Publications by authors named "XinCheng Zhao"

36 Publications

Distinct protocerebral neuropils associated with attractive and aversive female-produced odorants in the male moth brain.

Elife 2021 May 14;10. Epub 2021 May 14.

Chemosensory lab, Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

The pheromone system of heliothine moths is an optimal model for studying principles underlying higher-order olfactory processing. In , three male-specific glomeruli receive input about three female-produced signals, the primary pheromone component, serving as an attractant, and two minor constituents, serving a dual function, that is, attraction versus inhibition of attraction. From the antennal-lobe glomeruli, the information is conveyed to higher olfactory centers, including the lateral protocerebrum, via three main paths - of which the medial tract is the most prominent. In this study, we traced physiologically identified medial-tract projection neurons from each of the three male-specific glomeruli with the aim of mapping their terminal branches in the lateral protocerebrum. Our data suggest that the neurons' widespread projections are organized according to behavioral significance, including a spatial separation of signals representing attraction versus inhibition - however, with a unique capacity of switching behavioral consequence based on the amount of the minor components.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.65683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154038PMC
May 2021

Plant Metabolites Drive Different Responses in Caterpillars of Two Closely Related Species.

Front Physiol 2021 21;12:662978. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

The Institute of Chemical Ecology and College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

The host acceptances of insects can be determined largely by detecting plant metabolites using insect taste. In the present study, we investigated the gustatory sensitivity and feeding behaviors of two closely related caterpillars, the generalist (Hübner) and the specialist (Guenée), to different plant metabolites by using the single sensillum recording technique and the dual-choice assay, aiming to explore the contribution of plant metabolites to the difference of diet breadth between the two species. The results depicted that the feeding patterns of caterpillars for both plant primary and secondary metabolites were significantly different between the two species. Fructose, glucose, and proline stimulated feedings of the specialist , while glucose and proline had no significant effect on the generalist . Gossypol and tomatine, the secondary metabolites of host plants of the generalist , elicited appetitive feedings of this insect species but drove aversive feedings of . Nicotine and capsaicin elicited appetitive feedings of , but drove aversive feedings of . For the response of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) in the maxillary styloconic sensilla of caterpillars, each of the investigated primary metabolites induced similar responding patterns between the two species. However, four secondary metabolites elicited different responding patterns of GRNs in the two species, which is consistent with the difference of feeding preferences to these compounds. In summary, our results of caterpillars' performance to the plant metabolites could reflect the difference of diet breadth between the two species. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that plant secondary metabolites could drive appetitive feedings in a generalist insect species, which gives new insights of underscoring the adaptation mechanism of herbivores to host plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.662978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098809PMC
April 2021

The effects of human dermal-derived mesenchymal stem cells on the keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis in psoriasis.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cell for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan Central Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, characterized by epidermal hyperproliferation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) regulate inflammation and vascular proliferation in the psoriasis lesions. Whether dermal-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs), the main MSCs in the dermis, regulate keratinocyte proliferation and apoptosis remains unknown. In the present study, we assessed the proliferation and apoptosis of keratinocytes cocultured with DMSCs isolated from either normal or psoriatic involved skin. Cell growth and apoptotic rates were determined using Cell Count Kit-8 and annexin V-FITC staining, respectively. In addition, EDU kit was also used to measure the rate of keratinocyte proliferation. Our results showed that psoriatic DMSCs (pDMSCs) were more potent than normal DMSCs (nDMSCs) in stimulating keratinocyte proliferation. In contrast, the apoptotic rate and expression levels of caspase-3 protein were lower in pDMSC-treated than nDMSC-treated keratinocytes (p < 0.001). Moreover, significantly higher contents of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ were found in the culture medium of pDMSCs than in that of nDMSCs. In conclusion, pDMSCs were more potent than nDMSCs in stimulation of keratinocyte proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, but weaker in promoting apoptosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/exd.14353DOI Listing
April 2021

Knockout of NGAL aggravates tubulointerstitial injury in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy by enhancing oxidative stress and fibrosis.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Apr 5;21(4):321. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, Hebei 056000, P.R. China.

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), also called lipocalin 2, is considered a promising biomarker for acute and chronic kidney injuries. Several studies have demonstrated that its levels increase in plasma and urine in diabetic nephropathy (DN), and its urine concentration increases upon kidney function deterioration. However, its role in DN progression remains unclear. The current study used gene expression knockdown in human proximal tubular cell line human kidney (HK)2 to investigate the role of NGAL in oxidation and extracellular matrix secretion under high-glucose (HG) incubation. In addition, type 1 diabetes was induced in knockout NGAL and wild-type mice in order to investigate role of NGAL in the progression of DN. The results demonstrated that NGAL knockdown in HK2 cells significantly increased oxidative stress under HG stimulation tested by flow cytometry, and increased the secretion of interleukin-6, fibronectin (FN) and collagen IV examined by ELISA. Western blotting demonstrated that the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 also increased in HK2 cells under transforming growth factor-β1 stimulation. experiments demonstrated that diabetic NGAL mice showed deteriorated renal function compared with that of diabetic wild-type mice. Histopathological analysis suggests that diabetic NGAL mice had more serious glomerulosclerosis and tubular vascular degeneration than wild-type mice. Immunohistochemistry suggested that the absence of NGAL lead to increased FN deposition in glomeruli in a mouse model of DN. In conclusion, NGAL appears to have renal protective effects by slowing down the progression of DN, and its effect may be associated with a reduction in oxidation, fibrosis and inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.9752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903474PMC
April 2021

Dysregulated Dermal Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation Interfered by Glucose Metabolism in Psoriasis.

Int J Stem Cells 2021 Feb;14(1):85-93

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cell for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan City Centre Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Background And Objectives: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which the mechanisms behind its initiation and development are related to many factors. DMSCs (dermal mesenchymal stem cells) represent an important member of the skin microenvironment and play an important role in the surrounding environment and in neighbouring cells, but they are also affected by the microenvironment. We studied the glucose metabolism of DMSCs in psoriasis patients and a control group to reveal the relationship among glucose metabolism, cell proliferation activity,and VEC (vascular endothelial cell) differentiation , we demonstrated the biological activity and molecular mechanisms of DMSCs in psoriasis.

Methods And Results: We found that the OCR of DMSCs in psoriatic lesions was higher than that in the control group, and mRNA of GLUT1 and HK2 were up-regulated compared with the control group. The proliferative activity of DMSCs in psoriasis was reduced at an early stage, and mRNA involved in proliferation, JUNB and FOS were expressed at lower levels than those in the control group. The number of blood vessels in psoriatic lesions was significantly higher than that in the control group (p<0.05), which the mRNA of VEC differentiation, CXCL12, CXCR7, HEYL and RGS5 tended to be increased in psoriatic lesions compared to the control group, in addition to Notch3.

Conclusions: We speculated that DMSCs affected local psoriatic blood vessels through glucose metabolism, and the differentiation of VECs, which resulted in the pathophysiological process of psoriasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15283/ijsc20073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904530PMC
February 2021

The regulation of dermal mesenchymal stem cells on keratinocytes apoptosis.

Cell Tissue Bank 2021 Mar 29;22(1):57-65. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cells for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan Central Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, No. 5 East Third Lane, Jiefang Road, Taiyuan, 030009, Shanxi, China.

Dermal mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) are progenitor cells with the capacity of self-renewal, multilineage differentiation, and immunomodulation, which were reported to induce the proliferation of keratinocytes, however the regulation on keratinocytes apoptosis was unknown. In this study, we isolated DMSCs from normal skin and co-cultured with keratinocytes, and then detected apoptosis of keratinocytes by flow cytometry and expression of apoptosis associated proteins by western blot. The mRNA expression profile of normal DMSCs was investigated by RNA sequencing. The results of our study presented that the DMSCs promoted HaCaT cells apoptosis both in early apoptotic state (13.8 vs. 2.9, p < 0.05) and late apoptotic state (4.2 vs. 0.7, p < 0.05). The expression of apoptosis associated proteins caspase-3 (3.51 vs. 1.99, p < 0.05) and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (3.10 vs. 0.83, p < 0.05) were upregulated. However, the cell cycle protein cyclin E1 was similar (9.38 vs. 9.05, p > 0.05). Moreover, 33 genes with the function of induced cell apoptosis were highly expressed in DMSCs, including insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (2828.13), IGFBP7 (1805.69), cathepsin D (1694.34), cathepsin B (CTSB, 1641.40) and dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1 (DKK1, 384.79). This study suggested DMSCs induce the apoptosis of keratinocytes through non-G1/S phase blockade via highly expression of apoptosis inducer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10561-020-09865-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Baseline susceptibility and resistance allele frequency in Ostrinia furnacalis related to Cry1 toxins in the Huanghuaihai summer corn region of China.

Pest Manag Sci 2020 Dec 31;76(12):4311-4317. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Henan Key Laboratory of Crop Pest Control, Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in the Southern Region of North China, Institute of Plant Protection, Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) is one of the most destructive pests of corn and is a major target of transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) toxins in the Huanghuaihai summer corn region of China. Prior to the widespread commercialization of transgenic Bt corn, it is necessary to estimate baseline susceptibility to Bt toxins and Bt toxin resistance allele frequencies in O. furnacalis.

Results: The median lethal concentration (LC ) values of the Bt toxins Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F for 15 different populations ranged from 0.887 to 1.617, 1.251 to 2.594 and 4.146 to 6.465 ng cm , respectively. The LC values of 93, 45, and 197 ng cm for Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F, respectively, killed > 99% of individuals of eight O. furnacalis populations collected in 2017 and were identified as diagnostic concentrations for monitoring susceptibility in O. furnacalis populations in this region. Using the F screening method with these diagnostic concentrations, the resistance allele frequencies related to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F were found to be 0.002 (0.000283-0.006484), 0.001 (0.000030-0.004295) and 0.001 (0.000030-0.004295), respectively, in 2018.

Conclusion: Fifteen populations of O. furnacalis collected in the Huanghuaihai summer corn region of China were all susceptible to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, and the susceptibility showed no significant variation among these O. furnacalis populations. The estimated resistance allele frequency to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F was rare in this region. This provided essential knowledge for making the decision to commercialize Bt maize, and monitoring resistance development and evaluating resistance management strategies in the future in the Huanghuaihai summer corn region of China. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.5999DOI Listing
December 2020

Complete Connectomic Reconstruction of Olfactory Projection Neurons in the Fly Brain.

Curr Biol 2020 08 2;30(16):3183-3199.e6. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Neurobiology Division, MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK; Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK. Electronic address:

Nervous systems contain sensory neurons, local neurons, projection neurons, and motor neurons. To understand how these building blocks form whole circuits, we must distil these broad classes into neuronal cell types and describe their network connectivity. Using an electron micrograph dataset for an entire Drosophila melanogaster brain, we reconstruct the first complete inventory of olfactory projections connecting the antennal lobe, the insect analog of the mammalian olfactory bulb, to higher-order brain regions in an adult animal brain. We then connect this inventory to extant data in the literature, providing synaptic-resolution "holotypes" both for heavily investigated and previously unknown cell types. Projection neurons are approximately twice as numerous as reported by light level studies; cell types are stereotyped, but not identical, in cell and synapse numbers between brain hemispheres. The lateral horn, the insect analog of the mammalian cortical amygdala, is the main target for this olfactory information and has been shown to guide innate behavior. Here, we find new connectivity motifs, including axo-axonic connectivity between projection neurons, feedback, and lateral inhibition of these axons by a large population of neurons, and the convergence of different inputs, including non-olfactory inputs and memory-related feedback onto third-order olfactory neurons. These features are less prominent in the mushroom body calyx, the insect analog of the mammalian piriform cortex and a center for associative memory. Our work provides a complete neuroanatomical platform for future studies of the adult Drosophila olfactory system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7443706PMC
August 2020

Sources of black carbon during severe haze events in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region using the adjoint method.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 11;740:140149. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region in China has been frequently suffering from severe haze events (observed daily mean surface fine particulate matter PM concentrations larger than 150 μg m) partially caused by certain types of large-scale synoptic patterns. Black carbon (BC), as an important PM component and a primarily emitted species, is a good tracer for investigating sources and formation mechanisms leading to severe haze pollutions. We apply GEOS-Chem model and its adjoint to quantify the source contributions to BC concentrations at the surface and at the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during typical types of severe haze events for April 2013-2017 in BTH. Four types of severe haze events, mainly occurred in December-January-February (DJF, 62.3%) and in September-October-November (SON, 26.3%), are classified based on the associated synoptic weather patterns using principal component analysis. Model results reasonably capture the daily variations of BC measurements at three ground sites in BTH. The adjoint method attributes BC concentrations to emissions from different source sectors and from local versus regional transport at the model spatial and temporal resolutions. By source sectors, the adjoint method attributes the daily BC concentrations during typical severe haze events (in winter heating season) in Beijing largely to residential emissions (48.1-62.0%), followed by transportation (16.8-25.9%) and industry (19.1-29.5%) sectors. In terms of regionally aggregated source influences, local emissions in Beijing (59.6-79.5%) predominate the daily surface BC concentrations, while contributions of emissions from Beijing, Hebei, and outside BTH regions are comparable to the daily BC concentrations at the top of PBL (~200-400 m). Our adjoint analyses would provide a scientific support for joint regional and targeted control policies on effectively mitigating the particulate pollutions when the dominant synoptic weather patterns are predicted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140149DOI Listing
October 2020

Cross-sectional study reveals thatHLA-C*07:02 is a potential biomarker of early onset/lesion severityof psoriasis.

Exp Dermatol 2020 Jun 7. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cells for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan Central Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, No. 5 Dong San Dao Xiang, Jiefang Road, Taiyuan, 030009, China.

Psoriasis is a common chronic autoimmune skin disease, with T cells playing a predominant role in its pathogenesis.Here, we aimed to investigate the relation of T cell repertoires (TCR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in psoriatic patients to further understand mechanisms in disease pathogenesis.We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 9 pairs of monozygotic twins with inconsistent psoriasis and examined the TCR diversity and MHC haplotype ofthe individuals using multiple-PCR and high-throughput sequencing. Additionally, 665 psoriatic patients were applied to validate the relation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class I allele HLA-C*07:02 and early onset or lesion severity of psoriasis.The immune diversity was lower in psoriatic patients compared with unaffected individuals within the twin pairs, although the difference was not significant.The clonotypes of TCR significantly decreased in psoriatic patients with high PASI score and early onset. HLA-C*07:02, a haplotype associated with psoriasis, was positively correlated with the diversity of the TCRV gene. Moreover, HLA-C*07:02 clustered in patients with high PASI and early onset. In the replication stage, we found that the PASI and onset age in psoriasis with HLA-C*07:02 were significantly different from those without HLA-C*07:02 and without HLA-C*06:02. Our observations indicate that HLA-C*07:02 is positively correlated with the diversity of TCRV gene in psoriasis, and maybe a potential biomarker of early onset/severe lesions of psoriasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/exd.14127DOI Listing
June 2020

Different epigenome regulation and transcriptome expression of CD4 and CD8 T cells from monozygotic twins discordant for psoriasis.

Australas J Dermatol 2020 Nov 21;61(4):e388-e394. Epub 2020 May 21.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cells for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan Central Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Objectives: Psoriasis is an immunodeficient skin disorder, and its exact pathogenesis is unclear. Monozygotic twins are presumed to be genetically identical, and their phenotypic differences may be due to transcriptional regulation or epigenome factors. To explain the inconsistency between twins, we have collected 3 pairs of monozygotic twins who are discordant for psoriasis.

Methods: Reduced representation of bisulfite sequencing and RNA sequencing was conducted using the peripheral blood of the twins to find the genes playing important roles in psoriasis pathogenesis.

Results: As a result, we found methylation diversity in four genes (MAST3, MTOR, PM20D1 and ZNF99), and we also found 9 differentially expressed genes (PPAN-P2RY11, PIGV, RPS18, TMEM121, KIF21A, KCNH2, WNT10B, PRX and CDH24) by RNA sequencing. According to the conjoint analysis of methylation and the mRNA results, PTPN6, CCL5, NFATC1 and PRF1 were found to be closely related to psoriasis. We then annotated the genes to explore the associations between these genes and psoriasis.

Conclusions: These findings provide a better understanding of psoriasis that can improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajd.13325DOI Listing
November 2020

Psoriatic Dermal-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Keratinocyte Junctions, and Increase Glycolysis.

Acta Derm Venereol 2020 Apr 21;100(8):adv00122. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cells for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan Central Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Although it is known that psoriatic dermal-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) dysregulate keratinocyte proliferation, the biological activity profile of keratinocytes influenced by psoriatic DMSCs remain unknown. In the present study, we assessed the impact of psoriatic DMSCs on keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and glucose metabolism in normal human epidermal keratinocytes co-cultured with or without psoriatic DMSCs. Co-culture of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with psoriatic DMSCs downregulated expression levels of proteins associated with cell junction assembly (alpha-actinin-1, catenin beta-1, poliovirus receptor-related protein 4 and procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2), while upregulating proteins associated with keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation (involucrin, isoform 2 of Histone-binding protein, isoform 3 of Telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 and keratin 13). Moreover, co-culture of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with psoriatic DMSCs stimulated keratinocyte proliferation and glycolysis, but reduced keratinocyte junctions. Taken together, these results demonstrate that psoriatic DMSCs increase keratinocyte proliferation and glycolysis, and reduce cell junctions, suggesting a pathogenic role of psoriatic DMSCs in epidermal hyperplasia, aberrant differentiation, and reduction in turnover time of keratinocytes in psoriasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-3480DOI Listing
April 2020

Variation at ACOT12 and CT62 locus represents susceptibility to psoriasis in Han population.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 02 20;8(2):e1098. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cells for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan Central Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China.

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin, and genetic factors are reported to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. Many studies have named psoriasis candidate genes.

Objective: In this study, we determined the mutation frequency of 7 variable genes in 1,027 psoriatic patients and investigated its possible mechanism associated with psoriasis.

Method: A total of 7 variable genes from 1,027 psoriatic patients were amplified and sequenced using the Sanger method. The mutation frequency was compared to that of non-psoriatic individuals in Asia using information from databases.

Results: Among the 7 investigated genes, the mutation frequency of ACOT12 (c.80A>G, 9.98% vs. 5.85%, p < .05) and CT62 (c.476C>T,15.8% vs. 9.93%, p < .05) was found to be significantly higher than among non-psoriatic Asian individuals. The mutation frequencies of CASZ1(c.599T>G), SPRED1(c.155A>G), and ACOT12 (c.80A>G) differed significantly between the groups organized by medical history, PASI, and family history. SPRED1 gene variants (17.25% vs. 7.78%, p < .01) showed a stronger association with the family history group at the onset of psoriasis than with the no family history group.

Conclusions: Our results provide a comprehensive correlation analysis of susceptibility genes in psoriasis patients. Clinical characteristics of patients play important roles in the development of psoriatic skin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005626PMC
February 2020

Comparison of two commonly used methods for stimulating T cells.

Biotechnol Lett 2019 Dec 21;41(12):1361-1371. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cells for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan Central Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, No. 5 Dong San Dao Xiang, Jiefang Road, Taiyuan, 030009, China.

Objective: Although several methods have been reported and used for in vitro T cell amplification, there are no consistent reports on the optimal stimulation conditions and the characterization of these stimulated T cells. The current study aimed to determine the optimal conditions for efficient T cell amplification by two commonly used methods involving CD3/CD28 antibody and phytohemagglutinin (PHA), respectively.

Results: Orthogonal design and CCK8 assay showed that 5 μg/mL CD3, 5 μg/mL CD28, and 100 ng/mL IL2 for the first method and 50 μg/mL PHA for the second method was optimal for T cell stimulation. Flow cytometry demonstrated that the percentage of CD8 in the stimulated groups significantly increased, while the percentage of CD4/CD8 was significantly decreased compared with the unstimulated group. The percentage of CD4 showed no significant difference among the three groups. Notably, there was no significant difference between the two stimulated groups. In addition, the percentage of apoptotic cells was significantly increased in the stimulated groups compared with the unstimulated group, but showed no remarkable difference between the PHA and CD3/CD28 stimulation groups. Glycolysis analysis showed that the glycolytic capacity and glycolytic reserve were both significantly increased in the PHA and CD3/CD28 groups compared with the unstimulated group, with no significant difference noted between the stimulated groups.

Conclusions: Although both stimulation methods showed similar efficacies, we suggest the PHA method might be better considering its easy application and cost-effective nature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-019-02743-wDOI Listing
December 2019

Multi-omics study in monozygotic twins confirm the contribution of de novo mutation to psoriasis.

J Autoimmun 2020 01 16;106:102349. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cells for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan City Center Hospital, No. 5 Dong San Dao Xiang, Jiefang Road, Taiyuan, 030009, China. Electronic address:

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified over 120 risk loci for psoriasis. However, most of the variations are located in non-coding region with high frequency and small effect size. Pathogenetic variants are rarely reported except HLA-C*0602 with the odds ratio being approximately 4.0 in Chinese population. Although rare variations still account for a small proportion of phenotypic variances in complex diseases, their effect on phenotypes is large. Recently, more and more studies focus on the low-frequency functional variants and have achieved a certain amount of success.

Method: Whole genome sequencing and sanger sequencing was performed on 8 MZ twin pairs discordant for psoriasis to scan and verified the de novo mutations (DNMs). Additionally, 665 individuals with about 20 years' medical history versus 2054 healthy controls and two published large population studies which had about 8 years' medical history (including 10,727 cases versus 10,582 controls) were applied to validate the enrichment of rare damaging mutations in two DNMs genes. Besides, to verify the pathogenicity of candidate DNM in C3, RNA-sequencing for CD4, CD8 T cells of twins and lesion, non-lesion skin of psoriasis patients were carried out. Meanwhile, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to detect the level of C3, C3b in the supernatant of peripheral blood.

Result: A total of 27 DNMs between co-twins were identified. We found six of eight twins carry HLA-C∗0602 allele which have large effects on psoriasis. And it is interesting that a missense mutation in SPRED1 and a splice region mutation in C3 are found in the psoriasis individuals in the other two MZ twin pairs without carrying HLA-C*0602 allele. In the replication stage, we found 2 loss-of-function (LOF) variants of C3 only in 665 cases with about 20 years' medical history and gene-wise analysis in 665 cases and 2054 controls showed that the rare missense mutations in C3 were enriched in cases (OR = 1.91, P = 0.0028). We further scanned the LOF mutations of C3 in two published studies (about 8 years' medical history), and found one LOF mutation in the case without carrying HLA-C*0602. In the individual with DNM in C3, RNA sequencing showed the expression level of C3 in skin was significant higher than healthy samples in public database (TPM fold change = 1.40, P = 0.000181) and ELISA showed protein C3 in peripheral blood was higher (~2.2-fold difference) than the other samples of twins without DNM in C3.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that DNM in C3 is the likely pathological mutations, and it provided a better understanding of the genetic etiology of psoriasis and additional treatments for this disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2019.102349DOI Listing
January 2020

Whole exome sequencing study of a Chinese concurrent cancer family.

Oncol Lett 2019 Sep 5;18(3):2619-2627. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of General Surgery, The Second People's Hospital, Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, P.R. China.

Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in China, and poses a threat to public health due to its increasing incidence and mortality rates. Concurrent cancer is defined as one or more organs in the same individual having ≥2 primary malignancies occurring simultaneously or successively; however, concurrent cases are rare and poorly studied. The present study recruited a Chinese family presenting multiple cases of concurrent cancer and performed whole exome sequencing in one unaffected and two affected individuals to identify the causative mutations. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and tumor tissue samples. Following an exome capture and quality test, the qualified library was sequenced as 100 bp paired-end reads on an Ion Torrent platform. Clean data were obtained by filtering out the low-quality reads. Subsequently, bioinformatics analyses were performed using the clean data. After mapping and annotating in 1000 Genomes Project database, the existing SNP database and the Cancer Gene Census (CGC) database, it was revealed that the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit S7 gene was a candidate gene with somatic mutations, and a subset of 16 genes were candidate genes with germline mutations. The findings of the present study may improve the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of concurrent cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2019.10573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6676670PMC
September 2019

[Knocking down TIMP-1 inhibits the proliferation and collagen synthesis of MRC-5 human embryonic lung fibroblasts induced by TGF-β1].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Jan;35(1):25-30

Department of Respiratory Medicine, First People's Hospital of Lianyungang City, Lianyungang Hospital Affiliated to Xuzhou Medical University, Lianyungang Clinical Medical College of Nanjing Medical University, Lianyungang 222002, China.

Objective To investigate the effects of TIMP-1 gene expression inhibition on the cell growth in human embryonic lung fibroblast MRC-5 induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Methods MRC-5 cells were divided into blank group, TGF-β1 group, TGF-β1 group transfected with negative control small interfering RNA, and TGF-β1 group transfected with TIMP-1 small interfering RNA (siTIMP-1). The cell viability was measured by MTT assay. The cell cycle of MRC-5 was analyzed by MTT assay and flow cytometry. The content of TNF-α in the supernatant was detected by ELISA, and the protein expression of TIMP-1, α-SMA, collagen 1 and β-catenin were determined by Western blot analysis. Results The expression level of TIMP-1 in the siTIMP-1 group was significantly lower than that in the blank group. Compared with the blank group, the cell viability in the TGF-β1 group was significantly improved; the percentage of the cells in G0/G1 phase was significantly raised, the percentages of the cells in S phase and G2/M phase were significantly increased. The content of TNF-α was significantly elevated, the protein expression of α-SMA, collagen-I and β-catenin were significantly enhanced. Compared with TGF-β1 group, after knock-down of TIMP-1 gene expression, the cell viability in siTIMP-1 combined with TGF-β1 group was significantly inhibited, the percentage of the cells in G0/G1 phase was significantly raised, the percentages of the cells in S phase and G2/M phase were significantly decreased, the content of TNF-α was significantly reduced, and the protein expression of α-SMA, collagen-I and α-catenin was significantly depressed. There was no significant difference between the cells transfected with small interfering RNA of negative control and those of TGF-β1 group. Conclusion Knock-down of TIMP-1 gene expression inhibits the cell viability, cell cycle, collagen synthesis and the release of inflammatory factor TNF-α in the MRC-5 cells. The mechanism is related to the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2019

Dermal mesenchymal stem cells: a resource of migration-associated function in psoriasis?

Stem Cell Res Ther 2019 02 13;10(1):54. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cell for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan City Centre Hospital, No. 1 Dong San Dao Xiang, Jiefang Road, Taiyuan, 030009, Shanxi Province, China.

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic and systemic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease. Mesenchymal stem cells have effects on the inflammatory microenvironment, including regulating the proliferation, differentiation, recruitment, and migration of immunocytes.

Methods: To investigate whether dermal mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) may act on migration of immunocytes in psoriasis patients, 22 patients with psoriasis and 22 matching healthy controls (age and sex in this study) were recruited. Seven migration-associated genes including chemokine like receptor-1 (CMKLR-1), collagen type VIII alpha1 (COL8A-1), neuropilin and tolloid-like 2 (NETO-2), nik-related kinase (NRK), secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP), sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase 2 (SULF-2), and synaptotagmin-like protein 2 (SYTL-2) were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and western blot. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs) migration to MSCs was measured using a Thanswell chamber system.

Results: We observed the upregulation of CMKLR-1, COL8A-1, NETO-2, NRK, SYTL-2, and SULF-2 in dermal mesenchymal stem cells derived from patients with psoriasis at both mRNA and protein level, however, a significant downregulation of SFRP-2 between two groups. By contrast, there were no significant between-group differences at the mRNA and protein expression level of NETO-2 and SULF-2. The migration assay showed that in vitro the normal PBMC migration to psoriatic DMSC group was a 6.3 ± 0.7-fold increase compared with the control group.

Conclusions: The results may suggest a potential pathogenetic involvement of DMSCs on migration of monocytes in psoriasis. Immune responses are regulated at the level of DMSCs, which probably represent the cells primarily involved in the "psoriatic march."
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-019-1159-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375130PMC
February 2019

Levels of miR-31 and its target genes in dermal mesenchymal cells of patients with psoriasis.

Int J Dermatol 2019 Feb 9;58(2):198-204. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of stem cell for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan City Centre Hospital, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China.

Background: Psoriasis is characterized by chronic inflammatory dermatosis, and the pathogenesis of psoriasis is associated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and deregulation of the expression of miR-31. This study aimed to clarify the function of miR-31 in dermal MSCs (DMSCs) in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

Methods: The expression of miR-31 was assayed by a microarray and that of target genes of miR-31 was tested by quantitative PCR.

Results: The expression of miR-31 in the psoriasis group was 0.2677 folds that of the control group. The expression of EMP1 and EIG121L genes, whose products are located on the cell membrane, in the psoriasis group was 4.095579 and 5.367017 folds that in the control group, respectively. The expression of GRB10, PTPN14, QKI, RNF144B, and TACC2 genes, whose products are located in the cytoplasm, in the psoriasis group was 1.440428, 1.198335, 1.737285, 7.379546, and 1.531947 folds that of the control. The expression of PRELP, whose products are secreted in the extracellular space, in the psoriasis group was 1.351684 folds that of the control. The expression of RBMS1, KHDRBS3, and SATB2, whose products play a role in the nucleus, in the psoriasis group was 2.237199, 1.277159, and 1.005742 folds that of the control, respectively.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the low expression of miR-31 in DMSCs in patients with psoriasis causes an increase in the expression of some of its target genes, which in turn facilitates T lymphocyte activation by inhibiting the proliferation of DMSCs and therefore participates in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijd.14197DOI Listing
February 2019

Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in Mythimna separata by transcriptomic analysis.

BMC Genomics 2018 Jul 4;19(1):518. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, China.

Background: The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata, is an economically important and common Lepidopteran pest of cereal crops. Chemoreception plays a key role in insect life, such as foraging, oviposition site selection, and mating partners. To better understand the chemosensory mechanisms in M. separata, transcriptomic analysis of antennae, labial palps, and proboscises were conducted using next-generation sequencing technology to identify members of the major chemosensory related genes.

Results: In this study, 62 putative odorant receptors (OR), 20 ionotropic receptors (IR), 16 gustatory receptors (GR), 38 odorant binding proteins (OBP), 26 chemosensory proteins (CSP), and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP) were identified in M. separata by bioinformatics analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of these candidate proteins was performed. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis was used to determine the expressions of all candidate chemosensory genes and then the expression profiles of the three families of receptor genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR).

Conclusions: The important genes for chemoreception have now been identified in M. separata. This study will provide valuable information for further functional studies of chemoreception mechanisms in this important agricultural pest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-018-4898-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6030794PMC
July 2018

Psoriatic mesenchymal stem cells demonstrate an enhanced ability to differentiate into vascular endothelial cells.

Eur J Dermatol 2018 Oct;28(5):688-690

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cell for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan City Centre Hospital, No. 1 Dong San Dao Xiang, Jiefang Road, Taiyuan 030009, Shanxi Province, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ejd.2018.3344DOI Listing
October 2018

Analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of click beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2018 Feb 26;3(1):290-291. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China.

In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of click beetle (GenBank accession no. MG728108) was obtained using next-generation sequencing (NGS) method. The complete mitochondrial genome of is 16,156 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNAs and a control region. The gene arrangement is consistent with the typical insect mitochondrial genome. Maximum likelihood tree shows that the newly sequenced cluster with other two sampled species of and the family Elateridae is monophyletic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2018.1443041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7800063PMC
February 2018

Insight into higher-level phylogeny of Neuropterida: Evidence from secondary structures of mitochondrial rRNA genes and mitogenomic data.

PLoS One 2018 30;13(1):e0191826. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

It is well known that the rRNA structure information is important to assist phylogenetic analysis through identifying homologous positions to improve alignment accuracy. In addition, the secondary structure of some conserved motifs is highly stable among distantly related taxa, which can provide potentially informative characters for estimating phylogeny. In this paper, we applied the high-throughput pooled sequencing approach to the determination of neuropteran mitogenomes. Four complete mitogenome sequences were obtained: Micromus angulatus (Hemerobiidae), Chrysoperla nipponensis (Chrysopidae), Rapisma sp. (Ithonidae), and Thaumatosmylus sp. (Osmylidae). This allowed us to sample more complete mitochondrial RNA gene sequences. Secondary structure diagrams for the complete mitochondrial small and large ribosomal subunit RNA genes of eleven neuropterid species were predicted. Comparative analysis of the secondary structures indicated a closer relationship of Megaloptera and Neuroptera. This result was congruent with the resulting phylogeny inferred from sequence alignments of all 37 mitochondrial genes, namely the hypothesis of (Raphidioptera + (Megaloptera + Neuroptera)).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0191826PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790268PMC
March 2018

Analysis of the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2018 Jan 5;3(1):85-87. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Department of Entomology, Xinyang Agriculture and Forestry University, Xinyang, People's Republic of China.

The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of (GenBank accession no. MG581161) is 17,644 bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNAs, and a partial control region. The gene order is similar to the typical insect mitochondrial genome. Maximum likelihood tree recovered the monophyly of Staphylininae, Pselaphinae, Paederinae and Aleocharinae. Additionally, Staphylininae is a sister group to Paederinae.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2017.1422410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799980PMC
January 2018

Reconstruction of mitogenomes by NGS and phylogenetic implications for leaf beetles.

Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2018 10 30;29(7):1041-1050. Epub 2017 Nov 30.

b Xinyang Agriculture and Forestry University , Xinyang , China.

Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequences are frequently used to infer phylogenetic relationships of insects at different taxonomic levels. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are revolutionizing many fields of biology, and allow for acquisition of insect mitogenomes for large number of species simultaneously. In this study, 20 full or partial mitogenomes were sequenced from pooled genomic DNA samples by NGS for leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae). Combined with published mitogenome sequences, a higher level phylogeny of Chrysomelidae was reconstructed under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference with different models and various data treatments. The results revealed support for a basal position of Bruchinae within Chrysomelidae. In addition, two major subfamily groupings were recovered: one including seven subfamilies, namely Donaciinae, Criocerinae, Spilopyrinae, Cassidinae, Cryptocephalinae, Chlamisinae and Eumolpinae, another containing a non-monophyletic Chrysomelinae and a monophyletic Galerucinae.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24701394.2017.1404044DOI Listing
October 2018

The complete mitochondrial genome of (Hemiptera: Tingidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2017 Nov 27;2(2):897-899. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China.

The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of has been sequenced and annotated. The entire mitogenome is a typical circle double-stranded DNA molecule of 15,635b p and consisted of 37 genes and a control region in the typical invertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement. Phylogenetic analysis recovered the momophyly of Gerromorpha, Enicocephalomorpha and Cimicomorpha.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2017.1407712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799590PMC
November 2017

Comparative analysis of molecular activity in dermal mesenchymal stem cells from different passages.

Cell Tissue Bank 2018 Sep 20;19(3):277-285. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Shanxi Key Laboratory of Stem Cell for Immunological Dermatosis, Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan City Center Hospital, No. 1 Dong San Dao Xiang, Jiefang Road, Taiyuan, 030009, Shanxi Province, China.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used for tissue regeneration in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases. However, the optimal sources and culture requirements for these cells are still under investigation. Here, we compared mRNA expression in dermal MSCs (DMSCs) at passage (P) 3 and P5 to provide a reference for future studies related to DMSCs expansion. In normal DMSCs, the expression of three of eight genes associated with basic cellular activity were different at P5 compared to that at P3: PLCB4 and SYTL2 were upregulated by 4.30- and 6.42-fold, respectively (P < 0.05), whereas SATB2 was downregulated by 39.25-fold (P < 0.05). At the same time, genes associated with proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, and apoptosis were expressed at similar levels at P3 and P5 (P > 0.05). In contrast, in DMSCs isolated from psoriatic patients we observed differential expression of three inflammation-associated genes at P5 compared to P3; thus IL6, IL8, and CXCL6 mRNA levels were upregulated by 16.02-, 31.15-, and 15.04-fold, respectively. Our results indicate that normal and psoriatic DMSCs showed different expression patterns for genes related to inflammation and basic cell activity at P3 and P5, whereas those for genes linked to proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis were mostly similar.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10561-017-9672-zDOI Listing
September 2018

Activities of Digestive Enzymes in the Omnivorous Pest Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae).

J Econ Entomol 2017 02;110(1):101-110

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür, 1843, an omnivorous species that feeds on plants and animals, has become a major pest in China as production of Bt-cotton has grown to such a large scale. Its omnivory is likely to be critical for its success, but the digestive mechanism(s) underlying processing and adsorption of such diverse foods is relatively unknown. Here, we examined the activities of digestive enzymes of A. lucorum in the salivary gland complex and midgut and the effect of sex, age, and food source on these activities. Amylase and protease were present in the salivary gland complex and the midgut, but were higher in the salivary gland complex. Trypsin-like enzyme was also present in both organs, but chymotrypsin-like enzyme was present only in the midgut. Sex, age, and food source affected the activities of these digestive enzymes. In general, the activities of these enzymes peaked at 10 d after emergence, and amylase and protease activities were higher in female adults than in males. Of the food sources tested, green bean pods (Gb) induced the highest amylase activity, whereas Helicoverpa armigera Hübner, 1809 eggs (He) and a mixture of Gb and He induced higher activities of the trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like enzymes. The results from food switching experiments confirmed that amylase activity could be induced by plant sources, and animal sources induced protease activity. Thus, the types and activities of digestive enzymes in A. lucorum provide the physiological basis of the pest's omnivory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/tow263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988751PMC
February 2017

Trans-generational desensitization and within-generational resensitization of a sucrose-best neuron in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Sci Rep 2016 12 14;6:39358. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Dietary exposure of insects to a feeding deterrent substance for hours to days can induce habituation and concomitant desensitization of the response of peripheral gustatory neurons to such a substance. In the present study, larvae of the herbivore Helicoverpa armigera were fed on diets containing either a high, medium or low concentration of sucrose, a major feeding stimulant. The responsiveness of the sucrose-best neuron in the lateral sensilla styloconica on the galea was quantified. Results showed the response of the sucrose-best neuron exposed to high-sucrose diets decreased gradually over successive generations, resulting in complete desensitization in the 5 and subsequent generations. However, the sensitivity was completely restored in the ninth generation after neonate larvae were exposed to low-sucrose diet. These findings demonstrate phenotypic plasticity and exclude inadvertent artificial selection for low sensitivity to sucrose. No significant changes were found in the sensitivity of caterpillars which experienced low- or medium-sucrose diets over the same generations. Such desensitization versus re-sensitization did not generalise to the phagosimulant myo-inositol-sensitive neuron or the feeding deterrent-sensitive neuron. Our results demonstrate that under conditions of high sucrose availability trans-generational desensitization of a neuron sensitive to this feeding stimulant becomes more pronounced whereas re-sensitization occurs within one generation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep39358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5155215PMC
December 2016

Stem cells in psoriasis.

J Dermatol Sci 2017 Jun 15;86(3):181-186. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Institute of Dermatology, Taiyuan City Central Hospital, Shanxi Key Laboratory for Immunological Dermatosis, No. 1 Dong San Dao Xiang, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030009, China. Electronic address:

Psoriasis is a complex chronic relapsing inflammatory disease. Although the exact mechanism remains unknown, it is commonly accepted that the development of psoriasis is a result of multi-system interactions among the epidermis, dermis, blood vessels, immune system, neuroendocrine system, metabolic system, and hematopoietic system. Many cell types have been confirmed to participate in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Here, we review the stem cell abnormalities related to psoriasis that have been investigated recently.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2016.11.006DOI Listing
June 2017