Publications by authors named "Xing Long"

85 Publications

Chronic Pain Causes Peripheral and Central Responses in MIA-Induced TMJOA Rats.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, 430079, Hubei, China.

Chronic pain is the predominant symptom that drives temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) patients to seek medical care; however, currently used treatment modalities remain less effective. This study aimed to investigate chronic pain and the peripheral and central responses in monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced TMJOA rats. First, the appropriate dose of MIA was determined based on pain behavior assessment in rats. Alterations of the condylar structure in TMJOA rats were evaluated by histological staining and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Second, the period of TMJOA chronic pain was further explored by assessing the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1)-positive microglia in the trigeminal spinal nucleus (TSN) and performing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) efficacy experiments. Finally, the expression of neurofilament 200 (NF200), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and isolectin B4 (IB4) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and TSN was assessed by immunofluorescence. MIA at 4 mg/kg was considered an appropriate dose. Gradual MIA-induced alterations of the condylar structure were correlated with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain. The numbers of GFAP- and IBA-1-positive cells were increased at 2, 3, and 4 weeks after MIA injection. NSAIDs failed to alleviate pain behavior 10 days after MIA injection. CGRP and IB4 levels in the TG and TSN were upregulated at 2 and 4 weeks. These results suggest that TMJOA-related chronic pain emerged 2 weeks after MIA injection. CGRP- and IB4-positive afferents in both the peripheral and central nervous systems may be involved in MIA-induced TMJOA-related chronic pain in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-020-01033-8DOI Listing
January 2021

HMGB1 contributes to osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint by inducing synovial angiogenesis.

J Oral Rehabil 2021 May 9;48(5):551-559. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education (KLOBM), School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: High- mobility group 1 protein (HMGB1) is related with inflammation. Our former research reported that substantial HMGB1 situates at the synovium of osteoarthritis of temporomandibular joint (TMJOA) patients.

Objective: This study investigated whether HMGB1 promotes synovial angiogenesis of TMJOA and its underlying mechanism.

Methods: Human synovial fibroblasts were stimulated with HMGB1; the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) in these cells was explored by Western blotting, real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. The angiogenic capacity of these cells was assayed by tube formation and cell migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The specific inhibitor against HMGB1, VEGF, Erk or JNK was added in these cells, respectively. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced TMJOA rats were produced. The changes in their synovium and synovial fluid were detected by immunofluorescent staining and ELISA.

Results: HMGB1 effectively up-regulated the production of VEGF and HIF-1α in TMJOA synovial fibroblasts through the activation of Erk and JNK. Conditioned medium from HMGB1-treated TMJOA synovial fibroblasts significantly promoted tube formation and migration in HUVECs, while attenuated those after the addition of certain inhibitor for VEGF. Furthermore, the specific inhibitor against HMGB1 vanished the neovascularisation and production of HIF-1α, VEGF and CD34 in the synovium of rat TMJOA induced by CFA injection. Additionally, this inhibitor led to the reduction of IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in the synovial fluid of those rats.

Conclusion: These findings disclose a key role for HMGB1 in governing synovial angiogenesis and as a therapeutic target against TMJOA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joor.13129DOI Listing
May 2021

Cross-talk between synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes in condylar hyperplasia: an in vitro pilot study.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2020 Aug 26. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Increasing evidence indicates an interaction between the synovium and the cartilage in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and other joints. We recently demonstrated that the expression of proangiogenic factors was enhanced and that of factors promoting matrix degradation was decreased in synovial fibroblasts in condylar hyperplasia (CH). The aim of this study was to explore whether CH chondrocytes can affect the expression of these factors of synovial fibroblasts in a co-culture system.

Study Design: The expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) from CH condylar tissues were observed by using immunohistochemical methods. Synovial fibroblasts of control tissues were co-cultured with the chondrocytes of CH, and protein expressions of VEGF, FGF-2, thrombospondin 1 (TSP1), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), and TIMP1 were examined by using Western blotting.

Results: Positive staining for VEGF, CD34, FGF-2, and TIMP1 was found in the hypertrophic cartilage layer of CH condylar tissues. Protein expressions of VEGF, FGF-2, and TIMP1 were significantly increased in co-cultured synovial fibroblasts, but TSP1 and MMP3 expressions were decreased.

Conclusions: The angiogenic factors and matrix degradation-related factors in synovial fibroblasts co-cultured with CH chondrocytes showed the same trends as those in synovial fibroblasts from CH tissue, suggesting potential cross-talk between synovial fibroblasts and chondrocytes during CH progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2020.08.020DOI Listing
August 2020

Flexible conductive hydrogel fabricated with polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl chitosan, cellulose nanofibrils, and lignin-based carbon applied as strain and pressure sensor.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 9;166:1526-1534. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

College of Light Industry and Food Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China; Guangxi Key Laboratory of Clean Pulp & Papermaking and Pollution Control, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, PR China. Electronic address:

Employing renewable, environmentally friendly, low-cost lignocellulose to design flexible pressure sensitive hydrogel (PSH) as strain and pressure sensors in wearable electronics represents the global perspective to build sustainable and green society. Lignin-based carbon (LC), as the conductive filler, were uniform distributed in the hydrogel system composing by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC), and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) to assemble PSH. The analysis revealed that the cross-linking of components through hydrogen bonds formed among hydroxyl group, amino group and carboxyl group exerts the hydrogel with stretching ability and fatigue resistance. The results indicated that the fracture tensile strength and compression stress of the PC/CNF/LC hydrogel were 133 kPa and 37.7 kPa, respectively. Because of the existence of LC, PSH hydrogel exhibits the sensitive deformation-dependent conductivity and can be applied as a flexible strain and pressure sensor monitoring body motions such as elbow flexion, finger bend and palm grip. Therefore, the assembled PSH hydrogel is a prominent candidate applying as the strain and pressure sensor devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.032DOI Listing
January 2021

TLR4 contributes to the damage of cartilage and subchondral bone in discectomy-induced TMJOA mice.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 10 11;24(19):11489-11499. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

The abundance of inflammatory mediators in injured joint indicates innate immune reactions activated during temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJOA) progression. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can mediate innate immune reaction. Herein, we aimed to investigate the expression profile and effect of TLR4 in the cartilage and subchondral bone of the discectomy-induced TMJOA mice. The expression of TLR4 and NFκB p65 in the synovium of TMJOA patients was measured by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and RT-PCR. H&E and Masson staining were utilized to assess the damage of cartilage and subchondral bone of the discectomy-induced TMJOA mice. A TLR4 inhibitor, TAK-242, was used to assess the effect of TLR4 in the cartilage and subchondral bone of the discectomy-induced TMJOA mice by Safranin O, micro-CT, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was used to quantify the expression and effect of TLR4 in IL-1β-induced chondrocytes. The expression of TLR4 and NFκB p65 was elevated in the synovium of TMJOA patients, compared with the normal synovium. TLR4 elevated in the damaged cartilage and subchondral bone of discectomy-induced TMJOA mice, and the rate of TLR4 expressing chondrocytes positively correlated with OA score. Intraperitoneal injections of TAK-242 ameliorate the extent of TMJOA. Furthermore, TLR4 promotes the expression of MyD88/NFκB, pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators in cartilage of discectomy-induced TMJOA. Besides, TLR4 participates in the production of MyD88/NFκB, pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators in IL-1β-induced chondrocytes. TLR4 contributes to the damage of cartilage and subchondral bone in discectomy-induced TMJOA mice through activation of MyD88/NFκB and release of pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576306PMC
October 2020

Inhibition of glycolysis by targeting lactate dehydrogenase A facilitates hyaluronan synthase 2 synthesis in synovial fibroblasts of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.

Bone 2020 12 11;141:115584. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Although associations between dysregulated glucose metabolism and human rheumatoid arthritis have been reported, the disturbance and influence of glycolytic metabolism on temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression level and metabolite profile of the critical glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) of TMJOA, assess the effect of glycolytic inhibition on synthesis of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and inflammation progression in these cells.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were performed to detect the expression of LDHA in the lining and sub-lining layers of synovial tissue and SFs. MTT and EdU assays were used to measure the cell proliferation. The cell apoptosis were demonstrated by TUNEL staining and Annexin V/PI double staining. A potent and specific inhibitor of LDHA, GSK2837808A, was administrated to suppress the activity of LDHA and detect the potential efficacy on HAS2.

Results: LDHA expression was dramatically higher in the synovial tissue and SFs from TMJOA patients compared to control groups. LDHA inhibition impaired active LDHA performance, suppressed the glucose uptake and decreased lactate concentration. Furthermore, GSK2837808A reversed the occurrence of low ratio of ATP/AMP, high level of Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) activation, disturbed HAS2 synthesis and hyaluronic acid (HA) production by inhibiting LDHA. The cellular viability and cell cycle were not affected by GSK2837808A at the working concentration.

Conclusions: Targeting LDHA using its specific suppressant GSK2837808A impeded lactate secretion and contributed to HAS2 and HA synthesis in TMJOA SFs, providing the vital role of LDHA associated with TMJOA pathogenesis and a novel therapeutic approach for TMJOA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115584DOI Listing
December 2020

LncRNA PVT1 induces chondrocyte apoptosis through upregulation of TNF-α in synoviocytes by sponging miR-211-3p.

Mol Cell Probes 2020 08 21;52:101560. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Rd, Wuhan, 430079, China; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079, China. Electronic address:

Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA) is an important subtype of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Articular cartilage destruction is considered a common pathological feature of TMJ OA, which is reported to be mainly induced by chondrocyte apoptosis. Synovial sterile inflammation is an initial factor of TMJ OA-associated articular cartilage destruction. Therefore, determining the mechanism of synovial membrane inflammation-induced articular cartilage destruction in TMJ OA is important for the TMJ OA therapy. In this study, we detected the function of synoviocytes in chondrocyte apoptosis under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory conditions and explored the underlying mechanism. We found that synoviocytes in inflammatory conditions facilitated LPS-induced chondrocytes apoptosis by secreting increased Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α), which was induced by long non-coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) upregulation. PVT1 served as a competing endogenous RNA that sponged the microRNA miR-211-3p and prevented the inhibition of TNF-α expression. In conclusion, our in vitro study revealed that PVT1 has a previously unknown role in chondrocyte apoptosis, which may also be a mechanism underlying synoviocyte involvement in TMJ OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcp.2020.101560DOI Listing
August 2020

Nanotherapy in Joints: Increasing Endogenous Hyaluronan Production by Delivering Hyaluronan Synthase 2.

Adv Mater 2019 Nov 24;31(46):e1904535. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079, China.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint degenerative disease that causes pain, joint damage, and dysfunction. External hyaluronic acid (HA) supplement is a common method for the management of osteoarthritis which requires multi-injections. It is demonstrated that biodegradable mesoporous silica nanoparticles successfully deliver an enzyme, hyaluronan synthase type 2 (HAS2), into synoviocytes from the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and generate endogenous HA with high molecular weights. In a rat TMJ osteoarthritis inflammation model, this strategy promotes endogenous HA production and inhibits the synovial inflammation of OA for more than 3 weeks with one-shot administration. Such nanotherapy also helps repairing the bone defects in a rat OA bone defect model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201904535DOI Listing
November 2019

Heavy-ion beam irradiation inhibits invasion of tongue squamous cell carcinoma Tca8113 cells.

Oncol Lett 2019 Oct 16;18(4):4092-4099. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, P.R. China.

Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is a common malignant tumor type with aggressive biological characteristics, located in the oral and maxillofacial region. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the invasion and metastasis of various malignant tumor types, such as lung cancer and gastric carcinoma. High linear energy transfer (LET) particle irradiation has several advantages over conventional X-rays in suppressing the invasion and metastasis of malignant tumors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of high-LET carbon ions and low-LET X-rays on the expression of VEGF and MMPs, and to identify the associated mechanisms in the Tca8113 TSCC cell line. Tca8113 cells were irradiated with carbon ions or X-rays at doses of 1 and 4 Gy. An immunofluorescence assay indicated that VEGF expression was notably decreased at 24 and 48 h after heavy ion irradiation compared with irradiation with conventional X-rays. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 also decreased in a dose-dependent manner following heavy ion irradiation. These findings indicate that compared with low-LET X-ray irradiation, high-LET carbon ions possess higher biological efficacy in inhibiting the invasive ability of Tca8113 cells via reduction of VEGF, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.10761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6733014PMC
October 2019

Peripheral and central substance P expression in rat CFA-induced TMJ synovitis pain.

Mol Pain 2019 Jan-Dec;15:1744806919866340

2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1744806919866340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685108PMC
June 2020

Aberrant activation of Wnt signaling pathway altered osteocyte mineralization.

Bone 2019 10 28;127:324-333. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China; Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia; Key Laboratory of Oral Medicine, Guangzhou Institute of Oral Disease, Stomatology Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 51050, China; School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia; The Australia-China Centre for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (ACCTERM), Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia. Electronic address:

Mineralization of bone is a dynamic process, involving a complex interplay between cells, secreted macromolecules, signaling pathways, and enzymatic reactions; the dysregulation of bone mineralization may lead to serious skeletal disorders, including hypophosphatemic rickets, osteoporosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Very few studies have reported the role of osteocytes - the most abundant bone cells in the skeletal system and the major orchestrators of bone remodeling in bone mineralization, which is owed to their nature of being deeply embedded in the mineralized bone matrix. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is actively involved in various life processes including osteogenesis; however, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the terminal mineralization of bone, especially in the regulation of osteocytes, is largely unknown. This research demonstrates that during the terminal mineralization process, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is downregulated, and when Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in osteocytes, dendrite development is suppressed and the expression of dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is inhibited. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in osteocytes leads to the spontaneous deposition of extra-large mineralized nodules on the surface of collagen fibrils. The altered mineral crystal structure and decreased bonding force between minerals and the organic matrix indicate the inferior integration of minerals and collagen. In conclusion, Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a critical role in the terminal differentiation of osteocytes and as such, targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling in osteocytes may serve as a potential therapeutic approach for the management of bone-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.06.027DOI Listing
October 2019

[3D printing navigation template-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation for V2 trigeminal neuralgia treatment].

Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2018 12;36(6):662-666

Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Zhengzhou Stomatological Hospital, Zhengzhou 450000, China.

Objective: This paper aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the 3D printing puncture navigation template-guided percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation for V2 trigeminal neuralgia treatment.

Methods: A total of 52 patients with V2 trigeminal neuralgia were treated with radiofrequency thermocoagulation. A total of 32 patients were treated under the guidance of the 3D printing puncture navigation template (guide plate group), while 20 patients underwent puncture via pterygopalatine fossa routinely (routine treatment group). The puncture time, operation time, puncture success rate, and immediate postoperative pain were recorded. The degree of immediate postoperative pain was indicated by visual analogue scale (VAS). Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) classification criteria were used to evaluate the efficacy, and the postoperative complications were observed. All patients were followed up for 1 year.

Results: The two groups showed significant decrease in VAS after the operation (P<0.05). The puncture and operation times of the guide plate group were significantly lower than those of the routine treatment group (P<0.05). The difference in terms of the clinical effects and recurrence rate between the two groups was insignificant (P>0.05).

Conclusions: 3D printing puncture navigation template-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation may increase the operation success rate and reduce complication incidence. Therefore, this technique possesses clinical promotional value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7518/hxkq.2018.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039796PMC
December 2018

Role of synovium-derived fibrous cartilage in temporomandibular joint synovial chondromatosis.

J Oral Pathol Med 2019 Jan 26;48(1):79-86. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST), Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education (KLOBM), School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Synovial chondromatosis (SC) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) occupies 3% SC cases. In other joints like hip and knee which were composed hyaline cartilage (HC), loose bodies (LBs) were reported to be a HC feature. However, condyle surface and disc in TMJ are fibrous cartilage (FC). Therefore, we proposed a different pathogenesis of TMJSC.

Methods: LBs and synovium were collected from seven TMJSC patients, and histological and immunohistological examinations were performed.

Results: Three ways of HC formation were discovered: regular-shaped cartilaginous nodules (CNs) in sublining layer (SL) of vascularized synovium, regional chondrification of SL, and finger-like tissue with a tail attaching to synovium. Detached LBs could fuse and were only positively stained by aggrecan. Without synovium attachment to LBs, fused LBs remained a hyaline extracellular matrix (ECM). However, after synovium attachment, transformation from HC to FC occurred. Two types of FC were observed. First type FC was featured by vertical-distributed type I collagen fibers imbedding few chondrocytes, suggesting mature phase with superior mechanical features. Second type FC was featured by medium-density chondrocytes with type I collagen and aggrecan-positive ECM, suggesting primary phase. The transformation process started in appearance of 2nd type FC deriving from synovium covering LB, and gradually replaced HC from periphery to center.

Conclusions: Three ways of HC formation were closely related. Different with SC in other joints, hyaline ECM in LBs of TMJSC could be replaced by FC deriving from synovium, during which 2nd type FC first replaced HC and then transformed to 1st type FC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12788DOI Listing
January 2019

Open Rhinoplasty Using Concealing Incisions for Mild Bifid Nose With Unilateral Mini-Microform Cleft Lip.

J Craniofac Surg 2018 Sep;29(6):e542-e543

School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Bifid nose, an indicator of Tessier No.0, is a rare congenital malformation. Because of its rarity, few cases were reported and the optimal surgical procedure and the best time for surgery have not been widely acknowledged. In this brief report, a 9-year-old girl with mild bifid nose and unilateral mini-microform cleft lip, and its surgical management, is presented. We focused our attention on modifying the shape of the nose through open rhinoplasty without excising the surplus skin on the nasal dorsum and achieved good results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000004497DOI Listing
September 2018

Clinical Efficacy Evaluation for Treating Trigeminal Neuralgia Using a Personalized Digital Guide Plate-Assisted Temperature-Controlled Radiofrequency.

J Craniofac Surg 2018 Jul;29(5):1322-1326

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education (KLOBM).

The aim of this study was to explore the application and efficacy of personalized digital guiding plate-aided radiofrequency in treating trigeminal neuralgia (TN). A total of 117 cases (93 patients) of TN from January 2015 to December 2016 were divided into the study group (n = 53) and the traditional group (n = 64). Patients in the study group were treated by the radiofrequency through a personalized digital guiding plate, whereas those in the traditional group were treated by the traditional method. We found that no significant difference between these 2 groups in age, sex, and divisions affected (V2, V3). However, the values for operation time, recurrence rate, and patient's satisfaction in the plate assisted group were significantly improved compared with those in the traditional group. Therefore, the personalized digital guiding plate-assisted radiofrequency has higher application value than traditional method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000004373DOI Listing
July 2018

HMGB1-induced angiogenesis in perforated disc cells of human temporomandibular joint.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 02 30;22(2):1283-1291. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

High mobility group 1 protein (HMGB1), a highly conserved nuclear DNA-binding protein and inflammatory mediator, has been recently found to be involved in angiogenesis. Our previous study has demonstrated the elevation of HMGB1 in the tissue of perforated disc of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Here, we investigated a novel mediator of HMGB1 in regulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to mediate angiogenesis in perforated disc cells of TMJ. HMGB1 increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in a dose- and time-dependent manner in these cells. Moreover, immunofluorescence assay exhibits that the HIF-1α were activated by HMGB1. In addition, HMGB1 activated extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not P38 in these cells. Furthermore, both U0126 (ErK inhibitor) and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) significantly suppressed the enhanced production of HIF-1α and VEGF induced by HMGB1. Tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was significantly increased by exposure to conditioned medium derived from HMGB1-stimulated perforated disc cells, while attenuated with pre-treatment of inhibitors for VEGF, HIF-1α, Erk and JNK, individually. Therefore, abundance of HMGB1 mediates activation of HIF-1α in disc cells via Erk and JNK pathway and then, initiates VEGF secretion, thereby leading to disc angiogenesis and accelerating degenerative change of the perforated disc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.13410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5783830PMC
February 2018

A time-dependent degeneration manner of condyle in rat CFA-induced inflamed TMJ.

Am J Transl Res 2016 15;8(2):556-67. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation is a potential risk factor of osteoarthritis (OA) but the detailed degenerative changes in the inflamed TMJ remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the changes of condylar cartilage and subchondral bone in rat inflamed TMJ induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA). Articular cavity was injected with CFA and the TMJ samples were collected 1, 2, 3, and 4-week post-injection. Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) staining, toluidine blue (TB) staining, Safranin O (S.O) staining, Masson trichrome staining and micro-CT were used to assess TMJ degeneration during inflammation. Osteoclast and osteoblast activities were analyzed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and osteocalcin (OCN) immunohistochemistry staining respectively. The expression of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in condylar cartilage and subchondral bone was also evaluated through immunohistochemistry and RANKL/OPG ratio was evaluated. Reduced cartilage thickness, decreased number of chondrocytes, and down-regulated proteoglycan expression were observed in the condylar cartilage in the inflamed TMJ. Enhanced osteoclast activity, and expanded bone marrow cavity were reached the peak in the 2-week after CFA-injection. Meanwhile the RANKL/OPG ratio in the cartilage and subchondral bone also increased in the 2-week CFA-injection. Immature, unmineralized new bones with irregular trabecular bone structure, atypical condylar shape, up-regulated OCN expression, and decreased bone mineral density (BMD) were found in the inflamed TMJ. The time-dependent degeneration manner of TMJ cartilage and subchondral bone was found in CFA-induced arthritis rat model. The degeneration in the TMJ with inflammation might be a risk factor and should be concerned.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4846904PMC
May 2016

Upregulation of proangiogenic factors expression in the synovium of temporomandibular joint condylar hyperplasia.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Apr 18;121(4):e65-71. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education (KLOBM), School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a complex disorder of the temporomandibular joint. Many studies have focused on cartilage proliferation, but the behavior of the synovium in CH is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of angiogenic-associated factors in the synovium and to discuss the possible role of the synovium in CH progression.

Study Design: CH condylar tissues were stained by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and proliferative activity was confirmed by single-photon emission computed tomography. Synovial cells isolated from the temporomandibular joint of patients with CH were collected, and flow cytometric analysis was used to examine the expression of CD34 and CD44. The gene expression of FGF-2, MMP1, MMP3, and MMP13 in synovial cells was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of VEGF, FGF-2, ANG1, DKK1, TSP1, MMP1, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP1, and TIMP3.

Results: The typical hyperplastic area and activity were observed in condylar tissues. The expression of VEGF, FGF-2, ANG1, DKK1, TIMP1, TIMP3, and CD34 was significantly increased in the synovial cells of CH, but TSP1, MMP1, MMP3, and MMP13 expression was decreased.

Conclusions: This study exhibited a potential role for proangiogenic factors in the pathogenesis of CH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2015.11.004DOI Listing
April 2016

IL-1β-regulating angiogenic factors expression in perforated temporomandibular disk cells via NF-κB pathway.

J Oral Pathol Med 2016 Sep 17;45(8):605-12. Epub 2016 Jan 17.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education (KLOBM), School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: A high density of blood vessels is observed in the perforated disks of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), but the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study aimed to explore the regulation of disk angiogenesis in the perforated disks.

Methods: Expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiogenin-1 (Ang-1), chondromodulin-1 (ChM-1), and thrombospondins-1 (TSP-1) were compared between healthy and perforated TMJ disk cells with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β) incubation. The tube formation, cell migration, and expressions of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) in human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUV-EC-C) were investigated in conditional media of disk cells. Western blot was performed to determine protein level of VEGF, Ang-1, ChM-1 and TSP-1 in IL-1β-induced disk cells cultured by NF-κB- or P38-specific pathway inhibitors, respectively.

Results: Conditional media from perforated disk cells induced more tube formation, cell migration, and MMPs' expression in HUV-EC-C. Expressions of VEGF and Ang-1 were significantly higher, and ChM-1 and TSP-1 were lower in perforated disks compared to healthy disks. The VEGFA concentration was 291.1 ± 36.09 pg/ml in perforated disk cell conditioned media, markedly larger than that in NDCCM (144.9 ± 33.69 pg/ml). IL-1β induced VEGF through NF-κB signaling pathway and Ang-1 through p38 MAPK pathway, while repressed expression of ChM-1 and TSP-1 was through NF-κB pathway. Blockade of each pathway markedly restrained inducing effect of cultural media on HUV-EC-C tube formation and migration.

Conclusions: Perforated disk cells secreted more angiogenic factors which might induced via NF-κB pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12420DOI Listing
September 2016

IL-1β mediating high mobility group box protein-1 expression in condylar chondrocyte during temporomandibular joint inflammation.

J Oral Pathol Med 2016 Aug 16;45(7):539-45. Epub 2015 Dec 16.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education (KLOBM), School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis(OA)characterized with cartilage degen-eration is associated with inflammation. High mobility group box chromosomal protein-1(HMGB-1)is a potent mediator of inflammation and the trigger of OA. The expression of HMGB-1 in TMJ OA was uncovered, but the role of HMGB-1 in TMJ cartilage degeneration is not fully understood. In this study, the regulation of HMGB-1 in TMJ condylar cartilage was revealed.

Methods: A complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced TMJ inflammation animal model was employed and the expression of HMGB-1 was detected at 1st, 2nd, and 6th weeks by immunohistochemistry. TMJ condylar chondrocytes were incubated with IL-1β (10 and 40 ng/ml) at 24, 48, and 72 h, and the translocation and protein level of HMGB-1 were evaluated by immunofluorescence and Western blot.

Result: Nuclear HMGB-1 staining was predominantly located in chondrocytes of both the fibrosis and proliferative zones in healthy TMJ. 1st week and 2nd week after CFA injection, immunoreaction could be detected in the cytoplasms of HMGB-1-positive cells and cartilage matrix especially in hypertrophic zone. At 6th week after CFA injection, cartilage matrix expression was disappeared and the cytoplasm expression of HMGB-1 was very weak in hypertrophic zone. HMGB-1 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm at 48 h after incubated with IL-1β (10 ng/ml and 40 ng/ml). The protein level of HMGB-1 was increased after stimulation and had a peak at 48 h.

Conclusion: HMGB-1 might be associated with TMJ inflammation and OA. Insight into the role of HMGB-1 in TMJ inflammation is helpful to add the new knowledge into the pathogenesis of TMJ OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12401DOI Listing
August 2016

[SCREW-BASED INTERMAXILLARY TRACTION COMBINED WITH OCCLUSAL SPLINT FOR TREATMENT OF PEDIATRIC MANDIBULAR CONDYLAR FRACTURE].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2015 Apr;29(4):397-401

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the screw-based intermaxillary traction combined with occlusal splint in the treatment of pediatric mandibular condylar fracture.

Methods: Between June 2005 and December 2013, 35 pediatric patients with 49 mandibular condylar fractures were treated, and the clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. There were 25 boys and 10 girls, aged 3-13 years (mean, 7.3 years). The injury causes included falling (18 cases), traffic accident (14 cases), and violence (3 cases). The time between injury and treatment was 2-30 days (mean, 6.8 days). Restricted mouth opening was observed, and the maximal mouth opening was (22.74 +/- 7.22) mm except 3 patients who were too young to measure. Condylar fractures were located at the left (12 cases), at the right (9 cases), at bilateral (14 cases) based on the sites; and fractures were classified as intracapsular (35 fractures), neck (10 fractures), and subcondylar (4 fractures) based on the fracture line. Four self-drilling titanium screws were inserted into the alveolar bone of both maxilla and mandible. After screw inserting, an occlusal splint with a fulcrum was used on the affected side and elastic band was put to perform anterior intermaxillary traction. After 1 month, the screws and splint were removed. Follow-up examinations were carried out on schedule.

Results: All the patients were followed up from 6 months to 8 years and 10 months (median, 71 months). No screw-related complication occurred in the others except one case of screw loosening. The postoperative maximal mouth opening was (38.82 +/- 2.02) nim. Mild joint noise was found in 4 cases and opening deviation occurred in 6 cases. Radiographic results demonstrated complete condyle remodeling was achieved in 24 cases (32 fractures), and moderate remodeling in 11 cases (17 fractures) at last follow-up.

Conclusion: The screw-based intermaxillary traction combined with occlusal splint might be an effective method for pediatric mandibular condylar fracture. The screw-related complications may be avoided by careful preoperative investigations.
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April 2015

Epidural Tube: A Useful Device in Sialendoscopy Operations.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2016 Mar 21;74(3):552-5. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University; Stomatology and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Ministry of Education, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Salivary endoscopy, which was first described in 1991, is a safe technique with few complications. The sialendoscopy operation has been developed and successfully offered as a minimally invasive and gland-preserving approach for the treatment of chronic obstructive sialadenitis. For many surgeons, entering the duct lumen of the salivary gland is the most difficult and time-consuming step of the sialendoscopy operation. This report introduces a timesaving and straightforward method for entering the duct lumen using an epidural tube, which is a plastic tube with a blunt tip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2015.09.007DOI Listing
March 2016

Association between polymorphism of MMP-1 promoter and the susceptibility to anterior disc displacement and temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.

Arch Oral Biol 2015 Nov 12;60(11):1675-80. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, PR China.

Objective: To investigate the correlation of the polymorphism of MMP-1 promoter (-1607 1G/2G) with the susceptibility to anterior disc displacement (ADD) and temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ OA).

Methods: A total of 185 healthy individuals (group A), 141 unilateral ADDWR patients (group B), and 321 unilateral ADDWOR patients (group C) were included in the investigation. Group C included 115 patients without TMJ OA (named group C-1) and 206 with TMJ OA (named group C-2). The genotyping of this single nucleotide polymorphism was evaluated by high resolution melting assay. Pairwise comparison between the distributions of genotypes and alleles in these groups was conducted with a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted on the basis of possible covariates.

Results: A significant difference in the 2G2G genotype frequency was found among the different groups on the basis of three sets of comparisons (P(C-A)<0.0005; P(C1-B)=0.049; P(C2-B)=0.018). The susceptibility of 2G2G genotype carriers to ADDWOR with or without TMJ OA was considerably higher than that of other genotypes carriers (OR(C-A)=2.455; OR(C1-B)=1.849; OR(C2-B)=1.912). A significant difference in 1G2G genotype frequency was also observed on the basis of two sets of comparisons (P(C-A)<0.0005; P(C2-B)=0.041). The susceptibility of 1G2G genotype carriers to ADDWOR with or without TMJ OA was also considerably higher than that of other genotype carriers (OR(C-A)=2.641; OR(C2-B)=1.896).

Conclusion: The -1607 1G/2G polymorphism of MMP-1 promoter may be related to the susceptibility to ADDWOR with or without TMJ OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2015.08.001DOI Listing
November 2015

Dickkopf‑related protein 1 induces angiogenesis by upregulating vascular endothelial growth factor in the synovial fibroblasts of patients with temporomandibular joint disorders.

Mol Med Rep 2015 Oct 20;12(4):4959-66. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430079, P.R. China.

Angiogenesis has an important role in the progression of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). The aim of the present study was to explore the association between dickkopf‑related protein 1 (DKK‑1) and angiogenesis in TMD. The expression levels of DKK‑1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were quantified by an ELISA assay of the synovial fluid from patients with TMD. The correlation between DKK‑1 and VEGF was analyzed by Pearson correlation test. Synovial fibroblasts were isolated from patients with TMD and were subsequently treated with recombinant human DKK‑1, anti‑DKK‑1 antibody, hypoxia inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α), or small interfering RNA (siRNA). The expression levels of DKK‑1, HIF‑1α, and VEGF were subsequently quantified. The present study also investigated the effects of DKK‑1 on the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Increased expression levels of DKK‑1 were concordant with increased expression levels of VEGF in the synovial fluid from patients with TMD. In the synovial fibroblasts, DKK‑1 increased the expression levels of VEGF, and promoted HIF‑1α nuclear localization. In addition, DKK‑1 induced HUVEC migration, and HIF‑1α siRNA inhibited DKK‑1‑induced cell migration. The results of the present study indicate that DKK‑1 is associated with angiogenesis in the synovial fluid of patients with TMD. Furthermore, HIF‑1α may be associated with DKK‑1‑induced HUVEC activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2015.4101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4581813PMC
October 2015

Joint cavity injection combined with manual reduction and stabilization splint treatment of anterior disc displacement.

Int J Clin Exp Med 2015 15;8(4):5943-8. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University Jinan 250021, China.

Aim: This study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of upper and lower joint cavity treatment (UJCT vs. LJCT) in patients with anterior disc displacement without reduction (ADDw/oR) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

Material And Methods: A total of 56 patients with unilateral ADDw/oR were randomly divided into two groups: UJCT group and LJCT group. Manual reduction was done in all the patients after joint cavity rejection of sodium hyaluronate. Then, they were treated with stabilization splint for one or two months. At last, Friction index was calculated to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy at 6 to 12 months follow-up.

Results: The maximal mouth-opening degrees in the both groups increased significantly when compared with pre-treatment group (P < 0.01), and the Friction index decreased significantly when compared with pre-treatment group (P < 0.01); In LJCT group, the degrees of maximal mouth-opening increased significantly as compared to UJCT group (P < 0.05), and Friction index were also markedly lower than that in UJCT group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: In the patients with ADDw/oR of TMJ, the clinical efficacy of LJCT is superior to that of UJCT, especially in the TMJ pain relief, mouth-opening degree and mandibular movement improvement.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4483911PMC
July 2015

The expression of high-mobility group box protein-1 in temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis with disc perforation.

J Oral Pathol Med 2016 Feb 17;45(2):148-52. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education (KLOBM), School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: High-mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1), a potent promoter of inflammation, was believed to be a potential trigger of osteoarthritis (OA). Only a few studies have investigated the role of HMGB-1 in temporomandibular joint (TMJ) OA, especially in disc perforation cases. But in this study, not only the expression of HMGB-1 in TMJ OA with disc perforation was investigated but also the possible role of HMGB-1 in TMJ OA was discussed.

Methods: Synovial membrane and disc specimens were collected from patients with TMJ OA, and the expression of HMGB-1 was detected using immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting.

Results: High-mobility group box protein-1 expressed strongly in cytoplasm and nucleus of lining layer cells and endothelial cells in osteoarthritic synovium. Staining of HMGB-1 was found intensive in the frontier tissue of the perforation in the perforated discs. HMGB-1 expression was also upregulated in osteoarthritic synovial cells and disc cells according to real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting analysis.

Conclusions: High-mobility group box protein-1 expression was upregulated in TMJ OA and might promote the progression of TMJ OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12336DOI Listing
February 2016

Condylar and occlusal changes after high condylectomy and orthodontic treatment for condylar hyperplasia.

J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2015 Apr 16;35(2):265-270. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the State Key Laboratory of Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine of Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079, China.

Condylar hyperplasia (CH) of human temporomandibular joint (TMJ) often occurs unilaterally, and causes occlusal disturbance and facial asymmetry. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high condylectomy with and without postsurgical orthodontic treatment. Forty patients were diagnosed as having active CH and treated with high condylectomy. Patients in group A (n=24) took the postsurgical orthodontic therapy immediately after surgery, and those in group B (n=16) did not take orthodontic therapy. For both groups, the mandibular ramus height on the affected side was decreased significantly after surgery. Orthodontic treatment promoted maxillary alveolar remodeling significantly by depressing alveolar bone of the affected side and increasing alveolar bone of the nonaffected side. Better improvement for facial midline deviations was observed in group A than in group B. In both groups, the condylar remodeling was observed and manifested by the smoothening of condylar surface and returning of condyle to normal position in glenoid fossa. It was concluded that high condylectomy in the treatment of active CH of TMJ improved the functional occlusion and facial aesthetic. Postsurgical orthodontic therapy could more effectively enhance maxillary alveolar and condylar remodeling, and more rapidly and meticulously establish the stable occlusal and normal position of condyle than the spontaneous remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-015-1422-5DOI Listing
April 2015

[Analysis on the HIV new infections and factors of men who have sex with men in Mianyang city, Sichuan province].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2015 Jan;49(1):66-70

Department of HIV Prevention and Control,Mianyang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Mianyang 621000, China.

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January 2015

Transforming growth factor beta 3 involved in the pathogenesis of synovial chondromatosis of temporomandibular joint.

Sci Rep 2015 Mar 6;5:8843. Epub 2015 Mar 6.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology &Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School &Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Synovial chondromatosis (SC) of temporomandibular joint is rare proliferative disorder featured by the formation of cartilaginous nodules in synovium and joint space. Transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) is closely related to chondrogenic differentiation, and might participate in pathogenesis of SC. We discovered that increased quantity of synoviocytes and blood vessels were observed in SC synovium. The vessel wall and sublining fibroblasts were stained positively by the antibodies against TGF-β3, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and CD34. In loose bodies (LBs), TGF-β3 was mainly expressed in chondrocytes and FGF-2 was expressed in chondrocytes, fibroblasts, and vessel walls. Expressions of TGF-β1, TGF-β3, FGF-2, Sox9, Wnt-4, Foxc2, and VEGF-A mRNA were significantly higher in SC synovium. Stimulation of TGF-β3 on synoviocytes increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and expressions of chondrogenic genes (Sox9, Col2α1, Aggrecan, Wnt-4, and Wnt-11), osteogenic genes (Runx2, Foxc2, osteocalcin, and Col1α1), and VEGF-A, but failed to influence FGF-2 expression. However, the addition of FGF-2 increased TGF-β3 expression. In conclusion, TGF-β3 existed in synovium and LBs of SC, and was responsible for the pathogenesis of SC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep08843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351526PMC
March 2015

Modified condylar distraction osteogenesis via single preauricular incision for treatment of temporomandibular joint ankylosis.

J Craniofac Surg 2015 Mar;26(2):509-11

From the *Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Hubei, P.R. China; and †Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis with facial asymmetry is still controversial to deal with. This study describes a modified condylar distraction osteogenesis protocol via preauricular approach for the treatment of this condition.

Methods: From 2006 to 2013, 18 patients with TMJ ankylosis were enrolled. The Wuhan TMJ Ankylosis treatment protocol includes as follows: (1) preauricular approach is the only surgical access; (2) TMJ arthroplasty is used to recontour the condylar head, and the vertical height of condyle is maintained; (3) distractor placement with distractor port exiting via preauricular incision; (4) distraction after 5 to 7 days of latency period with 0.5 mm twice daily; and (5) distractor removal after 3-month consolidation through preauricular incision. All patients had clinical follow-up and detailed examination.

Results: All patients had satisfactory results postoperatively. The mean (range) mouth opening increased from 7.1 (0-18) to 32.1 (28-43) mm during 37 (6-81) months of follow-up period (P < 0.01). Facial asymmetry was corrected in all patients, and all patients had minimal postoperative scar perception of the preauricular incision.

Conclusions: The Wuhan TMJ ankylosis protocol provides a safe and effective treatment alternative in managing TMJ ankylosis, especially in young women who are anxious about perceptive extraoral scar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000001291DOI Listing
March 2015