Publications by authors named "Xing Xie"

351 Publications

A new classification of talocalcaneal coalitions based on computed tomography for operative planning.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Aug 11;22(1):678. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Sports Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital. Institute of Sports Medicine of Peking University. Beijing Key Laboratory of Sports Injuries, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Background: Current classifications emphasize the morphology of the coalition, however, subtalar joint facets involved should also be emphasized.

Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a new classification system based on the articular facets involved to cover all coalitions and guide operative planning.

Methods: Patients were diagnosed with talocalcaneal coalition using a CT scan, between January 2009 and February 2021. The coalition was classified into four main types according to the shape and nature of the coalition: I, inferiorly overgrown talus or superiorly overgrown calcaneus; II, both talus and calcaneus overgrew; III, coalition with an accessory ossicle; IV, complete osseous coalition (I-III types are non-osseous coalition). Then each type was further divided into three subtypes according to the articular facets involved. A, the coalition involving the anterior facets; M, the coalition involving the middle facets, and P, the coalition involving the posterior facets. Interobserver reliability was measured at the main type (based on nature and shape) and subtype (articular facet involved) using weighted Kappa. Results There were 106 patients (108 ft) included in this study. Overall, 8 ft (7.5%) were classified as type I, 75 ft (69.4%) as type II, 7 ft (6.5%) as type III, and 18 ft (16.7%) as type IV. Twenty-nine coalitions (26.9%) involved the posterior facets only (subtype-P), 74 coalitions (68.5%) involved both the middle and posterior facets (subtype-MP), and five coalitions (4.6%) simultaneously involved the anterior, middle, and posterior facets (subtype-AMP). Type II-MP coalition was the most common. The value of weighted Kappa for the main type was 0.93 (95%CI 0.86-0.99) (p<0.001), and the value for the subtype was 0.78 (95%CI 0.66-0.91) (p<0.001).

Conclusion: A new classification system of the talocalcaneal coalition to facilitate operative planning was developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04567-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8356385PMC
August 2021

[Effects of ERα gene overexpression on bone mineral density and calcium and phosphorus metabolism inovariectomized osteoporosis mice].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2021 May;37(3):332-336

Xiangnan University Medical Imaging Examination and Rehabilitation College, Chenzhou 423000.

To investigate the effects of estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene overexpression on bone metabolism and calcium and phosphorus metabolism in ovariectomized osteoporosis mice, and to provide experimental basis for targeted gene therapy of osteoporosis. Thirty SPF female mice were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group and ERα overexpression group with 10 mice in each group. After the model was established, the ERα overexpression group was transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector carrying mouse ERα gene by intraspinal injection. The model group was transfected with empty virus, and the sham operation group was not treated. The expression of ERα gene in bone tissue of mice was detected by quantitative Real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Bone mineral density (BMD) of mouse femur was measured after modeling. Trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular segregation (Tb.Sp), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and biomechanical strength of femur were measured by micro-CT scanning. Serum levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), osteocalcin (BGP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer. The expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) in bone homogenate were detected by Immunohistochemistry. Compared with sham operation group, the expression level of ERα gene in bone tissue of model group was decreased significantly, the levels of BMD, BV/TV, Tb. Th, maximum load, rigidity coefficient, Ca and P were decreased, while the levels of Tb. Sp, BGP and ALP were increased significantly (<0.05). Compared with the sham operation group, the expression level of TIMP-1 protein in the bone tissue of the model group was significantly decreased, while that of MCP-1 protein was increased, while that of the ERα overexpression group was increased while that of MCP-1 was decreased (<0.05).The levels of ERα gene expression, BMD, BV/TV, TB. Th, maximum load, rigidity coefficient, Ca and P in the ERα overexpression group were significantly higher than those in the model group, while Tb. Sp, BGP and ALP were significantly lower (<0.05). Compared with the sham operation group, mean optical density of TIMP-1 in the bone tissue of the model group was significantly decreased, while that of MCP-1 was significantly increased, and that of the ERα overexpression group was significantly increased while that of MCP-1 was significantly decreased (<0.05). ERα gene overexpression can improve osteoporosis by regulating bone mineral density, bone parameters, bone metabolism, calcium and phosphorus metabolic indicators and the expression levels of TIMP-1 and MCP-1 in tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.6028.2021.002DOI Listing
May 2021

Transcriptome and Proteomic Analysis Reveals Up-Regulation of Innate Immunity-Related Genes Expression in Caprine Herpesvirus 1 Infected Madin Darby Bovine Kidney Cells.

Viruses 2021 07 2;13(7). Epub 2021 Jul 2.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.

Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is a member of the alpha subfamily of herpesviruses, which is responsible for genital lesions and latent infections in goat populations worldwide. In this study, for the first time, the transcriptome and proteomics of CpHV-1 infected Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells were explored using RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS) technology, respectively. RNA-Seq analysis revealed 81 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between infected and mock-infected MDBK cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that most of these DEGs were mainly involved in the innate immune response, especially the interferon stimulated genes (ISGs). Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis results indicated that the identified DEGs were significantly mainly enriched for response to virus, defense response to virus, response to biotic stimulus and regulation of innate immune response. Viral carcinogenesis, the RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, the cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and pathways associated with several viral infections were found to be significantly enriched in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database. Eleven selected DEGs (Mx1, RSAD2, IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT5, IFIH1, IFITM3, IRF7, IRF9, OAS1X and OAS1Y) associated with immune responses were selected, and they exhibited a concordant direction both in RNA-Seq and quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Proteomic analysis also showed significant up-regulation of innate immunity-related proteins. GO analysis showed that the differentially expressed proteins were mostly enriched in defense response and response to virus, and the pathways associated with viral infection were enriched under KEGG analysis. Protein-protein interaction network analysis indicated most of the DEGs related to innate immune responses, as DDX58(RIG-I), IFIH1(MDA5), IRF7, Mx1, RSAD2, OAS1 and IFIT1, were located in the core of the network and highly connected with other DGEs. Our findings support the notion that CpHV-1 infection induced the transcription and protein expression alterations of a series of genes related to host innate immune response, which helps to elucidate the resistance of host cells to viral infection and to clarify the pathogenesis of CpHV-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13071293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310103PMC
July 2021

Long-Residence Pneumonia Vaccine Developed Using PEG-Grafted Hybrid Nanovesicles from Cell Membrane Fusion of Mycoplasma and IFN-γ-Primed Macrophages.

Small 2021 Aug 16;17(34):e2101183. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

CD8 T cell responses play a critical regulatory role in protection against mycoplasma infection-related respiratory diseases. Nanovesicles derived from cell membranes have been shown to induce CD8 T cell responses. Moreover, the short residence time of mycoplasma membrane-related vaccines in local lymph nodes limits the efficacy of current mycoplasma vaccines. Here, a long-residence pneumonia vaccine is developed using nanovesicles prepared by cell membrane fusion of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and interferon-γ (IFN-γ   )-primed macrophages, which are grafted with polyethylene glycol to increase residence time in the lymph nodes. Upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the membrane of IFN-γ-primed macrophages increases the targeting of the hybrid nanovesicle vaccine to the local lymph nodes, with increased CD8 T cell activation. A mechanistic study reveals that CD8 T cell activation is achieved via a pathway involving upregulation of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2/3 expression by E26 transformation-specific sequences, followed by increased immune-stimulatory activity of dendritic cells. In vivo, prophylactic testing reveals that the hybrid nanovesicle vaccine triggers a long-term immune response, as evidenced by a memory CD8 T cell response against mycoplasma infection. The current study provides a new design strategy for mycoplasma vaccines that involves a hybrid method using biological sources and artificial modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202101183DOI Listing
August 2021

Investigation into the mechanisms of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide inhibiting α-glucosidase activity and non-enzymatic glycation by spectroscopy and molecular docking.

Food Funct 2021 Sep 7;12(17):7825-7835. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

SCUT-Zhuhai Institute of Modern Industrial Innovation, School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

The inhibition of α-glucosidase and glycation is closely related to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. In this study, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA) showed reversible and mixed-mode inhibition of α-glucosidase activity, with an IC value of 108.11 ± 4.61 μM. This was mainly due to the spontaneous formation of Q3GA-α-glucosidase driven by hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces, which could change the microenvironments and conformation of α-glucosidase. In addition, Q3GA showed strong suppression of the formation of glycation products, including fructosamine, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). Molecular docking analysis demonstrated that Q3GA entered the hydrophobic pocket of ovalbumin to form six hydrogen bonds with amino acid residues, which affected the glycation process. These findings indicate that Q3GA is an excellent inhibitor of α-glucosidase and glycation, and promote its development as a drug or dietary supplement for DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01042eDOI Listing
September 2021

Serum iron status and the risk of breast cancer in the European population: a two-sample Mendelian randomisation study.

Genes Nutr 2021 Jul 6;16(1). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Information and Management, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530000, Guangxi, China.

Background: Previous observational studies have provided conflicting results on the association between serum iron status and the risk of breast cancer. Considering the relevance of this relationship to breast cancer prevention, its elucidation is warranted.

Object: We used a two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to explore the causal relationship between serum iron status and the risk of breast cancer.

Method: To select single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could be used as instrumental variables for iron status, we used the Genetics of Iron Status consortium, which includes 11 discovery and 8 replication cohorts, encompassing 48,972 individuals of European descent. Moreover, we used the OncoArray network to select SNPs that could be considered instrumental variables for the outcome of interest (breast cancer); this dataset included 122,977 individuals of European descent with breast cancer and 105,974 peers without breast cancer. Both conservative (SNPs associated with overall iron status markers) and liberal (SNPs associated with the levels of at least one iron status marker) approaches were used as part of the MR analysis. For the former, we used an inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method, whereas for the latter, we used the IVW, MR-Egger regression, weighted median and simple mode methods.

Results: When the conservative approach was used, iron status showed no significant association with the risk of breast cancer or any of its subtypes. However, when the liberal approach was used, transferrin levels were found to be positively associated with the risk of ER-negative breast cancer based on the simple mode method (OR for MR, 1.225; 95% CI, 1.064, 1.410; P = 0.030). Nevertheless, the levels of the other iron status markers showed no association with the risk of breast cancer or its subtypes (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: In our MR study, the liberal approach suggested that changes in the concentration of transferrin could increase the risk of ER-negative breast cancer, although the levels of other iron status markers had no effect on the risk of breast cancer or its subtypes. This should be verified in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12263-021-00691-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8259019PMC
July 2021

Elimination of Cervical Cancer: Challenges Promoting the HPV Vaccine in China.

Indian J Gynecol Oncol 2021 27;19(3):51. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Deparment of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Peking University People's Hospital, No.11# Xizhimen South St. Xicheng District, Beijing, 100044 China.

Objective: Cervical cancers present major threats to women's health in China. Eliminating cervical cancer in China is a huge challenge, with application of the HPV vaccine, which is an important part.

Methods: There are currently four HPV vaccines available in China: bv-HPV (Wantai, China), bv-HPV, qv-HPV (GSK, UK), and 9v-HPV (MSD, USA). To observe the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of these four vaccines in China, we formed the "Chinese Expert Consensus on the Clinical Application of HPV Vaccine."

Results: At 7 months after vaccination, all vaccinated subjects had the same immunogenic response to either HPV16 or HPV18, ranging from 96 to 100%, and antibody production in girls aged 9-14 years was 2-3 times higher than that in adult women. Efficacy of the four vaccines against CIN2 + ranged from 87.3%  to 100%, with prevention of HPV-associated infection reaching 96% ~ 97% at 12 months. Clinical trials showed bv-HPV and qv-HPV vaccine were also safe in women aged 18-45 years. Clinical trials of the 9v-HPV vaccine are underway. HPV vaccination is currently voluntary and self-paid in China. The "Chinese Expert Consensus on the Clinical Application of HPV Vaccine" will work to promote the application of HPV vaccine in China.

Conclusions: In clinical studies, the available HPV vaccines showed excellent efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity in Chinese women. We will continue strengthening screening and encouraging HPV vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40944-021-00536-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236217PMC
June 2021

Chemotherapy initiation with single-course methotrexate alone or combined with dactinomycin versus multi-course methotrexate for low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: a multi-centric randomized clinical trial.

Front Med 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Gynecological Oncology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310006 s, China.

We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of single-course initial regimens in patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN). In this trial (NCT01823315), 276 patients were analyzed. Patients were allocated to three initiated regimens: single-course methotrexate (MTX), single-course MTX + dactinomycin (ACTD), and multi-course MTX (control arm). The primary endpoint was the complete remission (CR) rate by initial drug(s). The primary CR rate was 64.4% with multi-course MTX in the control arm. For the single-course MTX arm, the CR rate was 35.8% by one course; it increased to 59.3% after subsequent multi-course MTX, with non-inferiority to the control (difference -5.1%,95% confidence interval (CI) -19.4% to 9.2%, P = 0.014). After further treatment with multi-course ACTD, the CR rate (93.3%) was similar to that of the control (95.2%, P = 0.577). For the single-course MTX + ACTD arm, the CR rate was 46.7% by one course, which increased to 89.1% after subsequent multi-course, with non-inferiority (difference 24.7%, 95% CI 12.8%-36.6%, P < 0.001) to the control. It was similar to the CR rate by MTX and further ACTD in the control arm (89.1% vs. 95.2%, P =0.135). Four patients experienced recurrence, with no death, during the 2-year follow-up. We demonstrated that chemotherapy initiation with single-course MTX may be an alternative regimen for patients with low-risk GTN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-021-0855-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Potential of peptide-engineered exosomes with overexpressed miR-92b-3p in anti-angiogenic therapy of ovarian cancer.

Clin Transl Med 2021 05;11(5):e425

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Introduction: Exosomal microRNA (miRNA) as a mediator of intercellular communication plays an essential part in tumor-relevant angiogenesis. Therapy against angiogenesis has been demonstrated to have a remarkable antitumor efficacy in various malignancies, but not as expected in ovarian cancer.

Methods: Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation. Exosomal miRNA sequencing and gene function experiments were used to identify the differential expressed miRNAs in exosomes and their mRNA targets. SKOV3 cell line that stably overexpressed miR-92b-3p was constructed by lentivirus. In vitro, angiogenesis was analyzed by tube formation assay and migration assay. The angiogenic and antitumor effects in vivo were assessed in zebrafish and nude mouse models. Combination index was calculated to assess the synergetic inhibition of angiogenesis between miR-92b-3p and Apatinib. Peptides were conjugated with exosomal membranes to obtain engineered exosomes.

Results: Ovarian cancer cell-derived exosomes facilitated the angiogenesis and migration capability of vascular endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The expression of miR-92b-3p was much lower in ovarian cancer cell-derived exosomes than that in immortalized ovarian epithelial cell-derived exosomes. The exosomal miR-92b-3p modulated tumor-associated angiogenesis via targeting SOX4. Besides, Peptide-engineered exosomes with overexpressed miR-92b-3p showed the stronger abilities of anti-angiogenesis and antitumor than parental exosomes, whether alone or combined with Apatinib.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate the effect and mechanism of exosomal miR-92b-3p from ovarian cancer cells on tumor-associated angiogenesis and the potential of artificially generated exosomes with overexpressed miR-92b-3p to be used as anti-angiogenic agent, which may provide a new approach for anti-angiogenic therapy of ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131502PMC
May 2021

Cellular microRNAs influence replication of H3N2 canine influenza virus in infected cells.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jun 20;257:109083. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play important regulatory roles in host-virus interactions. Avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) has emerged as the most prevalent subtype among dogs in Asia since 2007. To evaluate the roles of host miRNAs in H3N2 CIV infection, here, miRNA profiles obtained from primary canine bronchiolar epithelial cells (CBECs) and canine alveolar macrophages (CAMCs) were compared between infected and mock-infected cells with the H3N2 CIV JS/10. It was found that the expressions of cfa-miR-125b and cfa-miR-151, which have been reported to be associated with innate immunity and inflammatory response, were significantly decreased in CIV-infected canine primary cells. Bioinformatics prediction indicated that 5' seed regions of the two miRNAs are partially complementary to the mRNAs of nucleoprotein (NP) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of JS/10. As determined by virus titration, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, overexpression of the two miRNAs inhibited CIV replication in cell culture, while their inhibition facilitated this replication, suggesting that the two miRNAs could act as negative regulators of CIV replication. Our findings support the notion that some cellular miRNAs can influence the outcome of virus infection, which helps to elucidate the resistance of host cells to viral infection and to clarify the pathogenesis of H3N2 CIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.109083DOI Listing
June 2021

The reference genome and transcriptome of the limestone langur, Trachypithecus leucocephalus, reveal expansion of genes related to alkali tolerance.

BMC Biol 2021 04 8;19(1):67. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Terrestrial Wildlife Rescue and Epidemic Diseases Surveillance Center of Guangxi, Nanning, Guangxi, 530003, China.

Background: Trachypithecus leucocephalus, the white-headed langur, is a critically endangered primate that is endemic to the karst mountains in the southern Guangxi province of China. Studying the genomic and transcriptomic mechanisms underlying its local adaptation could help explain its persistence within a highly specialized ecological niche.

Results: In this study, we used PacBio sequencing and optical assembly and Hi-C analysis to create a high-quality de novo assembly of the T. leucocephalus genome. Annotation and functional enrichment revealed many genes involved in metabolism, transport, and homeostasis, and almost all of the positively selected genes were related to mineral ion binding. The transcriptomes of 12 tissues from three T. leucocephalus individuals showed that the great majority of genes involved in mineral absorption and calcium signaling were expressed, and their gene families were significantly expanded. For example, FTH1 primarily functions in iron storage and had 20 expanded copies.

Conclusions: These results increase our understanding of the evolution of alkali tolerance and other traits necessary for the persistence of T. leucocephalus within an ecologically unique limestone karst environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-021-00998-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034193PMC
April 2021

LncRNA SPOCD1-AS from ovarian cancer extracellular vesicles remodels mesothelial cells to promote peritoneal metastasis via interacting with G3BP1.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Mar 16;40(1):101. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310006, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Metastasis is the key cause of death in ovarian cancer patients. To figure out the biological nature of cancer metastasis is essential for developing effective targeted therapy. Here we investigate how long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SPOCD1-AS from ovarian cancer extracellular vesicles (EVs) remodel mesothelial cells through a mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT) manner and facilitate peritoneal metastasis.

Methods: EVs purified from ovarian cancer cells and ascites of patients were applied to mesothelial cells. The MMT process of mesothelial cells was assessed by morphology observation, western blot analysis, migration assay and adhesion assay. Altered lncRNAs of EV-treated mesothelial cells were screened by RNA sequencing and identified by qRT-PCR. SPOCD1-AS was overexpressed or silenced by overexpression lentivirus or shRNA, respectively. RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were conducted to reveal the mechanism by which SPOCD1-AS remodeled mesothelial cells. Interfering peptides were synthesized and applied. Ovarian cancer orthotopic implantation mouse model was established in vivo.

Results: We found that ovarian cancer-secreted EVs could be taken into recipient mesothelial cells, induce the MMT phenotype and enhance cancer cell adhesion to mesothelial cells. Furthermore, SPOCD1-AS embedded in ovarian cancer-secreted EVs was transmitted to mesothelial cells to induce the MMT process and facilitate peritoneal colonization in vitro and in vivo. SPOCD1-AS induced the MMT process of mesothelial cells via interacting with G3BP1 protein. Additionally, G3BP1 interfering peptide based on the F380/F382 residues was able to block SPOCD1-AS/G3BP1 interaction, inhibit the MMT phenotype of mesothelial cells, and diminish peritoneal metastasis in vivo.

Conclusions: Our findings elucidate the mechanism associated with EVs and their cargos in ovarian cancer peritoneal metastasis and may provide a potential approach for metastatic ovarian cancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-01899-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968157PMC
March 2021

Focusing on quality of life in the family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia from the perspective of family functioning: A cross-sectional study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(5):e24270

West China School of Nursing/West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Abstract: The study aimed to explore the association between family functioning and quality of life (QOL) in family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.Totally 121 family caregivers were surveyed in the cross-sectional study by the self-administration questionnaires about sociodemographic characteristics, family functioning and QOL. Family functioning was evaluated in terms of the family assessment device and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale II China Version. QOL was evaluated in terms of TSDHE short-form 12-item health survey, version 2. Multiple regression models were built to explore the association between QOL and family functioning.A regression analysis showed that poorer physical health of family caregivers was significantly associated with the lower educational level of caregivers, the closer kinship with patients and the multiple episodes schizophrenia. The other regression analysis showed that better family adaptability and affective responsiveness were significantly associated with the better mental health of family caregivers.Family functioning is associated with mental health rather than the physical health of family caregivers. Psychoeducational intervention could focus on family caregivers with a lower educational level and closer kinship, and those who look after patients with multiple episodes schizophrenia. Further family intervention could focus on family adaptability and affective expression in family caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870230PMC
February 2021

Leaf Extract and Fractions: Polyphenol Composition, Antioxidant, Enzymes (α-Glucosidase, Acetylcholinesterase, and Tyrosinase) Inhibitory, Anticancer, and Antidiabetic Activities.

Foods 2021 Feb 3;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, China.

This study aims to evaluate the bioactive components, in vitro bioactivities, and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of leaf, which is a traditional medicine-food homology plant. methanol crude extract and its fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, and aqueous phase residue) were prepared by ultrasound-enzyme assisted extraction and liquid-liquid extraction. Among the samples, the ethyl acetate fraction possessed the high total phenolic (440.48 μg GAE/mg DE) and flavonoid content (455.22 μg RE/mg DE), the best antioxidant activity (the DPPH radical, ABTS radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 1.71, 1.14, 2.40, 1.29, and 2.4 times higher than that of control Vc, respectively), the most powerful α-glucosidase inhibitory ability with the IC value of 190.03 μg/mL which was 2.2-folds higher than control acarbose, the strongest proliferative inhibitory ability against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell with the IC values of 37.92 and 13.43 μg/mL, which were considerable with control cisplatin, as well as certain inhibition abilities on acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase. HPLC analysis showed that the luteolin, rosmarinic acid, rutin, and catechin were the dominant components of the ethyl acetate fraction. Animal experiments further demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction could significantly decrease the serum glucose level, food, and water intake of streptozotocin-induced diabetic SD rats, increase the body weight, modulate their serum levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C, improve the histopathology and glycogen accumulation in liver and intestinal tissue. Taken together, leaf exhibits excellent hypoglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo, and could be exploited as a source of natural antidiabetic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913586PMC
February 2021

Oncogenic HPV promotes the expression of the long noncoding RNA lnc-FANCI-2 through E7 and YY1.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 01;118(3)

Tumor Virus RNA Biology Section, HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702;

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play diverse roles in biological processes, but their expression profiles and functions in cervical carcinogenesis remain unknown. By RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of 18 clinical specimens and selective validation by RT-qPCR analyses of 72 clinical samples, we provide evidence that, relative to normal cervical tissues, 194 lncRNAs are differentially regulated in high-risk (HR)-HPV infection along with cervical lesion progression. One such lncRNA, , is extensively characterized because it is expressed from a genomic locus adjacent to the gene encoding an important DNA repair factor. Both genes are up-regulated in HPV lesions and in in vitro model systems of HR-HPV18 infection. We observe a moderate reciprocal regulation of and in cervical cancer CaSki cells. In these cells, is transcribed from two alternative promoters, alternatively spliced, and polyadenylated at one of two alternative poly(A) sites. About 10 copies of per cell are detected preferentially in the cytoplasm. Mechanistically, HR-HPVs, but not low-risk (LR)-HPV oncogenes induce in primary and immortalized human keratinocytes. The induction is mediated primarily by E7, and to a lesser extent by E6, mostly independent of p53/E6AP and pRb/E2F. We show that YY1 interacts with an E7 CR3 core motif and transactivates the promoter of by binding to two critical YY1-binding motifs. Moreover, HPV18 increases YY1 expression by reducing miR-29a, which targets the 3' untranslated region of YY1 mRNA. These data have provided insights into the mechanisms of how HR-HPV infections contribute to cervical carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2014195118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826414PMC
January 2021

N6-methyladenosine RNA methylation regulators contribute to the progression of prostate cancer.

J Cancer 2021 1;12(3):682-692. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Center of Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, 530021, China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common epithelial malignant tumors and the fifth leading cause of cancer death in men. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that N6-methyladenosine (mA) plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. However, little is known about the role and levels of common mA regulators and mA levels in PCa. In this study, we analyzed the characteristic expression of mA regulators in PCa and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). UALCAN and cBioPortal were used to estimate the clinical value and genetic alterations of mA regulators, respectively. The correlation between mA regulators and androgen receptor (AR) was assessed using Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) by Pearson correlation statistics. Total mA levels were detected in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice and PCa cell lines. Results showed that the expression of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) and YTH domain family members, namely, YTHDC2, YTHDF1, and YTHDF2 were generally upregulated in PCa, whereas those of fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO), AlkB homolog 5 (ALKBH5), and methyltransferase-like 14 (METTL14) were downregulated. The expression of METTL3, METTL14, Wilms' tumor 1-associating protein (WTAP), YTHDC2, YTHDF1, and YTHDF2 were remarkably higher in CRPC with lymph node metastasis than that in CRPC with bone metastasis, whereas ALKBH5, FTO, and YTHDF3 significantly decreased in CRPC with lymph node metastasis tissues. YTHDF1, YTHDF2, and YTHDC2 were positively correlated with the Gleason grades of PCa, and METTL14, FTO, and ALKBH5 were negatively associated with the Gleason classification. MA regulators were positively correlated with AR. Patients with a genomic alteration of mA were associated with poor disease-free survival (DFS). The total mA levels in TRAMP mice increased dramatically compared with those in tumor-free mice, and mA levels in LNCaP cell lines were higher than DU145 and PC3 cell lines. In summary, METTL3, METTL14, ALKBH5, FTO, YTHDC2, YTHDF1, and YTHDF2 were abnormally expressed in PCa and related to Gleason classification. Changes in mA levels maybe contributed to the development and progression of PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.46379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778550PMC
January 2021

Effectiveness of High-risk Human Papillomavirus Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening in China: A Multicenter, Open-label, Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Feb;7(2):263-270

National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Importance: Evidence is needed regarding the introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing into China's national cervical cancer screening program.

Objective: To evaluate hrHPV testing as a new screening modality for the national program.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This population-based, multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial took place across 20 primary health care centers in urban and rural areas across China. At least 3000 women aged 35 to 64 years per site were invited to participate, for a total of 60 732 women evaluated.

Interventions: At baseline, women were randomly assigned to cytology, hrHPV testing, or visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol iodine (VIA/VILI) (rural only). Women who tested positive for hrHPV were randomized into cytology-triage, VIA/VILI-triage (rural only), or direct colposcopy arms. Regarding primary or triaging tests, women with cytological abnormalities or who tested positive with VIA/VILI were referred to colposcopy. After 24 months, combined screening of cytology, hrHPV testing, and VIA/VILI was performed, and all women with positive results were referred to colposcopy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcomes were cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) and CIN3+ yields. The secondary outcome was colposcopy referral rate.

Results: A total of 60 732 women were included in this study, with median (interquartile range) age of 47 (41-52) years. Among urban women, 8955 were randomized to cytology and 18 176 to hrHPV genotyping; among rural women, 11 136 were randomized to VIA/VILI, 7080 to cytology, and 15 385 to hrHPV testing. Participants who tested positive for hrHPV with direct colposcopy had higher risk ratios for disease yields at baseline (urban hrHPV vs cytology, CIN2+ 2.2 [95% CI, 1.6-3.2] and CIN3+ 2.0 [95% CI, 1.2-3.3]; rural hrHPV vs cytology, 2.6 [95% CI, 1.9-4.0] and 2.7 [95% CI, 2.0-3.6]; rural hrHPV vs VIA/VILI, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.6-2.3] and 2.3 [95% CI, 1.8-3.1]). At 24 months, baseline-negative women in the hrHPV arm had significantly lower risk ratios than those with cytology, or VIA/VILI for CIN2+ (0.3 [95% CI, 0.2-0.5], 0.3 [95% CI, 0.2-0.6]) and CIN3+ (0.3 [95% CI, 0.1-0.6], 0.4 [95% CI, 0.2-0.8]) in rural sites. The colposcopy referral rate for hrHPV-positive rural women was reduced to 2.8% by cytology triage, with significantly higher CIN2+ yields than cytology (2.1 [95% CI, 1.3-2.6]) or VIA/VILI arm (1.6 [95% CI, 1.03-2.1]). Genotyping for hrHPV with cytology triage significantly reduced the colposcopy referral rate compared with cytology (0.8 [95% CI, 0.7-0.9]) for urban women.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, testing for hrHPV was an effective primary screening method in primary health care centers. Incorporating hrHPV testing (polymerase chain reaction-based for urban areas, hybrid capture-based for rural areas) into China's national screening program is reasonable.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Identifier: ChiCTR1900022530.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.6575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774051PMC
February 2021

CircCDKN2B-AS1 interacts with IMP3 to stabilize hexokinase 2 mRNA and facilitate cervical squamous cell carcinoma aerobic glycolysis progression.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2020 Dec 11;39(1):281. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology; Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, No.1 Xueshi Road, Hangzhou, 310006, China.

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been reported to play key roles in the development of various cancers. However, the biological functions and clinical significance of most circRNAs are still elusive. The purpose of this study was to explore the function and mechanism of a certain circRNA named circCDKN2B-AS1 in cervical cancer development and its potential value in the clinic.

Methods: qRT-PCR was used to verify the expression level of circCDKN2B-AS1. CCK-8, Transwell, and flow cytometry (FCM) assays were performed to detect cellular proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, respectively. A Seahorse XFe96 Analyzer was used to measure glycolysis metabolism level. RNA pull-down, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), actinomycin-D addition assays and Western blotting were used to screen and elucidate the potential mechanisms involved. BALB/c nude mice and zebrafish embryos (AB, WT) were used as animal models to investigate tumorigenesis capability. FDG-microPET/CT imaging and lactic acid (LA) and pyruvic acid (PA) content detection assays were used to detect the level of glucose metabolism in subcutaneous tumors from nude mice.

Results: CircCDKN2B-AS1, a circular isoform of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) CDKN2B-AS1, was upregulated in cervical cancer and precancerous tissues. We found that circCDKN2B-AS1 associated with the IMP3 protein depending on a specific binding site and regulated the stability of Hexokinase 2 (HK2) mRNA, the rate-limiting enzyme of the aerobic glycolysis pathway. The expression level of circCDKN2B-AS1 fated the binding of IMP3 to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of HK2 mRNA, consequently affecting the malignant cell phenotype and aerobic glycolysis in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. Mutant circCDKN2B-AS1, lacking the IMP3 binding site, did not have such effects. Utilization of an inhibitory peptide to block the interaction between circCDKN2B-AS1 and the IMP3 protein impeded the binding of IMP3 to the 3'UTR of HK2 mRNA and suppressed aerobic glycolysis in cervical cancer cells.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that circCDKN2B-AS1 facilitates aerobic glycolysis by sponging the IMP3 protein to stabilize HK2 mRNA, consequently promoting the malignant phenotype in cervical cancer, which may provide a potential approach for cervical cancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-020-01793-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7731507PMC
December 2020

Characteristics and predictors of muscle strength deficit in mechanical ankle instability.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Nov 10;21(1):730. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Institute of Sports Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing Key Laboratory of Sports Injuries, No.49 North Garden Road, Haidian, Beijing, 100191, China.

Purpose: Muscle strength training is a common strategy for treating chronic ankle instability (CAI), but the effectiveness decreases for mechanical ankle instability (MAI) patients with initial severe ligament injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics and the potential predictors of muscle strength deficit in MAI patients, with a view to proposing a more targeted muscle strength training strategy.

Methods: A total of 220 MAI patients with confirmed initial lateral ankle ligament rupture and a postinjury duration of more than 6 months were included. All patients underwent a Biodex isokinetic examination of the ankle joints of both the affected and unaffected sides. Then, the associations between the limb symmetry index (LSI) (mean peak torque of the injury side divided by that of the healthy side) and the patients' sex, body mass index, postinjury duration, presence of intra-articular osteochondral lesions, presence of osteophytes and ligament injury pattern (i.e., isolated anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury or combined with calcaneofibular ligament injury) were analysed.

Results: There was significantly weaker muscle strength on the affected side than on the unaffected side in all directions (p < 0.05). The LSI in plantar flexion was significantly lower than that in dorsiflexion at 60°/s (0.87 vs 0.98, p < 0.001). A lower LSI in eversion was significantly correlated with female sex (0.82 vs 0.94, p = 0.016) and isolated ATFL injury (0.86 vs 0.95, p = 0.012). No other factors were found to be associated with muscle strength deficits.

Conclusion: MAI patients showed significant muscle strength deficits on the affected side, especially in plantar flexion. There were greater strength deficits in eversion in females and individuals with an isolated ATFL injury. Thus, a muscle strength training programme for MAI patients was proposed that focused more on plantar flexion training and eversion training for females and those with an isolated ATFL injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03754-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654059PMC
November 2020

Self-Driven "Microfiltration" Enabled by Porous Superabsorbent Polymer (PSAP) Beads for Biofluid Specimen Processing and Storage.

ACS Mater Lett 2020 Nov 21;2(11):1545-1554. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

A remote collection of biofluid specimens such as blood and urine remains a great challenge due to the requirement of continuous refrigeration. Without proper temperature regulation, the rapid degradation of analytical targets in the specimen may compromise the accuracy and reliability of the testing results. In this study, we develop porous superabsorbent polymer (PSAP) beads for fast and self-driven "microfiltration" of biofluid samples. This treatment effectively separates small analytical targets (, glucose, catalase, and bacteriophage) and large undesired components (, bacteria and blood cells) in the biofluids by capturing the former inside and excluding the latter outside the PSAP beads. We have successfully demonstrated that this treatment can reduce sample volume, self-aliquot the liquid sample, avoid microbial contamination, separate plasma from blood cells, stabilize target species inside the beads, and enable long-term storage at room temperature. Potential practical applications of this technology can provide an alternative sample collection and storage approach for medically underserved areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmaterialslett.0c00348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7640703PMC
November 2020

Digestibility, bioactivity and prebiotic potential of phenolics released from whole gold kiwifruit and pomace by gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation.

Food Funct 2020 Nov;11(11):9613-9623

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou 510640, China.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of phenolics, biological activity variation and prebiotic potential of whole gold kiwifruit and pomace by in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation. The released phenolics of whole kiwifruit and pomace after digestion were 99.53 and 101.04 mg GAE per 100 g FW, respectively. Six compounds were quantified, and catechin, gallic and caffeic acid were mainly released in the oral phase, protocatechuic acid in the gastric phase, and coumaric and hydroxybenzoic acid during fermentation. The whole kiwifruit possessed higher antioxidant activity than the pomace, while both showed decreases during the whole digestion and fermentation process. After S-intestine digestion, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of pomace and whole kiwifruit were 1.33 and 3.11 mg acarbose per g FW, respectively. The fermentation of the whole kiwifruit and pomace caused reduction of the pH and variation of the gut microbiota diversity. Compared with whole kiwifruit, the pomace showed stronger modulative effects on the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes. These findings provide scientific evidence for the utilization of pomace and whole gold kiwifruit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02399jDOI Listing
November 2020

In Vivo Polymerization ("Hard-Wiring") of Bioanodes Enables Rapid Start-Up and Order-of-Magnitude Higher Power Density in a Microbial Battery.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 11 29;54(22):14732-14739. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

For microbial electrochemical technologies to be successful in the decentralized treatment of wastewater, steady-state power density must be improved and cost must be decreased. Here, we demonstrate in vivo polymerization ("hard-wiring") of a microbial community to a growing layer of conductive polypyrrole on a sponge bioanode of a microbial battery, showing rapid biocatalytic current development (∼10 times higher than a sponge control after 4 h). Moreover, bioanodes with the polymerized inoculant maintain higher steady-state power density (∼2 times greater than the control after 28 days). We then evaluate the same hard-wired bioanodes in both a two-chamber microbial fuel cell and microbial battery with a solid-state NaFeFe(CN) (Prussian Blue) cathode, showing approximately an order-of-magnitude greater volumetric power density with the microbial battery. The result is a rapid start-up, low-cost (no membrane or platinum catalyst), and high volumetric power density system (independent of atmospheric oxygen) for harvesting energy and carbon from dilute organics in wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c05000DOI Listing
November 2020

Loss of X Chromosome Inactivation in Androgenetic Complete Hydatidiform Moles With 46, XX Karyotype.

Int J Gynecol Pathol 2021 Jul;40(4):333-341

Most complete hydatidiform moles (CHMs) showcase an androgenetic nature of the nuclear genome. In the normal female embryo, one of the 2 X chromosomes is inactive. However, the status of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) in androgenetic CHMs remains unknown. Seventy-one androgenetic CHM tissues with the 46, XX karyotype were collected. Seventy-four normal female villi and 74 normal male villi were collected as controls. The expression of XCI markers (XIST, TSIX, and XACT) and an X-linked gene (CDX4) was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Other XCI-associated genes were also examined, including the methylation status of the human androgen receptor gene (HUMARA) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction), and the expression of H3K27me3, USP21, and Nanog by Western blot and immunofluorescence, respectively. In addition, 126 CHMs and 63 normal female villous samples were collected for CDX4 immunohistochemical staining. The expression of XIST RNA was significantly lower, and TSIX RNA expression was significantly higher in androgenetic CHMs than that in normal female villi (both P<0.01). The expression of CDX4 mRNA in androgenetic CHMs was elevated compared with that in normal male and normal female villous samples (both P<0.01), and CDX4 protein expression was also higher than that in normal female villous samples (P<0.01). The expression of H3K27me3 was lower in androgenetic CHMs compared with that in normal female villi(P<0.01). The methylation pattern of HUMARA was found lacking in androgenetic CHMs. The expression of Nanog and UPS21 protein in androgenetic CHMs was higher than that in normal villi (both P<0.01). Both X chromosomes are active in androgenetic CHMs with the 46, XX karyotype, and the USP21-Nanog pathway may be involved in the disruption of XCI during this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PGP.0000000000000697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183483PMC
July 2021

Both Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography Are Reliable and Valid in Evaluating Cystic Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Sep 17;8(9):2325967120946697. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Institute of Sports Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Compared with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might overestimate the condition of osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) owing to subchondral bone marrow edema and the overlying cartilage defect. However, no study has compared MRI and CT directly in evaluating OLTs with subchondral cysts.

Purpose: To compare the reliability and validity of MRI and CT in evaluating OLTs with subchondral cysts.

Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: An institutional radiology database was queried for inpatients diagnosed with OLTs with subchondral cysts who had undergone surgical treatment between May 2015 and October 2019. A total of 48 patients met the inclusion criteria. Based on our measurement method, 2 experienced observers who were blinded to the study independently measured the length, width, and depth of the cysts using MRI and CT. The classification of cystic lesions was also performed based on MRI and CT findings.

Results: Interobserver reliability was almost perfect, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging from 0.935 to 0.999. ICCs for intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.944 to 0.976. The mean size of cysts measured on MRI (length, 13.38 ± 4.23 mm; width, 9.28 ± 2.28 mm; depth, 11.54 ± 3.69 mm) was not significantly different to that evaluated on CT (length, 13.40 ± 4.08 mm; width, 9.25 ± 2.34 mm; depth, 11.32 ± 3.54 mm). The size of subchondral cysts was precisely estimated on both MRI and CT. The MRI classification and CT classification revealed almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.831).

Conclusion: With our measurement method, both MRI and CT were deemed to be reliable and valid in evaluating the size of subchondral cysts of OLTs, and the MRI classification was well-correlated with the CT classification. The presented measurement method and classification systems could provide more accurate information before surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120946697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503027PMC
September 2020

Sentinel lymph node biopsy versus pelvic lymphadenectomy in early-stage cervical cancer: a multi-center randomized trial (PHENIX/CSEM 010).

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 11 24;30(11):1829-1833. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China

Background: There is no accepted strategy for applying sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy as an alternative to pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer. It is unclear whether and when pelvic lymphadenectomy can be safely replaced by SLN biopsy alone.

Primary Objective: To comprehensively compare the oncological outcomes of SLN biopsy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with and without SLN metastasis.

Study Hypothesis: It is hypothesized that the oncological outcomes provided by SLN biopsy are non-inferior to those of pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with clinically early-stage cervical cancer if risk-adapted adjuvant treatments are given.

Trial Design: All eligible patients will undergo SLN biopsy at the start of surgery. The resected SLNs will be submitted for frozen section examination. and patients will be triaged into the PHENIX-I (SLN-negative) or PHENIX-II (SLN-positive) cohort. In each cohort of this trial, patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio into the experimental (SLN biopsy alone) or reference (pelvic lymphadenectomy) arm. Radical hysterectomy will be performed for all patients, and adjuvant treatments will be planned according to post-operative pathological factors.

Major Inclusion/exclusion Criteria: Patients aged between 18 and 65 years with histologically confirmed, untreated stage IA1 (lymphovascular space involvement), IA2, IB1, and IB2 cervical squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous carcinoma.

Primary Endpoint: The primary endpoint is disease-free survival.

Sample Size: Estimated sample sizes of 830 and 250 are required to fulfill the study objectives of PHENIX-I and II, respectively.

Estimated Dates For Completing Accrual And Presenting Results: As of May 2020, more than 600 eligible patients have been enrolled. Enrollment is expected to be completed by December 2022, and presentation of results is expected in 2026.

Trial Registration: NCT02642471.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-001857DOI Listing
November 2020

Electric-field enhanced microalgae inactivation using a flow-through copper ionization cell.

J Hazard Mater 2020 12 26;400:123320. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 30332, United States. Electronic address:

Using copper (Cu) to treat algal blooms is a commonly accepted method worldwide. However, the release of Cu may cause environmental and health risk. It is required to exploit an efficient way to reduce the Cu concentration but improve the algicidal effectiveness. Here, a Cu ionization cell (CIC) was designed and utilized in a flow-through system for inactivation of two bloom-forming microalgae species, Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa. The results showed that the in-situ Cu release in the CIC treatment cause efficient microalgae inactivation. The 96 h-growth inhibition for C. vulgaris and M. aeruginosa reached 98.5 ± 3.1 % and 75.9 ± 2.0 % at a flow rate of 5 mL/min with the effluent Cu concentration of 554 ± 9 μg/L and 613 ± 17 μg/L, respectively. The maximum quantum yield (F/F) inhibitions of C. vulgaris and M. aeruginosa were 37.0 ± 1.6 % and 70.9 ± 2.1 %. The electric field enhanced CIC treatment has a locally higher Cu level because of the in-situ release. The CIC improved the microalgae inactivation performance by increasing the microalgae cell membrane permeability with excessive Cu uptake. The energy consumption was only 16.8 J/L. The in-situ Cu treatment in this work provides a microalgae inactivation method with the more environment-friendly and cost-effective prospect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123320DOI Listing
December 2020

Locally Enhanced Electric Field Treatment (LEEFT) Promotes the Performance of Ozonation for Bacteria Inactivation by Disrupting the Cell Membrane.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 11 30;54(21):14017-14025. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

The adoption of ozonation for water disinfection is hindered by its high ozone demand and the resulting high cost. Electric field treatment inactivates bacteria by physically disrupting the integrity of the cell membrane. Assisted by nanowire-modified electrodes, locally enhanced electric field treatment (LEEFT) reduces the required voltage to several volts to induce sufficient electric field strength for efficient bacteria inactivation. In this study, the LEEFT is applied as a pretreatment of ozonation for bacteria inactivation. Our results show that a low-voltage (<0.4 V) LEEFT has no obvious effect on the following ozonation, but a higher-voltage (0.6-1.2 V) LEEFT significantly enhances the ozone inactivation. After the LEEFT, a large number of viable cells with impaired cell membranes are observed, shown by both selective plate count and staining methods. The mechanism inducing the enhancement is explained by the initially reparable pores generated by LEEFT that cannot recover in the subsequent ozonation and the greater intracellular diffusion of ozone after the membrane disruption induced by LEEFT. The application of LEEFT as a pretreatment process is beneficial to reduce the ozone dosage and disinfection by-product formation with a broader inactivation spectrum, which facilitates the application of ozonation in primary water disinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c03968DOI Listing
November 2020

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor that requires fertility preservation: A case report and review of literature.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Sep;59(5):736-739

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is very rare and few cases have been published in the English literature. Hysterectomy is the recommended treatment, due to the high rate of recurrence and mortality. The objective of this article is to present a rare case of ETT with fertility-preserving treatment and review published similar cases.

Case Report: We report the case of ETT in a 19-year-old Chinese woman, who had a strong desire of fertility preservation. She presented with vaginal spotting and hysteroscopy showed an isolated solid mass (2.0 × 1.5 × 1.5 cm) at the right corner of the uterine cavity. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) persisted at low level elevation about 100 IU/L. We treated her with a lesionectomy and 3 cycles EP-EMA (etoposide, cisplatin/etoposide, methotrexate and actinomycin) chemotherapy regimen. The patient is now in stable condition, without any signs of recurrence during 20 months of follow-up.

Conclusion: Fertility-preserving surgery would probably be a feasible and safe strategy for the patients whose lesions can be completely removed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.07.019DOI Listing
September 2020

The Effect of Kinesitherapy on Bone Mineral Density in Primary Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trial.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 5;2020:5074824. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

College of Rehabilitation, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, China.

Objective: Osteoporosis (OP) is a well-established age-related disease, pathologically characterized by bone microarchitectural deterioration, increased fragility, and low BMD. Primary osteoporosis (POP) is the most common type of OP.

Methods: Publications pertaining to the effectiveness of kinesitherapy on BMD in POP from PubMed, SCI, Cochrane Library, Embase, VIP, CNKI, and Wanfang Database were retrieved from their inception to October 2019.

Results: A total of 21 studies with 1840 participants were included. The results of the meta-analysis revealed that kinesitherapy plus antiosteoporosis medications had a positive effect on lumbar spine BMD when the duration of intervention was 6 months (MD = 0.11 g/cm; 95% CI: 0.06-0.15; < 0.0001) or >6 months (MD = 0.04 g/cm; 95% CI: 0.02-0.06; < 0.0001) compared with antiosteoporosis medications alone. Additional kinesitherapy plus antiosteoporosis medications were associated with improved femoral neck BMD compared with antiosteoporosis medications alone (MD = 0.09 g/cm; 95% CI: 0.03-0.16; =0.004).

Conclusions: Kinesitherapy plus antiosteoporosis medications significantly improved lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD in the current low-quality evidence. Additional high-quality evidence is required to confirm the effect of kinesitherapy on BMD in patients with POP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5074824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426761PMC
August 2020

Paracellular Pathway-Mediated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Migration across Porcine Airway Epithelial Barrier under Air-Liquid Interface Conditions.

Infect Immun 2020 09 18;88(10). Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biological Engineering and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing, China

is an important respiratory pathogen of pigs that causes persistent and secondary infections. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. In this study, we established air-liquid interface culture systems for pig bronchial epithelial cells (ALI-PBECs) that were comparable to the conditions in the native bronchus We used this ALI-PBECs model to study the infection and migration characteristics of Based on the results, we confirmed that was able to adhere to ALI-PBECs and disrupt mucociliary function. Importantly, could migrate to the basolateral chamber through the paracellular route but not the transcellular pathway, and this was achieved by reversibly disrupting tight junctions (TJs) and increasing the permeability and damaging the integrity of the epithelial barrier. We examined the migration ability of using an ALI-PBECs model for the first time. The disruption of the epithelial barrier allowed to migrate to the basolateral chamber through the paracellular route, which may be related to immune evasion, extrapulmonary dissemination, and persistent infection of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00470-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504950PMC
September 2020
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