Publications by authors named "Xing-Quan Zhu"

504 Publications

Development of a Lateral Flow Strip-Based Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Detection of Haemonchus contortus in Goat Feces.

Korean J Parasitol 2021 Apr 22;59(2):167-171. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Haemonchosis remains a significant problem in small ruminants. In this study, the assay of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with the lateral flow strip (LFS-RPA) was established for the rapid detection of Haemonchus contortus in goat feces. The assay used primers and a probe targeting a specific sequence in the ITS-2 gene. We compared the performance of the LFS-RPA assay to a PCR assay. The LFS-RPA had a detection limit of 10 fg DNA, which was 10 times less compared to the lowest detection limit obtained by PCR. Out of 24 goat fecal samples, LFS-RPA assay detected H. contortus DNA with 95.8% sensitivity, compared to PCR, 79.1% sensitivity. LFS-RPA assay did not detect DNA from other related helminth species and demonstrated an adequate tolerance to inhibitors present in the goat feces. Taken together, our results suggest that LFS-RPA assay had a high diagnostic accuracy for the rapid detection of H. contortus and merits further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2021.59.2.167DOI Listing
April 2021

-Derived Excretory-Secretory Products Alter the Expression of mRNAs, miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs Involved in the Immune Response and Metabolism in Goat Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:653755. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

produces excretory-secretory products (ESPs) with immune-modulating effects to promote its own survival. In this study, we performed RNA-seq to gain a comprehensive global understanding of changes in the expression of mRNAs, miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with ESPs. A total of 1,544 differently expressed mRNAs (790 upregulated and 754 downregulated genes), 30 differently expressed miRNAs (24 upregulated and 6 downregulated genes), 136 differently expressed circRNAs (83 upregulated and 53 downregulated genes), and 1,194 differently expressed lncRNAs (215 upregulated and 979 downregulated genes) were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses revealed that ESPs altered the expression of genes associated with the host immune response, receptor signaling, disease and metabolism. Results from RNA-seq were validated by qRT-PCR. These findings provide an important resource for future investigation of the role of mRNAs and non-coding RNAs in mediating the immune-modulating effects of . ESPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.653755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072156PMC
April 2021

First report of Eimeria and Entamoeba infection in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Shanxi Province, northern China.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi Province, 030801, People's Republic of China.

Intestinal protozoa Eimeria and Entamoeba can infect many animal species including alpacas. However, data on the prevalence and pathogenicity of species of the two genera Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas in China is scarce. The current study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas in two cities (Taiyuan and Xinzhou) in Shanxi Province, northern China, using PCR-based approaches. Eimeria spp. were only found in Taiyuan city, and the overall prevalence was 1.64%. All samples collected from male alpacas were PCR-negative for Eimeria. Four Eimeria-positive samples were tested positive as Eimeria lamae. The molecular prevalence of Entamoeba in alpacas was 18.03% (66/366), including 16.39% (50/305) in alpacas from Taiyuan city and 26.23% (16/61) from Xinzhou city, respectively. The Entamoeba prevalence in male alpacas (25.00%) was significantly higher than that in female alpacas (15.69%). Entamoeba bovis was the predominant species, and no Entamoeba histolytica infection was detected. Nine unique SSU rRNA gene sequences of Entamoeba were obtained which formed a new cluster. The results showed that sex and location might be the risk factors associated with prevalence of Eimeria spp., and sex might be the risk factor associated with prevalence of Entamoeba spp.. This is the first report of Entamoeba in alpacas worldwide. These findings expand our understanding of the prevalence and genetic diversity of Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07157-0DOI Listing
April 2021

The mitogenome of Ophidascaris wangi isolated from snakes in China.

Parasitol Res 2021 May 23;120(5):1677-1686. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui Province, 230036, People's Republic of China.

Different species of the genus Ophidascaris (Baylis, 1921; Nematoda: Ascaridida, Ascaridoidea) are intestinal parasites of various snake species. More than 30 Ophidascaris species have been reported worldwide; however, few molecular genetic studies have been conducted on this genus. We sequenced the complete mitogenome of Ophidascaris wangi parasitizing two snake species of the family Colubridae, i.e., Elaphe carinata (Günther, 1864) and Dinodon rufozonatum. The mitogenome sequence of O. wangi was approximately 14,660 base pairs (bp) long and encoded 36 genes, including 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. Gene arrangement, genome content, and transcription direction were in line with those in Toxascaris leonina (Linstow, 1902; Ascaridida: Ascarididae). Phylogenetics of O. wangi and other ascaridoids were reconstructed based on the concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs, and on nucleotide sequences of 12 PCGs and two rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, and the results suggested that O. wangi constitutes a sister clade of Ascaris, Parascaris, Baylisascaris, and Toxascaris within the family Ascarididae, which is a sister clade of Toxocaridae. The mitogenome sequence of O. wangi obtained from the present study will be useful for future identification of the nematode worms in the genus Ophidascaris and will increase the understanding of population genetics, molecular epidemiology, and phylogenetics of ascaridoid nematodes in snakes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07069-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Dipylidium caninum draft genome - a new resource for comparative genomic and genetic explorations of flatworms.

Genomics 2021 Mar 4;113(3):1272-1280. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu 030801, China. Electronic address:

Here, we present a draft genome of the tapeworm Dipylidium caninum (family Dipylidiidae) and compare it with other cestode genomes. This draft genome of D. caninum is 110 Mb in size, has a repeat content of ~13.4% and is predicted to encode ~10,000 protein-coding genes. We inferred excretory/secretory molecules (representing the secretome), other key groups of proteins (including peptidases, kinases, phosphatases, GTPases, receptors, transporters and ion-channels) and predicted potential intervention targets for future evaluation. Using 144 shared single-copy orthologous sequences, we investigated the genetic relationships of cestodes for which nuclear genomes are available. This study provides first insights into the molecular biology of D. caninum and a new resource for comparative genomic and genetic explorations of this and other flatworms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.02.019DOI Listing
March 2021

Lysine crotonylation is widespread on proteins of diverse functions and localizations in Toxoplasma gondii.

Parasitol Res 2021 May 3;120(5):1617-1626. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, 030801, Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Lysine crotonylation (Kcr) is an evolutionally conserved post-translational modification (PTM) on histone proteins. However, information about Kcr and its involvement in the biology and metabolism of Toxoplasma gondii is limited. In the present study, a global Kcr proteome analysis using LC-MS/MS in combination with immune-affinity method was performed. A total of 12,152 Kcr sites distributed over 2719 crotonylated proteins were identified. Consistent with lysine acetylation and succinylation in Apicomplexa, Kcr was associated with various metabolic pathways, including carbon metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and proteasome. Markedly, many stage-specific proteins, histones, and histone-modifying enzymes related to the stage transition were found to have Kcr sites, suggesting a potential involvement of Kcr in the parasite stage transformation. Most components of the apical secretory organelles were identified as crotonylated proteins which were associated with the attachment, invasion, and replication of T. gondii. These results expanded our understanding of Kcr proteome and proposed new hypotheses for further research of the Kcr roles in the pathobiology of T. gondii infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07057-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle in Jiangxi Province, southeastern China.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 22;120(4):1281-1289. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu Province, People's Republic of China.

Cryptosporidium is a genus of single-celled protozoa, infecting a wide range of animals and humans. Although Cryptosporidium infections of cattle have been reported in some provinces in China, there is no available information on the prevalence and predominant species of Cryptosporidium in cattle in Jiangxi province. To investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in cattle in Jiangxi province of China, 556 fecal samples were collected from eight farms in four cities and the SSU rRNA locus of Cryptosporidium was amplified from the DNA of each fecal sample by PCR. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 12.8% (71/556) in cattle in Jiangxi province, with 24.3% (54/222) in Nanchang city, 7.8% (13/166) in Gao'an city, 3.7% (4/108) in Xinyu city, and 0.0% (0/60) in Ji'an city. The differences of the prevalence rates by region, breed, and age groups were statistically significant. All positive PCR products of Cryptosporidium were successfully sequenced and identified as three Cryptosporidium species, namely Cryptosporidium bovis (1/556, 0.18%), Cryptosporidium ryanae (7/556, 1.3%), and Cryptosporidium andersoni (63/556, 11.3%). Furthermore, 36 C. andersoni isolates were successfully classified into three MLST (multilocus sequence typing) subtypes based on four genetic loci (MS1, MS2, MS3, and MS16). The predominant MLST subtype was A4, A4, A4, A1 (n = 30). These findings not only revealed the prevalence and predominant species of Cryptosporidium in cattle in Jiangxi province, but also provided a baseline for studying the genetic structure of C. andersoni, offering a novel resource for better understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Jiangxi province, southeastern China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07047-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Functional Characterization of Two Thioredoxin Proteins of Using the CRISPR-Cas9 System.

Front Vet Sci 2020 14;7:614759. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Toxoplasmosis caused by infection with is an important parasitic zoonosis with a worldwide distribution. In this study, we examined the functions of two thioredoxins (namely CTrp26 and CTrx1) of tachyzoites by generation of HA tag strains or gene deficient parasites in Type I RH strain (ToxoDB#10). Immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) was used to investigate the subcellular localization of the thioredoxins (Trxs). Results of IFA showed that both CTrp26 and CTrx1 were located in the cytoplasm of . Functional characterizations of CTrp26 and CTrx1-deficient parasites were performed by plaque assay, intracellular replication, egress, HO resistance, detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) assays , as well as mouse infection . Our results showed that deletion of CTrp26 or CTrx1 did not influence the ability of RH strain to replicate, egress, form plaque, resist HO exposure, maintain the ROS level, and T-AOC, and also did not serve as virulence factors in Kunming mice. Taken together, these results provide new properties of the two Trxs. Although they are not essential for RH strain, they may have roles in other strains of this parasite due to their different expression patterns, which warrants future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.614759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841047PMC
January 2021

Differential expression of microRNAs and tRNA fragments mediate the adaptation of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica to its intermediate snail and definitive mammalian hosts.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Apr 26;51(5):405-414. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi Province 030801, China; Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Yunnan Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650201, China. Electronic address:

The tropical liver fluke Fasciola gigantica affects livestock and humans in many Asian countries, large parts of Africa, and parts of Europe. Despite the public health and economic impacts of F. gigantica, understanding of F. gigantica biology and how the complex lifecycle of this liver fluke is transcriptionally regulated remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) play roles in the adaptation of F. gigantica to its intermediate and definitive hosts. We sequenced sncRNAs of eight lifecycle stages of F. gigantica. In total, 56 miRNAs from 33 conserved families and four Fasciola-specific miRNAs were identified. Expression analysis of miRNAs suggested clear stage-related patterns. By leveraging the existing transcriptomic data, we predicted a miRNA-based regulation of metabolism, transport, growth and developmental processes. Also, by comparing miRNA complement of F. gigantica with that of Fasciola hepatica, we detected a high level of conservation and identified differences in some miRNAs, which can be used to distinguish the two species. Moreover, we found that tRFs at each lifecycle stage were predominantly derived by tRNA and tRNA at 5' half sites, but relatively high expression was related to the buffalo-infecting stages. Taken together, we provided a comprehensive overview of the dynamic transcriptional changes of small RNAs that occur during the developmental stages of F. gigantica. This global analysis of F. gigantica lifecycle stages revealed new roles of miRNAs and tRFs in parasite development and will facilitate future research into understanding of fasciolosis pathobiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2020.10.009DOI Listing
April 2021

Molecular detection and subtype distribution of Blastocystis in farmed pigs in southern China.

Microb Pathog 2021 Feb 19;151:104751. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, 730046, PR China. Electronic address:

Blastocystis is one of the most common causative agents of intestinal diseases, which can cause enteric diseases in animals and humans. However, limited data is available on the prevalence or subtypes of Blastocystis infections in farmed pigs in southern China. In this study, a total of 396 fecal samples were collected from farmed pigs in three provinces in southern China in 2016, and screened for Blastocystis by PCR amplification of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragment. One hundred and seventy (42.93%) of the examined fecal samples were detected Blastocystis-positive, and two known zoonotic subtypes ST1 and ST5 were identified, with ST5 being the predominate subtype. Moreover, gender, age and region were considered as risk factors that associated with Blastocystis infection in farmed pigs. The present study revealed the prevalence and subtypes of Blastocystis infections in farmed pigs in southern China, which provided essential data for the control of Blastocystis infections in pigs, other animals and humans in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104751DOI Listing
February 2021

Mitochondrial genomes of two eucotylids as the first representatives from the superfamily Microphalloidea (Trematoda) and phylogenetic implications.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Jan 14;14(1):48. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, People's Republic of China.

Background: The Eucotylidae Cohn, 1904 (Superfamily: Microphalloidea), is a family of digeneans parasitic in kidneys of birds as adults. The group is characterized by the high level of morphological similarities among genera and unclear systematic value of morphological characters traditionally used for their differentiation. In the present study, we sequenced the complete or nearly complete mitogenomes (mt genome) of two eucotylids representing the genera Tamerlania (T. zarudnyi) and Tanaisia (Tanaisia sp.). They represent the first sequenced mt genomes of any member of the superfamily Microphalloidea.

Methods: A comparative mitogenomic analysis of the two newly sequenced eucotylids was conducted for the investigation of mitochondrial gene arrangement, contents and genetic distance. Phylogenetic position of the family Eucotylidae within the order Plagiorchiida was examined using nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial protein-coding genes (PCGs) plus RNAs using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. BI phylogeny based on concatenated amino acids sequences of PCGs was also conducted to determine possible effects of silent mutations.

Results: The complete mt genome of T. zarudnyi was 16,188 bp and the nearly complete mt genome of Tanaisia sp. was 13,953 bp in length. A long string of additional amino acids (about 123 aa) at the 5' end of the cox1 gene in both studied eucotylid mt genomes has resulted in the cox1 gene of eucotylids being longer than in all previously sequenced digeneans. The rrnL gene was also longer than previously reported in any digenean mitogenome sequenced so far. The TΨC and DHU loops of the tRNAs varied greatly between the two eucotylids while the anticodon loop was highly conserved. Phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA nucleotide and amino acids sequences (as a separate set) positioned eucotylids as a sister group to all remaining members of the order Plagiorchiida. Both ML and BI phylogenies revealed the paraphyletic nature of the superfamily Gorgoderoidea and the suborder Xiphidiata.

Conclusions: The average sequence identity, combined nucleotide diversity and Kimura-2 parameter distances between the two eucotylid mitogenomes demonstrated that atp6, nad5, nad4L and nad6 genes are better markers than the traditionally used cox1 or nad1 for the species differentiation and population-level studies of eucotylids because of their higher variability. The position of the Dicrocoeliidae and Eucotylidae outside the clade uniting other xiphidiatan trematodes strengthened the argument for the need for re-evaluation of the taxonomic content of the Xiphidiata.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04547-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807500PMC
January 2021

Prevalence and Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia lamblia in Cattle in Jiangxi Province, China: Novel Assemblage E Subtypes Identified.

Korean J Parasitol 2020 Dec 29;58(6):681-687. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, China.

Giardia lamblia is a common enteric pathogen associated with diarrheal diseases. There are some reports of G. lamblia infection among different breeds of cattle in recent years worldwide. However, it is yet to know whether cattle in Jiangxi province, southeastern China is infected with G. lamblia. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and examine the multilocus genotypes of G. lamblia in cattle in Jiangxi province. A total of 556 fecal samples were collected from 3 cattle breeds (dairy cattle, beef cattle, and buffalo) in Jiangxi province, and the prevalence and genotypes of G. lamblia were determined by the nested PCR amplification of the beta-giardin (bg) gene. A total of 52 samples (9.2%) were positive for G. lamblia. The highest prevalence of G. lamblia was detected in dairy cattle (20.0%), followed by that in beef cattle (6.4%), and meat buffalo (0.9%). Multilocus sequence typing of G. lamblia was performed based on sequences of the bg, triose phosphate isomerase and glutamate dehydrogenase loci, and 22, 42, and 52 samples were amplifiable, respectively, forming 15 MLGs. Moreover, one mixed G. lamblia infection (assemblages A and E) was found in the present study. Altogether, 6 novel assemblage E subtypes (E41*-E46*) were identified for the first time. These results not only provided baseline data for the control of G. lamblia infection in cattle in this southeastern province of China, but also enriched the molecular epidemiological data and genetic diversity of G. lamblia in cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2020.58.6.681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806433PMC
December 2020

Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymidae) parasitic in mammals other than humans: A comprehensive review.

Parasitol Int 2021 Apr 16;81:102269. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

A comprehensive review of the infection of mammals with the nematode Dioctophyme renale (Goeze, 1782) (Nematoda, Dioctophymidae) is presented. Mammals, including man, are the definitive hosts for this parasite. Several aspects of the infection with the parasite in mammals other than humans are critically evaluated: geographical distribution, host species recorded so far and the relative importance of the different hosts, location of parasites within the host, prevalence and intensity of the infection, diagnostic methods, pathology induced by the parasites, epidemiology and the methods of control and treatment. The authors provide an updated review about the infection, based on a extensive bibliographic search worldwide, and point out the most relevant aspects of the biology of the parasite as well as several research topics which need to be explored for a better understanding of the biology of this interesting and important parasitic nematode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2020.102269DOI Listing
April 2021

Dysregulation of hepatic microRNA expression in C57BL/6 mice affected by excretory-secretory products of Fasciola gigantica.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 12 17;14(12):e0008951. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, People's Republic of China.

The excretory-secretory products released by the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica (FgESPs) play important roles in regulating the host immune response during the infection. Identification of hepatic miRNAs altered by FgESPs may improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of F. gigantica infection. In this study, we investigated the alterations in the hepatic microRNAs (miRNAs) in mice treated with FgESPs using high-throughput small RNA (sRNA) sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. The expression of seven miRNAs was confirmed by quantitative stem-loop reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). A total of 1,313 miRNAs were identified in the liver of mice, and the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs varied across the time lapsed post exposure to FgESPs. We identified 67, 154 and 53 dysregulated miRNAs at 1, 4 and 12 weeks post-exposure, respectively. 5 miRNAs (miR-126a-3p, miR-150-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-181a-5p and miR-362-3p) were commonly dysregulated at the three time points. We also found that most of the DE miRNAs were induced by FgESPs in the mouse liver after 4 weeks of exposure. These were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, which showed that the predicted targets of the hepatic DE miRNAs of mice 4 weeks of FgESPs injection were enriched in GO terms, including cell membrane, ion binding, cellular communication, organelle and DNA damage. KEGG analysis indicated that the predicted targets of the most downregulated miRNAs were involved in 15 neural activity-related pathways, 6 digestion-related pathways, 20 immune response-related pathways and 17 cancer-related pathways. These data provide new insights into how FgESPs can dysregulate hepatic miRNAs, which play important roles in modulating several aspects of F. gigantica pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775122PMC
December 2020

ROP18-Mediated Transcriptional Reprogramming of HEK293T Cell Reveals New Roles of ROP18 in the Interplay Between and the Host Cell.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 30;10:586946. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

secretes a number of virulence-related effector proteins, such as the rhoptry protein 18 (ROP18). To further broaden our understanding of the molecular functions of ROP18, we examined the transcriptional response of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293T) to ROP18 of type I RH strain. Using RNA-sequencing, we compared the transcriptome of ROP18-expressing HEK293T cells to control HEK293T cells. Our analysis revealed that ROP18 altered the expression of 750 genes (467 upregulated genes and 283 downregulated genes) in HEK293T cells. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses showed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in extracellular matrix- and immune-related GO terms and pathways. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that DEGs were involved in several disease-related pathways, such as nervous system diseases and eye disease. ROP18 significantly increased the alternative splicing pattern "retained intron" and altered the expression of 144 transcription factors (TFs). These results provide new insight into how ROP18 may influence biological processes in the host cells altering the expression of genes, TFs, and pathways. More and studies are required to substantiate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.586946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734210PMC
November 2020

Human gnathostomiasis: a neglected food-borne zoonosis.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Dec 9;13(1):616. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and One Health Center for Zoonoses and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 334, Basseterre, St Kitts and Nevis.

Background: Human gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis. Its etiological agents are the third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma spp. Human gnathostomiasis is often reported in developing countries, but it is also an emerging disease in developed countries in non-endemic areas. The recent surge in cases of human gnathostomiasis is mainly due to the increasing consumption of raw freshwater fish, amphibians, and reptiles.

Methods: This article reviews the literature on Gnathostoma spp. and the disease that these parasites cause in humans. We review the literature on the life cycle and pathogenesis of these parasites, the clinical features, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control, and new molecular findings on human gnathostomiasis, and social-ecological factors related to the transmission of this disease.

Conclusions: The information presented provides an impetus for studying the parasite biology and host immunity. It is urgently needed to develop a quick and sensitive diagnosis and to develop an effective regimen for the management and control of human gnathostomiasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04494-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724840PMC
December 2020

Differentially Affects Hepatic MicroRNA Expression in Beagle Dogs at Different Stages of Infection.

Front Vet Sci 2020 12;7:587273. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

is a neglected zoonotic parasite, which threatens the health of dogs and humans worldwide. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the progression of infection remain mostly unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been identified in ; however, the regulation and role of miRNAs in the host during infection remain incompletely understood. In this study, we determined hepatic miRNA expression at different stages of infection in beagle dogs. Individual dogs were infected by 300 embryonated eggs, and their livers were collected at 12 hpi (hours post-infection), 24 hpi, and 36 dpi (days post-infection). The expression profiles of liver miRNAs were determined using RNA-sequencing. Compared to the control groups, 9, 16, and 34 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were detected in the livers of infected dogs at the three infection stages, respectively. Among those DEmiRNAs, the novel-294 and cfa-miR-885 were predicted to regulate inflammation-related genes at the initial stage of infection (12 hpi). The cfa-miR-1839 was predicted to regulate the target gene TRIM71, which may influence the development of larvae at 24 hpi. Moreover, cfa-miR-370 and cfa-miR-133c were associated with immune response at the final stage of infection (36 dpi). Some immunity-related Gene Ontology terms were enriched particularly at 24 hpi. Likewise, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that many significantly enriched pathways were involved in inflammation and immune responses. The expression level of nine DEmiRNAs was validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results show that miRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of during the hepatic phase of parasite development. Our data provide fundamental information for further investigation of the roles of miRNAs in the innate/adaptive immune response of dogs infected by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.587273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689213PMC
November 2020

Proteomic Profiling of the Liver, Hepatic Lymph Nodes, and Spleen of Buffaloes Infected with .

Pathogens 2020 Nov 24;9(12). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, Gansu Province, China.

In the present study, we used an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics technology to characterize the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the liver, hepatic lymph nodes (hLNs), and spleen of buffaloes infected with . We also used the parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) method to verify the expression levels of the DEPs in the three infected tissues. At three days post-infection (dpi), 225, 1821, and 364 DEPs were detected in the liver, hLNs, and spleen, respectively. At 42 dpi, 384, 252, and 214 DEPs were detected in the liver, hLNs, and spleen, respectively. At 70 dpi, 125, 829, and 247 DEPs were detected in the liver, hLNs, and spleen, respectively. Downregulation of metabolism was prominent in infected livers at all time points, and upregulation of immune responses was marked in the hLNs during early infection (three dpi); however, no changes in the immune response were detected at the late stages of infection (42 and 70 dpi). Compared to the hLNs, there was no significant upregulation in the levels of immune responses in the infected spleen. All the identified DEPs were used to predict the subcellular localization of the proteins, which were related to extracellular space and membrane and were involved in host immune responses. Further PRM analysis confirmed the expression of 18 proteins. These data provide the first simultaneous proteomic profiles of multiple organs of buffaloes experimentally infected with .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9120982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7759843PMC
November 2020

Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2021 Mar 25;34(1). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, People's Republic of China

SUMMARY is known to infect a considerable number of mammalian and avian species and a substantial proportion of the world's human population. The parasite has an impressive ability to disseminate within the host's body and employs various tactics to overcome the highly regulatory blood-brain barrier and reside in the brain. In healthy individuals, infection is largely tolerated without any obvious ill effects. However, primary infection in immunosuppressed patients can result in acute cerebral or systemic disease, and reactivation of latent tissue cysts can lead to a deadly outcome. It is imperative that treatment of life-threatening toxoplasmic encephalitis is timely and effective. Several therapeutic and prophylactic regimens have been used in clinical practice. Current approaches can control infection caused by the invasive and highly proliferative tachyzoites but cannot eliminate the dormant tissue cysts. Adverse events and other limitations are associated with the standard pyrimethamine-based therapy, and effective vaccines are unavailable. In this review, the epidemiology, economic impact, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of cerebral toxoplasmosis are discussed, and critical areas for future research are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00115-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690944PMC
March 2021

Proteomic alterations in the plasma of Beagle dogs induced by Toxocara canis infection.

J Proteomics 2021 02 17;232:104049. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, PR China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi Province 030801, PR China. Electronic address:

Toxocara canis causes ocular larva migrans and visceral larva migrans in humans. Knowledge about the molecular mechanism of T. canis-hosts interaction is limited. The proteomic alterations in the plasma of Beagle dogs induced by T. canis infection were studied by the quantitative mass spectrometry-based data-independent acquisition (DIA). 418, 414 and 411 plasma proteins were identified at 24 h post-infection (hpi), 96 hpi and 36 days post-infection (dpi), including 6, 5 and 23 proteins with differential abundance, respectively. At 24 hpi, the altered proteins, retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 (RARRES2), WD repeat-containing protein 1 (WDR1), moesin and filamin-A, may participate in pro-inflammatory reaction or promote larvae migration. At 96 hpi, the altered protein C and fibroleukin may maintain the stability of the coagulation system to protect the lung. At 36 dpi, the alterations of C-reactive protein (CRP), ficolin (FCN), complement factor H-related protein 5 (CFHR5) and other complements can affect the three traditional complement system, including the classic pathway, lectin pathway and alternative pathway. These proteins may play important roles in the interaction between T. canis and its definitive hosts. Further study on these altered proteins triggered by T. canis infection may discovery novel therapeutic or diagnostic targets for toxocariasis. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Toxocara canis is one of the globally distributed soil-transmitted helminths, which causes ocular larva migrans and visceral larva migrans in humans and a wide range of warm-blooded animals. T. canis adapts to different microenvironments by resisting and adjusting various biological processes of the hosts. Knowledge about the molecular mechanism of T. canis-hosts interaction is limited. Plasma proteins are good marker for monitoring the occurrence and development of diseases. The proteomic alterations in the plasma of Beagle dogs induced by T. canis infection were studied by the quantitative mass spectrometry-based data-independent acquisition (DIA) in this study. A total of 418, 414 and 411 plasma proteins were identified at 24 h post-infection (hpi), 96 hpi and 36 days post-infection, respectively. Ten protein with differential abundances were validated by using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Collectively, our deep proteomic analysis of plasma revealed that proteins alterations were affected by disease development, and proteomic analysis is an ideal method for quantifying changes in circulating factors on a global scale in response to pathophysiological perturbations such as T. canis infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2020.104049DOI Listing
February 2021

Transcriptomic Profiling of Mouse Brain During Acute and Chronic Infections by Oocysts.

Front Microbiol 2020 19;11:570903. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Marine College, Shandong University, Weihai, China.

Infection by the protozoan can have a devastating impact on the structure and function of the brain of the infected individuals, particularly immunocompromised patients. A systems biology view of the brain transcriptome can identify key molecular targets and pathways that mediate the neuropathogenesis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. Here, we performed transcriptomic analysis of the brain of mice infected by Pru strain oocysts at 11 and 33 days post-infection (dpi) compared to uninfected (control) mice using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). altered the expression of 936 and 2,081 transcripts at 11 and 33 dpi, respectively, and most of these were upregulated in the infected brains. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment and pathway analysis showed that immune response, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responsive genes were strongly affected at 11dpi. Likewise, differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) related to T cell activation, cytokine production and immune cell proliferation were significantly altered at 33 dpi. Host-parasite interactome analysis showed that some DETs were involved in immune signaling, metabolism, biosynthesis-related processes and interspecies interaction. These findings should increase knowledge of the mouse brain transcriptome and the changes in transcriptional regulation and downstream signaling pathways during acute and chronic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.570903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604304PMC
October 2020

Global profiling of lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylome in Toxoplasma gondii using affinity purification mass spectrometry.

Parasitol Res 2020 Dec 15;119(12):4061-4071. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu Province, People's Republic of China.

Lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (K) is a recently discovered and evolutionarily conserved form of protein post-translational modification (PTM) found in mammalian and yeast cells. Previous studies have shown that K plays roles in the activity of gene transcription and K-containing proteins are closely related to the cellular metabolism. In this study, a global K-containing analysis using the latest databases (ToxoDB 46, 8322 sequences, downloaded on April 16, 2020) and sensitive immune-affinity enrichment coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 1078 K modification sites across 400 K-containing proteins were identified in tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain. Bioinformatics and functional enrichment analysis showed that K-modified proteins were associated with various biological processes, such as ribosome, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and central carbon metabolism. Interestingly, many proteins of the secretory organelles (e.g., microneme, rhoptry, and dense granule) that play roles in the infection cycle of T. gondii were found to be K-modified, suggesting the involvement of K in key biological process during T. gondii infection. We also found that histone proteins, key enzymes related to cellular metabolism, and several glideosome components had K sites. These results expanded our understanding of the roles of K in T. gondii and should promote further investigations of how K regulates gene expression and key biological functions in T. gondii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06923-wDOI Listing
December 2020

Global profiling of lncRNAs-miRNAs-mRNAs reveals differential expression of coding genes and non-coding RNAs in the lung of beagle dogs at different stages of Toxocara canis infection.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Jan 28;51(1):49-61. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi Province 030801, China. Electronic address:

The roundworm Toxocara canis causes toxocariasis in dogs and larval migrans in humans. Better understanding of the lung response to T. canis infection could explain why T. canis must migrate to and undergoes part of its development inside the lung of the definitive host. In this study, we profiled the expression patterns of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs in the lungs of Beagle dogs infected by T. canis, using high throughput RNA sequencing. At 24 h p.i., 1,012 lncRNAs, 393 mRNAs and 10 miRNAs were differentially expressed (DE). We also identified 883 DElncRNAs, 264 DEmRNAs and 20 DEmiRNAs at 96 h p.i., and 996 DElncRNAs, 342 DEmRNAs and eight DEmiRNAs at 36 days p.i., between infected and control dogs. Significant changes in the levels of expression of transcripts related to immune response and inflammation were associated with the antiparasitic response of the lung to T. canis. The remarkable increase in the expression of scgb1a1 at all time points after infection suggests the need for consistent moderation of the excessive inflammatory response. Also, upregulation of foxj1 at 24 h p.i., and downregulation of IL-1β and IL-21 at 96 h p.i., suggest an attenuation of the humoral immunity of infected dogs. These results indicate that T. canis pathogenesis in the lung is mediated through contributions from both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network analysis revealed significant interactions between DElncRNAs, DEmiRNAs and DEmRNAs, and improved our understanding of the ceRNA regulatory mechanisms in the context of T. canis infection. These data provide comprehensive understanding of the regulatory networks that govern the lung response to T. canis infection and reveal new mechanistic insights into the interaction between the host and parasite during the course of T. canis infection in the canine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2020.07.014DOI Listing
January 2021

Advances in the Development of Anti- Vaccines: Challenges, Opportunities, and Perspectives.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Sep 22;8(3). Epub 2020 Sep 22.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

The gastrointestinal nematode parasite () is a resident of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide that imposes significant production losses, economic losses, and animal health issues in the small ruminant industry, particularly sheep and goats. Considerable efforts have been made to understand how immunity is elicited against infection. Various potential vaccine antigens have been tested by different methods and strategies applied in animal models, and significant progress has been made in the development of vaccines against . This review highlighted and shared the knowledge about the current understanding of host immune responses to and ongoing challenges in the development of a protective, effective, and long-lasting vaccine against infection. We have also pinpointed some achievements and failures in the development and testing of vaccines, which will establish a road map for future research directions to explore new effective vaccine candidates for controlling and preventing infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565421PMC
September 2020

Modulation of the Functions of Goat Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Thioredoxin Peroxidase In Vitro.

Pathogens 2020 Sep 17;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China.

The liver fluke has a remarkable ability to establish a long-term infection within the hepatobiliary system of the mammalian definitive host. achieves this by producing excretory-secretory molecules, which have immunomodulatory activities. In an effort to elucidate the immunomodulatory functions of thioredoxin peroxidase protein (FgTPx), we expressed recombinant FgTPx (rFgTPx) in bacteria and examined its effects on several functions of goat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Sequence analysis revealed that FgTPx is related to a thioredoxin-like superfamily. Western blot analysis showed that rFgTPx was recognized by the sera of goats experimentally infected by . The specific binding of rFgTPx protein to the surface of goat PBMCs was demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining. We investigated the influence of serial concentrations of rFgTPx on various functions of goat PBMCs. All concentrations of rFgTPx increased the secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), but inhibited PBMC proliferation, migration, and monocyte phagocytosis. Goat PBMCs exposed to 20-40 μg/mL of rFgTPx secreted increased levels of nitric oxide (NO), and 10-40 μg/mL of rFgTPx promoted cell apoptosis. These findings indicate that rFgTPx influences various functions of goat PBMCs by interacting with a large number of cellular targets, ultimately to promote the parasite's survival. The roles of rFgTPx and their interacting proteins warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9090758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7559183PMC
September 2020

Acetylome analysis of the feline small intestine following Toxoplasma gondii infection.

Parasitol Res 2020 Nov 20;119(11):3649-3657. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, 730046, People's Republic of China.

Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite capable of infecting a large number of warm-blooded animals and causes serious health complications in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii infection of the feline small intestine is critical for the completion of the life cycle and transmission of T. gondii. Protein acetylation is an important posttranslational modification, which plays roles in the regulation of various cellular processes. Therefore, understanding of how T. gondii reprograms the protein acetylation status of feline definitive host can help to thwart the production and spread of T. gondii. Here, we used affinity enrichment and high-resolution liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to profile the alterations of the acetylome in cat small intestine 10 days after infection by T. gondii Prugniuad (Pru) strain. Our analysis showed that T. gondii induced significant changes in the acetylation of proteins in the cat intestine. We identified 2606 unique lysine acetylation sites in 1357 acetylated proteins. The levels of 334 acetylated peptides were downregulated, while the levels of 82 acetylated peptides were increased in the infected small intestine. The proteins with differentially acetylated peptides were particularly enriched in the bioenergetics-related processes, such as tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and oxidation-reduction. These results provide the first baseline of the global acetylome of feline small intestine following T. gondii infection and should facilitate further analysis of the role of acetylated protein in the pathogenesis of T. gondii infection in its definitive host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06880-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7502155PMC
November 2020

Toxoplasma invasion delayed by TgERK7 eradication.

Parasitol Res 2020 Nov 11;119(11):3771-3776. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Military Veterinary Institute, Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun, 130122, Jilin Province, People's Republic of China.

Toxoplasma gondii causes serious clinical toxoplasmosis in humans mostly due to its asexual life cycles, which can be artificially divided into five tightly coterminous stages. Any radical or delay for the stage will result in tremendous changes immediately behind. We previously demonstrated that TgERK7 is associated with the intracellular proliferation of T. gondii, but during the process, other stages before were not meanwhile determined. To further clarify the function of ERK7 gene in T. gondii, the complemental strain of ΔTgERK7 tachyzoites created previously was engineered via electric transfection with the recombinant pUC/Tgerk7 plasmid, named pUC/TgERK7 strain in this study, and was used together with ΔTgERK7 and wild-type GT1 strains to retrospect the phenotypic changes including invasion and attachment. The results showed that TgERK7 protein can be re-expressed in the ΔTgERK7 tachyzoites and eradication of this protein leads to significantly lower invasion of T. gondii at 1 h and 2 h post-infection (P < 0.05), which is the key factor causing the following slow intracellular proliferation, in comparison with wild-type GT1 and pUC/TgERK7 parasites; noteworthily, at other early time points including 15 min for attachment assay was no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The data suggested that ERK7 protein in T. gondii is an important virulence factor that participates in the invasion of this parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06881-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Marked mitochondrial genetic variation in individuals and populations of the carcinogenic liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 08 19;14(8):e0008480. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Clonorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, and is often associated with a malignant form of bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Although some aspects of the epidemiology of clonorchiasis are understood, little is known about the genetics of C. sinensis populations. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genetic exploration of C. sinensis from endemic geographic regions using complete mitochondrial protein gene sets. Genomic DNA samples from C. sinensis individuals (n = 183) collected from cats and dogs in China (provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Heilongjiang and Jilin) as well as from rats infected with metacercariae from cyprinid fish from the Russian Far East (Primorsky Krai region) were deep sequenced using the BGISEQ-500 platform. Informatic analyses of mitochondrial protein gene data sets revealed marked genetic variation within C. sinensis; significant variation was identified within and among individual worms from distinct geographical locations. No clear affiliation with a particular location or host species was evident, suggesting a high rate of dispersal of the parasite across endemic regions. The present work provides a foundation for future biological, epidemiological and ecological studies using mitochondrial protein gene data sets, which could aid in elucidating associations between particular C. sinensis genotypes/haplotypes and the pathogenesis or severity of clonorchiasis and its complications (including cholangiocarcinoma) in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437864PMC
August 2020

First Report of Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Domestic Black-Boned Sheep and Goats in China.

Front Vet Sci 2020 17;7:363. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

The Gram-negative bacteria of the genus cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. The seroprevalence of in domestic black-boned sheep and goats in China is unknown. In this survey, a total of 481 serum samples were collected randomly from domestic black-boned sheep and goats from three counties in Yunnan province, southwest China, from July to August 2017. The sera were examined by an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to were detected in 100/481 [20.79%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 17.16-24.42] serum samples (IHA titer ≥1:64). The seroprevalence ranged from 12.21% (95% CI, 7.81-16.61) to 30.89% (95% CI, 22.72-39.06) across different regions in Yunnan province, and the differences were statistically significant ( < 0.01). The seroprevalence in male domestic black-boned sheep and goats (28.64%; 95% CI, 22.36-34.92) was significantly higher than that in the females (15.25%; 95% CI, 11.05-19.45) ( < 0.01). However, there was no statistically significant difference in seroprevalence in domestic black-boned sheep and goats between ages and species ( > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first report of seroprevalence in domestic black-boned sheep and goats in Yunnan Province, southwest China. These data provide baseline information for future implementation of measures to control infection in these animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7380085PMC
July 2020

Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Reveals Metabolic Alterations in the Mouse Cerebellum During Infection.

Front Microbiol 2020 10;11:1555. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

is a protozoan parasite with a remarkable neurotropism. We recently showed that infection can alter the global metabolism of the cerebral cortex of mice. However, the impact of infection on the metabolism of the cerebellum remains unknown. Here we apply metabolomic profiling to discover metabolic changes associated with infection of the mouse cerebellum using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Multivariate statistics revealed differences in the metabolic profiles between the infected and control mouse groups and between the infected mouse groups as infection advanced. We also detected 10, 22, and 42 significantly altered metabolites (SAMs) in the infected cerebellum at 7, 14, and 21 days post infection (dpi), respectively. Four metabolites [tabersonine, arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid, and oleic acid] were identified as potential biomarker or responsive metabolites to infection in the mouse cerebellum. Three of these metabolites (AA, docosahexaenoic acid, and oleic acid) play roles in the regulation of host behavior and immune response. Pathway analysis showed that infection of the cerebellum involves reprogramming of amino acid and lipid metabolism. These results showcase temporal metabolomic changes during cerebellar infection by in mice. The study provides new insight into the neuropathogenesis of infection and reveals new metabolites and pathways that mediate the interplay between and the mouse cerebellum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7381283PMC
July 2020