Publications by authors named "Xingxing Zhang"

118 Publications

sRNA STnc150 is involved in virulence regulation of Salmonella Typhimurium by targeting fimA mRNA.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, 832003, China.

Small RNAs (sRNAs) are essential virulent regulators in Salmonella typhimurium (STM). To explore the role of sRNA STnc150 in regulating STM virulence, we constructed a STnc150 deletion strain (ΔSTnc150) and its complementary strain (ΔSTnc150/C). Then, we compared their characteristics to their original parent strain experimentally, identified the target genes of STnc150, and determined the expression levels of target genes. The results showed that the ΔSTnc150 strain exhibited delayed biofilm formation, enhanced adhesion to macrophages, significantly reduced LD50, increased liver and spleen viral loads, and more vital pathological damaging ability than its parent and complementary strains. Further, bioinformatics combined with the bacterial dual plasmid reporter system confirmed that the bases 72-88 of STnc150 locating at the secondary stem-loop structure of the STnc150 are complementary with the bases 1-19 in the 5'-terminal of fimA mRNA of the type 1 fimbriae subunit. Western blot analysis showed that fimA protein level was increased in STnc150 strain compared with its parent and complementary strains. Together, this study suggested that STnc150 can down-regulate STM fimA expression at the translation level, which provided insights into the regulatory mechanisms of sRNAs in virulence of Salmonella typhimurium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnab124DOI Listing
September 2021

The clinical effect of aspirin combined with low-molecular-weight heparin in the treatment of severe preeclampsia and the combination's effect on pregnancy outcomes.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(8):9113-9121. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Obstetrics, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital Xi'an 710068, Shaanxi Province, China.

Objective: To explore the clinical effects of aspirin combined with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in the treatment of patients with severe preeclampsia and the combination's influence on pregnancy outcomes.

Methods: From October 2018 to June 2020, 104 patients with severe preeclampsia who underwent treatment in our hospital were recruited as the study cohort and divided into two groups according to different treatment scheme each patient underwent. In the research group (RG), the 54 patients were administered aspirin combined with LMWH, and the other 50 patients in the control group (CG) were administered routine treatment. The total effective rates were compared between the two groups. The blood pressure, coagulation function, hemorheology, and renal function indexes were compared before and after the therapy. The Apgar scores of the newborns and the incidences of adverse pregnancy outcomes were measured at 1 and 5 minutes after the births.

Results: After the therapy, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in the RG were lower than they were in the CG. The PT and APTT in the RG were significantly higher than they were in the CG, and the FIB and D-D were significantly lower than they were in the CG. After the treatment, the hematocrit, the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the plasma viscosity in the RG were significantly lower than they were in the CG. The 24 h UP, BUN, UA, and Scr levels in the RG were significantly lower than they were in the CG. The Apgar scores of the newborns in the RG were significantly higher than they were in the CG at 1 min and 5 min after the births. After the therapy, the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the RG was significantly lower than it was in the CG, and the total effective rate in the RG was significantly higher than it was in the CG.

Conclusion: Aspirin combined with LMWH can effectively improve the clinical efficacy, the coagulation function, the renal function, and the blood pressure levels, and the combination can reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes in severe preeclampsia patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430098PMC
August 2021

Characterization and functional properties of conjugates of rice protein with exopolysaccharides from ps-5 by Maillard reaction.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 11;9(9):4745-4757. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

School of Food Science and Technology Dalian Polytechnic University Dalian China.

The study examined the potential nutritive value of rice protein (RP) through Maillard reaction. Structures and properties of synthetic conjugates of RP and exopolysaccharide (EPS) from ps-5 were investigated systematically. Fluorescence characteristics and high molecular weight compounds appeared in Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Moreover, EPS or its degradation products in the form of covalent bond cross-linked with RP were identified, where -NH disappeared and C=O, C=N and C-N increased. Determination of free -SH residues suggested mutual conversion between disulfide bonds and sulfhydryl groups occurred during Maillard reaction. HPLC analysis identified conjugates with different molecular weight, where melanoprotein was formed by covalent bonds. As RP conjugated with EPS, the molecules spread out and changed the spatial structure. Functional properties of MRPs, including solubility, foaming activity, emulsifying ability and resistance to oxidation, were greatly improved. The study has discovered an efficient method for increasing the application value of plant protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441271PMC
September 2021

Detecting and Profiling Endogenous RNA G-Quadruplexes in the Human Transcriptome.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 27;22(15). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China.

G-quadruplexes are the non-canonical nucleic acid structures that are preferentially formed in G-rich regions. This structure has been shown to be associated with many biological functions. Regardless of the broad efforts on DNA G-quadruplexes, we still have limited knowledge on RNA G-quadruplexes, especially in a transcriptome-wide manner. Herein, by integrating the DMS-seq and the bioinformatics pipeline, we profiled and depicted the RNA G-quadruplexes in the human transcriptome. The genes that contain RNA G-quadruplexes in their specific regions are significantly related to immune pathways and the COVID-19-related gene sets. Bioinformatics analysis reveals the potential regulatory functions of G-quadruplexes on miRNA targeting at the scale of the whole transcriptome. In addition, the G-quadruplexes are depleted in the putative, not the real, PAS-strong poly(A) sites, which may weaken the possibility of such sites being the real cleaved sites. In brief, our study provides insight into the potential function of RNA G-quadruplexes in post-transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347560PMC
July 2021

Hydroxylamine metabolism in mainstream denitrifying ammonium oxidation (DEAMOX) process: Achieving fast start-up and robust operation with bio-augmentation assistance under ambient temperature.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 24;421:126736. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, No. 1 Kerui Road, Suzhou 215009, China; National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Municipal Sewage Resource Utilization Technology, No. 1 Kerui Road, Suzhou 215009, China; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Technology and Material of Water Treatment, No. 1 Kerui Road, Suzhou 215009, China.

Nitrogen removal from mainstream wastewater via DEnitrifying AMmonium OXidation (DEAMOX) is often challenged by undulated actual temperature and high loading rate. Here, we discovered NHOH addition (HA) and bio-augmentation (BA) tactics on start-up and operation performance of DEAMOXs (R1 and R2) under ambient temperature (11.3-31.7 °C). Over 340-day operation suggested that R2 received 10 mg/L HA and 1:25 BA ratio (v/v, anammox/partial denitrification sludge) achieved desirable nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of 97.22% after 145-day, while R1 under higher BA ratio of 1:12.5 without HA obtained lower NRE (90.86%) after 184-day. Batch tests revealed that nitrate-nitrite transformation ratio reached 98.64% at low COD/NO-N of 2.6 with HA. Significantly, compared with R2, R1 recovered quickly with satisfactory effluent total nitrogen of 4.21 mg/L despite nitrogen loading rate greater than 0.15 kg N/m/d and temperature decreased to 14.6 °C. The abundant narG represented high nitrate reduction potential, hzsA and hdh were extensively detected as the symbolisation of anammox metabolism. Thauera, Denitratisoma and unclassified f Comamonadaceae dominated nitrite accumulation. Ca. Brocadia as the dominant anammox bacteria, and its population maintained stable against low temperature and load shocks by NHOH intensification. Overall, this study offers an opportunity for the wide-applications of DEAMOX treating mainstream wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126736DOI Listing
July 2021

COVID-19 vaccination in Chinese children: a cross-sectional study on the cognition, psychological anxiety state and the willingness toward vaccination.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jul 29:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

It is important to understand the cognition, willingness, and psychological anxiety state of Chinese guardians toward COVID-19 vaccination for their children to predict the future vaccination rate and to help the design of policies that aim to expand the population with immunity against COVID-19. This study collected data with a professional vaccination registration platform for children named "Xiao Dou Miao" in February 2021. The psychological anxiety state of the guardians was self-evaluated using the psychological anxiety scale. Factors that might influence the willingness of guardians to vaccinate their children were identified using logistic regression analysis. This study included 12,872 questionnaires with 70.9% of guardians showing willingness to vaccinate their children. Guardians who were male, aged 40-49 and from rural area were more willing to vaccinate their children. Fathers, guardians with higher education and income, whose children have a history of adverse vaccine reactions and allergies were less willing to vaccinate their children ( < .001). More than 80% of the guardians expressed a high level of trust for vaccine information released by official and health-related agencies. Guardians who were not vaccinated were more anxious than those who were vaccinated (χ2 = 27.99, < .001). To protect children from COVID-19, vaccine coverage in children should be expanded rapidly and public awareness on vaccine safety and effectiveness should be improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1949950DOI Listing
July 2021

Dimethyl itaconate inhibits LPS‑induced microglia inflammation and inflammasome‑mediated pyroptosis via inducing autophagy and regulating the Nrf‑2/HO‑1 signaling pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Sep 23;24(3). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Aging and Neurological Disorder Research, Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325000, P.R. China.

The endogenous metabolite itaconate and its cell‑permeable derivative dimethyl itaconate (DI) have been identified as anti‑inflammatory regulators of macrophages; however, their contribution to inflammasome‑mediated pyroptosis remains unknown. The present study examined the molecular mechanism of DI on NLR family pyrin domain‑containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome assembly and NLRP3 inflammasome‑dependent pyroptosis in microglia. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP were used to induce microglia pyroptosis ; this process was confirmed by TUNEL assay, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) detection and gasdermin D (GSDMD) expression analysis. The regulation of microglia polarization and inflammatory cytokine expression was assessed by immunofluorescence assays and ELISA. To investigate the associated mechanism of action, the expression levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf‑2)/heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1) pathway proteins were analyzed by western blotting. Finally, the regulatory effect of DI on autophagy and its association with inflammation was determined by western blotting. The present study demonstrated that DI administration inhibited NLRP3 assembly, LDH release and GSDMD cleavage. Cotreatment of DI with LPS and ATP facilitated the transition from M1 to M2, reduced inflammatory mediator expression and impeded NF‑κB phosphorylation. In addition, DI effectively reduced reactive oxygen species production through the Nrf‑2/HO‑1 pathway. Moreover, DI induced cellular autophagy, whereas inhibition of autophagy with 3‑methyladenine markedly reversed its inhibitory effect on NLRP3‑dependent pyroptosis. Taken together, the present study suggested that DI participated in the Nrf‑2/HO‑1 pathway and served a key role in microglia inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome‑mediated pyroptosis via induction of autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8335742PMC
September 2021

[email protected] (7)-C: fullerene cage encapsulating an unsymmetrical U(iv)[double bond, length as m-dash]N[double bond, length as m-dash]U(v) cluster.

Chem Sci 2020 Oct 27;12(1):282-292. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University Suzhou Jiangsu 215123 P. R. China

For the first time, an actinide nitride clusterfullerene, [email protected] (7)-C, is synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray single crystallography and multiple spectroscopic methods. [email protected] (7)-C is by far the first endohedral fullerene that violates the well-established tri-metallic nitride template for nitride clusterfullerenes. The novel U[double bond, length as m-dash]N[double bond, length as m-dash]U cluster features two U[double bond, length as m-dash]N bonds with uneven bond distances of 2.058(3) Å and 1.943(3) Å, leading to a rare unsymmetrical structure for the dinuclear nitride motif. The combined experimental and theoretical investigations suggest that the two uranium ions show different oxidation states of +4 and +5. Quantum-chemical investigation further reveals that the f/f population dominantly induces a distortion of the U[double bond, length as m-dash]N[double bond, length as m-dash]U cluster, which leads to the unsymmetrical structure. A comparative study of [email protected] (X = C, N and O) reveals that the U-X interaction in U[double bond, length as m-dash]X[double bond, length as m-dash]U clusters can hardly be seen as being formed by classical multiple bonds, but is more like an anionic central ion X with biased overlaps with the two metal ions, which decrease as the electronegativity of X increases. This study not only demonstrates the unique bonding variety of actinide clusters stabilized by fullerene cages, showing different bonding from that observed for the lanthanide analogs, it also reveals the electronic structure of the U[double bond, length as m-dash]X[double bond, length as m-dash]U clusters (X = C, N and O), which are of fundamental significance to understanding these actinide bonding motifs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc04677aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178745PMC
October 2020

Exposure to Copper Compromises the Maturational Competency of Porcine Oocytes by Impairing Mitochondrial Function.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 4;9:678665. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for animals, and also an important nutritional component for the normal physiology and metabolism of animal reproductive systems. An excess or lack of Cu will directly or indirectly affect animal reproductive activities. However, the effect of Cu, in particular excessive Cu, on the reproductive performance of sows has not been studied. Here, we report that excessive Cu had negative effects on oocyte maturation and organelle functions. We showed that Cu exposure perturbed porcine oocyte meiotic maturation and impaired spindle/chromosome structure, resulting in a defective spindle assembly, as well as the abnormal distribution of actin dynamics and cortical granules. In addition, single-cell transcriptome analysis identified the target effectors of Cu actions in porcine oocytes, further demonstrating that Cu exposure affects the mitochondrial distribution and function, leading to the high levels of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, and early apoptosis of porcine oocytes. These findings demonstrate that Cu exposure causes abnormalities in the mitochondrial distribution and function, resulting in the increased oxidative stress and levels of reactive oxygen species, DNA damage, and apoptosis, ultimately leading to a decreased porcine oocyte quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.678665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212058PMC
June 2021

Qiyusanlong Formula Induces Autophagy in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells and Xenografts through the mTOR Signaling Pathway.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 22;2021:5575453. Epub 2021 May 22.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Respiratory Disease Prevention, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Objective: Qiyusanlong (QYSL) formula has been used in the clinic for more than 20 years and has been proved to have pronounced efficacy in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This work aims to evaluate the molecular mechanism of QYSL formula action on NSCLC, specifically in relation to autophagy induction.

Methods: In vitro, CCK-8 was used to detect the effect of QYSL serum on cell viability in A549 cells. In vivo, A549 cells were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice to establish a xenograft model. TUNEL staining was used to measure cell apoptosis and TEM to observe the autophagy-related morphological changes in vitro and in vivo. Western blotting, RT-qPCR, and immunofluorescence were used to measure autophagy-related proteins. In addition, rapamycin (an inhibitor of mTOR and inducer of autophagy) and MHY1485 (an activator of mTOR and inhibitor of autophagy) were used to determine whether QYSL-induced autophagy was regulated by the mTOR pathway.

Results: QYSL serum inhibited the cell viability of A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, the QYSL formula inhibited xenograft growth. The QYSL formula promoted apoptosis in A549 cells and induced autophagosome formation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the QYSL formula downregulated the expression of mTOR and p62, while it upregulated the expression of ATG-7 and Beclin-1 and increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. QYSL serum inhibited p-mTOR in a similar manner to rapamycin while reducing the activating effects of MHY1485 on p-mTOR.

Conclusion: The QYSL formula has anti-lung cancer effects and promotes autophagy through the mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5575453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164545PMC
May 2021

A Scenario-Based Evaluation of COVID-19-Related Essential Clinical Resource Demands in China.

Engineering (Beijing) 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Population Medicine and Public Health, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global crisis, and medical systems in many countries are overwhelmed with supply shortages and increasing demands to treat patients due to the surge in cases and severe illnesses. This study aimed to assess COVID-19-related essential clinical resource demands in China, based on different scenarios involving COVID-19 outbreaks and interventions. We used a susceptible-exposed-infectious-hospitalized/isolated-removed (SEIHR) transmission dynamics model to estimate the number of COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations with corresponding essential healthcare resources needed. We found that, under strict non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) or mass vaccination of the population, China would be able to contain community transmission and local outbreaks rapidly. However, under scenarios involving a low intensity of implemented NPIs and a small proportion of the population vaccinated, the use of a peacetime-wartime transition model would be needed for medical source stockpiles and preparations to ensure a normal functioning healthcare system. The implementation of COVID-19 vaccines and NPIs in different periods can influence the transmission of COVID-19 and subsequently affect the demand for clinical diagnosis and treatment. An increased proportion of asymptomatic infections in simulations will not reduce the demand for medical resources; however, attention must be paid to the increasing difficulty in containing COVID-19 transmission due to asymptomatic cases. This study provides evidence for emergency preparations and the adjustment of prevention and control strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. It also provides guidance for essential healthcare investment and resource allocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eng.2021.03.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137347PMC
May 2021

Generation and evaluation of IgY-scFv based mimetics against canine parvovirus.

Vet Res 2021 May 13;52(1):70. Epub 2021 May 13.

Chinese-German Joint Laboratory for Natural Product Research, Key Laboratory of Biological Resources and Ecological Environment of Qinba Areas, School of Biological Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, China.

Antibody mimetics may be used for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective. In this study, we developed a smaller molecular chicken IgY mimetic peptide (IgY-peptide) based on the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the anti-canine parvovirus (CPV) IgY-scFv prepared previously. The mimetic peptide showed no cross-reactivity with canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine coronavirus (CCV) and showed excellent protective properties for Crandell-Rees Feline Kidney (CRFK) cells against CPV. This study is the first attempt to develop a mimetic IgY-peptide and demonstrates the ease and feasibility in generating such a novel antibody-like functional molecule for biomedical purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-021-00943-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116823PMC
May 2021

Trends of cervical cancer at global, regional, and national level: data from the Global Burden of Disease study 2019.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 12;21(1):894. Epub 2021 May 12.

Huiqiao Medical Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Cervical cancer is an important global health problem. In this study we aimed to analyze trends in cervical cancer at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2019, to inform health service decision-making.

Methods: Data on cervical cancer was extracted from the Global Burden of Disease study, 2019. Trends in cervical cancer burden were assessed based on estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) and age-standardized rate (ASR).

Results: Globally, decreasing trends were observed in incidence, death, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) of cervical cancer from 1990 to 2019, with respective EAPCs of - 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI]: - 0.41 to - 0.34), - 0.93 (95%CI: - 0.98 to - 0.88), and - 0.95 (95 CI%: - 1.00 to - 0.90). Meanwhile, decreasing trends were detected in most sociodemographic index (SDI) areas and geographic regions, particularly death and DALYs in Central Latin America, with respective EAPCs of - 2.61 (95% CI: - 2.76 to - 2.46) and - 2.48 (95% CI: - 2.63 to - 2.32); hhowever, a pronounced increasing trend in incidence occurred in East Asia (EAPC = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.55). At the national level, decreasing trends in cervical cancer were observed in most countries/territories, particularly DALYs in the Maldives (EAPC = - 5.06; 95% CI: - 5.40 to - 4.72), Whereas increasing trends were detected in Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Bulgaria.

Conclusions: Slowly decreasing trends in cervical cancer were detected worldwide from 1990 to 2019. Cervical cancer remains a substantial health problem for women globally, requiring more effective prevention and control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10907-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114503PMC
May 2021

Genistein improves systemic metabolism and enhances cold resistance by promoting adipose tissue beiging.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 06 26;558:154-160. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pediatrics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410010, China. Electronic address:

Genistein, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen and a member of the large class of compounds known as isoflavones, exerts protective effects in several diseases. Recent studies indicate that genistein plays a critical role in controlling body weight, obesity-associated insulin resistance, and metabolic disorders, but its target organs in reversing obesity and related pathological conditions remain unclear. In this study, we showed that mice supplemented with 0.2% genistein in a high-fat diet for 12 weeks showed enhanced metabolic homeostasis, including reduced obesity, improved glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity, and alleviated hepatic steatosis. We also observed a beiging phenomenon in the white adipose tissue and reversal of brown adipose tissue whitening in these mice. These changes led to enhanced resistance to cold stress. Altogether, our data suggest that the improved metabolic profile in mice treated with genistein is likely a result of enhanced adipose tissue function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.04.067DOI Listing
June 2021

Recent progress in research on PM in subways.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 May;23(5):642-663

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Built Environment and Energy Efficient Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, China.

Nowadays, PM2.5 concentrations greatly influence indoor air quality in subways and threaten passenger and staff health because PM2.5 not only contains heavy metal elements, but can also carry toxic and harmful substances due to its small size and large specific surface area. Exploring the physicochemical and distribution characteristics of PM2.5 in subways is necessary to limit its concentration and remove it. At present, there are numerous studies on PM2.5 in subways around the world, yet, there is no comprehensive and well-organized review available on this topic. This paper reviews the nearly twenty years of research and over 130 published studies on PM2.5 in subway stations, including aspects such as concentration levels and their influencing factors, physicochemical properties, sources, impacts on health, and mitigation measures. Although many determinants of station PM2.5 concentration have been reported in current studies, e.g., the season, outdoor environment, and station depth, their relative influence is uncertain. The sources of subway PM2.5 include those from the exterior (e.g., road traffic and fuel oil) and the interior (e.g., steel wheels and rails and metallic brake pads), but the proportion of these sources is also unknown. Control strategies of PM mainly include adequate ventilation and filtration, but these measures are often inefficient in removing PM2.5. The impacts of PM2.5 from subways on human health are still poorly understood. Further research should focus on long-term data collection, influencing factors, the mechanism of health impacts, and PM2.5 standards or regulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1em00002kDOI Listing
May 2021

The Gut Microbiota and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A New Clinical Frontier on Cancer.

Curr Drug Targets 2021 ;22(11):1222-1231

Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China.

Gut microbiota is a complex microecosystem, which is called the second genome of the human body. Herbal medicine can balance tumor-suppressing bacteria and tumor-promoting bacteria and exert its anti-cancer effect by regulating gut microbiota. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a history of thousands of years in prevention and treatment of diseases in China. In recent decades, TCM has been shown to have an obvious advantage in prolonging the survival time and improving the living quality of patients with cancer. Notably, gut microbiota has become a new pathway to understanding TCM. In this review, we will focus on gut microbiota and tumor progression, especially the diversity, functionality and metabolites of gut microbiota affected by TCM in various cancer. We will also discuss the potential mechanism of gut microbiota for exploring TCM in anti-cancer effect. This article aims to comprehensively review the anti-cancer research of TCM by regulating gut microbiota, and address future perspectives and challenges of gut microbiota in TCM intervention for cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450122666210412141304DOI Listing
January 2021

Curcumin promotes the survival of ischemic random skin flaps via autophagy.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1337-1351. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Burn and Wound Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University Wenzhou 325000, China.

Random skin flaps have been widely applied in reconstructive and plastic surgery; however, necrosis usually happens due to insufficient blood supply in the ischemic area of flaps. Curcumin (CUR) is a primary bioactive compound of turmeric (, L.), which has been proven to be effective on anticancer, decreasing oxidative stress and apoptosis through activating autophagy, and promoting angiogenesis in ischemic tissue. Therefore, the potential therapeutic effect of CUR on promoting survival of ischemic random skin flaps and its underlying mechanism associated with autophagy were investigated. After establishment of dorsal random skin flaps, sixty mice were randomly divided into three groups: Control, CUR or CUR+3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor). The results showed that CUR increased the viability area and blood flow as well as relieved the edema of skin flaps through promoting angiogenesis, decreasing oxidative stress, and inhibiting apoptosis of the ischemic area. Further study confirmed that CUR activated autophagy in the random skin flaps, and 3-MA effectively reversed the effect on viability, neovascularization, oxidative stress and apoptosis, suggesting autophagy played a vital role in these CUR's protective effect on random skin flaps. Moreover, this CUR-induced autophagy should be mediated through downregulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Together with secondary response of increased angiogenesis, reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis, CUR effectively improved survival of random skin flaps in vivo. To sum up, our research showed the great potential of CUR using as a promising flap protective therapy for random skin flap survival and regeneration.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014401PMC
March 2021

Satellite observed cooling effects from re-vegetation on the Mongolian Plateau.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 25;781:146707. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Airborne Remote Sensing Center, Aerospace Information Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100094, China.

During the past decades, a series of new policies and ecological projects have been implemented to mitigate land degradation on the Mongolian Plateau. However, climatic effects from re-vegetation still remain largely unknown. In this paper, we investigate local land surface temperature response to re-vegetation changes by comparing between locations with forest or grassland gains and their nearby unchanged land units based on satellite observations. Our results demonstrate that reforestation in humid regions and grassland cover gains in arid regions result in annual net cooling effect, but temperature response to reforestation shows asymmetric diurnal (daytime cooling but nighttime warming) and seasonal (summer cooling but winter warming during daytime) cycle. Local cooling effect of transition land cover is enhanced with continuous restoration of vegetation. The underlying process is mainly controlled by biophysical effects from surface albedo and evapotranspiration. Increased albedo associated with snow cover in winter significantly contributes to the cooling effect of grassland, and evapotranspiration along with increase in precipitation amplifies interannual temperature differences especially in summer. This study reminds that rational land use policy should be formulated carefully to realize potential climatic benefits from re-vegetation projects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146707DOI Listing
August 2021

Multifunctional Protein-Decorated Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles for Tumor-Specific Therapy and Bioimaging and .

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 29;13(13):14985-14994. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710000, China.

Multifunctional nanocarriers with a simple structure and biocompatibility for bioimaging, potential tumor targeting, and precise antitumor ability are promising in cancer therapy. Bioactive glass is an important biomaterial and has been used in clinical bone tissue repair due to the high biocompatibility and bioactivity. Herein, we report fetal bovine serum (FBS)-decorated europium-doped bioactive glass nanoparticles ([email protected]) with excellent biosafety and enhanced tumor targeting for cancer imaging and therapy. [email protected] showed the controlled photoluminescent properties and pH-responsive anticancer drug release behavior. The FBS decoration significantly enhanced the dispersibility in physiological medium and improved hemocompatibility and cellular uptake of EuBGN. Relative to EuBGN, [email protected] could also efficiently image the cancer cell and show significantly enhanced targeted tumor imaging and chemotherapy while retaining negligible side effects. The simple and biocompatible structure with efficient tumor targeting, imaging, and therapy makes [email protected] highly promising in future cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01337DOI Listing
April 2021

Dual-Stimulus Responsive Near-Infrared Reversible Ratiometric Fluorescent and Photoacoustic Probe for Tumor Imaging.

Anal Chem 2021 04 22;93(13):5420-5429. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China.

Tumor-specific imaging is a major challenge in clinical tumor resection. To overcome this problem, several activatable probes have been developed for use in tumor imaging. However, most of these probes are activated based on a single-factor stimulation and are irreversible. Therefore, false signals that make tumor-specific imaging difficult are easily generated. We have developed a new dual-stimulus responsive near-infrared (NIR) reversible adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP)-pH probe for fluorescence and photoacoustic ratiometric imaging of tumors. Since the H and ATP content is significantly higher in the tumor microenvironment than that in normal tissues, the Förster resonance energy transfer-based probe ATP-pH was constructed with silicon rhodamine as the donor, CS dye as the acceptor, and ATP/H recognition units that could only be activated when both H and ATP were connected to the acceptor. The ATP-pH probe is reversibly activated by both the H and ATP, which effectively reduces the cumulative response of the probe in circulation after intravenous injection. Further, the NIR ratiometric property of the probe makes it suitable for imaging. Finally, our probe was successfully utilized in ratiometric photoacoustic and fluorescence tumor imaging and ratiometric fluorescence imaging-guided tumor resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04804DOI Listing
April 2021

Seroprevalence and humoral immune durability of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Wuhan, China: a longitudinal, population-level, cross-sectional study.

Lancet 2021 03;397(10279):1075-1084

School of Population Medicine and Public Health, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China; Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Center of Respiratory Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China; National Center for Respiratory Medicine, Beijing, China; Chinese Academy of Engineering, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Wuhan was the epicentre of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence and kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at population level in Wuhan to inform the development of vaccination strategies.

Methods: In this longitudinal cross-sectional study, we used a multistage, population-stratified, cluster random sampling method to systematically select 100 communities from the 13 districts of Wuhan. Households were systematically selected from each community and all family members were invited to community health-care centres to participate. Eligible individuals were those who had lived in Wuhan for at least 14 days since Dec 1, 2019. All eligible participants who consented to participate completed a standardised electronic questionnaire of demographic and clinical questions and self-reported any symptoms associated with COVID-19 or previous diagnosis of COVID-19. A venous blood sample was taken for immunological testing on April 14-15, 2020. Blood samples were tested for the presence of pan-immunoglobulins, IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and neutralising antibodies were assessed. We did two successive follow-ups between June 11 and June 13, and between Oct 9 and Dec 5, 2020, at which blood samples were taken.

Findings: Of 4600 households randomly selected, 3599 families (78·2%) with 9702 individuals attended the baseline visit. 9542 individuals from 3556 families had sufficient samples for analyses. 532 (5·6%) of 9542 participants were positive for pan-immunoglobulins against SARS-CoV-2, with a baseline adjusted seroprevalence of 6·92% (95% CI 6·41-7·43) in the population. 437 (82·1%) of 532 participants who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins were asymptomatic. 69 (13·0%) of 532 individuals were positive for IgM antibodies, 84 (15·8%) were positive for IgA antibodies, 532 (100%) were positive for IgG antibodies, and 212 (39·8%) were positive for neutralising antibodies at baseline. The proportion of individuals who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins who had neutralising antibodies in April remained stable for the two follow-up visits (162 [44·6%] of 363 in June, 2020, and 187 [41·2%] of 454 in October-December, 2020). On the basis of data from 335 individuals who attended all three follow-up visits and who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins, neutralising antibody levels did not significantly decrease over the study period (median 1/5·6 [IQR 1/2·0 to 1/14·0] at baseline vs 1/5·6 [1/4·0 to 1/11·2] at first follow-up [p=1·0] and 1/6·3 [1/2·0 to 1/12·6] at second follow-up [p=0·29]). However, neutralising antibody titres were lower in asymptomatic individuals than in confirmed cases and symptomatic individuals. Although titres of IgG decreased over time, the proportion of individuals who had IgG antibodies did not decrease substantially (from 30 [100%] of 30 at baseline to 26 [89·7%] of 29 at second follow-up among confirmed cases, 65 [100%] of 65 at baseline to 58 [92·1%] of 63 at second follow-up among symptomatic individuals, and 437 [100%] of 437 at baseline to 329 [90·9%] of 362 at second follow-up among asymptomatic individuals).

Interpretation: 6·92% of a cross-sectional sample of the population of Wuhan developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, with 39·8% of this population seroconverting to have neutralising antibodies. Our durability data on humoral responses indicate that mass vaccination is needed to effect herd protection to prevent the resurgence of the epidemic.

Funding: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, National Natural Science Foundation, and Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00238-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972311PMC
March 2021

Nickel-Catalyzed ,-Diarylation of 8-Aminoquinoline with Large Steric Aryl Bromides and Fluorescence of Products.

Org Lett 2021 04 16;23(7):2514-2520. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

State Key laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Advanced Catalytic Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shenzhen Research Institute, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P. R. China.

A simple and efficient methodology for the synthesis of large sterically hindered triarylamines in a single step was developed. A direct ,-diarylation of 8-aminoquinoline with sterically hindered bromides, making use of inexpensive nickel as a catalyst and simple sodium salt as a base, gives the products in good to excellent yields. Various bromides and substituted 8-aminoquinolines are tolerated. Preliminary fluorescence results indicate that these sterically hindered and conjugated triarylamines may have some potential in material chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00463DOI Listing
April 2021

FUBP1 mediates the growth and metastasis through TGFβ/Smad signaling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Int J Mol Med 2021 05 2;47(5). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Gastroenterology, Anhui University of Science and Technology Affiliated Fengxian Hospital, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital South Campus, Shanghai Fengxian District Central Hospital, Shanghai 201499, P.R. China.

Recent studies have reported that the expression levels of far upstream element‑binding protein 1 (FUBP1) were upregulated and served a crucial role in several types of cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and clinical significance of FUBP1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) remain unclear. The present study aimed to determine the expression levels of FUBP1 in patients with PAAD and subsequently investigated the biological functions and mechanisms of FUBP1 using assays. FUBP1 expression levels and survival outcomes in patients with PAAD were analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas and starBase databases. Reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR was used to analyze the mRNA expression levels of FUBP1 in PAAD and adjacent normal tissues. In addition, the expression of FUBP1 was knocked down with small interfering RNA and overexpressed using FUBP1‑overexpressed plasmids, and the effects on biological functions, including cell proliferation, migration and invasion, were investigated. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were used to determine the role of FUBP1 in epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT). The results of the present study revealed that the expression levels of FUBP1 were upregulated in PAAD tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues and the upregulated expression was significantly associated with poor survival. The knockdown of FUBP1 expression significantly inhibited the proliferative, migratory and invasive abilities of the PAAD PaTu8988 cell line, while the overexpression of FUBP1 promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in the PAAD SW1990 cell line. Furthermore, the knockdown of FUBP1 downregulated the expression levels of EMT‑related markers, including N‑cadherin, β‑catenin and vimentin, while the expression levels of E‑cadherin were upregulated. The knockdown of FUBP1 was also revealed to regulate the TGFβ/Smad signaling cascade by downregulating phosphorylated‑Smad2/3 and TGFβ1 expression levels. Conversely, the overexpression of FUBP1 reversed these effects. In conclusion, the findings of the present study indicated that FUBP1 may be a potential oncogene that mediates the EMT of PAAD via TGFβ/Smad signaling. These data suggested that FUBP1 may represent a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of PAAD or a target for the treatment of patients with PAAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2021.4899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952245PMC
May 2021

A nationwide post-marketing survey of knowledge, attitudes and recommendations towards human papillomavirus vaccines among healthcare providers in China.

Prev Med 2021 05 26;146:106484. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Since licensure of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in mainland China, little research has been conducted about healthcare providers' (HCPs) understanding and recommendation of HPV vaccine. A multi-stage convenience sample of Chinese HCPs (N = 5270) were surveyed, involving obstetrician-gynecologists, HCPs from Division of Expanded Program on Immunization (DEPI), Community Health Center (CHC) and other non-HPV closely related professions. Binary logistic regression was conducted to explore factors associated with knowledge and recommendation behaviors. Overall, HCPs showed basic HPV/HPV vaccine knowledge with median (interquartile range) score at 9.5 (7.5-11.6) out of 16 and relatively high recommendation behavior (74.8%). Identified knowledge gaps among HCPs included risk factors of HPV infection, best time to vaccinate, prophylactic functions of HPV vaccine and especially classification of low-risk and high-risk types. Profession-specific analysis in individual knowledge item showed HCPs from CHC were suboptimal on HPV while obstetrician-gynecologists were less competent on HPV vaccine knowledge. Obstetrician-gynecologists also recommended vaccination less frequently than HCPs from DEPI and CHC. Besides being key predictors of recommendation practice (2.74, 95% CI: 2.34-3.21), knowledge shared independent determinants with recommendation behavior on age and ethnicity and additionally associated with education and title by itself. Findings highlight overall and profession-specific gaps on HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and recommendation practice. Future education and training efforts should be profession-niche-targeting and focus much on HCPs with lower title or education background and from minorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106484DOI Listing
May 2021

Transcriptome analysis of yellow passion fruit in response to cucumber mosaic virus infection.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(2):e0247127. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Institute of Bioengineering, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

The cultivation and production of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) are severely affected by viral disease. Yet there have been few studies of the molecular response of passion fruit to virus attack. In the present study, RNA-based transcriptional profiling (RNA-seq) was used to identify the gene expression profiles in yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) leaves following inoculation with cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Six RNA-seq libraries were constructed comprising a total of 42.23 Gb clean data. 1,545 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained (701 upregulated and 884 downregulated). Gene annotation analyses revealed that genes associated with plant hormone signal transduction, transcription factors, protein ubiquitination, detoxification, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism were significantly affected by CMV infection. The represented genes activated by CMV infection corresponded to transcription factors WRKY family, NAC family, protein ubiquitination and peroxidase. Several DEGs encoding protein TIFY, pathogenesis-related proteins, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases also were upregualted by CMV infection. Overall, the information obtained in this study enriched the resources available for research into the molecular-genetic mechanisms of the passion fruit/CMV interaction, and might provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and management of passion fruit viral disease in the field.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247127PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904197PMC
August 2021

Development of a novel denitrifying phosphorus removal and partial denitrification anammox (DPR + PDA) process for advanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal from domestic and nitrate wastewaters.

Bioresour Technol 2021 May 3;327:124795. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, No. 1 Kerui Road, Suzhou 215009, China; National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Municipal Sewage Resource Utilization Technology, No. 1 Kerui Road, Suzhou 215009, China; Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Technology and Material of Water Treatment, No. 1 Kerui Road, Suzhou 215009, China.

A novel energy-efficient DPR + PDA (denitrifying phosphorus removal and partial denitrification anammox) process for enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal was developed in the combined ABR-CSTR reactor. After 220 days operation, excellent total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and phosphorus removal (97.57% and 95.66%, respectively) were obtained under external C/NO-N of 0.7, with the effluent TIN and PO-P concentrations of 3.51 mg/L and 0.28 mg/L, respectively. At the steady period, DPR contributed major TN removal (58.65%), while PDA mediated an increasingly considerable impact and finally achieved 37.07%, in which anammox accounted for a significant percentage. Batch tests demonstrated that efficient PD with nitrate-to-nitrite transformation ratio of 97.67% supplying stable nitrite for anammox, and phosphorus was mainly removed using nitrate as electron acceptor via DPR with the ideal phosphorus release/uptake rate (7.73/22.17 mgP/gVSS/h). Accumulibacter (6.24%) dominated high phosphorus removal performance, while Thauera (8.26%) and Candidatus Brocadia (2.57%) represented the superior nitrogen removal performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124795DOI Listing
May 2021

Cell membranes targeted unimolecular prodrug for programmatic photodynamic-chemo therapy.

Theranostics 2021 19;11(7):3502-3511. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, P. R China.

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as one of the most up-and-coming non-invasive therapeutic modalities for cancer therapy in rencent years. However, its therapeutic effect was still hampered by the short life span, limited diffusion distance and ineluctable depletion of singlet oxygen (O), as well as the hypoxic microenvironment in the tumor tissue. Such problems have limited the application of PDT and appropriate solutions are highly demand. Herein, a programmatic treatment strategy is proposed for the development of a smart molecular prodrug (), which comprise a two-photon photosensitizer and a hypoxia-activated chemotherapeutic prodrug. A rhodamine dye was designed to connect them and track the drug release by the fluorescent signal generated through azo bond cleavage. The prodrug () can stay on the cell membrane and enrich at the tumor site. Upon light irradiation, the therapeutic effect was enhanced by a stepwise treatment: (i) direct generation of O on the cell membrane induced membrane destruction and promoted the uptake; (ii) deep tumor hypoxia caused by two-photon PDT process further triggered the activation of the chemotherapy prodrug. Both and experiments, have exhabited excellent tumor treatment effect. The innovative treatment strategy provides new strategy for the design of follow-up anticancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.55014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847693PMC
July 2021

Ultraviolet-B radiation stress alters the competitive outcome of algae: Based on analyzing population dynamics and photosynthesis.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 13;272:129645. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

The solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) is increasingly affecting the aquatic ecosystems due to the long-term antropic damage to the stratospheric ozone. The distrupted interspecies competition is one of the primary causes driving the plankton community composition shifts under UVB stress. To reveal the competitive responses to enhanced UVB radiation, we grew two green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and the unicellular cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa in monocultures and in cocultures under differerent UVB intensities (0, 0.3 and 0.7 W m), respectively. Results showed that elevated UVB radiation consistently decreased the population carrying capacies and the photosynthesis of the three species in monocultures. While cocultivated, C. pyrenoidosa was competively excluded by the presence of S. obliquus, and the competitive outcome was not affected by UVB exposure. By contrast, unicellular M. aeruginosa overwhelmingly suppressed the population growth of S. obliquus under no UVB, yet S. obliquus tended to be a better competitor under 0.3-0.7 W m UVB exposure. The species-specific photosynthesis sensitivity to UVB can partly explain the different tolerance of the algae to UVB and the change of competition outcome under elevated UVB. The present study elucidated the potential role of increased UVB radiation in determining the competitions between phytoplankton species, contributing to the understanding of phytoplankton community shifts under enhanced UVB stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129645DOI Listing
June 2021

Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Camels in the Tianshan Mountains Pastoral Area in China.

J Vet Res 2020 Dec 6;64(4):509-515. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

State Key Lab of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, China.

Introduction: Gastrointestinal parasites are some of the most common pathogens which are seriously harmful to the camel's health. The infection status of gastrointestinal parasites in camels () in the Tianshan Mountains pastoral area in China is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the species and infection intensity of gastrointestinal tract parasites in local camels.

Material And Methods: A total of 362 fresh faecal samples were collected and examined for parasite eggs using the saturated saline floating and natural sedimentation method. The parasite eggs were subjected to morphological and molecular examination and identification, and the infection rate and mean intensity of the parasites were analysed.

Results: A total of 15 gastrointestinal tract parasite species' eggs were identified, with a detection rate of 100%. spp. (100%) and spp. (98.1%) were dominant. Camels were often coinfected by 5-14 species. The average number of eggs per gram of faeces was higher for spp. (298), (176) and spp. (138). The number of species of parasites infecting young camels was significantly lower than that of adult camels, but the infection intensity in young camels was significantly higher.

Conclusion: Gastrointestinal parasites were highly prevalent in camels from the Tianshan Mountains pastoral area in China. This finding provides important epidemiological data for the prevention and control of associated infections in camels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2020-0071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734682PMC
December 2020

A novel denitrifying phosphorus removal and partial nitrification, anammox (DPR-PNA) process for advanced nutrients removal from high-strength wastewater.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 2;265:129165. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, No. 1 Kerui Road, Suzhou, 215009, China.

This study developed a novel DPR-PNA (denitrifying phosphorus removal, partial nitrification and anammox) process for sustaining high-strength wastewater treatment in a modified continuous flow reactor without external carbon source. After 259-days operation, a synchronous highly-efficient total inorganic nitrogen, PO-P and COD removal efficiencies of 88.5%, 89.5% and 90.1% were obtained, respectively even influent nitrogen loading rate up to 3.2 kg m d. Batch tests revealed that denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organisms (DPAOs) using NO-N as electron acceptors significantly enriched (74% in total PAOs), which emerged remarkable positive impacts on deep-level nutrient removal as the key limiting factor. Furthermore, the NO-N inhibitory threshold value (∼20.0 mg L) for DPAOs was identified, which demonstrated as an inhibitory component in excessive recycling NO-N. From the molecular biology perspective, Dechloromonas-DPAOs group (18.59%) dominated the excellent dephosphatation performance, while Nitrosomonas-AOB (ammonia oxidizing bacteria) group (16.26%) and Candidatus_Brocadia-AnAOB (anammox bacteria) group (15.12%) were responsible for the desirable nitrogen loss process. Overall, the present work highlighted the novel DPR-PNA process for nutrients removal is a promising alternation for wastewater of high nitrogen but low carbon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129165DOI Listing
February 2021
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