Publications by authors named "Xing Zhao"

324 Publications

Expanding the clinical spectrum of anti-IgLON5 disease: A multicenter retrospective study.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: We conducted this study to describe detailed clinical characteristics, ancillary test results and treatment response of a group of Chinese patients with anti-IgLON5 disease.

Methods: We recruited 13 patients with positive IgLON5 antibodies in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid from nine tertiary referral centers. Patients were enrolled from February 2017 to July 2021. We retrospectively collected information on the presenting and main symptoms, treatment response and follow-up outcomes.

Results: The median age of onset for symptoms was 60 years (range: 33-73) and six of the 13 patients were females. The predominant clinical presentations included sleep disturbance (eight patients) and cognitive impairment (seven patients), followed by movement disorders (six patients). Parainfectious cause seemed plausible. Notably, we identified the first case of possible EB virus-related anti-IgLON5 disease. Coexisting neural autoantibodies were identified in two patients. Furthermore, two patients had other autoimmune diseases. The IgG subclass was determined in four patients, including two with dominant IgG4 subtype and two with dominant IgG1 subtype. Additionally, 10 patients were treated with immunotherapy and four patients exhibited improvement. Overall, six of 10 patients for whom follow-up results were assessable had favorable clinical outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2).

Conclusions: The clinical spectrum of anti-IgLON5 disease is variable. Our results highlight a boarder spectrum of anti-IgLON5 disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.15117DOI Listing
September 2021

A c-Met Inhibitor Suppresses Osteosarcoma Progression via the ERK1/2 Pathway in Human Osteosarcoma Cells.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 10;14:4791-4804. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, HangZhou, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of the bone among adolescents and children. Despite intensive chemotherapy and aggressive surgery, the 5-year survival rate of osteosarcoma still falls under 70%, mainly due to its tendency to metastasize and to develop drug resistance. Therefore, new treatments for osteosarcoma are urgently needed. HGF/c-Met signaling pathway, when dysregulated, is involved in the onset, progression and metastasis of various cancers, making the HGF/c-Met axis a promising therapeutic target.

Methods: In this study, we found Met to be a cancer-promoting gene in osteosarcoma as well, and aimed to investigate the role of a c-met inhibitor (PHA-665752) in osteosarcoma. For this purpose, two human osteosarcoma cell lines (143B and U2OS) were introduced in this study and treated with PHA-665752. CCK8 cell proliferation assay was performed to obtain the IC value of PHA-665752 for 143B and U2OS. After that, colony formation assay, transwell migration and invasion assay and wound-healing assay were performed. Furthermore, a tumor-transplanted mouse model was used for in vivo experiments.

Results: Our results showed that PHA-665752 could suppress osteosarcoma progression, promote apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, we found ERK1/2 pathway to be an important mediator underlying the osteosarcoma-suppressing function of PHA-665752. LY3214996, a highly selective inhibitor of the ERK1/2 pathway, was able to antagonize the effects of PHA-665752 in osteosarcoma. Finally, in vivo experiments indicated that PHA-665752 suppressed tumor growth in a tumor-transplanted mouse model.

Conclusion: Taken together, Met provided a druggable target for osteosarcoma and PHA-665752 is a promising candidate for anti-osteosarcoma treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S317122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440230PMC
September 2021

Dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risks in diverse less-developed ethnic minority regions: results from the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) Study.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Oct 20;15:100252. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background In Western developed countries, food-based dietary patterns have been associated with the risk of cardiometabolic diseases, but little is known about such associations in less developed ethnic minority regions (LEMRs), where the cardiometabolic disease burden is growing rapidly and food patterns differ substantially. Methods Between May 2018 and September 2019, we recruited 99556 participants aged 30-79 years from the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) Study. We measured habitual dietary intake with validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and then calculated dietary pattern scores for two of the most studied a priori dietary patterns, i.e., Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and alternative Mediterranean (aMED) style diets, and three a posteriori dietary patterns. Four cardiometabolic risks, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome (MetS), were newly diagnosed by medical examination and blood tests. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) relating various dietary pattern scores to cardiometabolic risks using marginal structural models under the guidance of directed acyclic graphs. For the above associations, we further calculated the proportion mediated by overweight (PM) using regression-based mediation analysis for better public health implications. Findings The final study sample consisted of 68834 participants. Among them, we newly diagnosed 12803 hypertension, 3527 diabetes, 16342 hyperlipidaemia, and 8198 MetS cases. Overall, all 5 dietary patterns showed considerable associations with risks of hypertension and MetS. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles, the DASH score showed the strongest inverse associations with risks of hypertension (OR=0.74, 95% CI:0.70-0.79; PM=10%) and MetS (OR=0.79, 95% CI:0.74-0.85; PM=35%); conversely, scores of the localized a posteriori Yunnan-Guizhou plateau dietary pattern in LEMRs showed the strongest positive associations with risks of hypertension (OR=1.44, 95% CI:1.35-1.52; PM=10%) and MetS (OR=1.35, 95% CI:1.26-1.46; PM=33%), with all values for trend <0.001. These associations were consistent in various subgroups defined by sex, age, smoking and physical activity, but with magnitudes that differed substantially across different ethnic regions and urbanicity. By investigating the single-component effects of dietary patterns, the dairy intake component contributed a major proportion to the beneficial effects of DASH (41.9% for hypertension and 100.5% for MetS). Interpretation Substantial socioeconomic status and ethnic disparities in diet quality and related cardiometabolic risks were seen in LEMRs, with hypertension being the top diet-related cardiometabolic risk. Our findings support that DASH provides superior dietary guidance compared to aMED for reducing cardiometabolic risks in LEMRs. In particular, the dairy intake encouraged by DASH may produce considerable beneficial effects. Funding This study was funded by the National Key R&D Program of China; full funding sources listed in the acknowledgements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383007PMC
October 2021

The Preventive Role of Hydrogen-Rich Water in Thioacetamide-Induced Cholangiofibrosis in Rat Assessed by Automated Histological Classification.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:632045. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Cholangiofibrosis is a controversial intrahepatic cholangial lesion that precedes the development of cholangiocarcinoma. Here, we demonstrate that molecular hydrogen (H) can be used to effectively prevent cholangiofibrosis. The safety and quality of life (QOL) of rats was firstly evaluated. H was administered to rats subjected to thioacetamide (TAA)-induced cholangiofibrosis throughout the whole process. Then, rats were administrated with TAA for 3 months and then followed by H intervention. Rat livers were harvested and assessed by light microscopy and convolutional neural network. RNA-seq was performed to analyze the genetic changes in these animal models. Continuous use of H-rich water was safe and improved QOL.The incidence and average number of cholangiofibrosis in the liver were higher in the TAA group (100%, 12.0 ± 10.07) than that in the H group (57.1%, 2.86 ± 5.43). The AI algorithm revealed higher Alesion/Aliver in the TAA group (19.6% ± 9.01) than that in the H group (7.54% ± 11.0). RNA-seq analysis revealed that H results in a decline in glycolysis. Moreover, in the third experiment, the incidence of microscopic or suspicious tumors and the ratio of liver lesions was decreased after long-term use of H (12.5%, 0.57% ± 0.45) compared with untreated group (100%, 0.98% ± 0.73). A number of intestinal microbiota was changed after H usage, including clostridiaceae_1, ruminococcus, turicibacter, coriobacteriales, actinobacteria, and firmicutes_bacterium. Hydrogen-rich water protects against liver injury and cholangiofibrosis and improved quality of life partially through regulating the composition of intestinal flora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.632045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417776PMC
August 2021

A neural network with encoded visible edge prior for limited-angle computed tomography reconstruction.

Med Phys 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Limited-angle computed tomography is a challenging but important task in certain medical and industrial applications for nondestructive testing. The limited-angle reconstruction problem is highly ill-posed and conventional reconstruction algorithms would introduce heavy artifacts. Various models and methods have been proposed to improve the quality of reconstructions by introducing different priors regarding to the projection data or ideal images. However, the assumed priors might not be practically applicable to all limited-angle reconstruction problems. Convolutional neural network (CNN) exhibits great promise in the modeling of data coupling and has recently become an important technique in medical imaging applications. Although existing CNN methods have demonstrated promising results, their robustness is still a concern. In this paper, in light of the theory of visible and invisible boundaries, we propose an alternating edge-preserving diffusion and smoothing neural network (AEDSNN) for limited-angle reconstruction that builds the visible boundaries as priors into its structure. The proposed method generalizes the alternating edge-preserving diffusion and smoothing (AEDS) method for limited-angle reconstruction developed in the literature by replacing its regularization terms by CNNs, by which the piecewise constant assumption assumed by AEDS is effectively relaxed.

Methods: The AEDSNN is derived by unrolling the AEDS algorithm. AEDSNN consists of several blocks, and each block corresponds to one iteration of the AEDS algorithm. In each iteration of the AEDS algorithm, three subproblems are sequentially solved. So, each block of AEDSNN possesses three main layers: data matching layer, -direction regularization layer for visible edges diffusion, and -direction regularization layer for artifacts suppressing. The data matching layer is implemented by conventional ordered-subset simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (OS-SART) reconstruction algorithm, while the two regularization layers are modeled by CNNs for more intelligent and better encoding of priors regarding to the reconstructed images. To further strength the visible edge prior, the attention mechanism and the pooling layers are incorporated into AEDSNN to facilitate the procedure of edge-preserving diffusion from visible edges.

Results: We have evaluated the performance of AEDSNN by comparing it with popular algorithms for limited-angle reconstruction. Experiments on the medical dataset show that the proposed AEDSNN effectively breaks through the piecewise constant assumption usually assumed by conventional reconstruction algorithms, and works much better for piecewise smooth images with nonsharp edges. Experiments on the printed circuit board (PCB) dataset show that AEDSNN can better encode and utilize the visible edge prior, and its reconstructions are consistently better compared to the competing algorithms.

Conclusions: A deep-learning approach for limited-angle reconstruction is proposed in this paper, which significantly outperforms existing methods. The superiority of AEDSNN consists of three aspects. First, by the virtue of CNN, AEDSNN is free of parameter-tuning. This is a great facility compared to conventional reconstruction methods; Second, AEDSNN is quite fast. Conventional reconstruction methods usually need hundreds even thousands of iterations, while AEDSNN just needs three to five iterations (i.e., blocks); Third, the learned regularizer by AEDSNN enjoys a broader application capacity, which could work well with piecewise smooth images and surpass the piecewise constant assumption frequently assumed for computed tomography images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15205DOI Listing
September 2021

An iterative reconstruction method based on monochromatic images for dual energy CT.

Med Phys 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scans objects using two different X-ray spectra to acquire more information, which is also called dual spectral CT (DSCT) in some articles. Compared to traditional CT, DECT exhibits superior material distinguishability. Therefore, DECT can be widely used in the medical and industrial domains. However, owing to the nonlinearity and ill condition of DECT, studies are underway on DECT reconstruction to obtain high quality images and achieve fast convergence speed. Therefore, in this study, we propose an iterative reconstruction method based on monochromatic images (IRM-MI) to rapidly obtain high-quality images in DECT reconstruction.

Methods: An IRM-MI is proposed for DECT. The proposed method converts DECT reconstruction problem from the basis material images decomposition to monochromatic images decomposition to significantly improve the convergence speed of DECT reconstruction by changing the coefficient matrix of the original equations to increase the angle of the high- and low-energy projection curves or reduce the condition number of the coefficient matrix. The monochromatic images were then decomposed into basis material images. Furthermore, we conducted numerical experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed method.

Results: The decomposition results of the simulated data and real data experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method. Compared to the extended algebraic reconstruction technique (E-ART) method, the proposed method exhibited a significant increase in the convergence speed by increasing the angle of polychromatic projection curves or decreasing the condition number of the coefficient matrix, when choosing the appropriate monochromatic images. Therefore, the proposed method is also advantageous in acquiring high quality and rapidly converged images.

Conclusions: We developed an iterative reconstruction method based on monochromatic images for the material decomposition for DECT. The numerical experiments using the proposed method validated its capability of decomposing the basis material images. Furthermore, the proposed method achieved faster convergence speed compared to the E-ART method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15200DOI Listing
September 2021

GADD45α alleviates the CDDP resistance of SK-OV3/cddp cells via redox-mediated DNA damage.

Oncol Lett 2021 Oct 10;22(4):720. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang, Guizhou 550004, P.R. China.

Epithelial ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all malignant ovarian cancer types. Great progress has been made in the treatment of ovarian cancer in recent years. However, drug resistance has led to a low level of 5-year survival rate of epithelial ovarian cancer, and the molecular mechanism of which remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of redox status in the cisplatin (CDDP) resistance of ovarian cancer. CDDP-resistant SK-OV3 (SK-OV3/cddp) cells were prepared and their reactive oxygen species and glutathione levels were investigated. The effects of hydrogen peroxide on the CDDP sensitivity of the SK-OV3/cddp cells and their expression levels of the redox-associated protein growth arrest and DNA damage 45a (GADD45α) were also investigated. In addition, the impact of GADD45α overexpression on cell viability was evaluated and , and the levels of Ser-139 phosphorylated H2A histone family member X (γ-H2AX), which is associated with DNA damage, were detected. The results suggested that redox status affected the drug resistance of the ovarian cancer cells by increasing the expression of GADD45α. The overexpression of GADD45α reversed the CDDP resistance of the SK-OV3/cddp cells and increased the level of γ-H2AX. In conclusion, GADD45α alleviated the CDDP resistance of SK-OV3/cddp cells via the induction of redox-mediated DNA damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371983PMC
October 2021

Inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus invasion by ACE2 protecting and Spike neutralizing peptides: An alternative approach to COVID19 prevention and therapy.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 13;17(11):2957-2969. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Endemic and Ethnic Diseases, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Ministry of Education, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004, China.

SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells mainly through the interaction of its spike-protein with host cell membrane ACE2. Various antibodies targeting S-protein have been developed to combat COVID-19 pandemic; however, the potential risk of antibody-dependent enhancement and novel spike mutants-induced neutralization loss or antibody resistance still remain. Alternative preventative agents or therapeutics are still urgently needed. In this study, we designed series of peptides with either ACE2 protecting or Spike-protein neutralizing activities. Molecular docking predicted that, among these peptides, ACE2 protecting peptide AYp28 and Spike-protein neutralizing peptide AYn1 showed strongest intermolecular interaction to ACE2 and Spike-protein, respectively, which were further confirmed by both cell- and non-cell-based in vitro assays. In addition, both peptides inhibited the invasion of pseudotype SARS-CoV-2 into HEK293T/hACE2 cells, either alone or in combination. Moreover, the intranasal administration of AYp28 could partially block pseudovirus invasion in hACE2 transgenic mice. Much more importantly, no significant toxicity was observed in peptides-treated cells. AYp28 showed no impacts on ACE2 function. Taken together, the data from our present study predicted promising preventative and therapeutic values of peptides against COVID-19, and may prove the concept that cocktail containing ACE2 protecting peptides and spike neutralizing peptides could serve as a safe and effective approach for SARS-CoV-2 prevention and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.61476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326117PMC
August 2021

Platinum complexes inhibit HER-2 enriched and triple-negative breast cancer cells metabolism to suppress growth, stemness and migration by targeting PKM/LDHA and CCND1/BCL2/ATG3 signaling pathways.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jul 7;224:113689. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Inner Mongolia University Research Center for Glycochemistry of Characteristic Medicinal Resources, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, 010021, PR China. Electronic address:

Triple-negative-breast cancer (TNBC) and HER-2 enriched positive aggressive types of breast cancer and are highly metastatic in nature. Anticancer agents those target TNBC and HER-2 enriched positive breast cancers are considered important in the field of breast cancer research. In search of the effective anticancer agents, we synthesized Pt(II) complexes to target these cancers. Platinum complexes (C1-C8) were prepared in single step by the reaction of commercially available KPtCl with the readily prepared ligands (L1-L8). All these compounds were characterized successfully by different spectroscopic and spectrophotometric analyses. Structures of C1, C3 and C8 were characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis that confirmed the exact chelation mode of the SNO-triply coordinated ligand. All these complexes inhibited the in vitro growth of MCF-7 (luminal-like), MDA-MB-231 (TNBC) and SKBR3 (HER-2 enriched) breast cancer cells. C1, C3 and C7 induced cell death and suppressed the clonogenic potential of these cancer cells. Importantly, C1, C3 and C7 showed potentials to suppress cancer stem cells/mammosphere formation and cell migration ability of MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 breast cancer cells. These complexes also induced cellular senescence in MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 cells, thus suggesting a cell retardation mechanism. Similarly, these complexes induced DNA damage by activating p-H2AX expression and promoted autophagy via ATG3/LC3B axis activation in MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3 cells. Furthermore, these complexes decreased the expression of oncogenic proteins such as BCL2 and cylin-D1 those are involved in cancer cell survival and cell cycle progression. To further gain insight, we found that C1 and C7 targeted glycolytic pathways by regulating PKM and LDHA expression, which are involved in glycolysis. Moreover, C1 and C7 suppressed the formation of ATP production that is required for cancer cell growth. Taken together, the easy synthesis and biological assays results point towards the importance of these complexes in MDA-MB-231 (TNBC) and SKBR3 (HER-2 enriched) breast cancer cells by targeting multiple signaling pathways those are considered important during breast cancer progression. This study produces bases for further deeper in vitro or in vivo study that could lead to the effective breast cancer agents which we are working on.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113689DOI Listing
July 2021

HA of H1N1 enhanced the expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in HUVECs and pathological injury in the lungs in mice.

Gene 2021 Oct 16;801:145854. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Chengde 067000, Hebei, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Both COVID-19 and influenza are viral respiratory tract infections and the epidemics of viral respiratory tract infections remain highly prevalent with lethal consequences in susceptible individuals. Expression of ICAM-1 on vascular endothelium recruits leukocytes which initiates inflammation. IL-6 induces ICAM-1. Both ICAM-1 and IL-6 can be enhanced in influenza virus infection and COVID-19 patients. Besides initiation of virus entry host cells, whether HA alone, instead of whole virus, of influenza has the effects on expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in vascular endothelium with injury in the lungs, remains to be demonstrated.

Methods: RT-qPCR and Western blot as well as histopathologic examination were used to examine mRNA and protein of ICAM-1 and IL-6 as well as pathological injury in the lung tissues, respectively.

Results: After incubation of the Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) with HA of H1N1 for 24 h, the mRNA and protein of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in HUVECs were increased in group of 5 μg/ml concentration with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Pathological injury in lung tissues of the mice was shown 12 h after tail intravenous injection with 100 μl of HA (50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml in normal saline), including widened alveolar spaces with angiotelectasis in alveolar wall, alveolar luminal and interstitial inflammatory infiltrates, alveolar luminal erythrocyte effusion.

Conclusions: HA alone, instead of whole H1N1 virus, induced more expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6, two molecules involving in pathological and inflammatory responses, in HUVECs and pathological injury in lung tissues of the mice. This knowledge provides a new HA-targeted potential direction for prevention and treatment of disease related to H1N1 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302257PMC
October 2021

Redox-Mediated Artificial Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant MXene Nanoplatforms for Acute Kidney Injury Alleviation.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 09 17;8(18):e2101498. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610065, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI), as a common oxidative stress-related renal disease, causes high mortality in clinics annually, and many other clinical diseases, including the pandemic COVID-19, have a high potential to cause AKI, yet only rehydration, renal dialysis, and other supportive therapies are available for AKI in the clinics. Nanotechnology-mediated antioxidant therapy represents a promising therapeutic strategy for AKI treatment. However, current enzyme-mimicking nanoantioxidants show poor biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well as non-specific ROS level regulation, further potentially causing deleterious adverse effects. Herein, the authors report a novel non-enzymatic antioxidant strategy based on ultrathin Ti C -PVP nanosheets (TPNS) with excellent biocompatibility and great chemical reactivity toward multiple ROS for AKI treatment. These TPNS nanosheets exhibit enzyme/ROS-triggered biodegradability and broad-spectrum ROS scavenging ability through the readily occurring redox reaction between Ti C and various ROS, as verified by theoretical calculations. Furthermore, both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrate that TPNS can serve as efficient antioxidant platforms to scavenge the overexpressed ROS and subsequently suppress oxidative stress-induced inflammatory response through inhibition of NF-κB signal pathway for AKI treatment. This study highlights a new type of therapeutic agent, that is, the redox-mediated non-enzymatic antioxidant MXene nanoplatforms in treatment of AKI and other ROS-associated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202101498DOI Listing
September 2021

The Association between Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Bone Strength in China.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Context: Evidence regarding the association of long-term exposure to air pollution on bone strength or osteoporosis is rare, especially in high polluted low- and middle-income countries. Little is known about whether the association between air pollution and bone strength changes at different bone strength distributions.

Objective: Using the baseline data from the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort, we investigated the association between long-term air pollution exposure and bone strength.

Methods: We used multiple linear models to estimate the association between air pollution and bone strength. And we conducted quantile regression models to investigate the variation of this association in the distribution of bone strength. The 3-year concentrations of PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 for each participant were assessed using spatial statistical models. Bone strength was expressed by the calcaneus quantitative ultrasound index (QUI) measured by quantitative ultrasound, with higher QUI values indicating greater bone strength.

Result: A total of 66,598 participants were included. Our analysis shows that every 10 μg/m 3 increase in 3-year average PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 was associated with -5.38 units (95% CI: -6.17, -4.60), -1.89 units (95% CI: -2.33, -1.44), -0.77 units (95% CI: -1.08, -0.47), and -2.02 units (95% CI: -2.32, -1.71) changes in the QUI, respectively. In addition, populations with higher bone strength may more susceptible to air pollution.

Conclusions: Long-term exposure to PM1, PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 was significantly associated with decreased bone strength in southwestern China adults. Air pollution exposure has a more substantial adverse effect on bones among populations with higher bone strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab462DOI Listing
July 2021

TRA2A Binds With LncRNA MALAT1 To Promote Esophageal Cancer Progression By Regulating EZH2/β-catenin Pathway.

J Cancer 2021 11;12(16):4883-4890. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Computational Systems Biology Lab, Department of Bioinformatics, Shantou University Medical College (SUMC), No. 22, Xinling Road, Shantou, China.

The RNA binding protein TRA2A, a member of the transformer 2 homolog family, plays a crucial role in the alternative splicing of pre-mRNA. However, it remains unclear whether TRA2A is involved in non-coding RNA regulation and, if so, what are the functional consequences. By analyzing expression profiling data, we found that TRA2A is highly expressed in esophageal cancer and is associated with disease-free survival and overall survival time. Subsequent gain- and loss-of-function studies demonstrated that TRA2A promotes proliferation and migration of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cells. RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assay indicated that TRA2A can directly bind specific sites on MALAT1 in cells. In addition, ectopic expression or depletion of TRA2A leads to MALAT expression changes accordingly, thus modulates EZH2/β-catenin pathway. Together, these findings elucidated that TRA2A triggers carcinogenesis via MALAT1 mediated EZH2/β-catenin axis in esophageal cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.55661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247389PMC
June 2021

Combination of Dendrobium Mixture and Metformin Curbs the Development and Progression of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Targeting the lncRNA NEAT1.

Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2021;76:e2669. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Pharmacy, The Second People's Hospital of Dongying, Dongying, Shandong 257335, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the efficacy of combination treatment with dendrobium mixture and metformin (Met) in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and its effects on NEAT1 and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Methods: H9c2 cells were maintained in medium supplemented with either low (5.5 mmol/L) or high (50 mmol/L) glucose. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-glucose diet and administered a single, low dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection to induce the development of DM. After induction of DM, the rats were treated with dendrobium mixture (10 g/kg) and Met (0.18 g/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Next, quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR and western blotting were performed to evaluate the expression levels of target genes and proteins. Flow cytometry was performed to assess apoptosis, and hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to evaluate the morphological changes in rat cardiac tissue.

Results: In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and myocardial cells and heart tissues from rats with high glucose-induced DM, NEAT1 was downregulated, and the expression levels of Nrf2 were decreased (p<0.01, p<0.001). The combination of dendrobium mixture and Met upregulated the expression of NEAT1 which upregulated Nrf2 by targeting miR-23a-3p, resulting in reduced apoptosis and improved cardiac tissue morphology (p<0.01, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Dendrobium mixture and Met upregulated the expression of NEAT1 in DCM, thereby inhibiting apoptosis of myocardial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2021/e2669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240788PMC
July 2021

Collision carcinoma of the rectum involving neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(18):4789-4796

Department of Pathology, The Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Chengde 067000, Hebei Province, China.

Background: Collision carcinoma is a rare histological pattern, and includes two or more different types of tumors coexisting in the same organ as one neoplasm. Different to the combined type, the two adjacent tumors of collision carcinoma are histologically distinct. Collision carcinoma may occur from any origin or organ, including the cecum, liver, cervix, thyroid, stomach, kidney, and esophagus. In the rectum, adenocarcinoma is the most common pathological type, the combined type is rare, and collision tumors are even rarer. To date, only a limited number of collision carcinoma cases originating from the rectum have been reported. Due to the scarcity of rectal collision carcinoma, more cases need to be reported to fully understand the clinico-pathological features and biological behavior of the tumor.

Case Summary: Here we report a 40-year-old female who presented with the chief complaints of persistent changes in bowel habits and hematochezia for 10 d. She underwent Miles' operation which revealed a collision carcinoma of the rectum, showing a "side by side" pattern, composed of a high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma, (small cell carcinoma) and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, based on its clinico-pathological features and biological behavior. The patient remained disease-free at 12 mo follow-up. We also focused on the related literature and expert opinion.

Conclusion: Collision carcinoma is a rare tumor with ambiguous biological behavior. Greater attention should be paid to its clinico-pathologic diagnosis. Regular and adequate follow-up is essential to help rule out metastasis and assess the prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i18.4789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223825PMC
June 2021

Estimation of ambient PM-related mortality burden in China by 2030 under climate and population change scenarios: A modeling study.

Environ Int 2021 11 2;156:106733. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. Electronic address:

Background: Fine particulate matter (PM) pollution is one of the most critical environmental and public health problems in China and has caused an enormous disease burden, especially long-term PM exposure. Global climate change represents another environmental challenge in the coming decades and is also an essential factor affecting PM pollution. Moreover, China has an aging population with a changing population size and falling age-standardized mortality rates. However, little evidence exists evaluating the potential impacts from climate change and population aging on the long-term PM exposure-related disease burden. This study quantifies the impacts of climate and population changes on changes in the disease burden attributed to long-term PM exposure from 2015 to 2030 in mainland China, which could add evidence for the revision of relevant environmental standards and health policies.

Methods: This modeling study investigated long-term PM exposure-related mortality across China based on PM projections under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and population scenarios from shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). PM concentrations were simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling systems. In addition, three types of population projections in 2030 relative to 2015 were set up as follows: (i) the population remained the same as that in 2015; (ii) the population size changed under SSPs, but the age structure remained the same; (iii) both the population size and age structure changed under SSPs. The global exposure mortality model (GEMM) was adopted to estimate PM-related premature deaths.

Results: Ambient PM concentrations decreased from 2015 to 2030 under the two climate and emission scenarios. Estimates of related premature mortality in 2030 declined compared with that in 2015 due to lower PM concentrations (RCP4.5: -16.8%; RCP8.5: -16.4%). If the age structure of the population remained unchanged and the population size changed under SSPs, the nonaccidental premature mortality also showed a decrease ranging from -18.6% to -14.9%. When both population size and age structure changed under SSPs, the population in China would become older. Nonaccidental premature mortality would sharply increase by 35.7-52.3% (with a net increase of 666-977 thousand) in 2030.

Conclusion: The PM pollution in 2030 under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 would slightly improve. The population sizes in 2030 projected by SSPs are relatively stable compared with that in 2015. However, the modest decrease due to air pollution improvement and stable population size would be offset by population aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106733DOI Listing
November 2021

Urban-rural differences in the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and obesity in China.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 29;201:111597. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Ambient air pollution might increase the risk of obesity; however, the evidence regarding the relationship between air pollution and obesity in comparable urban and rural areas is limited. Therefore, our aim was to contrast the effect estimates of varying air pollution particulate matter on obesity between urban and rural areas.

Methods: Four obesity indicators were evaluated in this study, namely, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Exposure to ambient air pollution (e.g., particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters 1.0 μm [PM], PM, and PM) was estimated using satellite-based random forest models. Linear regression and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between air pollution particulate matter and obesity. Furthermore, the effect estimates of different air pollution particulates were contrasted between urban and rural areas.

Results: A total of 36,998 participants in urban areas and 31, 256 in rural areas were included. We found positive associations between long-term exposure to PM, PM, and PM and obesity. Of these air pollutants, PM had the strongest association. The results showed that the odds ratios (ORs) for general obesity were 1.8 (95% CI, 1.64 to 1.98) per interquartile range (IQR) μg/m increase in PM, 1.89 (95% CI, 1.71 to 2.1) per IQR μg/m increase in PM, and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.58 to 1.9) per IQR μg/m increase in PM. The concentrations of air pollutants were lower in rural areas, but the effects of air pollution on obesity of rural residents were higher than those of urban residents.

Conclusion: Long-term (3 years average) exposure to ambient air pollution was associated with an increased risk of obesity. We observed regional disparities in the effects of particulate matter exposure from air pollution on the risk of obesity, with higher effect estimates found in rural areas. Air quality interventions should be prioritized not only in urban areas but also in rural areas to reduce the risk of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111597DOI Listing
June 2021

Genomic Association vs. Serological Determination of ABO Blood Types in a Chinese Cohort, with Application in Mendelian Randomization.

Genes (Basel) 2021 06 24;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of International Medical Center/Ward of General Practice, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Renmin South Road 16, Chengdu 610041, China.

ABO blood system is an inborn trait determined by the gene. The genetic-phenotypic mechanism underneath the four mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive types of O, A, B and AB could theoretically be elucidated. However, genetic polymorphisms in the human populations render the link elusive, and importantly, past studies using genetically determined rather than biochemically determined ABO types were not and could not be evaluated for the inference errors. Upon both blood-typing and genotyping a cohort of 1008 people of the Han Chinese population, we conducted a genome-wide association study in parallel with both binomial and multinomial log-linear models. Significant genetic variants are all mapped to the gene, and are quantitatively evaluated for binary and multi-class classification performances. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms of , and would together be sufficient to establish a multinomial predictive model that achieves high accuracy (0.98) and F1 scores (micro 0.99 and macro 0.97). Using the set of identified ABO-associated genetic variants as instrumental variables, we demonstrate the application in causal analysis by Mendelian randomization (MR) studies on blood pressures (one-sample MR) and severe COVID-19 with respiratory failure (two-sample MR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12070959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306414PMC
June 2021

Kinesin family member 3C (KIF3C) is a novel non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) oncogene whose expression is modulated by microRNA-150-5p (miR-150-5p) and microRNA-186-3p (miR-186-3p).

Bioengineered 2021 12;12(1):3077-3088

Department of Pathology, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical College, Chengde, Hebei, China.

This study is aimed at investigating the biological function of kinesin family member 3 C (KIF3C) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression and its upstream regulatory mechanism. Quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry were adopted to examine microRNA-150-5p (miR-150-5p), microRNA-186-3p (miR-186-3p) and kinesin family member 3 C (KIF3C) expression levels. NSCLC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were detected through cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, EdU assay, and Transwell assay. The metastasis of NSCLC cells was evaluated utilizing a pulmonary metastasis model in nude mice . The targeted relationship among KIF3C 3'UTR, miR-186-3p, and miR-150-5p were verified by dual-luciferase reporter gene assays. It was confirmed that in NSCLC tissues and cells, KIF3C expression level was increased and KIF3C overexpression promoted NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis. Additionally, miR-150-5p and miR-186-3p directly targeted KIF3C to repress its expression. Our data suggest that KIF3C, which is negatively regulated by miR-150-5p and miR-186-3p, is an oncogenic factor in NSCLC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1942768DOI Listing
December 2021

New Biotransformation Mode of Zearalenone Identified in Y816 Revealing a Novel ZEN Conjugate.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 28;69(26):7409-7419. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

National Technology Innovation Center of Synthetic Biology, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin 300308, China.

An increasing number of strains have been identified, and the removal capacity of zearalenone (ZEN) was determined; however, they failed to reveal the detoxification mechanism and transformation product. Here, Y816, which could transform 40 mg/L of ZEN within 7 h of fermentation, was identified and studied. First, the biotransformation products of ZEN and 17-β-estradiol (E2) were identified as ZEN-14-phosphate and E2-3-phosphate by HPLC-TOF-MS and NMR, respectively. An intracellular zearalenone phosphotransferase (ZPH) was found through transcriptome sequencing analysis of Y816. The phosphorylated reaction conditions of ZEN by ZPH were further revealed in this work. Furthermore, the phosphorylated conjugates showed reduced estrogenic toxicity compared with their original substances (ZEN and α/β-zearalenol) using an engineered yeast biosensor system. The first report on the phosphorylated conjugated mode of ZEN in Y816 will inspire new perspectives on the biotransformation of ZEN in strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01817DOI Listing
July 2021

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in patients with acute myeloid leukemia reveal transcriptome alterations and deficiency in cellular vitality.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 06 26;12(1):365. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology & National Clinical Research Center for Blood Disease, Institute of Hematology & Blood Diseases Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, 288 Nanjing Road, Tianjin, 300020, China.

Background: State-of-the-art advances have indicated the pivotal characteristics of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in hematopoietic microenvironment as well as coordinate contribution to hematological malignancies. However, the panoramic view and detailed dissection of BM-MSCs in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-MSCs) remain obscure.

Methods: For the purpose, we isolated and identified AML-MSCs together with healthy donor-derived HD-MSCs from the bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) by using the standard density gradient centrifugation based on clinical diagnosis and cellular phenotypic analysis. Subsequently, we systematically compared the potential similarities and discrepancy both at the cellular and molecular levels via flow cytometry, multilineage differentiation, chromosome karyotyping, cytokine quantification, and transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis including single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), gene ontology (GO), HeatMap, principal component analysis (PCA), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA).

Results: On the one hand, AML-MSCs exhibited undistinguishable signatures in cytomorphology, surface biomarker expression pattern, stemness, chromosome karyotype, and chondrogenesis as HD-MSCs, whereas with impaired adipogenesis, enhanced osteogenesis, and variations in cytokine expression pattern. On the other hand, with the aid of genomic and bioinformatic analyses, we verified that AML-MSCs displayed multidimensional discrepancy with HD-MSCs both in genome-wide gene expression profiling and genetic variation spectrum. Simultaneously, the deficiency of cellular vitality including proliferation and apoptosis in AML-MSCs was largely rescued by JAK-STAT signaling inhibition.

Conclusions: Overall, our findings elucidated that AML-MSCs manifested multifaceted alterations in biological signatures and molecular genetics, and in particular, the deficiency of cellular vitality ascribed to over-activation of JAK-STAT signal, which collectively provided systematic and overwhelming new evidence for decoding the pathogenesis of AML and exploring therapeutic strategies in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02444-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233618PMC
June 2021

Counterion Gradients around Charged Metal Nanoparticles Enabling Basic Electronics without Semiconductors.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 25;12(26):6102-6110. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of Nanosystem and Hierarchical Fabrication, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China.

In modern electronics, metals have not occupied the same role as semiconductors because their electrical properties are largely independent of the potential that is applied to them. However, this limitation of bulk metals can be overcome at the nanoscale, where metal nanoparticles functionalized with charged organic ligands can have highly tunable electrical characteristics enabling the fabrication of basic electronic components. Here, we show the recent progress on the design and construction of the basic electronic components (e.g., diodes and transistors) based on charged metal nanoparticles and the coupled transport of ionic and electronic charges within nanoparticle layers (Poisson and Nernst-Planck diffusion equations, PNP model) and how to assemble these electronic components and various metal nanoparticle sensors to achieve basic computations and "chemoelectronics". Meanwhile, we envision the future research directions and a possible breakthrough in metal nanoparticle electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01620DOI Listing
July 2021

Rapid generation of hybrid biochemical/mechanical cues in heterogeneous droplets for high-throughput screening of cellular responses.

Lab Chip 2021 07;21(14):2691-2701

The Key Laboratory for Biomedical Photonics of MOE at Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics - Hubei Bioinformatics & Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Systems Biology Theme, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Cells in their native microenvironment are subjected to varying combinations of biochemical cues and mechanical cues in a wide range. Although many signaling pathways have been found to be responsive for extracellular cues, little is known about how biochemical cues crosstalk with mechanical cues in a complex microenvironment. Here, we introduced heterogeneous droplets on a microchip, which were rapidly assembled by combining wettability-patterned microchip and programmed droplet manipulations, for a high-throughput cell screening of the varying combinations of biochemical cues and mechanical cues. This platform constructed a heterogeneous droplet/microgel array with orthogonal gradual chemicals and materials, which was further applied to analyze the cellular Wnt/β-catenin signaling in response to varying combinations of Wnt ligands and substrate stiffness. Thus, this device provides a powerful multiplexed bioassay platform for drug development, tissue engineering, and stem cell screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1lc00209kDOI Listing
July 2021

Neural Mechanism of Shentai Tea Polyphenols on Cognitive Improvements for Individuals with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;82(3):1137-1145

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: A growing awareness about non-pharmacological intervention for cognitively impaired individuals may represent an alternative therapeutic approach that is actively accepted by patients with very early stage of Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the neural basis of non-pharmacological intervention is a crucial step toward wide use for patients with cognitive disorders.

Objective: To investigate the underlying neural mechanism of shentai tea polyphenols in subjects with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

Methods: A total number of 36 patients with SCD participated in the study and received supplementation with shentai tea polyphenols for three months. All participants underwent a series of tests on neuropsychological function and fNIRS assessment during n-back tasks at baseline and follow-up.

Results: After intervention with shentai tea polyphenols in SCD, increased cerebral activity was observed in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left premotor cortex (PMC), left primary somatosensory cortex (PSC), right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and premotor cortex (PMC). Moreover, shentai tea polyphenols intervention of three months significantly improved SCD subjects' cognitive functions (memory, language, and subjective cognitive ability) and depression condition. We further found that the improvement of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Auditory Verbal Learning Test-recognition scores had positive correlations with increased brain activity in right IFG and left DLPFC, respectively.

Conclusion: This study provides new evidence that the frontal cortex was found to be specifically activated after non-pharmacological intervention of shentai tea polyphenols in SCD, which may be associated with cognitive enhancement and mental wellbeing. These findings provide important implications for the selection of shentai tea polyphenols interventions for SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210469DOI Listing
September 2021

Associations of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and physical activity with insomnia in Chinese adults.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 1;792:148197. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, China. Electronic address:

Background: Air pollution is a potential environmental risk for sleep disturbance. However, the evidence is very limited in China. On the other hand, physical activity (PA) is a preventive behavior that can improve insomnia, but whether PA mitigates the negative impact of air pollution on insomnia is unknown.

Methods: We obtained data from the baseline of China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) survey, and examined the association between air pollution and insomnia, as well as PA's modification effect of on this association. We included 70,668 respondents and assessed insomnia by self-reported symptoms collected using electronic questionnaires. Using satellite data, we estimated the residence-specified, three-year average PM, PM, PM (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of ≤1 μm, ≤2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively), O (ozone), and NO (nitrogen dioxide) concentrations. We established the associations between air pollutants and insomnia through logistic regression. We evaluated the modification impact of total and domain-specific PA (leisure, occupation, housework, transportation) by introducing an interaction term.

Results: Positive associations were observed between long-term exposure to PM, PM, PM, and O and insomnia symptoms, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.09 (1.03-1.16), 1.11 (1.07-1.15), 1.07 (1.05-1.10) and 1.15 (1.11-1.20), respectively. As total PA increased, the ORs of air pollution for insomnia tended to decrease and then rise. We observed varying modification effects of domain-specific PA. With an increase in leisure PA, the ORs for PM and PM significantly declined. However, increased ORs of air pollutants were related to insomnia among participants with higher levels of occupational and housework PA.

Conclusion: Long-term exposure to higher concentrations of PM, PM, PM, and O increases the risk of insomnia symptoms. Moderate to high levels of leisure PA alleviate the harmful effects of air pollution on insomnia, while high levels of occupation and housework PA intensify such effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148197DOI Listing
October 2021

Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34) contributes to cerebral ischemic injury and can be detected in plasma exosomes.

Neurosci Lett 2021 07 8;758:136004. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Neurobiology and Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34), one of the key effectors of negative feedback loops, is induced by stress and subsequently attempts to restore homeostasis. It plays a critical role in response to DNA damage and endoplasmic reticulum stress. GADD34 has opposing effects on different stimulus-induced cell apoptosis events in many nervous system diseases, but its role in ischemic stroke is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of GADD34 and its distribution in a rat cerebral ischemic model. The results showed that GADD34 was increased in the cortex and contributed to brain injury in ischemic rats. Furthermore, treatment with a GADD34 inhibitor reduced the infarct volume, improved functional outcomes, and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in the cortical penumbra after ischemia. The role of GADD34 in ischemic stroke was associated with the dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and phosphorylation of p53. In addition, the GADD34 level was increased in plasma exosomes of cerebral ischemic rats. These findings indicate that GADD34 could be a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136004DOI Listing
July 2021

Spatiotemporal assessment of health burden and economic losses attributable to short-term exposure to ground-level ozone during 2015-2018 in China.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 5;21(1):1069. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, No.16 Section 3, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, 610044, China.

Background: Ground-level ozone (O) pollution is currently the one of the severe environmental problems in China. Although existing studies have quantified the O-related health impact and economic loss, few have focused on the acute health effects of short-term exposure to O and have been limited to a single temporal and spatial dimension.

Methods: Based on the O concentration obtained from ground monitoring networks in 334 Chinese cities in 2015-2018, this study used a two-stage exposure parameter weighted Log-linear exposure-response function to estimate the cause-specific mortality for short-term exposure to O.

Results: The value of statistical life (VSL) method that were used to calculate the economic loss at the city-level. Our results show that in China, the national all-cause mortality attributed to O was 0.27(95% CI: 0.14-0.55) to 0.39 (95% CI: 0.20-0.67) million across 2015-2018. The estimated economic loss caused by O was 387.76 (95% CI: 195.99-904.50) to 594.08 (95% CI: 303.34-1140.65) billion CNY, accounting for 0.52 to 0.69% of total reported GDP. Overall, the O attributed health and economic burden has begun to decline in China since 2017. However, highly polluted areas still face severe burden, and undeveloped areas suffer from high GDP losses.

Conclusions: There are substantial health impacts and economic losses related to short-term O exposure in China. The government should pay attention to the emerging ozone pollution, and continue to strengthen the intervention in traditional priority areas while solving the pollution problem in non-priority areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10751-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178864PMC
June 2021

Epidemiological analysis of cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis in an extremely high prevalence region: Population-based survey and host animal monitoring in Shiqu County, China.

Acta Trop 2021 Sep 25;221:105982. Epub 2021 May 25.

Sichuan Center for Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu, China.

Echinococcosis is the most common parasitic disease in the Tibetan Plateau, placing a large disease burden on the local population. Shiqu County, located in western Sichuan Tibetan region, had a particularly high prevalence rate of cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in previous surveys. From 2015 to 2018, a population-based field survey was conducted to explore the epidemic situation. Epidemiological features were examined through demographic analysis and mapping. In addition, the infection prevalence of Echinococcus in dogs was also investigated and mapped by spatial autoregression. A total of 84,768 people were screened by abdominal ultrasound inspection, and 2,341 CE and 3,930 AE cases were detected, with a corresponding prevalence of 2.76% and 4.64%, respectively. This made Shiqu County one of the most severe echinococcosis endemic regions in the world, especially with regard to AE. The cases were not evenly distributed among towns: particularly, the AE rates in the northwest towns were very high and closely related to the infection rate of neighboring host animals. Simultaneously, a comprehensive prevention project including patient treatment and host management was conducted and achieved preliminary success in source control. According to feces monitoring findings, the infection rate of dogs declined from 26.38% in early 2016 to 3.71% in 2018. Combined with host animal distribution data at the town level, the predicted risk ranks were categorized by risk index and mapped to guide further control operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105982DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparison of Wavefront-Guided Femtosecond LASIK and Optimized SMILE for Correction of Moderate-to-High Astigmatism.

J Refract Surg 2021 Mar 18;37(3):166-173. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Purpose: To compare refractive outcomes, higher order aberrations (HOAs), and the changes in contrast sensitivity after wavefront-guided femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (WFG LASIK) and optimized small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for moderate-to-high astigmatism correction.

Methods: This prospective, randomized study included 87 eyes: 40 eyes in the WFG LASIK group and 47 eyes in the SMILE group. Manual cyclotorsion compensation by marking the horizontal axis before SMILE surgery was used for optimized SMILE. Refractive diopter, aberrations, and contrast sensitivity were assessed 3 months postoperatively. The Alpins vector analysis method was used to analyze the astigmatic changes after surgery.

Results: There were no significant differences in the corrected distance visual acuity and refraction between the two groups after surgery. The fitted curve of surgically induced astigmatism versus target induced astigmatism was described as y = 0.9905 x + 0.0009 in the WFG LASIK group and y = 0.9672 x + 0.0026 in the SMILE group. The percentage of corneal astigmatism axis change within 5 degrees was statistically significant (chi-square test: 10.632, = .001). HOAs increased in both the WFG LASIK and SMILE groups after surgery ( = -3.655, = .001, = -3.784, = .001, respectively). However, comparison of the changes of HOAs between both groups was not significant ( = -0.565, = .575). The improvement in contrast sensitivity in the WFG LASIK group was significantly higher than that in the SMILE group.

Conclusions: WFG LASIK and optimized SMILE can achieve similar outcomes for astigmatism correction. Optimized SMILE with marking could achieve good astigmatism correction, even without an eye tracking system. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/1081597X-20201230-01DOI Listing
March 2021

Dietary Pattern and Long-Term Effects of Particulate Matter on Blood Pressure: A Large Cross-Sectional Study in Chinese Adults.

Hypertension 2021 Jul 17;78(1):184-194. Epub 2021 May 17.

West China School of Public Health, West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China (H.X., B.G., X.X., J. Wu, X.W., X.Z.).

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17205DOI Listing
July 2021
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