Publications by authors named "Xing Chen"

1,291 Publications

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Cigarette smoke extract stimulates human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation: Role of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2022 Jun;25(6):755-761

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China.

Objectives: Cigarette smoke may play a direct role in proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs). However, the mechanism involved and the effect of interventions remain unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on HPASMCs, explore the role of inflammation and oxidative stress, and the effects of Tempol and PDTC in this process.

Materials And Methods: HPASMCs were subjected to normal control (NC), CSE, CSE+Tempol (CSE+T), and CSE+PDTC (CSE+P) groups. Proliferation of HPASMCs was measured by CCK-8 and Western blot. TNF-α, IL-6, MDA, and SOD levels were determined by ELISA and commercial kits. Nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 was evaluated by western blot.

Results: 1%, 2.5%, and 5% CSE all promoted proliferation of HPASMCs, and effect of 1% CSE was the most significant, however, 7.5% and 10% CSE inhibited viability of cells (all <0.05). Compared with the NC group, TNF-α, IL-6, and MDA levels increased, SOD activity decreased (all <0.05), and NF-κB p65 expression in nuclei increased (=0.04) in the CSE group. Tempol and PDTC inhibited the proliferation of HPASMCs induced by CSE (all <0.05). And compared with the CSE group, TNF-α, IL-6, and MDA levels in CSE+T and CSE+P groups decreased, while SOD activity increased (all <0.05). Tempol reduced the expression of NF-κB p65 in nuclei but did not achieve a significant difference (=0.08). PDTC inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 (=0.03).

Conclusion: CSE stimulates HPASMCs proliferation in a certain concentration range. The CSE-induced proliferation of HPASMCs involved excessive inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Tempol and PDTC attenuate these effects of CSE on HPASMCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/IJBMS.2022.64170.14133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9320202PMC
June 2022

Active components and molecular mechanism of Lindl. in the treatment of endometritis based on pharmacology network prediction.

Front Vet Sci 2022 22;9:885952. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Antibiotic treatment of endometritis was limited by the inevitable antibiotic residues and risk of bacterial resistance. Therefore, the development of safe and effective strategies for endometritis treatment is urgently needed. Lindl. (SOL) showed great pharmacological potential against endometritis. However, the active components and underlying mechanism of SOL for endometritis treatment remain indeterminate. In our study, the active components and possible molecular mechanism of SOL against endometritis were predicted through computer data mining and biological networks construction. It was predicted that the main active components of SOL were luteolin, kaempferol, oleanolic acid, and rutin, and their anti-endometritis effect was mainly attributed to the TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, a green and efficient deep eutectic solvent combined with ultrasound-assisted extraction (DES-UAE) was performed and optimized to obtain high contents of total flavonoid, rutin, and luteolin. The four predicted active components in the SOL extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by LC/MS and HPLC. Finally, the pharmacological effects of SOL and active components have been verified by -endometritis models in mice. H&E staining and bacterial load in uterus tissues assays initially validated the pharmacodynamic effects of SOL, and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and ELISA results confirmed that SOL and four active components could ameliorate the uterus injury caused by , the mechanism of action is related to the TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.885952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355479PMC
July 2022

O-GlcNAcylation stabilizes the autophagy-initiating kinase ULK1 by inhibiting chaperone-mediated autophagy upon HPV infection.

J Biol Chem 2022 Aug 2:102341. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Beijing Key Laboratory of DNA Damage Response and College of Life Science, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China; State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a subset of cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Previously, we demonstrated that HPV16 oncogene E6 or E6/E7 transduction increases the abundance of O-linked GlcNAcylation (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT), but the OGT substrates and cellular pathways affected by this increase are unclear. Here, we focus on the effects of O-GlcNAcylation on HPV-positive HNSCCs. We found that upon HPV infection, ULK1, an autophagy-initiating kinase, is hyper-O-GlcNAcylated, stabilized, and linked with autophagy elevation. Through mass spectrometry, we identified that ULK1 is O-GlcNAcylated at Ser409, which is distinct from the previously reported Thr635/Thr754 sites. It has been demonstrated that PKCαmediates phosphorylation of ULK1 at Ser423, which attenuates its stability by shunting ULK1 to the chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) pathway. Using biochemical assays, we demonstrate that ULK1 Ser409Ser410 O-GlcNAcylation antagonizes its phosphorylation at Ser423. Moreover, we found that mutations of Ser409A and its neighboring site Ser410A (2A) render ULK1 less stable by promoting interaction with the CMA chaperone Hsc70. Further, we determined that ULK1-2A mutants attenuate the association of ULK1 with STX17, which is vital for the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database reveals that ULK1 is upregulated in HPV-positive HNSCCs and its level positively correlates with HNSCC patient survival. Overall, our work demonstrates that O-GlcNAcylation of ULK1 is altered in response to environmental changes. O-GlcNAcylation of ULK1 at Ser409 and perhaps at its neighboring Ser410 stabilizes ULK1, and this might underlie the molecular mechanism of HPV-positive HNSCC patient survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2022.102341DOI Listing
August 2022

A review of recent progress in improving the bioavailability of nutraceutical-loaded emulsions after oral intake.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2022 Aug 1. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Increasing awareness of the health benefits of specific constituents in fruits, vegetables, cereals, and other whole foods has sparked a broader interest in the potential health benefits of nutraceuticals. Many nutraceuticals are hydrophobic substances, which means they must be encapsulated in colloidal delivery systems. Oil-in-water emulsions are one of the most widely used delivery systems for improving the bioavailability and bioactivity of these nutraceuticals. The composition and structure of emulsions can be designed to improve the water dispersibility, physicochemical stability, and bioavailability of the encapsulated nutraceuticals. The nature of the emulsion used influences the interfacial area and properties of the nutraceutical-loaded oil droplets in the gastrointestinal tract, which influences their digestion, as well as the bioaccessibility, metabolism, and absorption of the nutraceuticals. In this article, we review recent in vitro and in vivo studies on the utilization of emulsions to improve the bioavailability of nutraceuticals. The findings from this review should facilitate the design of more efficacious nutraceutical-loaded emulsions with increased bioactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.13017DOI Listing
August 2022

Somatosensory Deficits After Stroke: Insights From MRI Studies.

Front Neurol 2022 12;13:891283. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Neurology and Stroke Center, Dongzhimen Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Somatosensory deficits after stroke are a major health problem, which can impair patients' health status and quality of life. With the developments in human brain mapping techniques, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), many studies have applied those techniques to unravel neural substrates linked to apoplexy sequelae. Multi-parametric MRI is a vital method for the measurement of stroke and has been applied to diagnose stroke severity, predict outcome and visualize changes in activation patterns during stroke recovery. However, relatively little is known about the somatosensory deficits after stroke and their recovery. This review aims to highlight the utility and importance of MRI techniques in the field of somatosensory deficits and synthesizes corresponding articles to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the occurrence and recovery of somatosensory symptoms. Here, we start by reviewing the anatomic and functional features of the somatosensory system. And then, we provide a discussion of MRI techniques and analysis methods. Meanwhile, we present the application of those techniques and methods in clinical studies, focusing on recent research advances and the potential for clinical translation. Finally, we identify some limitations and open questions of current imaging studies that need to be addressed in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.891283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9328992PMC
July 2022

In Situ Structural Dynamics of Atomic Defects in Tungsten Oxide.

J Phys Chem Lett 2022 Aug 29;13(31):7170-7176. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Institute of Molecular Plus, Department of Chemistry, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P. R. China.

Atomic defects are critical to tuning the physical and chemical properties of functional materials such as catalysts, semiconductors, and 2D materials. However, direct structural characterization of atomic defects, especially their formation and annihilation under practical conditions, is challenging yet crucial to understanding the underlying mechanisms driving defect dynamics, which remain mostly elusive. Here, through atomic imaging by an aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscope (AC-ETEM), we directly visualize the formation and annihilation mechanism of planar defects in monoclinic WO on the atomic scale in real time. We captured the atomistic process of the nucleation dynamics of the dislocation core in the [010] direction, followed by its propagation to form a planar defect. Corroborated by density functional theory-based calculations, we rationalize the formation of dislocation through O extraction from bridge sites followed by an atomic channeling process. These observations shed light on the defect dynamics in oxides and provide atomic insights into forming and manipulating defects in functional materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.2c01942DOI Listing
August 2022

Increased expression of Clec9A on cDC1s associated with cytotoxic CD8 T cell response in COPD.

Clin Immunol 2022 Jul 25;242:109082. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Wuhan No.1 Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Although C-type lectin domain family 9A (Clec9A) on conventional type 1 dendritic cells (cDC1s) plays a critical role in cytotoxic CD8 T cell response in cancers and viral infections, its role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. We measured the expression of Clec9A in sera, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from controls and COPD patients. The percentages of Clec9A DC and cytotoxic CD8 T cell in the BALF were determined by flow cytometry between patients with COPD and non-obstructive chronic bronchitis (NOCB). Compared with healthy individuals, the serum levels of Clec9A were increased at different stages of COPD patients, and the mRNA and protein levels of Clec9A were both increased in COPD patients at GOLD stages III-IV. The percentage of Clec9A DCs was also increased in the BALF of COPD patients compared with NOCB patients. Moreover, enhanced Clec9A DCs recruitment was positively correlated with cytotoxic CD8 T cell response in the BALF of COPD patients. This study suggests that Clec9A DCs participate in the CD8 T cell-mediated chronic airway inflammation in COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2022.109082DOI Listing
July 2022

Determination of Sensitivity of to Fungicide Azoxystrobin and Investigation of Resistance Mechanism.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Aug 28;70(31):9760-9768. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

School of Plant Protection, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China.

Rice bakanae disease (RBD) caused by is a widespread and destructive disease of rice. It is urgent to introduce a new class of fungicide to manage the fungicidal resistance problem and effectively control the disease. Azoxystrobin (AZO) is an active fungicide with a broad antifungal spectrum, while its activity against . is not well investigated. In this study, the baseline sensitivity of . to AZO was established by testing the sensitivity of 100 isolates, collected from Anhui Province of China. The mechanism of resistance to AZO was also investigated. AZO exhibited a strong activity against the 100 . isolates with EC values of 0.822 ± 0.285 and 0.762 ± 0.283 μg/mL for mycelial growth and conidial germination, respectively, and both of the baseline sensitivity curves were validated as unimodal curves. To investigate the resistance mechanism, six mutants with resistance factor (RF) values >50 were generated from wild-type sensitive strains through UV mutagenesis, and sequence analysis showed that mutation G143A in conferred the resistance to AZO. Mycelial growth, conidia production, pathogenicity, and ATP production were decreased in all six resistant mutants as compared to the parental strains, indicating the fitness penalties in this phenotype of resistance mutation. In addition, the cross-resistance assay showed that there was no cross-resistance between AZO and carbendazim, prochloraz, phenamacril, or pydiflumetofen. AZO can be an efficient candidate to control RBD in China with moderate to low fungal resistance risk, but continuous resistance monitoring should be performed during the application of this fungicide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c02663DOI Listing
August 2022

Effects of l-Serine on Macrolide Resistance in Streptococcus suis.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Jul 18:e0068922. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen. Due to the indiscriminate use of macrolides, S. suis has developed a high level of drug resistance, which has led to a serious threat to human and animal health. However, it takes a long time to develop new antibacterial drugs. Therefore, we consider the perspective of bacterial physiological metabolism to ensure that the development of bacterial resistance to existing drugs is alleviated and bacterial susceptibility to drugs is restored. In the present study, an untargeted metabolomics analysis showed that the serine catabolic pathway was inhibited in drug-resistant S. suis. The addition of l-serine restored the fungicidal effect of macrolides on S. suis and by enhancing the serine metabolic pathway. Further studies showed that l-serine, stimulated by its serine catabolic pathway, inhibited intracellular HS production, reduced Fe-S cluster production, and restored the normal occurrence of the Fenton reaction in cells. It also attenuated the production of glutathione, an important marker of the intracellular oxidation-reduction reaction. All these phenomena eventually contribute to an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species, which leads to intracellular DNA damage and bacterial death. Our study provides a potential new approach for the treatment of diseases caused by drug-resistant S. suis. The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is a global challenge. However, new drug development efforts consume considerable resources and time, and alleviating the pressure on existing drugs is the focus of our work. We investigated the mechanism of action of l-serine supplementation in restoring the use of macrolides in S. suis, based on the role of the serine catabolic pathway on reactive oxygen species levels and oxidative stress in S. suis. This pathway provides a theoretical basis for the rational use of macrolides in clinical practice and also identifies a possible target for restoring drug sensitivity in S. suis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.00689-22DOI Listing
July 2022

Individual and Joint Effects of Influenza-Like Illness and Vaccinations on Stroke in the Young: A Case-Control Study.

Stroke 2022 Aug 11;53(8):2585-2593. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Neurology, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York City (B.L.V., J.S., O.W., M.S.V.E., A.K.B.).

Background: Influenza-like illness (ILI) is an acute trigger for stroke, although joint effects of vaccinations and ILI have not yet been explored.

Methods: Data for our case-control study was obtained from MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters between 2008 and 2014. Patients 18 to 65 years old who experienced a stroke were matched on age and admission date to a control, defined as patients with head trauma or ankle sprain at an inpatient or emergency department visit. Exposures were ILI in the prior 30 days, and any type of vaccination during the year prior. Our outcome was ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic strokes identified using ) codes. Logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) controlling for preventive care visits, diabetes, valvular heart disease, smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, and hypertension.

Results: We identified and matched 24 103 cases 18 to 44 years old and 141 811 45 to 65 years old. Those aged 18 to 44 years had increased stroke risk 30 days after ILI (aOR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.51-1.86]) and reduced risk with any vaccination in the year prior (aOR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.87-0.99]). Joint effects indicate that ILI was associated with increased stroke risk among those with (aOR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.08-1.85]) and without (aOR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.55-1.94]) vaccinations in the prior year (=0.16). Among those aged 45 to 65 years, adjusted analyses indicate increased stroke risk for those with ILI (aOR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.26-1.38]), although there was no effect of vaccinations (aOR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.97-1.02]). Joint effects indicate that ILI was not associated with stroke among those with any vaccination (aOR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.96-1.18]) but was associated with increased risk among those without vaccinations ([aOR, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.32-1.47]; <0.001).

Conclusions: ILI was associated with increased stroke risk in the young and middle-aged, while vaccinations of any type were associated with decreased risk among the young. Joint effects of ILI and vaccinations indicate vaccinations can reduce the effect of ILI on stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.038403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329193PMC
August 2022

Single-cell transcriptome reveals effects of semaglutide on non-cardiomyocytes of obese mice.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Sep 9;622:22-29. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China; Department of Endocrinology, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China. Electronic address:

Non-cardiomyocytes (nonCMs) play an important part in cardiac fibrosis pathophysiology, but the underlying molecular pathways are unknown. Semaglutide has cardioprotective properties, but it is still unclear whether it helps with cardiac fibrosis and what the processes are. The goal of this study is to use single cell transcriptomics approaches to investigate the molecular mechanism of semaglutide's cardioprotective action in obese mice. We found 15 non-CMs, with fibroblasts making up the majority of them. We found eight DEGs that altered significantly following semaglutide treatment by screening for differentially expressed genes (DEGs). DEGs were shown to have biological activities primarily related to extracellular matrix and collagen synthesis and distribution, with Serpinh1 and Pcolce expression being the most dramatically altered. Serpinh1 and Pcolce were mostly found in fibroblasts, which play a key role in the fibrosis of the heart. Furthermore, we discovered that semaglutide lowered cardiac collagen content and alleviated obesity-induced ventricular wall hypertrophy. As a result, our findings show that Serpinh1 and Pcolce, which are expressed by fibroblasts, may play a role in the development of obese cardiac fibrosis. By reducing Serpinh1 and Pcolce expression and delaying cardiac fibrosis, semaglutide may have a cardioprotective effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.07.034DOI Listing
September 2022

Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Therapy in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

J Clin Transl Hepatol 2022 Jun 4;10(3):553-563. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Department of Liver Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Laboratory of Liver Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary liver cancer and causes major economic and health burdens throughout the world. Although the incidence of ICC is relatively low, an upward trend has been seen over the past few decades. Owing to the lack of specific manifestations and tools for early diagnosis, most ICC patients have relatively advanced disease at diagnosis. Thus, neoadjuvant therapy is necessary to evaluate tumor biology and downstage these patients so that appropriate candidates can be selected for radical liver resection. However, even after radical resection, the recurrence rate is relatively high and is a main cause leading to death after surgery, which makes adjuvant therapy necessary. Because of its low incidence, studies in both neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings of ICC are lagging compared with other types of malignancy. While standard neoadjuvant and adjuvant regimens are not available in the current guidelines due to a lack of high-level evidence, some progress has been achieved in recent years. In this review, the available literature on advances in neoadjuvant and adjuvant strategies in ICC are evaluated, and possible challenges and opportunities for clinical and translational investigations in the near future are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14218/JCTH.2021.00250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9240234PMC
June 2022

A metabonomics-based renoprotective mechanism analysis of empagliflozin in obese mice.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 09 6;621:122-129. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

With an increasing prevalence of obesity related kidney disease, exploring the mechanisms of therapeutic method is of critical importance. Empagliflozin is a new antidiabetic agent with broad clinical application prospect in cardiovascular and renal diseases. However, a metabonomics-based renoprotective mechanism of empagliflozin in obesity remains unclear. Our results showed that empagliflozin significantly alleviated the deposition of lipid droplet, glomerular and tubular injury. The innovation lied in detection of empagliflozin-targeted differential metabolites in kidneys. Compared with normal control mice, obese mice showed higher levels of All-trans-heptaprenyl diphosphate, Biliverdin, Galabiose, Galabiosylceramide (d18:1/16:0), Inosine, Methylisocitric acid, Uric acid, Xanthosine, O-glutarylcarnitine, PG(20:3(8Z,11Z,14Z)/0:0), PG(20:4(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)/0:0), PE(O-16:0/0:0), PG(22:6(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)/0:0), and lower level of Adenosine. Empagliflozin regulated these metabolites in the opposite direction. Associated metabolic pathways were Phospholipids metabolism, Purine metabolism, and Biliverdin metabolism. Most of metabolites were associated with inflammatory response and oxidative stress. Empagliflozin improved the oxidative stress and inflammation imbalance. Our study revealed the metabonomics-based renoprotective mechanism of empagliflozin in obese mice for the first time. Empagliflozin may be a promising tool to delay the progression of obesity-related kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.06.091DOI Listing
September 2022

Histones of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Induce CD11b Expression in Brain Pericytes Via Dectin-1 after Traumatic Brain Injury.

Neurosci Bull 2022 Jul 11. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medicine, Army Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.

The brain pericyte is a unique and indispensable part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and contributes to several pathological processes in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which pericytes are regulated in the damaged brain are largely unknown. Here, we show that the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) induces the appearance of CD11b pericytes after TBI. These CD11b pericyte subsets are characterized by increased permeability and pro-inflammatory profiles compared to CD11b pericytes. Moreover, histones from NETs by Dectin-1 facilitate CD11b induction in brain pericytes in PKC-c-Jun dependent manner, resulting in neuroinflammation and BBB dysfunction after TBI. These data indicate that neutrophil-NET-pericyte and histone-Dectin-1-CD11b are possible mechanisms for the activation and dysfunction of pericytes. Targeting NETs formation and Dectin-1 are promising means of treating TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-022-00902-0DOI Listing
July 2022

DNA N6-Methyladenine Modification in Eukaryotic Genome.

Front Genet 2022 24;13:914404. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

DNA methylation is treated as an important epigenetic mark in various biological activities. In the past, a large number of articles focused on 5 mC while lacking attention to N6-methyladenine (6 mA). The presence of 6 mA modification was previously discovered only in prokaryotes. Recently, with the development of detection technologies, 6 mA has been found in several eukaryotes, including protozoans, metazoans, plants, and fungi. The importance of 6 mA in prokaryotes and single-celled eukaryotes has been widely accepted. However, due to the incredibly low density of 6 mA and restrictions on detection technologies, the prevalence of 6 mA and its role in biological processes in eukaryotic organisms are highly debated. In this review, we first summarize the advantages and disadvantages of 6 mA detection methods. Then, we conclude existing reports on the prevalence of 6 mA in eukaryotic organisms. Next, we highlight possible methyltransferases, demethylases, and the recognition proteins of 6 mA. In addition, we summarize the functions of 6 mA in eukaryotes. Last but not least, we summarize our point of view and put forward the problems that need further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2022.914404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263368PMC
June 2022

The role of central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis in preventing DLBCL patients from CNS relapse: A network meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2022 Aug 6;176:103756. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Hematology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University and Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China; Key Laboratory of Xiamen for Diagnosis and Treatment of Hematological Malignancy, Xiamen, China. Electronic address:

Background: Secondary central nervous system (CNS) relapses are an uncommon yet devastating complication in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Although several prophylaxis attempts were employed clinically in order to reduce the CNS relapse rate, the optimal management remained uncertain.

Methods: We employed conventional meta-analysis along with Network meta-analysis to investigate an optimal prophylactic strategy. The primary outcome was CNS relapse rate.

Results: A total of thirty-six studies comprising 5 RCTs, one clinical trial and 30 observational studies were included. Rituximab overall was superior in reducing CNS relapse rate, and the statistical significance exists (RR 0.79(0.68-0.93), p = 0.004). In rituximab era, none of intravenous, intrathecal administration or novel target agents could significantly decrease CNS relapse rate in high CNS risk patients. Intensive chemotherapy regimen containing HD-MTX with HD-Ara-C (SUCRA 93.4 %) was ranked as the first in reducing CNS relapse rate followed by no prophylaxis (SUCRA 57.5 %), HD-MTX (SUCRA 53.1 %), IT (SUCRA 34.5 %) and lenalidomide maintenance (SUCRA 11.5 %). In addition, intercalated HD-MTX had a trend of reducing CNS relapse but without statistical significance (RR 0.86(0.44-1.68), p = 0.67). However, i-HD-MTX was associated with increased grade 3-4 toxicities and prolonged inpatient stay. Early HD-MTX exposure also increased the treatment related death.

Conclusion: Our network meta-analysis provides an overview of the relative efficacy of all available CNS prophylaxis strategies in DLBCL. In rituximab era, none of intravenous, intrathecal administration or novel target agents could significantly decrease CNS relapse rate in high CNS risk patients. Further studies with prospective, randomized clinical trials as well as with more focus on novel target agents that could spread blood-brain barriers are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2022.103756DOI Listing
August 2022

Federated Deep Reinforcement Learning-Based Task Offloading and Resource Allocation for Smart Cities in a Mobile Edge Network.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Jun 23;22(13). Epub 2022 Jun 23.

School of Information and Communications Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Mobile edge computing (MEC) has become an indispensable part of the era of the intelligent manufacturing industry 4.0. In the smart city, computation-intensive tasks can be offloaded to the MEC server or the central cloud server for execution. However, the privacy disclosure issue may arise when the raw data is migrated to other MEC servers or the central cloud server. Since federated learning has the characteristics of protecting the privacy and improving training performance, it is introduced to solve the issue. In this article, we formulate the joint optimization problem of task offloading and resource allocation to minimize the energy consumption of all Internet of Things (IoT) devices subject to delay threshold and limited resources. A two-timescale federated deep reinforcement learning algorithm based on Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) framework (FL-DDPG) is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can greatly reduce the energy consumption of all IoT devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22134738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9269392PMC
June 2022

A 5-HTR agonist alleviates cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury in rats by increasing BDNF expression.

Behav Brain Res 2022 09 5;433:113997. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Branch of cerebral vascular diseases, Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of Southern Theater Command of PLA, The First School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510000, Guangdong, China; Department of Neurology, ForeSea Life Insurance Guangzhou General Hospital, Guangzhou, 510000, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Effective treatment for cognitive dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is lacking in clinical practice. Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in cognitive circuits can significantly alleviate cognitive dysfunction in animal models of TBI. Selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6 (5-HTR) agonists significantly increase BDNF expression and improve cognitive function. Therefore, we evaluated the protective effect of a highly selective 5-HTR agonist, WAY-181187, on cognitive dysfunction after TBI. We established a controlled cortical impact model of moderate TBI in rats and performed drug intervention for five consecutive days. Rats had spatial reference memory impairment in the Morris water maze one and four weeks after TBI. BDNF expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus decreased two and five weeks after TBI. Additionally, five weeks after TBI, decreases in neuronal dendritic spine density and the proportion of thin, mushroom-shaped dendritic spines and an increased proportion of stubby-type dendritic spines were observed. WAY-181187 administration (3 mg/kg) for five consecutive days after TBI significantly alleviated cognitive dysfunction at one and four weeks (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01), upregulated BDNF expression in the mPFC and hippocampus at two (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) and five (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) weeks and increased the dendritic spine density and the proportions of thin, mushroom-shaped dendrites in the mPFC (P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) and hippocampus (P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) at five weeks after TBI. Our results confirm that WAY-181187 administration (3 mg/kg) in the acute phase alleviated cognitive dysfunction after TBI, possibly by upregulating BDNF expression in the mPFC and hippocampus, enhancing neuroplasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2022.113997DOI Listing
September 2022

Gender-specific effects of prenatal mixed exposure to serum phthalates on neurodevelopment of children aged 2-3 years:the Guangxi Birth Cohort Study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jul 7. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Key Laboratory for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi, China.

Phthalates have been shown to have adverse effects on neurodevelopment, which may be gender-specific. However, the association between prenatal mixed exposure to phthalates and children's neurodevelopment remains inconsistent. We measured 15 prenatal serum phthalate levels and evaluated children's neurodevelopmental indicators using Gesell Developmental Schedule (GDS) (n = 750). Generalized linear regression was fitted to examine the association. Among boys, mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP) had adverse effects on gross motor [odds ratio (OR): 7.38, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.42, 38.46]. For gross motor in boys, joint effect was discovered between mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and MEHHP. Moreover, synergistic effects were found for MEHP with vanadium and cadmium, and antagonistic effects for MEHP with magnesium, calcium, titanium, iron, copper, selenium, rubidium, and strontium. We did not find statistically significant relationships in girls. In the 1st trimester, adverse effects were identified between mono-2-ethyl-5-oxoyhexyl phthalate (MEOHP) and adaptation (P = 0.024), and monomethyl phthalate (MMP) with social area (P = 0.017). In the 2nd trimester, MEHHP had adverse effects on social area (P = 0.035). In summary, we found boys may be more vulnerable to the neurotoxicity than girls in gross motor, and we also discovered the detrimental effects of phthalates on children's neurodevelopment in the 1st and 2nd trimesters. Therefore, the supplementation of appropriate elements in the 1st and 2nd trimesters may help reduce the adverse effects of phthalates on children's neurodevelopment, especially among boys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21769-8DOI Listing
July 2022

Involvement of AprD in regulating biofilm structure, matrix secretion, and cell metabolism of meat-borne Pseudomonas fragi during chilled storage.

Food Res Int 2022 Jul 30;157:111400. Epub 2022 May 30.

College of Food Science and Engineering/Collaborative Innovation Center for Modern Grain Circulation and Safety/Key Laboratory of Grains and Oils Quality Control and Processing, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Pseudomonas fragi is by far one of the most threatening species in the spoilage of chilled meat that is stored under aerobic conditions. The membrane protein AprD is a well-established regulator controlling protease secretion in Pseudomonas spp. However, its exact roles in modulating metabolic pathways and spoilage potential of P. fragi at the molecular level remain undefined. Here, an in-frame deletion mutation of aprD was used to explore the impacts on their biofilm structure, matrix secretion, and cell metabolism. The results showed that ΔaprD formed relatively disorganized loose aggregation in biofilm, resulting in a thinner structure and more dead cells. Meanwhile, marked changes in the content of extracellular carbohydrates and proteins were observed. Furthermore, intracellular metabolomic profiling revealed the involvement of aprD in several cellular metabolic pathways, mostly including the carbohydrate pathway, amino acid pathway, and nucleotide pathway, while the characterization of extracellular metabolism clarified the variations in the spoilage-related metabolites (e.g., creatine, IMP, spermine, fatty acids, amino acids, and oligopeptides) could be highly correlated with aprD deletion. In this finding, we indicated that aprD could be responsible for cell reproduction and in situ spoilage potential of P. fragi NMC25 during chilled storage by controlling related metabolism and nutrients utilization. Thus, our results will contribute to an improved understanding of the regulatory mechanism of aprD gene in meat spoilage contaminated with P. fragi, which can be valuable to ensure the quality and safety of meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2022.111400DOI Listing
July 2022

Correlation of Body Mass Index with Clinicopathologic Parameters in Patients with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2022 20;15:1897-1909. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and clinicopathologic parameters in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN).

Methods: This study was retrospective and included patients with biopsy-proven IMN from 2018 to 2021 in Hebei General Hospital. Patients were categorized into two groups based on BMI. Clinical and histopathologic data were analyzed at the time of renal biopsy. Pathological data included immunofluorescence staining, glomerulosclerosis (GS, 0-2), mesangial cell proliferation (MCP, 0-1), tubular atrophy (TA, 0-1), interstitial fibrosis (IF, 0-1), vascular wall thickness (VWT, 0-1) and a combination score (GMTIV) graded from 0 to 5.

Results: Our study revealed that the obese group had a higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes than the overweight/normal weight group (P=0.001, P=0.002). Systolic blood pressure (P=0.005), diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001), haemoglobin (P=0.006), triglycerides (P<0.001), serum uric acid (P=0.05), 24 h urine proteinuria concentration (UP) (P=0.012), MCP (P=0.042), IF (P=0.033), and GMITV (P=0.033) score were higher in obese group compared to the other group, while the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P=0.034) and immunoglobulin A deposition score (P=0.005) were lower. Factors significantly associated with UP were the ratio of lymphocyte count to white blood cell count, serum pre-albumin, immunoglobulin G, microscopic hematuria, anti-phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R), C3 deposit on multivariable analysis (adjusted =0.343). Binary logistic regression analysis illustrated that MCP was correlated to BMI (OR=2.528, P=0.036). Ordinal logistic regression analysis demonstrated that GMTIV was associated with BMI (OR=1.114, P=0.010) and C3 deposit (OR=1.655, P=0.001).

Conclusion: High BMI was associated with MCP and GMTIV score in IMN patients. Obesity may play an essential role in mesangial lesions of IMN. This study emphasized the relation between BMI and histological parameters under the universal usage of anti-PLA2R antibodies for diagnosis and prognosis in IMN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S366100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9231685PMC
June 2022

Attention to climate change and downside risk: Evidence from China.

Risk Anal 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

School of Business, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

We explore the role of public climate attention, captured by the Baidu search volume index, in the downside risk. Using 45 keywords from five perspectives related to climate change, we construct a public climate attention index in China. We find a positive and significant relationship between climate attention and downside risk at the market-level and firm-level. Moreover, the risk-increase effect of climate attention becomes more prominent for state-owned and high-carbon-emission firms. Further analysis shows that excellent sustainable performance can moderate the adverse effect of rising climate attention, while the major climate disasters exacerbate the effect. Overall, our findings shed additional light on the important role of collective climate beliefs in corporate risk management and investor decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/risa.13975DOI Listing
June 2022

UTP14A, DKC1, DDX10, PinX1, and ESF1 Modulate Cardiac Angiogenesis Leading to Obesity-Induced Cardiac Injury.

J Diabetes Res 2022 13;2022:2923291. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: This study is aimed at exploring the key genes and the possible mechanism of heart damage caused by obesity.

Methods: We analyzed the GSE98226 dataset. Firstly, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in heart tissues of obese and normal mice. Then, we analyzed DEGs using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Thirdly, we constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and key modules and searched hub genes. Finally, we observed the pathological changes associated with obesity through histopathology.

Results: A total of 763 DEGs were discovered, including 629 upregulated and 134 downregulated genes. GO enrichment analysis showed that these DEGs were mainly related to the regulation of transcription, DNA-templated, nucleic acid binding, and metal ion binding. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the DEGs were enriched in long-term depression, gap junction, and sphingolipid signaling pathways. Finally, we identified UTP14A, DKC1, DDX10, PinX1, and ESF1 as the hub genes. Histopathologic analysis showed that obesity increased the number of collagen fibers and decreased the number of microvessels and proliferation of the endothelium and increased endothelial cell damage which further leads to dysfunction of cardiac microcirculation.

Conclusion: UTP14A, DKC1, DDX10, PinX1, and ESF1 have been identified as hub genes in obesity-induced pathological changes in the heart and may be involved in obesity-induced cardiac injury by affecting cardiac microcirculatory function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2923291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9208995PMC
June 2022

Single-cell transcriptomics identifies Col1a1 and Col1a2 as hub genes in obesity-induced cardiac fibrosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 08 9;618:30-37. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China; Department of Endocrinology, Hebei General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China. Electronic address:

Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, leading to ventricular dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis, in which non-cardiomyocytes (nonCMs) play an important role. Early detection and treatment of heart illness may help to limit its progression. We screened for key markers of obesity-induced cardiac fibrosis using single-cell transcriptomics techniques. To begin, an obese mouse model was constructed using a high-fat diet. From a pathogenic perspective, pathological alterations in the obesity-induced heart were found. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified and functional enrichment analysis was performed. Then, to look for hub genes, key modules of DEGs were built. Finally, the cellular location of the hub genes was investigated. In mice, a high-fat diet raised body weight, messed up myocardial shape, and increased cardiac collagen content. NonCMs transcriptome data revealed 15 different cell types, including fibroblasts, immunological cells, and endothelial cells. There were a total of 33 DEGs found, with 22 up-regulated genes and 11 down-regulated genes. DEGs have a high connection with collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM), according to functional enrichment analysis. Col1a1 and Col1a2 scored well in module analysis and hub gene screening, and were chosen as hub genes. Col1a1 and Col1a2 were shown to be mostly expressed by fibroblasts after localization study. As a result, we believe Col1a1 and Col1a2 may be important markers of obesity-induced cardiac fibrosis, in which fibroblasts play a critical role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.06.018DOI Listing
August 2022

Low Level of Dietary Organic Trace Elements Improve the Eggshell Strength, Trace Element Utilization, and Intestinal Function in Late-Phase Laying Hens.

Front Vet Sci 2022 27;9:903615. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Animal Sciences and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of organic trace elements (Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn) on performance, egg quality, trace elements utilization, and intestinal function in late-phase laying hens. A total of 1,080 laying hens (Hy-line brown, 65 weeks old) were randomly assigned to four treatments with six replications of 45 layers each. The basal diet was prepared without adding exogenous trace elements. The control group was fed with a basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg of inorganic trace elements. The three treatment groups were fed basal diets supplemented with 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg organic trace elements (OTE300, 450, and 600), respectively. The results showed that there was no significant difference in growth performance among all treatments. However, OTE450 significantly improved the eggshell strength of laying hens ( < 0.05), but had no significant effects on haugh unit, egg yolk weight, eggshell weight, and eggshell thickness, compared with other groups. Moreover, compared with the control group, OTE450 significantly increased the contents of copper, iron, and zinc in serum ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, all of the trace elements had a lower deposition in the feces in organic trace elements groups ( < 0.05). Histological analysis showed that the addition of organic trace elements could significantly improve the villus height and villus concealment ratio ( < 0.05). In addition, the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of divalent metal transporter 1 (), zinc transporter 1 (), and ferroportin 1 () were the highest in the OTE450 group. In conclusion, OTE450 could improve egg quality, intestinal function, and trace element utilization efficiency. Thus, this study provides a theoretical basis for the application of low levels of organic trace elements in laying hens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.903615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9197127PMC
May 2022

A predictive model for optimal continuous positive airway pressure in the treatment of pure moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea in China.

BMC Pulm Med 2022 Jun 16;22(1):232. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 154 Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, China.

Background: Numerous predictive formulas based on different ethnics have been developed to determine continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) without laboratory-based manual titrations. However, few studies have focused on patients with OSA in China. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a predictive equation for determining the optimal value of CPAP for patients with OSA in China.

Methods: 526 pure moderate to severe OSA patients with attended CPAP titrations during overnight polysomnogram were spited into either formula derivation (419 patients) or validation (107 patients) group according to the treatment time. Predictive model was created in the derivation group, and the accuracy of the model was tested in the validation group.

Results: Apnea hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI), longest apnea time (LAT), and minimum percutaneous oxygen saturation (minSpO) were considered as independent predictors of optimal CPAP through correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. The best equation to predict the optimal value of CPAP was: CPAPpred = 7.581 + 0.020*AHI + 0.101*BMI + 0.015*LAT-0.028*minSpO (R = 27.2%, p < 0.05).The correlation between predictive CPAP and laboratory-determined manual optimal CPAP was significant in the validation group (r = 0.706, p = 0.000). And the pressure determined by the predictive formula did not significantly differ from the manually titrated pressure in the validation cohort (10 ± 1 cmHO vs. 11 ± 3 cmHO, p = 0.766).

Conclusions: The predictive formula based on AHI, BMI, LAT, and minSpO is useful in calculating the effective CPAP for patients with pure moderate to severe OSA in China to some extent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-022-02025-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9202661PMC
June 2022

Copper isotope ratios allowed for quantifying the contribution of coal mining and combustion to total soil copper concentrations in China.

Environ Pollut 2022 Sep 12;308:119613. Epub 2022 Jun 12.

School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Anhui Province Engineering Laboratory for Mine Ecological Remediation, Hefei, 230601, Anhui, China.

The most prominent source of Cu contamination in soils is metal mining and processing, partly since the Middle Age. However, coal mining and combustion can also cause (some) Cu contamination. We studied the distribution of Cu concentrations and isotope ratios in soils of the Huaibei coal mining area. The contribution of the coal mining and combustion to total Cu concentrations in soil was determined with a two-end-member mixing model based on the distinct δCu values of the Cu emitted from coal mining and combustion and in native soil. The mean Cu concentration of 75 mg kg exceeded the local soil background value (round to 22.13 mg kg). The similar δCu value of grass near the coal mining and combustion operation as in gangue and flying ash indicated a superficial Cu contamination. Mining input was the dominant source of Cu in the contaminated soils, contributing up to 95% and on average 72% of the total Cu in the topsoils. The mining-derived Cu was leached to a depth of 65 cm, where still 29% of the Cu could be attributed to the mining emissions. Grasses showed lower δCu values than the topsoils, because of the preferential uptake of light Cu isotopes. However, the ΔCu was lower in the contaminated than the uncontaminated area because of superficial adsorption of isotopically heavy Cu from the mining emissions. Overall, in this study the distinct δCu values of the mining-derived Cu emissions and the native soil allowed for the quantification of the mining-derived Cu and had already reached the subsoil and contaminated the grass by superficial adsorption in only 60 years of mining operation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119613DOI Listing
September 2022

Probe of the Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction Intermediates on PtRu a Bimetallic Catalyst Surface by Core-Shell Nanoparticle-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

Nano Lett 2022 Jul 14;22(13):5544-5552. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, iChEM, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, College of Energy, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

monitoring of the evolution of intermediates and catalysts during hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) processes and elucidating the reaction mechanism are crucial in catalysis and energy science. However, spectroscopic information on trace intermediates on catalyst surfaces is challenging to obtain due to the complexity of interfacial environments and lack of techniques. Herein, core-shell nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy was employed to probe alkaline HOR processes on representative PtRu surfaces. Direct spectroscopic evidence of an OH intermediate and RuO (Ru(+3)/Ru(+4)) surface oxides is simultaneously obtained, verifying that Ru doping onto Pt promotes OH adsorption on the RuO surface to react with H adsorption on the Pt surface to form HO. Raman, XPS, and DFT results reveal that RuO coverage tunes the electronic structure of PtRuO to optimize the adsorption energy of OH on catalyst surfaces, leading to an improvement in HOR activity. Our findings provide mechanistic guidelines for the rational design of HOR catalysts with high activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c01744DOI Listing
July 2022

Intrinsic phase-amplitude coupling on multiple spatial scales during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

Comput Biol Med 2022 Aug 3;147:105687. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

College of Biomedical Engineering & Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. Electronic address:

Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in brain information processing during anesthetic-induced loss of consciousness (LOC) might be influenced by phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in electroencephalogram (EEG). However, most anesthesia research on PAC typically focuses on delta and alpha oscillations. Studies of spatial-frequency characteristics by PAC for EEG may yield additional insights into understanding the impaired information processing under anesthesia unconsciousness and provide potential improvements in anesthesia monitoring.

Objective: Considering different frequency bands of EEG represent neural activities on different spatial scales, we hypothesized that functional coupling simultaneously appears in multiple frequency bands and specific brain regions during anesthesia unconsciousness. In this paper, PAC analysis on whole-brain EEG besides delta and alpha oscillations was investigated to understand the influence of multiple cross-frequency coordination coupling on information processing during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

Method: EEG data from fifteen patients without cognitive diseases (7 males/8 females, aged 43.8 ± 13.4 years, weighing 63.3 ± 14.9 kilograms) undergoing lower limb surgery and sevoflurane anesthesia was recorded. To investigate the spatial-frequency characteristics of EEG source signals during loss and recovery of consciousness, the time-resolved PAC (tPAC) was calculated to reflect cross-frequency coordination in different frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, gamma) and different functional regions (Visual, Limbic, Dorsal attention, Ventral attention, Default, Somatomotor, Control, Salience networks). Furthermore, different patterns (peak-max and trough-max) of PAC were examined by constructing phase-amplitude histograms using phase bins to investigate the different information processing during LOC. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and trend analysis were used for statistical analysis.

Results: Theta-alpha and alpha-beta PAC were observed during sevoflurane-induced LOC, which significantly changed during loss and recovery of consciousness (F = 16.553, p < 0.001 for theta-alpha PAC and F = 12.446, p < 0.001 for alpha-beta PAC, MANOVA test). Simultaneously, PAC was distributed in specific functional regions, i.e., Visual, Limbic, Default, Somatomotor, etc. Furthermore, peak-max patterns of theta-alpha PAC were observed while alpha-beta PAC showed trough-max patterns and vice versa.

Conclusion: Theta-alpha and alpha-beta PAC observed in specific brain regions represent information processing on multiple spatial scales, and the opposite patterns of PAC indicate opposite information processing on multiple spatial scales during LOC. Our study demonstrates the regulation of local-global information processing during sevoflurane-induced LOC. It suggests the utility of evaluating the balance of functional integration and segregation in monitoring anesthetized states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105687DOI Listing
August 2022

Two-Dimensional ZnS/SnS Heterojunction as a Direct Z-Scheme Photocatalyst for Overall Water Splitting: A DFT Study.

Materials (Basel) 2022 May 26;15(11). Epub 2022 May 26.

School of Resources, Environment and Materials, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

Direct Z-scheme photocatalysts have attracted extensive attention due to their strong redox ability and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. In this study, we constructed two types of ZnS/SnS heterojunctions with different stacking models of ZnS and SnS layers, and investigated their structures, stabilities, and electronic and optical properties. Both types of heterojunctions are stable and are direct Z-scheme photocatalysts with band gaps of 1.87 eV and 1.79 eV, respectively. Furthermore, their oxidation and reduction potentials straddle the redox potentials of water, which makes them suitable as photocatalysts for water splitting. The built-in electric field at the heterojunction interface improves the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, thus enhancing their photocatalytic efficiency. In addition, ZnS/SnS heterojunctions have higher carrier mobilities and light absorption intensities than ZnS and SnS monolayers. Therefore, the ZnS/SnS heterojunction has a broad application prospect as a direct Z-scheme visible-light-driven photocatalyst for overall water splitting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15113786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9181711PMC
May 2022
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