(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

UCB Pharma, Room 02, Floor 28, Raffles Office Building, 268 Tibet Middle Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai, 200003, China.

Background: Nocturnal symptoms in Parkinson's disease are often treated after management of daytime manifestations. In order to better understand the unmet needs of nocturnal symptoms management, we analyzed the characteristics and burden of nocturnal symptoms from patients' perspectives and explored their changes over time. Overall symptoms (occurring at day or night) were collected to compare whether the unmet needs related to nocturnal symptoms and to overall symptoms are different.

Methods: We used a Social Listening big-data technique to analyze large amounts of Parkinson's disease symptoms in dialogues available from social media platforms in 2016 to 2018. These symptoms were classified as either overall symptoms or nocturnal symptoms. We used share of voice (SOV) of symptoms as a proportion of total dialogues per year to reflect the characteristics of symptoms. Negative sentiment score of symptoms was analyzed to find out their related burden.

Results: We found the SOV for overall motor symptoms was 79% and had not increased between 2016 and 2018 (79%, p = 0.5). The SOV for non-motor symptoms was 69% and had grown by 7% in 2018 (p <  0.01). The SOV for motor complications was 9% and had increased by 6% in 2018 (p <  0.01). The SOV of motor symptoms was larger than non-motor symptoms and motor complications (p <  0.01). The SOV of non-motor symptoms was larger than motor complications (p <  0.01). For nocturnal symptoms, 45% of the analyzed PD population reported nocturnal symptoms in 2018, growing by 6% (p <  0.01). The SOV for nocturnal-occurring motor symptoms was higher than most non-motor symptoms. However, non-motor symptoms had the higher increases and evoked higher negative sentiment regardless of whether they occurred during the day or night. For symptoms that can occur at either day or night, each nocturnal symptom was rated with a higher negative sentiment score than the same symptom during the day.

Conclusions: The growing SOV and the greater negative sentiment of nocturnal symptoms suggest management of nocturnal symptoms is an unmet need of patients. A greater emphasis on detecting and treating nocturnal symptoms with 24-h care is encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-02024-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780378PMC
January 2021

Unraveling the Molecular Mechanisms of Fructus Anisi Stellati as a Remedy for Infantile Colic by Network Pharmacology.

Authors:
Xingyu Li Yan Xu

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 17;2020:9210304. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Chemistry, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA.

Fructus anisi stellati (FAS) is an anise-scented star-shaped fruit from tree. It is commonly consumed in many cultures as food and medicine, particularly as a remedy for infantile colic (IC). The elucidation of molecular mechanisms of action would contribute to the understanding of the traditional therapy of FAS and help to guide the preclinical and clinical study of this herb. The aim is to investigate the key therapeutic compounds of FAS and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of FAS therapy. The chemical compounds of FAS were obtained through data mining on TCMSP and ADME screening, and the common targets of the FAS compounds and the IC-correlated diseases were obtained from PharmMapper, GeneCards, and OMIM databases. GO and KEGG databases were used for molecular function and pathway enrichment. Cytoscape was used for network construction and analysis. SystemsDock was used for molecular docking. Three key compounds (., quercetin, luteolin, and kaempferol), 19 targets, 7 molecular pathways, and 12 IC-correlated diseases were identified to be involved in the molecular mechanisms of FAS for the treatment of IC. This work showed that three therapeutic modules were primarily engaged in the molecular mechanisms of FAS for IC therapy, including the inhibition of inflammatory reactions, stimulating immunoglobulin A (IgA) production in the gastrointestinal tract, and enhancing the secretion of digestive enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9210304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762657PMC
December 2020

Autophagy Regulatory Genes MET and RIPK2 Play a Prognostic Role in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Bioinformatic Analysis Based on GEO and TCGA.

Biomed Res Int 2020 5;2020:8537381. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery II, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha City 410013, Hunan Province, China.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a common malignant tumor with a poor prognosis. Autophagy activity changes in both cancer cells and microenvironment and affects the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this study was to predict the prognostic autophagy regulatory genes and their role in the regulation of autophagy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. We draw conclusions based on gene expression data from different platforms: GSE62165 and GSE85916 from the array platform, TCGA from the bulk RNA-seq platform, and GSE111672 from the single-cell RNA-seq platform. At first, we detected differentially expressed genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma compared with normal pancreatic tissue based on GSE62165. Then, we screened prognostic genes based on GSE85916 and TCGA. Furthermore, we constructed a risk signature composed of the prognostic differentially expressed genes. Finally, we predicted the probable role of these genes in regulating autophagy and the types of cell expressing these genes. According to our screening criteria, there were only two genes: MET and RIPK2, selected into the development of the risk signature. However, evaluated by log-rank tests, receiver operating characteristic curves, and calibration curves, the risk signature was worth considering its clinical application because of good sensitivity, specificity, and stability. Besides, we predicted that both MET and RIPK2 promote autophagy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by gene set enrichment analysis. Analysis of single-cell RNA-seq data from GSE111672 revealed that both MET and RIPK2 were expressed in cancer cells while RIPK2 was also expressed in monocytes and neutrophils. After comprehensive analysis, we found that both MET and RIPK2 are related to the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and provided some associated clues for clinical application and basic experiment research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8537381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665929PMC
November 2020

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Attenuate Acute Lung Injury Induced by Ischemia Reperfusion via Suppressing the High Mobility Group Box-1.

Dose Response 2020 Oct-Dec;18(4):1559325820969340. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Pulmonary endothelial cell injury is a hallmark of acute lung injury. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) can modulate the inflammatory response via endothelial cell activation and release of inflammatory molecules. Thus, we tested whether induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can alleviate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced lung injury, and, if so, whether HMGB1 mediates the effect in a male C57BL/6 mouse model. Intravenously injected iPSCs into mice 2 h after I/R showed a significant attenuation of lung injury (assessed by lung mechanics, edema, and histology) 24 h after reperfusion (compared with controls), along with decreases in HMGB1, phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB, inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)1β, IL6 and tumor necrosis factor-α], and the activation of endothelial cells. Furthermore, these effects of iPSCs can be mimicked by blocking HMGB1 with an inhibitor in vivo and in vitro. We conclude that iPSCs can be a potential therapy for I/R-induced lung injury. These cells may exert therapeutic effects through blocking HMGB1 and inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1559325820969340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607776PMC
October 2020

Nonsurgical Secondary Prophylaxis of Esophageal Variceal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Patients: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis.

J Clin Gastroenterol 2021 Feb;55(2):159-168

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei Province.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nonsurgical secondary prophylaxis interventions for esophageal varices (EV) rebleeding in cirrhotic patients using network meta-analysis.

Materials And Methods: Secondary prophylaxis of EV rebleeding in cirrhosis is searched on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases. The quality of literatures was extracted by 2 independent investigators according to the requirements of Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, Version 5.0.0. Meta-analysis was performed on Review Manager 5.3 software for the incidence of cirrhosis EV rebleeding, rebleeding-related mortality, and overall mortality; and STATA 15.1 software was used for network meta-analysis.

Results: In all, 57 randomized controlled trials were reviewed. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL)+argon plasma coagulation has not been recommended by guidelines, and it is rarely used; the number of existing studies and the sample size are small. Considering poor stability of the combined results, these studies were excluded; 55 literatures were included. In terms of reducing the incidence of rebleeding, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) (94.3%) was superior to EBL+endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) (84.4%), EIS+β-blockers (77.9%), EBL (59.8%), EBL+β-blockers+isosorbide-5-mononitrate (52.7%), EBL+β-blockers (51.4%), EIS (34.2%), β-blockers+isosorbide-5-mononitrate (23.7%), β-blockers (20.8%), and placebo (0.8%). In reducing rebleeding-related mortality, TIPS SUCRA (87.2%) was more efficacious than EBL+EIS (83.5%), EIS (47.9%), EBL+β-blockers (47.4%), β-blockers (41.8%), EBL (34.5%), and placebo (7.6%). In reducing overall mortality, TIPS SUCRA (81.1%) was superior to EBL+EIS (68.9%), EIS+β-blockers (59.2%), EBL+β-blockers (55.4%), EIS (48.8%), EBL (48.7%), β-blockers (34.2%), placebo (3.6%).

Conclusions: TIPS was more effective in reducing the incidence of cirrhosis EV rebleeding, rebleeding-related mortality, and overall mortality in cirrhosis. Combined with the above results, TIPS is more likely to be recommended as a secondary prophylaxis intervention for EV in cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCG.0000000000001436DOI Listing
February 2021

How much off-the-shelf knowledge is transferable from natural images to pathology images?

PLoS One 2020 14;15(10):e0240530. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

The Edward S. Rogers Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Deep learning has achieved a great success in natural image classification. To overcome data-scarcity in computational pathology, recent studies exploit transfer learning to reuse knowledge gained from natural images in pathology image analysis, aiming to build effective pathology image diagnosis models. Since transferability of knowledge heavily depends on the similarity of the original and target tasks, significant differences in image content and statistics between pathology images and natural images raise the questions: how much knowledge is transferable? Is the transferred information equally contributed by pre-trained layers? If not, is there a sweet spot in transfer learning that balances transferred model's complexity and performance? To answer these questions, this paper proposes a framework to quantify knowledge gain by a particular layer, conducts an empirical investigation in pathology image centered transfer learning, and reports some interesting observations. Particularly, compared to the performance baseline obtained by a random-weight model, though transferability of off-the-shelf representations from deep layers heavily depend on specific pathology image sets, the general representation generated by early layers does convey transferred knowledge in various image classification applications. The trade-off between transferable performance and transferred model's complexity observed in this study encourages further investigation of specific metric and tools to quantify effectiveness of transfer learning in future.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0240530PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556818PMC
December 2020

Regulation of phenolic release in corn seeds (Zea mays L.) for improving their antioxidant activity by mix-culture fermentation with Monascus anka, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus subtilis.

J Biotechnol 2021 Jan 7;325:334-340. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

School of Environmental Ecology and Biological Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan, 430205, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, mix-culture fermentation (MF) with M. anka, S. cerevisiae and B. subtilis to regulate phenolic release in corn seeds was investigated. Results showed the adding strategy of S. cerevisiae and B. subtilis significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the total phenolic content (TPC) of corn seeds, and the highest TPC in MF was 22.56-fold rise than that of unfermented control. Moreover, the phenolic compounds in corn seeds were shifted after MF. SDS-PAGE revealed some enzymes produced by microorganisms were regulated, and the α-amylase and FPase activities were changed to improvement in MF. SEM micrographs of corn seeds in MF varied markedly with the cell walls structure destroyed, so as to release of the phenolic fractions in corn seeds. Based on the phenolic mobilization, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities of phenolic fractions from corn seeds were improved in MF. This paper provides a prospect fermentation process for improving the phenolic release in corn cereals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2020.10.002DOI Listing
January 2021

Using structural analysis to explore the role of hepatitis B virus mutations in immune escape from liver cancer in Chinese, European and American populations.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Oct 8:1-11. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Key Laboratory of DGHD, MOE, Institute of Life Sciences, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important problem threatening human health. After HBV virus invades human body, it may assemble a complete virus particle in the cytoplasm to trigger the immune reaction, especially the interaction between the HBV virus and the host that mediated by CD8 T cell. We collected the sequences of HBV from the HBVdb database, then screened candidate mutation sites in Chinese, European and American populations based on conservation and physicochemical properties. After that we constructed the three-dimensional structure of Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) -peptide complexes, performed molecular docking, run molecular dynamics to compare the binding free energy, stability, and affinity of MHC I-peptide complexes with the aim to estimate the effect of peptide mutation. The specific HBV virus subtypes of the Chinese, European and American population were studied and the candidate mutation sites were used to predict the mutant peptide antigen. Finally, based on physical and chemical properties and peptide antigen prediction scores, 21 HBV mutation sites were selected. Then combined with specific Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) subtypes, 11 mutations were found to have a significant negative impact on affinity, stability and binding free energy. Overall, our work found important potential mutations, which provide an evaluation of HBV mutations and a clue of it in immunotherapy. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1830852DOI Listing
October 2020

PD-1 expression is elevated in monocytes from hepatocellular carcinoma patients and contributes to CD8 T cell suppression.

Immunol Res 2020 12 25;68(6):436-444. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First People's Hospital of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

It is recently shown that PD-1 expression by immune cells of the myeloid lineage contributes to the suppression of antitumor immunity. The expression of PD-1 by antigen-presenting cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a malignancy with high intratumoral PD-L1 expression, remained understudied. Here, we found that circulating monocytes from HBV-associated HCC patients upregulated PD-1 in a severity-dependent manner. Monocyte stimulation using IFN-γ or high levels of IL-10 could slightly increase PD-1 expression, while LPS could markedly increase PD-1 expression. Interestingly, LPS in combination with IL-4 or IL-10 presented stronger stimulation of PD-1 expression than LPS in combination with IFN-γ or LPS alone. At resting state, PD-1 monocytes presented comparable MHC-I and IL-12 expression and higher MHC-II, CD86, iNOS, arginase I, and IL-10 expression than PD-1 monocytes. Upon LPS stimulation, PD-1 monocytes presented lower iNOS and higher arginase I and IL-10 expression than PD-1 monocytes, indicating an M2-polarization bias in PD-1 monocytes. CD8 T cells following coculture with PD-1 monocytes presented lower IFN-γ and lower TNF-α expression, together with lower proliferation capacity, than CD8 T cells following coculture with PD-1 monocytes, suggesting that PD-1 monocytes were less capable of supporting CD8 T cell activation. Overall, these data indicated that PD-1 expression was elevated in monocytes from hepatocellular carcinoma patients. In addition, PD-1 monocytes presented a preference toward M2 polarization and had a deficiency in supporting CD8 T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-020-09155-3DOI Listing
December 2020

The relationship of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 methylation to early-life stress and its impact on short-term antidepressant treatment response.

J Affect Disord 2020 11 22;276:850-858. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Psychosomatics and Psychiatry, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

Introduction: The gene tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) encodes the associated rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis 5-HT (serotonin). Early life stress and adult variability in TPH2 can correspond with diminished response to antidepressants for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism mediating gene expression, often tempered by environmental factors. Here, we investigate the influence of TPH2 methylation combined with stress on response to antidepressants within the first two weeks of treatment initiation.

Methods: 291 Han Chinese patients with major depressive disorder and 100 healthy controls comprised the study population. The Life Events Scale (LES) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) rated recent and early-life stress. The primary outcome equaled a reduction by ≥ 50% from the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD-17) after 2 weeks of treatment. The Illumina HiSeq platform assessed methylation status in 38 CpG sites located upstream and downstream of 11 TPH2 polymorphism sites.

Results: In 291 patients and 100 healthy controls, 3 CpG sites predict antidepressant treatment response per sex (TPH2-7-142, p=0.012; TPH2-1-43, p=0.033; TPH2-5-203, p=0.036). High-level CTQ scores relate significantly to DNA hypomethylation at CpG-site TPH2-8-237 in males (false discovery rate [FDR]-corrected p=0.038). Additionally, the interaction of hypermethylation in two CpG sites and elevated early-life stress may reduce antidepressant response (TPH2-5-203, FDR corrected p=0.010; TPH2-10-60, FDR corrected p=0.001).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that TPH2 methylation and its interaction with early-life stress may impair antidepressant response, suggesting that pharmaco-epigenetic studies could identify epigenetic biomarkers for antidepressant response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.111DOI Listing
November 2020

Elevated Expression of RIOK1 Is Correlated with Breast Cancer Hormone Receptor Status and Promotes Cancer Progression.

Cancer Res Treat 2020 Oct 8;52(4):1067-1083. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Purpose: RIOK1 has been proved to play an important role in cancer cell proliferation and migration in various types of cancers-such as colorectal and gastric cancers. However, the expression of RIOK1 in breast cancer (BC) and the relationship between RIOK1 expression and the development of BC are not well characterized. In this study, we assessed the expression of RIOK1 in BC and evaluated the mechanisms underlying its biological function in this disease context.

Materials And Methods: We used immunohistochemistry, western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the expression of RIOK1 in BC patients. Then, knockdown or overexpression of RIOK1 were used to evaluate the effect on BC cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we predicted miR-204-5p could be a potential regulator of RIOK1.

Results: We found that the expression levels of RIOK1 were significantly higher in hormone receptor (HR)-negative BC patients and was associated with tumor grades (p=0.010) and p53 expression (p=0.008) and survival duration (p=0.011). Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested a tendency for the poor prognosis. In vitro, knockdown of RIOK1 could inhibit proliferation, invasion, and induced apoptosis in HR-negative BC cells and inhibited tumorigenesis in vivo, while overexpression of RIOK1 promoted HR-positive tumor progression. MiR-204-5p could regulate RIOK1 expression and be involved in BC progression.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that RIOK1 expression could be a biomarker of HR-negative BC, and it may serve as an effective prognostic indicator and promote BC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577803PMC
October 2020

A Comparison of Dexmedetomidine and Midazolam for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Caused by Hemabate in Cesarean Delivery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2020 28;14:2127-2133. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang,People's Republic of China.

Objective: To compare the efficacy of dexmedetomidine and midazolam in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) caused by hemabate in postpartum hemorrhage during cesarean delivery.

Methods: One hundred and five parturients with American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical status I and II, aged 20-40 years, undergoing elective cesarean delivery under epidural anesthesia were randomly allocated into dexmedetomidine group (group D, n=35), midazolam group (group M, n=35) and control group (group C, n=35). Patients received an intrauterine injection of 250 μg hemabate and continuous intravenous infusion of 5 units oxytocin immediately following the delivery of the infant. At the same time, patients in group D received 1μg/kg intravenous dexmedetomidine, group M received 0.02 mg/kg intravenous midazolam and group C received 20 mL intravenous saline. Parameters such as the PONV, other adverse reactions (chest distress, flush, etc.) caused by hemabate, patient satisfaction, the sedation (OAA/S) scores, and the hemodynamic parameters were recorded in both groups.

Results: The PONV incidence in group D and group M was significantly lower compared with group C (6%, 17%, and 71% for group D, group M, and group C, respectively, P<0.05). The sedation (OAA/S) scores in group D and group M was significantly higher compared with group C (1.62±0.28, 1.75±0.31, and 1.00±0.00 for group D, group M, and group C, respectively, P<0.05). The patient satisfaction in group D and group M was significantly higher compared with group C (94%, 69%, and 46% for group D, group M, and group C, respectively, P<0.05). Furthermore, there were more patients satisfied with group D than group M (94% vs.69%, P<0.05).

Conclusion: Intravenous dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg) and midazolam (0.02 mg/kg) were equally effective in preventing PONV introduced by hemabate and dexmedetomidine is superior to midazolam in patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S251525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266306PMC
May 2020

Licochalcone A reverses NNK-induced ectopic miRNA expression to elicit in vitro and in vivo chemopreventive effects.

Phytomedicine 2020 May 22;76:153245. Epub 2020 May 22.

School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica; Key Laboratory of Computational Chemistry-Based Natural Antitumor Drug Research & Development, Liaoning Province, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: Chemoprevention is the best cost-effective way regarding cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be differentially expressed during the development of lung cancer. However, if lung cancer prevention can be achieved through modulating miRNAs expression so far remains unknown.

Purpose: To discover ectopically expressed miRNAs in NNK-induced lung cancer and clarify whether Licochalcone A (lico A) can prevent NNK-induced lung cancer by modulating miRNA expression.

Study Design And Methods: A/J mice were used to construct a lung cancer model by intraperitoneal injection with physiological saline NNK (100 mg/kg). Chemopreventive effects of lico A against lung cancer at 2 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg doses were evaluated in vivo. MicroRNA array and RT-qPCR were used to assess the expression levels of miRNAs. MLE-12 cells were treated with 0.1 mg/ml NNK, stimulating the ectopic expression pattern of miR-144-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-29c-3p, let-7d-3p, and miR-328-3p. miR-144-3p mimics and inhibitors were used to manipulate miR-144-3p levels. The effects of lico A (10 μM) on cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and the expression of CK19, RASA1, miR-144-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-29c-3p, let-7d-3p, and miR-328-3p in NNK-treated MLE-12 cells were studied.

Results: The expression levels of miR-144-3p, miR-20a-5p, and miR-29c-3p increased, while those of let-7d-3p and miR-328-3p decreased in both NNK-induced A/J mice and MLE-12 cells. Lico A could reverse the NNK-induced ectopic miRNA (miR-144-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-29c-3p, let-7d-3p, and miR-328-3p) expression both in vivo and in vitro and elicit in vivo lung cancer chemopreventive effect against NNK. In MLE-12 cells, the overexpression of miR-144-3p elicited the same effect as NNK regarding the expression of lung cancer biomarker CK19; the silencing of miR-144-3p reversed the effect of NNK on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. Lico A could reverse the effect of NNK on the expression of miR-144-3p, CK19, and RASA1 (predicted target of miR-144-3p).

Conclusion: The present study suggests that miR-144-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-29c-3p, let-7d-3p, and miR-328-3p were involved in the in vivo pathogenesis of NNK-induced lung cancer, and lico A could reverse the effect of NNK both in vivo and in vitro to elicit lung cancer chemopreventive effects through, at least partially, these five ectopically expressed miRNAs, especially miR-144-3p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153245DOI Listing
May 2020

siVEGF-loaded nanoparticle uptake by tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

This study examined nanoparticle entry into tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells during transport to hepatocellular carcinoma cells and tumors. siVEGF was loaded into CS-SS-9R/BSA-cRGD nanoparticles (CBc NPs). The intracellular uptake, gene silencing efficiency, antiproliferation and antiangiogenic effect of the NPs were performed on EA.hy926 cells. antitumor and antiangiogenic effects were investigated in Bel-7402 tumor-bearing nude mice. siVEGF-loaded CBc NPs entered EA.hy926 cells and suppressed their proliferation and capillary formation. The NPs also inhibited tumor proliferation and angiogenesis in tumor-bearing mice, which attributed to the downregulation of mRNA expression in tumor tissue. The uptake of siVEGF-loaded CBc NPs by tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells made important contributions in controlling the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2020-0082DOI Listing
May 2020

Targeted Theranostics for Tuberculosis: A Rifampicin-Loaded Aggregation-Induced Emission Carrier for Granulomas Tracking and Anti-Infection.

ACS Nano 2020 07 15;14(7):8046-8058. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Center for Infection and Immunity, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai 519000, Guangdong, P.R. China.

Tuberculosis (TB) causes a global burden with its high rates of infection and death, especially the irrepressible threats of latent infection and drug resistance. Therefore, it is important to construct efficient theranostics for the prevention and control of TB. Herein, we created a targeted theranostic strategy for TB with a rifampicin-loaded aggregation-induced emission (AIE) carrier and performed testing in laboratory animals. The AIE carrier was constructed to localize in the granulomas and emit fluorescent signals at the early stage of infection, enabling the early diagnosis of TB. Subsequently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated to eradicate infection, and the loaded rifampicin (RIF) was released for the synergistic treatment of persistent bacteria. Furthermore, targeted TB therapy was performed with the light-controlled release of ROS and accurate delivery of RIF, which realizes an anti-infection effect, providing an especially important treatment for drug-resistant TB. Thus, targeted theranostics for TB in laboratory animals possess the potential to become granulomas-tracking and anti-infection strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c00586DOI Listing
July 2020

Improvement of muscular atrophy by AAV-SaCas9-mediated myostatin gene editing in aged mice.

Cancer Gene Ther 2020 Dec 13;27(12):960-975. Epub 2020 May 13.

College of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, 450002, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, People's Republic of China.

Muscle mass and area usually decrease with age, and this phenomenon is known as sarcopenia. This age-related atrophy correlates with insufficient levels of muscle cells differentiate and proliferate regulated by the TGF-β signaling pathway and the expression of E3s ubiquitin-protein ligase by the aged. Sarcopenia makes a huge impact on the aging society, because it has the characteristic of high incidence, extensive adverse effects and disease aggravation gradually. Guided by a single-guide RNA (sgRNA), Cas9 nuclease has been widely used in genome editing, opening up a new pathway for sarcopenia treatment. Here, we present two rAAV9 systems, pX601-AAV-CMV:SaCas9-U6:sgRNA and pX601-AAV-EF1α:SaCas9-tRNA: sgRNA, which edited myostatin efficiently. By delivering the two rAAV-SaCas9 targets to myostatin via intramuscular injection of aged mice, an increase in body weight and an increase in the number and area of myofibers were observed. Knockout of myostatin led to TGF-β signaling pathway changes, and increased MyoD, Pax7 and MyoG protein levels and increased the number of satellite cells to improve muscle cells differentiation. Moreover, knockout of myostatin prevented the atrophy of muscle cells through reduced Murf1 and MAFbx protein levels. We found that both rAAV-SaCas9 systems had gene editing efficiency, reducing the expression of myostatin by affecting the relevant signaling pathways, thereby altering the physiological status. We showed that myostatin has an important role in activating skeletal muscle proliferation and inhibiting muscular atrophy during aging. Thus, we propose that knockout of myostatin using the rAAV9-SaCas9 system has significant therapeutic potential in sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41417-020-0178-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725670PMC
December 2020

Development and application of a colloidal gold test strip for the rapid detection of the infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

Poult Sci 2020 May 17;99(5):2407-2415. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

College of Life Science and Technology, Southwest Minzu University, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

Infectious laryngotracheitis disease is an acute, highly contagious viral disease seriously affecting poultry industry worldwide. In this study, a rapid and simple immune colloidal gold test strip for detecting infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) was developed based on membrane chromatography with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against gJ protein of ILTV and systematically evaluated for the detection of ILTV from clinical samples. mAb 2D4 1D7 was conjugated with colloidal gold as the detector antibody on the test strip. Another mAb, 1D8 1G3, was used as the capture complex at the test line (T-line), and goat antimouse IgG antibody was used as the capture antibody at the control line (C-line). The colloidal gold test strip showed high specificity in the detection of ILTV, with no cross-reaction with other avian pathogens, including infectious bronchitis virus, infectious bursal disease virus, avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, fowl adenoviruses, and Marek's disease virus. Besides, the detection limit of this method was as low as 60 ELD/mL for the ILTV Wanggang strain. Furthermore, we evaluated its application in 260 clinical samples suspected of infection with ILTV. Results from the strip test were nearly identical with those from real-time PCR (coincidence rate 99.6%) and showed higher sensitivity than conventional PCR. All the results obtained in this study indicated that the colloidal gold test strip can be applied as a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnostic tool for the detection of ILTV, especially in resource-limited areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2019.11.066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597402PMC
May 2020

A modified loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detecting avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

Anim Biotechnol 2020 Apr 23:1-8. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Animal Science Academy, Chengdu, China.

This study was aimed to establish a highly specific and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for diagnosing avian infectious laryngotracheitis (AILT). DNA was extracted from isolated infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) strains and control samples, followed by PCR using three sets of six specific primers. The detection efficiency of the LAMP assay was evaluated by the turbidity and calcein methods. The sensitivity of LAMP was then assessed using a concentration gradient followed by a specificity analysis. Furthermore, the detection efficiency of LAMP and PCR was compared. Finally, a clinical test was performed to evaluate the value of the LAMP assay. The optimal temperature for the LAMP reaction was 66 °C. Meanwhile, the primers selected for the LAMP assay were highly specific for the target virus. The sensitivity of the turbidity and calcein methods for LAMP was consistent. The minimum detection concentration of LAMP was 0.06 pg/μL, which was 100-fold higher than that of PCR. Furthermore, the results from clinical samples showed that the LAMP method could identify AILT from many samples. The newly designed LAMP assay was an effective method for AILT detection at an optimal temperature of 66 °C with a minimum detection concentration of 0.06 pg/µL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2020.1755676DOI Listing
April 2020

Annexin A2 gene interacting with viral matrix protein to promote bovine ephemeral fever virus release.

J Vet Sci 2020 Mar;21(2):e33

Ruminant Diseases Research Center, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014, China.

Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV) causes bovine ephemeral fever, which can produce considerable economic damage to the cattle industry. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding the underlying mechanisms of BEFV. Annexin A2 (AnxA2) is a calcium and lipid-conjugated protein that binds phospholipids and the cytoskeleton in a Ca-dependent manner, and it participates in various cellular functions, including vesicular trafficking, organization of membrane domains, and virus proliferation. The role of the AnxA2 gene during virus infection has not yet been reported. In this study, we observed that AnxA2 gene expression was up-regulated in BHK-21 cells infected with the virus. Additionally, overexpression of the AnxA2 gene promoted the release of mature virus particles, whereas BEFV replication was remarkably inhibited after reducing AnxA2 gene expression by using the small interfering RNA (siRNA). For viral proteins, overexpression of the Matrix (M) gene promotes the release of mature virus particles. Moreover, the AnxA2 protein interaction with the M protein of BEFV was confirmed by GST pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Experimental results indicate that the C-terminal domain (268-334 aa) of AxnA2 contributes to this interaction. An additional mechanistic study showed that AnxA2 protein interacts with M protein and mediates the localization of the M protein at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the absence of the AnxA2-V domain could attenuate the effect of AnxA2 on BEFV replication. These findings can contribute to elucidating the regulation of BEFV replication and may have implications for antiviral strategy development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2020.21.e33DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113574PMC
March 2020

Ecology and etiology of bacterial top rot in maize caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae KpC4.

Microb Pathog 2020 Feb 29;139:103906. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

College of Plant Protection, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, 650201, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen in humans and animals. Recently, K. pneumoniae KpC4 was identified as a causative agent of bacterial top rot in maize, which has been observed in many areas of Yunnan province, China. KpC4 is potentially dangerous to humans and livestock due to its cross-kingdom infection ability. Our study revealed the disease cycle of maize bacterial top rot caused by KpC4 and the ecological adaptability and host range of KpC4. We found same pathogenicity in maize between KpC4, the environmental strains E1, E4 (K1 serotype), E5, and the clinical strain K. pneumoniae 138 (Kp138). Alternative hosts of K. pneumoniae include not only humans and animals but also a variety of plants (such as maize, banana and sorghum). One of the survival strategies of K. pneumoniae is ecological adaptability, which is an essential factor for KpC4 to be able to cause bacterial top rot in maize. K. pneumoniae, for example, could survive in large numbers (2.34 ± 0.22 × 10 cfu/g) not only in the maize leaves (2.34 ± 0.22 × 10 cfu/g) under natural light, but persist in dried maize plant debris (1.51 × 10 cfu/g) for at least 6 months. K. pneumoniae strains from different sources can generally induce infection in susceptible hosts. Thus, this study revealed the ecological basis of KpC4 cross-kingdom infections, laying the foundation for the study of the mechanisms underlying cross-kingdom infections involving this type of human/animal opportunistic pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103906DOI Listing
February 2020

The effects of c-Src kinase on EMT signaling pathway in human lens epithelial cells associated with lens diseases.

BMC Ophthalmol 2019 Nov 8;19(1):219. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Ophthalmology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, Shaanxi, China.

Background: The signaling pathway of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is regulated by c-Src kinase in many cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of c-Src kinase on EMT of human lens epithelial cells in vivo stimulated by different factors.

Methods: Human lens epithelial cells, HLE-B3, were exposed to either an inflammatory factor, specifically IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α or IL-1β, at 10 ng/mL or high glucose (35.5 mM) for 30 mins. Activity of c-Src kinase was evaluated by the expression of p-Src with western blot assay. To investigate the effects of activation of c-Src on EMT, HLE-B3 cells were transfected with pCDNA3.1-Src to upregulate activity of c-Src kinase, and pSlience4.1-ShSrc to knock it down. The expressions of c-Src kinase and molecular markers of EMT such as E-cadherin, ZO-1, α-SMA, and Vimentin were examined at 48 h by RT-PCR and western blot. At 48 h and 72 h of transfection, cell proliferation was detected by MTT, and cell mobility and migration were determined by scratch and transwell assays.

Results: Activity of c-Src kinase, which causes the expression of p-Src, was upregulated by different inflammatory factors and high glucose in HLE-B3 cells. When HLE-B3 cells were transfected with pCDNA3.1-Src, the expression of c-Src kinase was upregulated on both mRNA and protein levels, and activity of c-Src kinase, expression of p-Src increased. The expressions of both E-cadherin and ZO-1 were suppressed, while the expressions of vimentin and α-SMA were elevated on both mRNA and protein levels at the same time. Cell proliferation, mobility and migration increased along with activation of c-Src kinase. Conversely, when HLE-B3 cells were transfected with pSlience4.1-ShSrc, both c-Src kinase and p-Src expressions were knocked down. The expressions of E-cadherin and ZO-1 increased, but the expressions of Vimentin and α-SMA decreased; meanwhile, cell proliferation, mobility and migration reduced.

Conclusions: The c-Src kinase in lens epithelial cells is easily activated by external stimuli, resulting in the induction of cell proliferation, mobility, migration and EMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-019-1229-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6842207PMC
November 2019

Genome-wide identification of microsatellite markers from cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

BMC Genomics 2019 Nov 1;20(1):799. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Crops Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, South China Peanut Sub-Center of National Center of Oilseed Crops Improvement, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Crop Genetic Improvement, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Background: Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), represent important DNA variations that are widely distributed across the entire plant genome and can be used to develop SSR markers, which can then be used to conduct genetic analyses and molecular breeding. Cultivated peanut (A. hypogaea L.), an important oil crop worldwide, is an allotetraploid (AABB, 2n = 4× = 40) plant species. Because of its complex genome, genomic marker development has been very challenging. However, sequencing of cultivated peanut genome allowed us to develop genomic markers and construct a high-density physical map.

Results: A total of 8,329,496 SSRs were identified, including 3,772,653, 4,414,961, and 141,882 SSRs that were distributed in subgenome A, B, and nine scaffolds, respectively. Based on the flanking sequences of the identified SSRs, a total of 973,984 newly developed SSR markers were developed in subgenome A (462,267), B (489,394), and nine scaffolds (22,323), with an average density of 392.45 markers per Mb. In silico PCR evaluation showed that an average of 88.32% of the SSR markers generated only one in silico-specific product in two tetraploid A. hypogaea varieties, Tifrunner and Shitouqi. A total of 39,599 common SSR markers were identified among the two A. hypogaea varieties and two progenitors, A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. Additionally, an amplification effectiveness of 44.15% was observed by real PCR validation. Moreover, a total of 1276 public SSR loci were integrated with the newly developed SSR markers. Finally, a previously known leaf spot quantitative trait locus (QTL), qLLS_T13_A05_7, was determined to be in a 1.448-Mb region on chromosome A05. In this region, a total of 819 newly developed SSR markers were located and 108 candidate genes were detected.

Conclusions: The availability of these newly developed and public SSR markers both provide a large number of molecular markers that could potentially be used to enhance the process of trait genetic analyses and improve molecular breeding strategies for cultivated peanut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-6148-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6824139PMC
November 2019

Size and Shape Filtering of Malignant Cell Clusters within Breast Tumors Identifies Scattered Individual Epithelial Cells as the Most Valuable Histomorphological Clue in the Prognosis of Distant Metastasis Risk.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 10 22;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Basic and Environmental Science, Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo (INTEC), Santo Domingo 10602, Dominican Republic.

Survival and life quality of breast cancer patients could be improved by more aggressive chemotherapy for those at high metastasis risk and less intense treatments for low-risk patients. Such personalized treatment cannot be currently achieved due to the insufficient reliability of metastasis risk prognosis. The purpose of this study was therefore, to identify novel histopathological prognostic markers of metastasis risk through exhaustive computational image analysis of 80 size and shape subsets of epithelial clusters in breast tumors. The group of 102 patients had a follow-up median of 12.3 years, without lymph node spread and systemic treatments. Epithelial cells were stained by the AE1/AE3 pan-cytokeratin antibody cocktail. The size and shape subsets of the stained epithelial cell clusters were defined in each image by use of the circularity and size filters and analyzed for prognostic performance. Epithelial areas with the optimal prognostic performance were uniformly small and round and could be recognized as individual epithelial cells scattered in tumor stroma. Their count achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.82, total area (AUC = 0.77), average size (AUC = 0.63), and circularity (AUC = 0.62). In conclusion, by use of computational image analysis as a hypothesis-free discovery tool, this study reveals the histomorphological marker with a high prognostic value that is simple and therefore easy to quantify by visual microscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11101615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6826383PMC
October 2019

Physiological and Metabolomics Analyses Reveal the Roles of Fulvic Acid in Enhancing the Production of Astaxanthin and Lipids in under Abiotic Stress Conditions.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Nov 1;67(45):12599-12609. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Faculty of Life Science and Technology , Kunming University of Science and Technology , Kunming 650500 , China.

In this study, it was found that fulvic acid (FA) enhanced the contents of astaxanthin and lipids in under high light and nitrogen starvation conditions by 2- and 1.2-fold, respectively. Meanwhile, the carbohydrate and chlorophyll contents were decreased by FA induction, whereas the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) as well as the expression of astaxanthin and lipid biosynthetic genes were increased. To further explore the interrelation between FA and the biosynthesis of astaxanthin and lipids, a metabolomics analysis of by combined FA and abiotic stress exposure was conducted by using LC-MS/MS. The contents of some cytoprotective metabolites and signal molecules, including d-maltose, succinate, malic acid, melatonin (MT), and some amino acids, were increased under FA induction and abiotic stress conditions. These metabolites are intermediates in the TCA cycle and Calvin cycle, providing more precursors for the synthesis of astaxanthin and lipids. Moreover, the signal molecules might contribute to enhancing the abiotic stress tolerance. This study provided new insights into the regulatory mechanism of FA on astaxanthin and lipid accumulation in . .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b04964DOI Listing
November 2019

Improvement in lipid production in Monoraphidium sp. QLY-1 by combining fulvic acid treatment and salinity stress.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Dec 21;294:122179. Epub 2019 Sep 21.

Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China. Electronic address:

The effects of the combined treatment of fulvic acid (FA) and salinity stress on lipid production in Monoraphidium sp. QLY-1 at multiple levels was investigated in this study. The results indicated that the highest lipid content (59.53%) in QLY-1 was achieved by combining FA treatment and salinity stress. Compared with the control group and FA addition alone, the group treated with both FA and salinity stress had increased contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidases, and nitric oxide (NO). Additionally, the addition of FA enhanced the expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and key genes related to lipid biosynthesis in QLY-1 under salinity stress. Collectively, biochemical analyses indicated that ROS, NO, MAPK, expression of lipid biosynthesis-related genes and antioxidant systems were involved in the lipid biosynthesis pathways of QLY-1 under the combined treatment of FA and salinity stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122179DOI Listing
December 2019

Cytotoxic Xanthones from , an Ethnomedicine in Southwest China.

Molecules 2019 Oct 2;24(19). Epub 2019 Oct 2.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081, China.

, a species endemic to China, is used to treat hepatitis by several ethnic groups in Guizhou Province. This research was inspired by the traditional medicinal usage of , and aims to explore the phytochemistry and bioactivity of to explain why local people in Guizhou widely apply for liver protection. In this study, two new prenylated xanthones, hypxanthones A () and B (), together with seven known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of the plant. Spectroscopic data as well as experimental and calculated ECD spectra were used to establish the structures of these compounds. Six xanthones isolated in this study, together with four xanthones previously isolated from , were evaluated for their growth-inhibitory activities against five human liver carcinoma cell lines to analyze the bioactivity and structure-activity relationship of xanthones from H. stellatum. Isojacareubin () showed significant cytotoxicity against five human liver carcinoma cell lines, with an IC value ranging from 1.41 to 11.83 μM, which was stronger than the positive control cisplatin (IC = 4.47-20.62 μM). Hypxanthone B () showed moderate cytotoxicity to three of the five cell lines. Finally, structure-activity analysis revealed that the prenyl and pyrano substituent groups of these xanthones contributed to their cytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804229PMC
October 2019

Activation-Induced Cell Death of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells Is Amplified by OX40 in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

J Immunol 2019 11 2;203(10):2614-2620. Epub 2019 Oct 2.

Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Qingyuan People's Hospital, Qingyuan 511518, China;

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells play a key role in local and systemic immune responses. Studies suggest that type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with alterations in the human MAIT cell response. However, the mechanisms that regulate the survival and homeostasis of human MAIT cells are poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that the costimulatory TNF superfamily receptor OX40 was highly expressed in MAIT cells of patients with T2D. Compared with OX40-negative MAIT cells, OX40-positive MAIT cells showed a high activation and a memory phenotype. Surprisingly, OX40 expression was negatively correlated with the frequency of MAIT cells in the peripheral blood of T2D patients. Increased cleaved caspase-3 levels were observed in OX40-expressing MAIT cells in T2D patients. In vitro, activated OX40 signaling by recombinant OX40L protein promoted caspase-3 activation and apoptosis of MAIT cells. Inhibition of caspase-3 restored apoptosis of MAIT cells induced by OX40 signaling. These results identify OX40 as an amplifier of activation-induced cell death of human blood MAIT cells and shed new light on the regulation of MAIT cells in the phase of immune responses in T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1900367DOI Listing
November 2019

Medical Robotics in Bone Fracture Reduction Surgery: A Review.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 08 18;19(16). Epub 2019 Aug 18.

State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China.

Since the advantages of precise operation and effective reduction of radiation, robots have become one of the best choices for solving the defects of traditional fracture reduction surgery. This paper focuses on the application of robots in fracture reduction surgery, design of the mechanism, navigation technology, robotic control, interaction technology, and the bone-robot connection technology. Through literature review, the problems in current fracture reduction robot and its future development are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19163593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6720500PMC
August 2019

Biocontrol of Soft Rot of Chinese Cabbage Using an Endophytic Bacterial Strain.

Front Microbiol 2019 3;10:1471. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Faculty of Plant Protection, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, China.

Soft rot caused by subsp. () is a major constraint in the production of Chinese cabbage. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that the causative agent may be successfully managed by KC-1, both and . Chinese cabbage seedlings were cultivated in organic substrate termed bio-organic substrate using a floating-seedling system with KC-1. This approach was applied in a greenhouse to evaluate the management of soft rot. The results showed that the extent of soft rot, as well as the transmission of to the stem progeny and its survival in the rhizosphere, was reduced following inoculation with KC-1. In contrast, the population diversity of KC-1 persisted in the Chinese cabbage stems after germination. These findings revealed that KC-1 was able to survive and suppress the growth of in Chinese cabbage and its rhizosphere, protecting the host from the pathogen. The use of KC-1 throughout the growth period of plants may be an effective strategy for the prevention of soft rot in Chinese cabbage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616379PMC
July 2019