Publications by authors named "Xing Zhou"

440 Publications

Preparation of V-type porous starch by amylase hydrolysis of V-type granular starch in aqueous ethanol solution.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

In this paper, a novel porous starch with a V-type crystalline structure and high adsorption capacity was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of V-type granular starch (VGS) in an aqueous ethanol solution. The effects of different starch concentrations, reaction temperatures, and ethanol concentrations on the microstructure, crystal morphology, crystallinity and adsorption properties of VGS before and after enzymatic hydrolysis were studied, and native normal corn starch (NNCS) and A-type porous starch (APS) prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of NNCS were used as controls. The results showed that compared with NNCS, VGS was easier to hydrolyze with a higher hydrolysis degree and the corresponding V-type porous starch (VPS) had more and larger pores and thus showed better adsorption performance than APS. Under the same enzymatic hydrolysis time, temperature and rotation speed, VPS prepared with a starch concentration of 20%, reaction temperature of 140 °C and ethanol concentration of 70% showed an irregular spongelike porous structure, highest V-type relative crystallinity of 25.09%, highest oil adsorption capacity of 241.70% and water adsorption capacity of 805.59%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.05.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Rapid Image Reconstruction of Structured Illumination Microscopy Directly in the Spatial Domain.

IEEE Photonics J 2021 Feb 20;13(1). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710119, China.

Super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM) routinely performs image reconstruction in the frequency domain using an approach termed frequency-domain reconstruction (FDR). Due to multiple Fourier transforms between the spatial and frequency domains, SIM suffers from low reconstruction speed, constraining its applications in real-time, dynamic imaging. To overcome this limitation, we developed a new method for SIM image reconstruction, termed spatial domain reconstruction (SDR). SDR is intrinsically simpler than FDR, does not require Fourier transforms and the theory predicts it to be a rapid image reconstruction method. Results show that SDR reconstructs a super-resolution image 7-fold faster than FDR, producing images that are equal to either FDR or the widely-used FairSIM. We provide a proof-of-principle using mobile fluorescent beads to demonstrate the utility of SDR in imaging moving objects. Consequently, replacement of the FDR approach with SDR significantly enhances SIM as the desired method for live-cell, instant super-resolution imaging. This means that SDR-SIM is a "What You See Is What You Get" approach to super-resolution imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2021.3053110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054977PMC
February 2021

Adaptive fuzzy tracking of switched nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems with state constraints based on event-triggered mechanism.

ISA Trans 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Intelligent Systems Science and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, 150001, China; Key laboratory of Intelligent Technology and Application of Marine Equipment (Harbin Engineering University), Ministry of Education, Harbin, 150001, China.

This paper is devoted to develop an adaptive fuzzy tracking control scheme for switched nonstrict-feedback nonlinear systems (SNFNS) with state constraints based on event-triggered mechanism. All state variables are ensured to keep the predefined regions by employing barrier Lyapunov function (BLF). The fuzzy logic systems are exploited to cope with the unknown dynamics existing the SNFNS. It proposes to mitigate data transmission and save communication source whereby the event-triggered mechanism. With the aid of Lyapunov stability analysis and the average dwell time (ADT) method, it is shown that all variables of the entire SNFNS are uniformly ultimate bounded (UUB) under switching signals. Finally, simulation studies are discussed to substantiate the validity of theoretical findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.03.014DOI Listing
April 2021

Systemic immune-inflammation index predicts postoperative acute kidney injury in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after hepatectomy.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25335

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan.

Abstract: The systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) is an independent prognostic predictor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present investigation examined whether an association exists between preoperative SII value and postoperative acute kidney injury (pAKI) in HCC patients.The study included 479 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC patients undergoing hepatectomy. The SII was calculated as P × N/L, where P, N, and L represent the counts of platelets, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in routine blood test, respectively. After propensity score matching, logistic regression analysis was used to explore independent predictors of pAKI in HCC patients.pAKI was confirmed in 51 patients (10.8%). The average SII value was higher in patients with pAKI than patients without pAKI. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, SII, history of hypertension, and tumor size, among others, were found to be predictors of pAKI. The optimal threshold value of SII for predicting pAKI was found to be 547.84 × 109/L. Multivariate analysis performed after propensity score matching confirmed that SII ≥ 547.84 × 109/L was an independent predictor of pAKI.The preoperative SII qualifies as a novel, independent predictor of pAKI in HCC patients with HBV infection who underwent hepatectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036044PMC
April 2021

A composite risk model predicts disease progression in early stages of COVID-19: A propensity score-matched cohort study.

Ann Clin Biochem 2021 Apr 21:45632211011194. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Recently, studies on COVID-19 have focused on the epidemiology of the disease and clinical characteristics of patients, as well as on the risk factors associated with mortality during hospitalization in critical COVID-19 cases. However, few research has been performed on the prediction of disease progression in particular group of patients in the early stages of COVID-19.

Methods: The study included 338 patients with COVID-19 treated at two hospitals in Wuhan, China, from December 2019 to March 2020. Predictors of the progression of COVID-19 from mild to severe stages were selected by the logistic regression analysis.

Results: COVID-19 progression to severe and critical stages was confirmed in 78 (23.1%) patients. The average value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was higher in patients in the disease progression group than in the improvement group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that elevated NLR, LDH and IL-10 were independent predictors of disease progression. The optimal cut-off value of NLR was 3.75. The values of the area under the curve, reflecting the accuracy of predicting COVID-19 progression by NLR was 0.739 (95%CI: 0.605-0.804). The risk model based on NLR, LDH and IL-10 had the highest area under the ROC curve.

Conclusions: The performed analysis demonstrates that high concentrations of NLR, LDH and IL-10 were independent risk factors for predicting disease progression in patients at the early stage of COVID-19. The risk model combined with NLR, LDH and IL-10 improved the accuracy of the prediction of disease progression in patients in the early stages of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00045632211011194DOI Listing
April 2021

FAPI-04 PET/CT Using [F]AlF Labeling Strategy: Automatic Synthesis, Quality Control, and Assessment in Patient.

Front Oncol 2021 19;11:649148. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Radiation Oncology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Cancer Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Ga labeled FAPI is the current standard for FAPI-PET, but its batch activity is limited. [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 is a promising alternative combining the advantages of a chelator-based radiolabeling method with the unique properties of fluorine-18. The objective of this study was to develop a quick automatic method for synthesis of [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 using a AllinOne synthesis system, and perform PET imaging with [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 on patients. [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 was produced, and its quality control was conducted by HPLC equipped with a radioactive detector. [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 PET/CT imaging was performed in normal BALB/c mice (n = 3) and 4T1 breast cancer models (n = 3) to determine its biodistribution. Then [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 and F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT imaging were performed in an invasive ductal carcinoma patient (female, 54 years old). The synthesis time of [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 was about 25 min, and the radiochemical yield was 26.4 ± 1.5% (attenuation correction, n = 10). The radiochemical purity was above 99.0% and was above 98.0% after 6 h. The product was colorless transparent solution with pH value of 7.0-7.5, and the specific activity was 49.41 ± 3.19 GBq/μmol. PET/CT imaging in mice showed that physiological uptake of [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 was mainly in the biliary system and bladder, and [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 highly concentrated in tumor xenografts. PET/CT imaging in the patient showed that [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 obtained high tumor background ratio (TBR) value of 8.44 in segment V and VI, while TBR value was 2.55 by F-FDG. [F]AlF-NOTA-FAPI-04 could be synthesized with high radiochemical yield and batch production by AllinOne module and show excellent diagnosis performance in cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.649148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017320PMC
March 2021

2D Rare Earth Material (EuOCl) with Ultra-Narrow Photoluminescence at Room Temperature.

Small 2021 Apr 2:e2100137. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, 430074, P. R. China.

High color purity and color rendition of 2D luminescent materials have long been pursued for applications in low-dimensional lighting, display, biolabeling, and laser. However, the reported photoluminescence (PL) linewidth of most 2D luminescent materials is about dozens of meV. Herein, a brand-new luminescent system of 2D rare earth (RE) material EuOCl (1.1 nm) with ultra-narrow linewidth (1.2 meV) at room temperature is successfully synthesized via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The linewidth of EuOCl flakes at room temperature is even narrower than most 2D luminescent materials and heterostructures detected at below 10 K. Impressively, the as-synthesized EuOCl flakes show abnormal temperature-dependent photoluminescent properties, which is absolutely different from the relatively stable 4f-4f transitions in RE owing to shielding from outer shell electrons. J-mixing effect has been successfully applied for this phenomenon. Undoubtedly, luminescent 2D EuOCl flakes will open new territory for the applications of 2D RE materials in the 2D luminescent areas, especially for the applications at room temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100137DOI Listing
April 2021

Salt Replacement Changed the Bacterial Community Composition and Physicochemical Characteristics of Sodium-Reduced Fermented Sausages during Fermentation and Ripening.

Foods 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.

The impact on fermented sausages with 25% replacement of the sodium chloride content by 14% potassium chloride, 10% calcium ascorbate and 1% calcium glutamate during fermentation and ripening was evaluated based on the bacterial community composition and physicochemical and sensory characteristic analysis. Our results showed that the use of salt replacement varied the composition of the bacterial community and reduced the diversity of that in sodium-reduced fermented sausages. Moreover, the decrease in pH and the moisture content of fermented sausages with salt replacement accelerated the drying and ripening processes. The texture profile and color analysis did not reveal marked differences between normal fermented sausages and sodium-reduced products with salt replacement; however, salt replacement reduced resilience and lightness of fermented sausages. In addition, as shown in the principal component analysis, the comprehensive parameters of the fermented sausages with salt replacement were similar to those of normal salt products. These results indicate that the complex blends of salt replacement have great potential to be used to produce sodium-reduced fermented sausages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002409PMC
March 2021

Self-adhesive protein/polypyrrole hybrid film for flexible electronic sensors in physiological signal monitoring.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 26;181:160-168. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Faculty of Printing, Packaging Engineering and Digital Media Technology, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, PR China.

Flexible electronic sensors composed of conductive material and flexible film have attracted increasing attention in decades due to its commercial, medical and scientific value. However, the poor interfacial bonding robustness between conductive materials and flexible film influences widely practical application of sensors. It is still a great challenge to fabricate a self-adhesive conductive film. Herein, we report a freestanding and self-adhesive bovine serum albumin/polypyrrole (BSA/PPy) hybrid film at the air/water interface. It is discovered that the PPy nanoparticles aggregate uniformly on the BSA film that is formed by amyloid-like BSA aggregation. The BSA/PPy film was integrated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film to fabricate flexible electronic sensors. The test indicates that the BSA/PPy film-based sensor could tolerate 500 cycles of bending without the resistance performance variation. The BSA/PPy film functions as a key mediator to dynamically tune the PPy conductance in response to external pressures and strains. The sensors exhibit ability for detecting tiny acoustic vibration, real-time human motion, physiological behavior and for differentiating various breathing pattern. Our strategy may open a pathway to readily construct flexible electronic sensors toward practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.145DOI Listing
March 2021

Synergistic Additive-Assisted Growth of 2D Ternary In SnS with Giant Gate-Tunable Polarization-Sensitive Photoresponse.

Small 2021 May 24;17(18):e2008078. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, 430074, P. R. China.

2D ternary materials exhibit great promise in the field of polarization-sensitive photodetectors due to the low-symmetry crystal structure. However, the realization of ternary material growth is still a huge challenge because of the complex reaction process. Here, for the first time, 2D ternary In SnS flakes are obtained via synergistic additive of salt and molecular sieve-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Raman vibration mode of In SnS flakes exhibits polarization-dependent properties. The polarization-resolved absorption spectroscopy and azimuth-dependent reflectance difference microscopy further confirm its anisotropy of in-plane optical absorption and reflection. Besides, the In SnS flake based device on mica shows ultrafast rising and decay rates of ≈20 and 20 µs. Impressively, In SnS flake based phototransistor demonstrates giant gate-tunable polarization-sensitive photoresponse: the dichroic ratio can be adjusted in the range of 1.13-1.70 with gate voltage varying from -35-35 V. This work provides an effective means for modulating the polarization-sensitive photoresponse, which may significantly promote the research progress of polarization-sensitive photodetectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202008078DOI Listing
May 2021

Modifying the internal structures of steamed rice cakes by emulsifiers for promoted textural and sensory properties.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 8;354:129469. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; Jiangsu Provincial Research Centre for Bioactive Product Processing Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

Steamed rice cakes (SRCs) are traditional Chinese snacks with a wide territorial acceptability. However, traditional cuisine is challenged by insufficient expansion of the spongy network favoring tasting experience. In this study, the effects of different emulsifiers on the physical, pasting, and textural properties of SRCs were investigated. The results showed that the emulsifiers, especially sodium stearoyl lactylate, interacted with starch molecules to form starch-lipid complexes, which created gels with enlarged spacing between junction zones. The electrostatic repulsion prevented aggregation of starch chains, yielding loosely packed microstructures of rice batter. As a result, the SRCs with 0.5% addition (relative to the weight of rice flour) of emulsifiers had increased specific volume, decreased apparent porosity and hardness, and preferable springiness, contributing to desired overall acceptability when receiving sensory evaluation by a group of trained panel. The results demonstrated the feasibility of modifying the textural properties of starch-based foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129469DOI Listing
August 2021

Antibody glycosylation in autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 May 14;20(5):102804. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Electronic address:

The glycosylation of the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of immunoglobulins (Ig) is critical for the modulation of antibody effects on inflammation. Moreover, antibody glycosylation may induce pathologic modifications and ultimately contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases. Thanks to progress in the analysis of glycosylation, more data are available on IgG and its subclass structures in the context of autoimmune diseases. In this review, we focused on the impact of Ig glycosylation in autoimmunity, describing how it modulates the immune response and how glycome profiles can be used as biomarkers of disease activity. The analysis of antibody glycosylation demonstrated specific features in human autoimmune and chronic inflammatory conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune liver diseases, among others. Within the same disease, different patterns are associated with disease severity and treatment options. Future research may increase the information available on the distinct glycome profiles and expand their potential role as biomarkers and as targets for treatment, ultimately favoring an individualized approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2021.102804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058319PMC
May 2021

Palmar erythema and palmar papules as predictors for dermatomyositis-related acute/subacute interstitial lung disease: a retrospective study.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Dermatology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Objectives: Dermatomyositis (DM)-related acute/subacute interstitial lung disease (A/S-ILD) remains a big therapeutic challenge due to its insidious onset and rapid development. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between clinical features of DM and ILD.

Methods: We retrospectively assessed skin manifestations, muscle damage, laboratory tests, concurrent ILD and malignancy in 207 patients with DM and analyzed the high-risk factors for ILD.

Results: In the 207 DM patients, 153 patients had ILD, in which 131 had chronic ILD (CILD) and 22 had A/S-ILD. The proportions of mechanic's hands, palmar papules and muscle weakness, as well as anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin in the ILD group were significantly higher compared with the non-ILD group. The onset age over 56 years, mechanic's hands and muscle weakness were independent predictive factors for ILD. The proportions of palmar papules, palmar erythema, anti-MDA5 antibody, ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), LDH and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the A/S-ILD group were higher compared with the CILD group. Palmar erythema and palmar papules were independent predictive factors for A/S-ILD. Palmar papules were positively correlated with anti-MDA5 antibody.

Conclusion: The onset age over 56 years, mechanic's hands or muscle weakness predicted the incidence of DM-related ILD, while palmar erythema or palmar papules could predict potential DM-related A/S-ILD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keab177DOI Listing
February 2021

The peak levels of highly sensitive troponin I predicts in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury: a retrospective study.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 Mar;10(1):6-15

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 1277, Jiefang Ave, Wuhan, 430022 Hubei, China.

Aims: To investigate the association between levels of highly sensitive troponin I (hs-troponin I) and mortality in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with cardiac injury.

Methods And Results: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all COVID-19 patients with increased levels of hs-troponin I from two hospitals in Wuhan, China. Demographic information, laboratory test results, cardiac ultrasonographic findings, and electrocardiograms were collected, and their predictive value on in-hospital mortality was explored using multivariable logistic regression. Of 1500 patients screened, 242 COVID-19 patients were enrolled in our study. Their median age was 68 years, and (48.8%) had underlying cardiovascular diseases. One hundred and seventy-six (72.7%) patients died during hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression showed that C-reactive protein (>75.5 mg/L), D-dimer (>1.5 μg/mL), and acute respiratory distress syndrome were risk factors of mortality, and the peak hs-troponin I levels (>259.4 pg/mL) instead of the hs-troponin I levels at admission was predictor of death. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the peak levels of hs-troponin I for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.86; sensitivity, 0.80; specificity, 0.72; P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the risk of in-hospital death among COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury can be predicted by the peak levels of hs-troponin I during hospitalization and was significantly associated with oxygen supply-demand mismatch, inflammation, and coagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuaa019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665398PMC
March 2021

Intra-Individual Comparison of 18F-PSMA-1007 and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the Evaluation of Patients With Prostate Cancer.

Front Oncol 2020 1;10:585213. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Radiation Oncology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, PET/CT Centre, Sichuan Cancer Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Purpose: 18F labelled PSMA-1007 presents promising results in detecting prostate cancer (PC), while some pitfalls exists meanwhile. An intra-individual comparison of 18F-FDG and 18F-PSMA-1007 in patients with prostate cancer were aimed to be performed in the present study. Then, the pitfalls of 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT in imaging of patients with prostate cancer were analyzed.

Methods And Material: 21 prostate cancer patients underwent 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT as well as 18F-FDG PET/CT before treatment. All positive lesions were noticed in both 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT, then differentiated PC metastasis from benign lesions. the SUVmax, SUVmean and TBR of lesions, up to 10 metastases and 10 benign lesions per patients were recorded (5 for bone, 5 for soft tissue metastasis ). The distribution of positive lesions were analyzed for two imaging. Detection rates, SUVmax, SUVmean and TBR in 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT were compared, respectively. The optimal cut-off values of SUVmax, SUVmean for metastases vs. benign lesions was found through areas under ROC in 18F-PSMA-1007.

Results: The detection rates of primary lesions in 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT was higher than that of 18F-FDG PET/CT(100% (21/21) vs. 67%(14/21)). For extra- prostatic lesions, 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT revealed 124 positive lesions, 49(49/124, 40%) attributed to a benign origin; 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed 68 positive lesions, 14(14/68, 21%) attributed to a benign origin. The SUVmax, SUVmean, TBR of primary tumor in 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT was higher than that in 18F-FDG PET/CT (15.20 vs. 4.20 for SUVmax; 8.70 vs. 2.80 for SUVmean; 24.92 vs. 4.82 for TBR, respectively); The SUVmax, SUVmean, TBR of metastases in 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT was higher than that in 18F-FDG PET/CT (10.72 vs. 4.42 for SUVmax; 6.67 vs. 2.59 for SUVmean; The TBR of metastases was 13.3 vs. 7.91). For 18F-FDG PET/CT, the SUVmax, SUVmean in metastases was higher than that in benign lesions (4.42 vs. 3.04 for SUVmax, 2.59 vs. 1.75 for SUVmean, respectively). Similarly, for 18F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT, the SUVmax, SUVmean in metastases was significantly higher than that in benign lesions(10.72 vs. 3.14 for SUVmax, 6.67 vs. 1.91 for SUVmean, respectively), ROC suggested that SUVmax=7.71, SUVmean=5.35 might be the optimal cut-off values for metastases vs. benign lesions.

Conclusion: The pilot study suggested that 18F-PSMA-1007 showed superiority over 18F-FDG because its high detecting rate of PC lesions and excellent tumor uptake. While non-tumor uptake in 18F-PSMA-1007 may lead to misdiagnosis, recognizing these pitfalls and careful analysis can improve the accuracy of diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.585213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884904PMC
February 2021

Effect of high-temperatures and aqueous ethanol treatment on the formation process and properties of V-type Granular Starch (VGS).

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Apr 29;258:117713. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China; School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214122, China; Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China. Electronic address:

Starch-water-ethanol mixtures were heated between 80 and 160 °C. The formation process of V-type granular starch (VGS) was investigated. DSC analysis showed that starch gelatinization was completely inhibited in 70 % ethanol. Microscopic analysis showed that starch remained granular morphology after modification, but when temperature exceeded 110 °C, Maltese cross and A-type crystalline structure disappeared, a V-type crystalline structure developed with increasing temperature, and short-range order of modified starch was reduced. It was indicated that VGS was formed at temperatures exceeding 110 °C in 70 % ethanol. When temperature was increased from 80 to 140 °C, starch cold-water viscosity increased from 17.00 cP to 1932.00 cP. Further temperature increase resulted in decreased cold-water viscosity because of starch degradation. It was found that cold-water viscosity was positively correlated with the crystallinity of V-type starch structure. Ethanol washing before drying made VGS dispersed better, and strengthened V-type crystalline structure, so that ethanol washed VGS had better paste properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117713DOI Listing
April 2021

COVID-19: Current knowledge in clinical features, immunological responses, and vaccine development.

FASEB J 2021 03;35(3):e21409

McMaster Immunology Research Centre, M. G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research & Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

The COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded to be the most challenging global health crisis in a century. In 11 months since its first emergence, according to WHO, the causative infectious agent SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 100 million people and claimed more than 2.15 million lives worldwide. Moreover, the world has raced to understand the virus and natural immunity and to develop vaccines. Thus, within a short 11 months a number of highly promising COVID-19 vaccines were developed at an unprecedented speed and are now being deployed via emergency use authorization for immunization. Although a considerable number of review contributions are being published, all of them attempt to capture only a specific aspect of COVID-19 or its therapeutic approaches based on ever-expanding information. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview to conceptually thread together the latest information on global epidemiology and mitigation strategies, clinical features, viral pathogenesis and immune responses, and the current state of vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202002662RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898934PMC
March 2021

SIRT3 ameliorates osteoarthritis via regulating chondrocyte autophagy and apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 6;175:351-360. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Orthopedics Surgery, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of joint disease. The aim of this study was to explore the functions of SIRT3 on OA pathophysiology and the mechanism involved. Rat chondrocytes and destabilized medial meniscus (DMM) rat OA model were used as in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, lentivirus and plasmid were used to overexpress SIRT3, while siRNA was applied to establish SIRT3 knockdown. IL-1β induced inflammation, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and chondrocyte degeneration were inhibited by SIRT3 overexpression, which were enhanced in SIRT3-knockdown rat chondrocytes. Furthermore, overexpression of SIRT3 could restore IL-1β-induced autophagy inhibition. We also found that IL-1β-induced PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway activation was inhibited by SIRT3 overexpression, which was enhanced by SIRT3 knockdown. Last, intra-articular SIRT3 overexpression alleviated the severity of OA-induced rat joint damage. Our results demonstrated that SIRT3 is an important protective agent against OA pathophysiology via inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.029DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Shear Stresses on Adenovirus Activity and Aggregation during Atomization To Produce Thermally Stable Vaccines by Spray Drying.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 07 11;6(7):4304-4313. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4L7 Ontario, Canada.

Considering the substantive potential benefits of thermally stable dry powder vaccines to public health, causes for inactivation of their sensitive viral vectors during preparation require intensive study. The focus of this work was atomization of suspensions containing encapsulating excipients and a human type 5 adenovirus, involving a detailed investigation of shear stresses in the nozzle of a spray dryer. Samples were sprayed at 25 °C into falcon tubes and immediately evaluated for viral activity by in vitro testing, minimizing the confounding of thermal effects on the deactivation of the virus, although interfacial stresses could not be decoupled from shear stresses. Despite the expectations of only virus deactivation with ever-increasing shear stresses in the spray nozzle, some conditions were found to show better activity than the positive control, leading to investigations of viral aggregation. It was found that the adenovirus experienced minor aggregation when mixed with the excipient solutions, which was reversed by subjecting samples to moderate shear conditions in the spray nozzle. At very high shear rates, the activity diminished again because of damage to the viral capsid fibers, which also led to the production of new aggregates after atomization. Despite these findings, activity losses caused by shear were small compared to the overall spray drying process loss. However, formulation composition, solution viscosity, and process conditions should be considered carefully for optimization because of their impact on aggregation. This is the first known report comparing shear, aggregation, and biological activity loss during the atomization step of spray drying viral vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00317DOI Listing
July 2020

6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study.

Lancet 2021 01 8;397(10270):220-232. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

NHC Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens and Christophe Merieux Laboratory, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China; Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease Pathogenomics, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: The long-term health consequences of COVID-19 remain largely unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the long-term health consequences of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from hospital and investigate the associated risk factors, in particular disease severity.

Methods: We did an ambidirectional cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7, 2020, and May 29, 2020. Patients who died before follow-up, patients for whom follow-up would be difficult because of psychotic disorders, dementia, or re-admission to hospital, those who were unable to move freely due to concomitant osteoarthropathy or immobile before or after discharge due to diseases such as stroke or pulmonary embolism, those who declined to participate, those who could not be contacted, and those living outside of Wuhan or in nursing or welfare homes were all excluded. All patients were interviewed with a series of questionnaires for evaluation of symptoms and health-related quality of life, underwent physical examinations and a 6-min walking test, and received blood tests. A stratified sampling procedure was used to sample patients according to their highest seven-category scale during their hospital stay as 3, 4, and 5-6, to receive pulmonary function test, high resolution CT of the chest, and ultrasonography. Enrolled patients who had participated in the Lopinavir Trial for Suppression of SARS-CoV-2 in China received severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody tests. Multivariable adjusted linear or logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between disease severity and long-term health consequences.

Findings: In total, 1733 of 2469 discharged patients with COVID-19 were enrolled after 736 were excluded. Patients had a median age of 57·0 (IQR 47·0-65·0) years and 897 (52%) were men. The follow-up study was done from June 16, to Sept 3, 2020, and the median follow-up time after symptom onset was 186·0 (175·0-199·0) days. Fatigue or muscle weakness (63%, 1038 of 1655) and sleep difficulties (26%, 437 of 1655) were the most common symptoms. Anxiety or depression was reported among 23% (367 of 1617) of patients. The proportions of median 6-min walking distance less than the lower limit of the normal range were 24% for those at severity scale 3, 22% for severity scale 4, and 29% for severity scale 5-6. The corresponding proportions of patients with diffusion impairment were 22% for severity scale 3, 29% for scale 4, and 56% for scale 5-6, and median CT scores were 3·0 (IQR 2·0-5·0) for severity scale 3, 4·0 (3·0-5·0) for scale 4, and 5·0 (4·0-6·0) for scale 5-6. After multivariable adjustment, patients showed an odds ratio (OR) 1·61 (95% CI 0·80-3·25) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 4·60 (1·85-11·48) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for diffusion impairment; OR 0·88 (0·66-1·17) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and OR 1·77 (1·05-2·97) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for anxiety or depression, and OR 0·74 (0·58-0·96) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 2·69 (1·46-4·96) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for fatigue or muscle weakness. Of 94 patients with blood antibodies tested at follow-up, the seropositivity (96·2% vs 58·5%) and median titres (19·0 vs 10·0) of the neutralising antibodies were significantly lower compared with at the acute phase. 107 of 822 participants without acute kidney injury and with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 90 mL/min per 1·73 m or more at acute phase had eGFR less than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m at follow-up.

Interpretation: At 6 months after acute infection, COVID-19 survivors were mainly troubled with fatigue or muscle weakness, sleep difficulties, and anxiety or depression. Patients who were more severely ill during their hospital stay had more severe impaired pulmonary diffusion capacities and abnormal chest imaging manifestations, and are the main target population for intervention of long-term recovery.

Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, and Peking Union Medical College Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32656-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833295PMC
January 2021

A four-electron Zn-I aqueous battery enabled by reversible I/I/I conversion.

Nat Commun 2021 Jan 8;12(1):170. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

State Key Laboratory of Chem/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, P.R. China.

Electrochemically reversible redox couples that embrace more electron transfer at a higher potential are the eternal target for energy storage batteries. Here, we report a four-electron aqueous zinc-iodine battery by activating the highly reversible I/I couple (1.83 V vs. Zn/Zn) in addition to the typical I/I couple (1.29 V). This is achieved by intensive solvation of the aqueous electrolyte to yield ICl inter-halogens and to suspend its hydrolysis. Experimental characterization and modelling reveal that limited water activity and sufficient free chloride ions in the electrolyte are crucial for the four-electron process. The merits of the electrolyte also afford to stabilize Zn anode, leading to a reliable Zn-I aqueous battery of 6000 cycles. Owing to high operational voltage and capacity, energy density up to 750 Wh kg based on iodine mass was achieved (15-20 wt% iodine in electrode). It pushes the Zn-I battery to a superior level among these available aqueous batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20331-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794333PMC
January 2021

An Integrated Autophagy-Related Long Noncoding RNA Signature as a Prognostic Biomarker for Human Endometrial Cancer: A Bioinformatics-Based Approach.

Biomed Res Int 2020 12;2020:5717498. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430022, China.

Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors, lowering the quality of life among women worldwide. Autophagy plays dual roles in these malignancies. To search for prognostic markers for endometrial cancer, we mined The Cancer Genome Atlas and the Human Autophagy Database for information on endometrial cancer and autophagy-related genes and identified five autophagy-related long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) (LINC01871, SCARNA9, SOS1-IT1, AL161618.1, and FIRRE). Based on these autophagy-related lncRNAs, samples were divided into high-risk and low-risk groups. Survival analysis showed that the survival rate of the high-risk group was significantly lower than that of the low-risk group. Univariate and multivariate independent prognostic analyses showed that patients' age, pathological grade, and FIGO stage were all risk factors for poor prognosis. A clinical correlation analysis of the relationship between the five autophagy-related lncRNAs and patients' age, pathological grade, and FIGO stage was also per https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7090-1750 formed. Histopathological assessment of the tumor microenvironment showed that the ESTIMATE, immune, and stromal scores in the high-risk group were lower than those in the low-risk group. Principal component analysis and functional annotation were performed to confirm the correlations. To further evaluate the effect of the model constructed on prognosis, samples were divided into training (60%) and validation (40%) groups, regarding the risk status as an independent prognostic risk factor. A prognostic nomogram was constructed using patients' age, pathological grade, FIGO stage, and risk status to estimate the patients' survival rate. C-index and multi-index ROC curves were generated to verify the stability and accuracy of the nomogram. From this analysis, we concluded that the five lncRNAs identified in this study could affect the incidence and development of endometrial cancer by regulating the autophagy process. Therefore, these molecules may have the potential to serve as novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5717498DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755467PMC
December 2020

[Xiongcan Yishen Prescription up-regulates the expressions of cholesterol transport proteins, steroidogenic enzymes and SF-1 in the Leydig cells of rats with late-onset hypogonadism].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2020 Mar;26(3):258-264

Department of Andrology, General Hospital of Eastern Theater Command, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of Xiongcan Yishen Prescription (XYP) on the expressions of cholesterol transport proteins, steroidogenic enzymes and steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) in the Leydig cells of the rats with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH).

Methods: Twenty-five 18-month-old male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups of equal number, LOH model control, testosterone propionate (TP) and low-, medium- and high-dose XYP, and another 5 two-month-old male SD rats included as normal controls. After modeling, the animals in the TP group were treated by intramuscular injection of TP at 5.21 mg/kg qd alt, those in the low-, medium- and high-dose XYP groups intragastrically with XYP at 10.4, 20.8 and 41.6 g/kg qd alt respectively, and those in the LOH model and normal control groups with saline, all for 28 successive days. Then, all the rats were sacrificed for determination of the expressions of the cholesterol transport proteins StAR and TSPO, steroidogenic enzymes CYP11A1, HSD3B7 and HSD17B4, and SF-1 in the Leydig cells by Western blot.

Results: The expressions of StAR, TSPO, CYP11A1, HSD3B7, HSD17B4 and SF-1 in the Leydig cells were significantly decreased in the LOH model controls compared with those in the normal controls (P< 0.05), but remarkably increased in the low-, medium- and high-dose XYP groups in comparison with those in the LOH model control group (P< 0.05).

Conclusions: Xiongcan Yishen Prescription can up-regulate the expressions of the cholesterol transport proteins StAR and TSPO, steroidogenic enzymes CYP11A1, HSD3B7 and HSD17B4, and SF-1 in the rat Leydig cells, which might be one of the possible mechanisms of the prescription in the treatment of LOH.
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March 2020

[Improving effect of Jiarong Tablets on the morphological structure and function of the testis in rats with late-onset hypogonadism].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2020 Mar;26(3):237-241

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of Jiarong Tablets (JRT) on the testicular morphology and function of rats with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH).

Methods: LOH models were established in 8 eighteen-month-old male SD rats, treated intragastrically with distilled water (the model control group, n = 4) or JRT at 0.375 g/kg/d, qd (the JRT group, n = 4), and another 5 two-month-old normal male SD rats were also given distilled water by gavage (normal control group), all for 28 days. Then all the rats were weighed and sacrificed for measurement of the serum T level and pathological and electron microscopic examination of the testis tissue.

Results: Compared with the normal controls, the LOH models showed significantly decreased testis coefficient (P < 0.05) and serum T level ([3.40 ± 0.06] vs [5.88 ± 0.46] ng /ml, P < 0.05). No statistically significant differences were observed in the model control and JRT groups in the body weight and testis coefficient (P > 0.05), but the serum T level ([4.50 ± 0.78] ng/ml) was remarkably decreased in the latter (P < 0.05). In comparison with the model controls, the rats treated with JRT exhibited increases in the sperm count in the seminiferous tubules and the amount of testicular interstitial cells. Electron microscopy revealed a markedly increased number of mitochondria in the JRT-treated animals, with some mitochondrial sheaths and cristae but no obvious mitochondrial edema.

Conclusions: Jiarong Tablets can elevate the serum T level and improve the testicular morphology and ultrastructure of LOH rats.
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March 2020

[Xiongcan Yishen Prescription upregulates the expressions of eNOS and cGMP in the penile tissue of ED rats with liver depression and kidney deficiency].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2020 Feb;26(2):167-173

Department of Andrology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Human 410007, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of Xiongcan Yishen Prescription (XYP) on the expressions of eNOS and cGMP in the penile tissue of ED rats with liver depression and kidney deficiency (LDKD).

Methods: The model of ED-LDKD was established in 30 eight-week-old SPF-class male SD rats by injecting hydrocortisone intramuscularly and binding the limbs for 14 days, and another 10 rats were taken as blank controls. Then, the model rats were randomized into six groups of equal number and treated intragastrically with distilled water (model control), tadalafil tablets at 0.52 mg/kg/d (tadalafil control), Shugan Yiyang Capsules 0.3125 g/kg/d (SYC control), and XYP at 10.4 g/kg/d (low-dose XYP), 20.8 g/kg/d (medium-dose XYP) and 41.6 g/kg/d (high-dose XYP), bid, for 28 successive days, respectively. Before and after modeling and after 28-day treatment, the animals were subjected to tail suspension and mating tests. The next day after medication, the penile tissues of the rats were harvested for determining the expression levels of eNOS and cGMP proteins by immunohistochemical analysis of the mean optical density.

Results: Compared with the model controls, the rats of the high-, medium- and low-dose XYP and SYC control groups all showed significant decreases in the tail suspension time ([3.17 ± 0.11] vs [2.58 ± 0.25], [2.52 ± 0.31], [2.51 ± 0.3] and [2.57 ± 0.29] min, P < 0.05) and mount latency (ML) ([9.23 ± 0.11] vs [1.21 ± 0.12], [2.17 ± 0.16], [2.26 ± 0.13], [1.23 ± 0.15] and [2.48 ± 0.18] min, P < 0.05) but increases in mount frequency (MF) ([0.48 ± 0.18] vs [3.29 ± 0.11], [3.18 ± 0.11], [3.05 ± 0.05], [3.23 ± 0.12] and [3.2 ± 0.28] times, P < 0.05) and intromission frequency (IF) ([0.8 ± 0.84] vs [11.8 ± 0.84], [11.2 ± 1.48], [9.4 ± 1.14], [11.4 ± 1.14] and [10 ± 1.22] times, P < 0.05). The eNOS and cGMP proteins were mainly expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the arterial and venous endothelial cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells of the cavernous, as brownish yellow particles in a scattered and focal pattern. Both the expressions of eNOS and cGMP in the penile tissue were remarkably upregulated in the high-, medium- and low-dose XYP and SYC control groups as compared with those in the model control (P < 0.05) but exhibited no statistically significant difference between the tadalafil and model control groups (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Xiongcan Yishen Prescription can relieve the depression symptoms, increase the mount frequency, activate the NO/cGMP pathway, and upregulate the expressions of eNOS and cGMP in the penile tissue of ED rats with liver depression and kidney deficiency.
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February 2020

A comparative study of the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine Duhuo Jisheng decoction combined with DMARDs vs isolated DMARDs for rheumatoid arthritis: A protocol for systematic review and meta analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Dec;99(50):e23479

Taizhou Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province.

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune system disease that mainly affects joints throughout the body, causing joint pain, deformity, and even disability. The use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) to treat RA has achieved certain effects, and Duohuo Jisheng decoction (DHJSD) is one of them. But there is no high-level evidence to support this result. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of DHJSD combined with DMARDs compared with isolated DMARDs for RA.

Methods: We will search articles in 7 electronic databases including Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data (WF), Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), Chinese databases SinoMed (CBM), PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. All the publications, with no time restrictions, will be searched without any restriction of language and status, the time from the establishment of the database to October 2020. Two reviewers will independently assess the quality of the selected studies, NoteExpress and Excel software will be used to extract data, and the content will be stored in an electronic chart. Different researchers will separately screen the titles and abstracts of records acquired potential eligibility which comes from the electronic databases. Full-text screening and data extraction will be conducted afterward independently. Statistical analysis will be conducted using RevMan 5.4 software.

Results: This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of DHJSD combined with DMARDs compared with isolated DMARDs in the treatment of Rheumatoid arthritis, to provide high-quality, evidence-based clinical recommendations.

Conclusion: This study will provide reliable evidence on whether Duhuo Jisheng decoction combined with DMARDs compared with isolated DMARDs is more effective in treating RA.

Trial Registration Number: INPLASY2020100089.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738090PMC
December 2020

A comparison of the effects of acupoint injection combined with hyaluronic acid versus isolated hyaluronic acid for knee osteoarthritis: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Nov;99(47):e23262

Taizhou Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a kind of degenerative osteoarthropathy, which causes joint pain and limited mobility, seriously affects the quality of life of the patient. Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture and moxibustion has been widely used to treat KOA, and acupoint injection is 1 of the acupuncture treatment methods. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of Acupoint injection combined with Hyaluronic Acid injection compared with isolated Hyaluronic Acid injection for KOA.

Methods: We will search articles in 7 electronic databases including Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, Chinese Scientific Journals Database, Chinese databases SinoMed, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. All the publications, with no time restrictions, will be searched without any restriction of language and status, the time from the establishment of the database to October 2020. Two reviewers will independently assess the quality of the selected studies, NoteExpress and Excel software will be used to extract data, and the content will be stored in an electronic chart. Different researchers will separately screen the titles and abstracts of records acquired potential eligibility which comes from the electronic databases. Full-text screening and data extraction will be conducted afterward independently. Statistical analysis will be conducted using RevMan 5.4 software.

Results: This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Acupoint injection combined with Hyaluronic Acid injection compared with isolated Hyaluronic Acid injection in the treatment of KOA, to provide high-quality, evidence-based clinical recommendations.

Trial Registration Number: INPLASY2020100058 CONCLUSION:: This study will provide reliable evidence on whether Acupoint injection combined with Hyaluronic Acid injection compared with isolated Hyaluronic Acid injection is more effective in treating KOA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676597PMC
November 2020

The double-edged sword effect of macrophage targeting delivery system in different macrophage subsets related diseases.

J Nanobiotechnology 2020 Nov 16;18(1):168. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

School of Pharmacy and Bioengineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054, China.

Background: Monocyte/macrophage-targeting delivery systems (MTDSs) have been focused upon as an emerging routine for delivering drugs to treat various macrophage-related diseases. However, the ability of MTDSs to distinguish different macrophage-related diseases and their impact on macrophage function and disease progression have not been systematically revealed, which is important for actively targeted therapeutic or diagnostic strategies.

Results: Herein, we used dextran-modified polystyrene nanoparticles (DEX-PS) to demonstrate that modification of nanoparticles by dextran can specifically enhance their recognition by M2 macrophages in vitro, but it is obstructed by monocytes in peripheral blood according to in vivo assays. DEX-PS not only targeted and became distributed in tumors, an M2 macrophage-related disease, but was also highly distributed in an M1 macrophage-related disease, namely acute peritonitis. Thus, DEX-PS acts as a double-edged sword in these two different diseases by reeducating macrophages to a pro-inflammatory phenotype.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that MTDSs, even those designed based on differential expression of receptors on specific macrophage subtypes, lack the ability to distinguish different macrophage subtype-related diseases in vivo. In addition to the potential impact of these carrier materials on macrophage function, studies of MTDSs should pay greater attention to the distribution of nanoparticles in non-target macrophage-infiltrated disease sites and their impact on disease processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-020-00721-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667812PMC
November 2020

Impact of miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass circuits on ultrafiltration during congenital heart surgery.

Perfusion 2020 Nov 3:267659120967206. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Objective: To investigate whether the miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system decreased the usage of ultrafiltration (UF), and to explore whether the non-UF with miniaturized CPB strategy could get good clinical results during congenital heart surgery.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing congenital heart surgery with CPB at Shenzhen Children's Hospital from 1 May 2015 to 30 September 2019. We classified patients to UF with miniaturized CPB group, non-UF with miniaturized CPB group, UF with conventional CPB group and non-UF with conventional CPB group.

Results: Of the 2145 patients, 721 (33.6%) were in the conventional CPB group, and 1424 (66.4%) were in the miniaturized CPB group. The UF rate was significantly lower in the miniaturized CPB group compared with that in the conventional CPB group (12.5% vs. 76.8%, p < 0.001). Compared with patients in the other groups, patients in the non-UF with miniaturized CPB group had a shorter postoperative MV time (p < 0.05), and a shorter length of stay in the ICU (p < 0.001) and hospital (p < 0.001). The age of children in the UF with miniaturized CPB group was relatively younger (median: 1.5 months, IQR: 0.3-4.6 months), and the preoperative weight was relatively lower (median: 3.9 kg, IQR: 3.2-5.4 kg). Moreover, this group of children had a relatively longer postoperative MV time and length of stay in the ICU and hospital.

Conclusion: The miniaturized CPB system could decrease the usage of UF. Good results were achieved in children who did not use UF based on the miniaturized CPB circuit system during congenital heart surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267659120967206DOI Listing
November 2020