Publications by authors named "Xin Zhou"

2,885 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Anti-melanogenesis effect from Wampee fruit pectin via α-MSH/TRY pathway in A375 cells.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2022 Jun 25;22(1):174. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Marine Biomedical Research Institution, Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, 524023, People's Republic of China.

Background: Polysaccharides from wampee have been reported to process various biological activities, while the relationship between structure and bioactivities has been barely addressed. Pectin, an abundant water-soluble polysaccharide in wampee, showed significant antioxidant activity, which was associated with the anti-melanogenic activity. Therefore, this study investigated the physicochemical characteristics and the anti-melanogenesis effect of pectin extracted from wampee fruit in A375 cells.

Methods: The physicochemical characterization of pectin from wampee fruit was investigated by gel chromatography (GCP), FT-IR spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy methods. The anti-melanogenesis effects and mechanism were evaluated by mushroom tyrosine enzyme and human melanin cell model in vitro.

Results: The results showed that a molecular weight of 5.271 × 10 Da wampee fruit pectin (WFP) were mainly composed of mannose (Man), ribose (Rib), rhamnose (Rha), glucuronic acid (Glc A), glucose (Glc), galacturonic acid (Gal A), galactose (Gal), and arabinose (Ara), which linked with →4)-β-D-Galp-(1 → units. The current study revealed that WFP could significantly suppress mushroom TRY activity in vitro. Furtherly, WFP significantly reduced intracellular and extracellular melanin formation in A375 melanoma cells depending on the presence of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). TRY activity was only inhibited in α-MSH treated A375 cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that WFP reverse α-MSH induced melanogenesis in A375 melanoma cells, including in down-regulated TRY, TYRP-1, TYRP-2, MITF and CREB expressions.

Conclusion: These results indicated that WFP could inhibit α-MSH induced melanogenesis in A375 melanoma cells via α-MSH/TRY pathway. In conclusion, these data provided a new perspective to annotate WFP anti-melanogenesis activity mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-022-03646-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Phenylpropanoid metabolism in relation to peel browning development of cold-stored 'Nanguo' pears.

Plant Sci 2022 Jun 21:111363. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

College of Food, Shenyang Agricultural University, No.120 Dongling Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang City 110866, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Cold-stored 'Nanguo' pears are susceptible to peel browning during subsequent shelf life. In this study, 'Nanguo' pears were cold-stored for different periods to elucidate the metabolism of phenylpropanoid accompanying browning. Changes in phenolics and flavonoids and the crucial enzyme activity and related gene expression involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were monitored. It was found that the fruit that underwent long-term storage showed peel browning symptoms prior to softening, and the symptom got worse with increasing shelf life. Meanwhile, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the decrease of ROS scavenging ability were noted. The content of phenolics and flavonoids and the activity and expression of shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway decreased with prolonged storage. Correlation analysis revealed that browning was positively correlated with ROS accumulation, and the content of phenolics and flavonoids directly affected ROS scavenging ability. In addition, the decrease in phenolics and flavonoids might be owing to the reduced activity of SKDH, PAL, and 4CL and the down-regulated expression of PuPAL and Pu4CL. Collectively, this study indicated that the metabolism of phenylpropanoid is associated with the browning response induced by low-temperature stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2022.111363DOI Listing
June 2022

Promoting Dinuclear-Type Catalysis in Cu -C N Single Atom Catalyst.

Adv Mater 2022 Jun 24:e2204638. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Joint School of NUS and TJU, International Campus of Tianjin University, Fuzhou, 350207, China.

Reducing particle size in supported metal catalyst to single atom level isolates the active metal sites and maximizes the atomic utilization efficiency. However, the large inter-atom distance, particularly in low-loading single atom catalyst (SAC), is not favourable for a complex reaction where two (or more) reactants have to be activated. A key question is how to control the inter-atom distances to promote dinuclear-type co-activation at the adjacent metal sites. Here, we report that reducing the average inter-atom distance of Cu SAC supported on C N to 0.74 ± 0.13 nm allows these catalysts to exhibit dinuclear-type catalytic mechanism in nitrile-azide cycloaddition. Operando X-ray absorption fine structure study reveals a dynamic ligand exchange process between nitrile and azide, followed by their co-activation on dinuclear Cu SAC sites to form the tetrazole product. This work highlights that reducing the nearest neighbour distance of SAC allows mechanistic pathway to diversify from single site to multi-site catalysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202204638DOI Listing
June 2022

DIA-Based Proteomic Analysis of Plasma Protein Profiles in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

Molecules 2022 Jun 17;27(12). Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Emergency, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230601, China.

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a pancreatic inflammatory disease that varies greatly in course and severity. To further the understanding of the pathology of AP, we carried out data-independent acquisition-based proteomic analyses using proteins extracted from the plasma of patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) (experimental group) and healthy volunteers (control group). Compared to the control group, there were 35 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the plasma of patients with SAP. Of those, the expression levels for 6 proteins were significantly increased, and 29 proteins were significantly decreased. Moreover, six candidate biomarkers-VWF, ORM2, CD5L, CAT, IGLV3-10, and LTF-were matched as candidate biomarkers of the disease severity of AP. The area under the receiver operating characteristic of 0.903 (95% CI: 0.839, 0.967) indicated that this combination of these six candidate biomarkers had a good prediction accuracy for predicting the severity of AP. Our study provides specific DEPs that may be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of SAP, which suggests new theoretical bases for the occurrence and development of SAP and offers potential novel treatment strategies for SAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27123880DOI Listing
June 2022

BECLIN-1-Mediated Autophagy Suppresses Silica Nanoparticle-Induced Testicular Toxicity via the Inhibition of Caspase 8-Mediated Cell Apoptosis in Leydig Cells.

Cells 2022 Jun 7;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Institute of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China.

Accumulation of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) in the testes leads to male reproductive toxicity. However, little is known about the effect and mechanistic insights of SNP-induced autophagy on apoptosis in Leydig cells. In this study, we aimed to verify the role of SNP-induced autophagy in apoptosis and explore the possible underlying mechanism in mouse primary Leydig cells (PLCs). H&E staining showed that SNPs changed the histological structures of the testes, including a reduction in the Leydig cell populations in vivo. CCK-8 assay showed that SNPs decreased cell viability, and flow cytometry showed that SNPs increased cell apoptosis, both in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Additionally, Western blotting further found that SNPs activated autophagy by an increase in BECLIN-1, ATG16L, and LC3-II levels and promoted the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by an increase in the BAX/BCL-2 ratio, cleaved the caspase 8 and caspase 3 levels. Furthermore, autophagy decreased SNP-induced apoptosis via regulation of the caspase 8 level combined with rapamycin, 3-methyladenine, and chloroquine. BECLIN-1 depletion increased the caspase 8 level, leading to an increase in SNP-induced cell apoptosis. Collectively, this evidence demonstrates that SNPs activated BECLIN-1-mediated autophagy, which prevented SNP-induced testicular toxicity via the inhibition of caspase 8-mediated cell apoptosis in Leydig cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells11121863DOI Listing
June 2022

Alleviation of Oral Exposure to Aflatoxin B1-Induced Renal Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Cell Apoptosis in Mice Kidney by Curcumin.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 May 29;11(6). Epub 2022 May 29.

Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Aflatoxin B1 is a contaminant widely found in food and livestock feed, posing a major threat to human and animal health. Recently, much attention from the pharmaceutical and food industries has been focused on curcumin due to its strong antioxidant capacity. However, the therapeutic impacts and potential mechanisms of curcumin on kidney damage caused by AFB1 are still incomplete. In this study, AFB1 triggered renal injury in mice, as reflected by pathological changes and renal dysfunction. AFB1 induced renal oxidative stress and interfered with the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway and its downstream genes (CAT, SOD1, NQO1, GSS, GCLC, and GCLM), as manifested by elevated oxidative stress metabolites and reduced antioxidant enzymes activities. Additionally, AFB1 was found to increase apoptotic cells percentage in the kidney via the TUNEL assay, along with increased expression of Cyt-c, Bax, cleaved-Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and decreased expression of Bcl-2 at the transcriptional and protein levels; in contrast, for mice given curcumin, there was a significant reversal in kidney coefficient, biochemical parameters, pathological changes, and the expression of genes and proteins involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis. These results indicate that curcumin could antagonize oxidative stress and apoptosis to attenuate AFB1-induced kidney damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11061082DOI Listing
May 2022

The Inhibition of Microcystin Adsorption by Microplastics in the Presence of Algal Organic Matters.

Toxics 2022 Jun 20;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Tumor Center, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital, Chongqing 400045, China.

Microplastics (MPs) could act as vectors of synthetic chemicals; however, their influence on the adsorption of chemicals of natural origin (for example, MC-LR and intracellular organic matter (IOM), which could be concomitantly released by toxic Microcystis in water) is less understood. Here, we explored the adsorption of MC-LR by polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The results showed that the MPs could adsorb both MC-LR and IOM, with the adsorption capability uniformly following the order of PS, PE, and PMMA. However, in the presence of IOM, the adsorption of MC-LR by PE, PS, and PMMA was reduced by 22.3%, 22.7% and 5.4%, respectively. This is because the benzene structure and the specific surface area of PS facilitate the adsorption of MC-LR and IOM, while the formation of Π-Π bonds favor its interaction with IOM. Consequently, the competition for binding sites between MC-LR and IOM hindered MC-LR adsorption. The C=O in PMMA benefits its conjunction with hydroxyl and carboxyl in the IOM through hydrogen bonding; thus, the adsorption of MC-LR is also inhibited. These findings highlight that the adsorption of chemicals of natural origin by MPs is likely overestimated in the presence of metabolites from the same biota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060339DOI Listing
June 2022

Rational design of a meso phosphate-substituted pyronin as a type I photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Shandong, China.

Type I photodynamic therapy (PDT) with less oxygen consumption shows great potential to overcome the malignant hypoxia in solid tumors. Herein, a novel meso phosphate-substituted pyronin PY-P and its nanoparticles (PY-P NPs) were prepared as an efficient type I organic photosensitizer. The data prove that PY-P NPs have outstanding low dark toxicity but high photocytotoxicity under hypoxia (<1% O).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc02124bDOI Listing
June 2022

Deciphering the concurrence of comammox, partial denitrification and anammox in a single low-oxygen mainstream nitrogen removal reactor.

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 18;305:135409. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 637819, Singapore; Advanced Environmental Biotechnology Centre, NEWRI, Nanyang Technological University, 637141, Singapore.

One-stage anammox-based autotrophic nitrogen removal technology has attracted increasing interest to sustainable biological nitrogen removal for future wastewater treatment. However, its application in mainstream municipal wastewater treatment is still challenging due to low nitrogen and high organics of raw wastewater. Herein, a novel Simultaneous Carbon Oxidation, partial Comammox, Denitratation and Anammox (SCOCDA) was firstly developed in a single sequencing batch biofilm reactor operated at a dissolved oxygen concentration of ∼0.5 mg/L for treating synthetic municipal wastewater (50 mg/L NH-N and 100-250 mg/L COD). The long-term operation showed that almost complete COD and nitrogen removal performance could be achieved at a carbon/nitrogen ratio (COD/NH-N) of 3-5 with the corresponding effluent total nitrogen (TN)<5 mg/L. Microbial community and amoA-targeting amplicon sequencing analysis further verified that comammox Nitrospira spp., denitrifier Thauera and other aerobic/facultative heterotrophs could work synergistically with anammox bacteria, Candidatus Kuenenia. Moreover, nitrogen metabolic and inorganic carbon fixation pathways through the interaction between comammox and anammox were also revealed with the aid of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Lastly, potential application of proposed SCOCDA process was illustrated. This research sheds new light on advanced nitrogen removal towards limit of technology via the synergy of comammox and anammox.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135409DOI Listing
June 2022

Treatment Response Prediction for Major Depressive Disorder Patients Multivariate Pattern Analysis of Thalamic Features.

Front Comput Neurosci 2022 1;16:837093. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Translational Psychiatry Laboratory, Hangzhou Seventh People's Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

Antidepressant treatment, as an important method in clinical practice, is not suitable for all major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have found thalamic abnormalities in MDD patients, it is not clear whether the features of the thalamus are suitable to serve as predictive aids for treatment responses at the individual level. Here, we tested the predictive value of gray matter density (GMD), gray matter volume (GMV), amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), and fractional ALFF (fALFF) of the thalamus using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA). A total of 74 MDD patients and 44 healthy control (HC) subjects were recruited. Thirty-nine MDD patients and 35 HC subjects underwent scanning twice. Between the two scanning sessions, patients in the MDD group received selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for 3-month, and HC group did not receive any treatment. Gaussian process regression (GPR) was trained to predict the percentage decrease in the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) score after treatment. The percentage decrease in HAMD score after SSRI treatment was predicted by building GPRs trained with baseline thalamic data. The results showed significant correlations between the true percentage of HAMD score decreases and predictions ( < 0.01, = 0.11) in GPRs trained with GMD. We did not find significant correlations between the true percentage of HAMD score decreases and predictions in GMV ( = 0.16, = 0.00), ALFF ( = 0.125, = 0.00), and fALFF ( = 0.485, = 0.10). Our results suggest that GMD of the thalamus has good potential as an aid in individualized treatment response predictions of MDD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2022.837093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9199000PMC
June 2022

Association between Early Oral β-Blocker Therapy and Risk for In-Hospital Major Bleeding after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Coronary Syndrome: Findings from CCC-ACS Project.

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Aims: Information regarding β-blocker use and bleeding risk in patients on antithrombotic therapy in contemporary practice is limited. We examined the association between early (within the first 24 hours) oral β-blocker therapy and major in-hospital bleeds among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods And Results: In the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-ACS project, among patients without contraindications to β-blocker, we examined the association between early oral β-blocker exposure [users/non-users, dosing, and type (metoprolol vs. bisoprolol)] and major in-hospital bleeds. Of the 43,640 eligible patients, 36.0% patients received early oral β-blocker and 637 major bleeds were recorded. Compared with non-users, early oral β-blocker was associated reduced risks for major bleeds [odds ratio (OR): 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.61] and in-hospital mortality (OR: 0.47; 95%CI: 0.34-0.64) in multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Early oral β-blocker use associated reduction in major bleeding was evident both in high-dose (defined by metoprolol-equivalent dose ≥50 mg/day) users (OR: 0.47; 95%CI: 0.33-0.68) and in low-dose users (metoprolol-equivalent dose <50 mg/day; OR: 0.61; 95%CI: 0.47-0.79). No significant difference was observed between metoprolol and bisoprolol in terms of reductions in major bleeding and mortality. Analyses based on inverse-probability-of-treatment-weighted regression adjustment and propensity-score matching yielded consistent findings.

Conclusion: In this retrospective study based on the nationwide ACS registry, among patients treated by PCI, in addition to a reduction in in-hospital mortality, oral β-blocker therapy initiated within the first 24 hours was associated with a reduced risk for major in-hospital bleeds. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02306616.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjqcco/qcac036DOI Listing
June 2022

and Its Downstream Pathway Could be Potential Indicators of Organ-Free Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:783564. Epub 2022 May 27.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University & Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, Nanjing, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths globally. Metastasis is associated with a poor prognosis, yet the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remained largely unknown. In this study, a total of 85 CRC patients were included and the primary tumor lesions were evaluated by next-generation sequencing using a targeted panel for genetic aberrations. Patients were sub-divided according to their metastasis pattern into the non-organ metastases (Non-OM) and organ metastases (OM) groups. By comparing the genetic differences between the two groups, we found that mutations in and alterations in its downstream signaling pathway were more common in the Non-OM group. Moreover, correlation analysis suggested that mutations were independent of other somatic alterations. The negative associations of alterations in and its downstream signaling pathway with CRC organ metastasis were validated in a cohort of 230 patients in the TCGA CRC dataset. Thus, we speculated that the genomic alterations of / axis might be an independent negative indicator of CRC organ metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.783564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9197223PMC
May 2022

Construction of the miRNA-mRNA Regulatory Networks and Explore Their Role in the Development of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 31;9:888020. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

MicroRNA (miRNA) binds to target mRNA and inhibit post-transcriptional gene expression. It plays an essential role in regulating gene expression, cell cycle, and biological development. This study aims to identify potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks that contribute to the pathogenesis of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). MiRNA microarray and RNA-Seq datasets were obtained from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) databases, the cancer genome atlas (TCGA), miRcancer, and dbDEMC. The GEO2R tool, "limma" and "DEseq" R packages were used to perform differential expression analysis. Gene enrichment analysis was conducted using the DAVID, DIANA, and Hiplot tools. The miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks were screened from the experimentally validated miRNA-target interactions databases (miRTarBase and TarBase). External validation was carried out in 30 pairs of LUSC tissues by Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and decision curve analysis (DCA) were conducted to evaluate the diagnostic value. Clinical, survival and phenotypic analysis of miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks were further explored. We screened 5 miRNA and 10 mRNA expression datasets from GEO and identified 7 DE-miRNAs and 270 DE-mRNAs. After databases screening and correlation analysis, four pairs of miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks were screened out. The miRNA-mRNA network of miR-205-5p (up) and PTPRM (down) was validated in 30 pairs of LUSC tissues. MiR-205-5p and PTPRM have good diagnostic efficacy and are expressed differently in different clinical features and are related to tumor immunity. The research identified a potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory network, providing a new way to explore the genesis and development of LUSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2022.888020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9197544PMC
May 2022

Synergistic effect of indium doping and chlorine surface passivation on CsPbI perovskite quantum dots for deep-red light-emitting devices.

Opt Lett 2022 Jun;47(12):3047-3050

Deep-red CsPbI perovskite quantum dots (PeQDs) are essential for high-efficiency perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs) because of their high color purity and high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY). The synergetic strategy of indium (In) doping and chlorine (Cl) surface passivation not only partially replaced Pb ions with the smaller ionic In but also filled I vacancies by Cl on the surface, maintaining the humidity stability for more than 24 days and yielding excellent PLQY. Benefiting from this synergetic strategy, deep-red (approximately at 683 nm) CsPbI PeLEDs showed a maximum luminance and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 311 cd m and 8.32%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.458017DOI Listing
June 2022

Synthesis of symmetrical secondary oligoethylene glycolated amines from diethanolamine.

Org Biomol Chem 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Innovation Academy of Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.

Monodisperse oligoethylene glycols (M-OEGs)-containing symmetrical secondary amines are highly valuable synthetic intermediates in drug development and materials sciences. Scalable three-step synthesis of M-OEGs secondary amines with flexible M-OEGs and/or alkyl chains is described herein. Through reduction amination of diethanolamine, Williamson ether synthesis, and subsequent deprotection, a series of M-OEGs secondary amines with diverse and fine-tunable chemical structures were conveniently prepared. The presented strategy is attractive with readily available starting materials, simple catalytic systems, scalable synthesis, and avoids the use of explosive sodium azide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ob00605gDOI Listing
June 2022

Coverage of exposed ankle and foot with the conjoined lower abdomen and groin flaps.

Injury 2022 Jun 7. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Department of Orthopedic Hand Surgery, The Affiliated Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Southwest Medical University, No.16 Chunhui Avenue, Longma Tan District, Luzhou, Sichuan 646,000, China. Electronic address:

Background: Extensive soft-tissue defects around the ankle and foot pose a difficult challenge to surgeons. Considering that natural contour, the ideal solution should match a thin and pliable skin flap to allow shoe fitting and provide a functional move. As the conjoined flaps were increasingly utilized in covering various defects, we present our experience using the bipedicle conjoined flap on the lower abdomen and groin site.

Methods: From May 2018 to September 2020, 36 patients (27 male and 9 female) with a mean age of 32 years (ranged, 21-54 years) underwent the one-stage coverage of ankle and foot defects with the bipedicle conjoined flap. A suitable "Y" bifurcation was dissected to enlarge vessel size or participated in intra-flap anastomosis. The mean dimension of the defect was 30 × 12 cm (ranged, 20 × 8 cm to 38 × 16 cm). Primary donor-site closure was accomplished in all patients.

Results: Thirty-six flaps survived completely without significant complications, and mild venous congestion was observed in one flap. The average flap size was 35 × 15 cm (ranged, 22 × 10 cm to 42 × 18 cm). All flaps were available for a mean follow-up of 18 months (ranged, 12 to 24 months). Natural shape and walking function were successfully achieved with restored protective sensation.

Conclusions: Bipedicle conjoined flap harvested from the lower abdomen and groin is a great alternative, in selected patients seeking one-stage coverage for the exposed ankle and foot. Compared to single-pedicle flaps, the increased skin allows the wider coverage for the large defect with less morbidity and better outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2022.06.003DOI Listing
June 2022

Systematic Investigations on the Metabolic and Transcriptomic Regulation of Lactate in the Human Colon Epithelial Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 2;23(11). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.

Lactate, primarily produced by the gut microbiota, performs as a necessary "information transmission carrier" between the gut and the microbiota. To investigate the role of lactate in the gut epithelium cell-microbiota interactions as a metabolic signal, we performed a combinatory, global, and unbiased analysis of metabolomic and transcriptional profiling in human colon epithelial cells (Caco-2), using a lactate treatment at the physiological concentration (8 mM). The data demonstrated that most of the genes in oxidative phosphorylation were significantly downregulated in the Caco-2 cells due to lactate treatment. Consistently, the levels of fumarate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and creatine significantly decreased, and these are the metabolic markers of OXPHOS inhibition by mitochondria dysfunction. The one-carbon metabolism was affected and the polyol pathway was activated at the levels of gene expression and metabolic alternation. In addition, lactate significantly upregulated the expressions of genes related to self-protection against apoptosis. In conclusion, lactate participates in gut-gut microbiota communications by remodeling the metabolomic and transcriptional signatures, especially for the regulation of mitochondrial function. This work contributes comprehensive information to disclose the molecular mechanisms of lactate-mediated functions in human colon epithelial cells that can help us understand how the microbiota communicates with the intestines through the signaling molecule, lactate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23116262DOI Listing
June 2022

Protective Mechanism of L. Extract on Chronic Alcoholic Liver Injury Based on UHPLC-QExactive Plus Mass Spectrometry Lipidomics and MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

Foods 2022 May 28;11(11). Epub 2022 May 28.

Key Laboratory for Information System of Mountainous Areas and Protection of Ecological Environment, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China.

L. has a long history of medicinal and edible applications. Studies have shown that it can significantly protect liver injury, but the mechanism is unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the protective mechanism of on chronic alcoholic liver injury from the perspective of lipid metabolism. After 8 weeks of alcohol exposure in male Wister mice, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum were significantly increased, and the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, pathological changes of liver tissue in mice were observed by histopathology. Then, Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) QExactive Plus Mass Spectrometer lipidomics and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time -of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry imaging methods were established to analyze lipid metabolism in mice. Ten different lipids were identified by statistical analysis, including Fatty Acyls, Glycerophospholipids, Prenol lipids and Sphingomyelins. After intervention with extracts at different doses (25 to 100 mg/kg), levels of AST, ALT, ALP in serum, and activities of ADH and ALDH in liver were significantly corrected. The hepatic cord structure was clear, and the liver cells were closely arranged without other obvious abnormalities. Non-target lipidomics analysis showed that extract could regulate the metabolic disorders of the 10 different lipids caused by continuous alcohol exposure. Pathway analysis suggested that the mechanism of extract on chronic alcoholic liver injury may be related to the regulation of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11111583DOI Listing
May 2022

Predicting college students' COVID-19 vaccination behavior: an application of the extended parallel process model.

J Behav Med 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

The two studies reported in the paper examined (1) the extended parallel process model's (EPPM; Witte 1992) ability to predict and explain college students' COVID-19 vaccination behavior, and (2) the EPPM-related reasons for college students' COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Study 1 was a longitudinal study that measured the EPPM constructs at Time 1 and COVID-19 vaccine behavior two months later at Time 2. For danger control, results indicate that perceived threat and perceived efficacy positively predicted intentions and that intentions positively predicted behavior. For fear control, results indicate that perceived threat positively predicted fear, that perceived efficacy did not predict fear, and that fear negatively predicted defensive avoidance, reactance, and fatalism. Study 2 was a cross-sectional survey that assessed EPPM-related reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Results indicate that the main reasons for vaccine hesitancy were related to response efficacy (i.e., participants were concerned about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine). The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-022-00330-5DOI Listing
June 2022

Biorefinery Cascade Processing for Converting Corncob to Xylooligosaccharides and Glucose by Maleic Acid Pretreatment.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

School of Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic Medicine, Hangzhou Medical College, 310053, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Corncob as an abundant and low-cost waste resource has received increasing attention to produce value-added chemicals, it is rich in xylan and regarded as the most preferable feedstock for preparing high value added xylooligosaccharides. The use of xylooligosaccharides as core products can cut costs and improve the economic efficiency in biorefinery. In this study, maleic acid, as a non-toxic and edible acidic catalyst, was employed to pretreat corncob and produce xylooligosaccharides. Firstly, the response surface methodology experimental procedure was employed to maximize the yield of the xylooligosaccharides; a yield of 52.9% (w/v) was achieved with 0.5% maleic acid (w/v) at 155 °C for 26 min. In addition, maleic acid pretreatment was also beneficial to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency, resulting in an enzymatic glucose yield of 85.4% (w/v) with a total of 10% solids loading. Finally, a total of 160 g of xylooligosaccharides and 275 g glucose could be produced from 1000 g corncob starting from the maleic acid pretreatment. Overall, a cascade processing for converting corncob to xylooligosaccharides and glucose by sequential maleic acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was successfully designed for the corncob wastes utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-022-03985-7DOI Listing
June 2022

Evaluation of injuries caused by coronavirus disease 2019 using multi-nuclei magnetic resonance imaging.

Magn Reson Lett 2021 Aug 8;1(1):2-10. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences-Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Wuhan, 430071, China.

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a great burden for the healthcare system in many countries because of its high transmissibility, severity, and fatality. Chest radiography and computed tomography (CT) play a vital role in the diagnosis, detection of complications, and prognostication of COVID-19. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially multi-nuclei MRI, is another important imaging technique for disease diagnosis because of its good soft tissue contrast and the ability to conduct structural and functional imaging, which has also been used to evaluate COVID-19-related organ injuries in previous studies. Herein, we briefly reviewed the recent research on multi-nuclei MRI for evaluating injuries caused by COVID-19 and the clinical H MRI techniques and their applications for assessing injuries in lungs, brain, and heart. Moreover, the emerging hyperpolarized Xe gas MRI and its applications in the evaluation of pulmonary structures and functional abnormalities caused by COVID-19 were also reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrl.2021.100009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349427PMC
August 2021

Fe-VS2 electrocatalyst with organic matrix mediated electron transfer for highly efficient nitrogen fixation.

ChemSusChem 2022 Jun 7. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, No.92, West Da-Zhi Street, Harbin, 150001, China, 150001, harbin, CHINA.

Electrochemical N 2 fixation is considered to be a promising alternative to century-dated Haber-Bosch technology. Inspired by the composition and structure of natural Nitrogenase, Fe doped VS 2 nanosheets were prepared via one-step solvothermal method. The electron transfer system mediated by organic conductive polymer (1-AAQ-PA) was bio-mimetically constructed to promote the electron transfer between Fe-VS 2 nanosheets and the electrode in electrocatalytic N 2 reduction process. The obtained 1-AAQ-PA-Fe-VS 2 electrode converted N 2 to NH 3 with a yield of 31.6 μg h -1 mg -1 at -0.35 V vs. RHE and high Faradaic efficiency of 23.5%. The introduction of Fe dopants favors N 2 adsorption and activation, meanwhile the Li + -S bond between Fe-VS 2 and Li 2 SO 4 effectively inhibits HER. The highly efficient electron utilization in the electrocatalytic NRR process is realized using the 1-AAQ-PA as the electron transfer medium. DFT calculations showed that N 2 was preferentially adsorbed on Fe and reduced to NH 3 via the distal associated mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202200741DOI Listing
June 2022

Secondary Generalized Cutaneous Mucinosis Developed During Etanercept Treatment in a Patient with Psoriasis.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2022 31;15:987-992. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Dermatology, Changhai Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China.

Cutaneous mucinosis is a rare disease that manifests as an excessive accumulation of mucin in the skin that forms waxy papules or plaques. We report a case of a 44-year-old male psoriatic patient who developed generalized cutaneous mucinosis after 11 months of biological treatment. The patient had a history of psoriasis for 20 years and had been treated with narrow-band UVB phototherapy, methotrexate, or acitretin intermittently. He was started on etanercept after he was diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis, and 11 months later, he complained of swelling in his extremities and myxoid cysts on his fingers. Etanercept was then discontinued due to loss of efficacy and widespread skin lesions. However, the lesions subsided spontaneously after 6 months without specific systemic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S368390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9166950PMC
May 2022

Precision environmental health monitoring by longitudinal exposome and multi-omics profiling.

Genome Res 2022 Jun 6;32(6):1199-1214. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94304, USA.

Conventional environmental health studies have primarily focused on limited environmental stressors at the population level, which lacks the power to dissect the complexity and heterogeneity of individualized environmental exposures. Here, as a pilot case study, we integrated deep-profiled longitudinal personal exposome and internal multi-omics to systematically investigate how the exposome shapes a single individual's phenome. We annotated thousands of chemical and biological components in the personal exposome cloud and found they were significantly correlated with thousands of internal biomolecules, which was further cross-validated using corresponding clinical data. Our results showed that agrochemicals and fungi predominated in the highly diverse and dynamic personal exposome, and the biomolecules and pathways related to the individual's immune system, kidney, and liver were highly associated with the personal external exposome. Overall, this data-driven longitudinal monitoring study shows the potential dynamic interactions between the personal exposome and internal multi-omics, as well as the impact of the exposome on precision health by producing abundant testable hypotheses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.276521.121DOI Listing
June 2022

Activin receptor-like kinase 7 silencing alleviates cardiomyocyte apoptosis, cardiac fibrosis, and dysfunction in diabetic rats.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2022 Jun 6:15353702221095049. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Ji'nan 250012, China.

Activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7) is associated with lipometabolism and insulin sensitivity. Our previous study demonstrated that ALK7 participated in high glucose-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. The aim of our study was to investigate whether ALK7 plays an important role in modulating diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and the mechanisms involved. The model of diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (120-140 g) by high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injections of low-dose streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). Animals were separated into four groups: control, DCM, DCM with ALK7 silencing, and DCM with vehicle control. The cardiac function was assessed by catheterization. Histopathologic analyses of collagen content and apoptosis rate, and protein analyses of ALK7, Smad2/3, Akt, Caspase3, and Bax/Bcl2 were performed. This study showed a rat model of DCM with hyperglycemia, severe insulin resistance, left ventricular dysfunction, and structural remodeling. With ALK7 silencing, the apoptotic cell death (apoptosis rate assessed by TUNEL, ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and expression of cleaved Caspase3), fibrosis areas, and Collagen I-to-III ratio decreased significantly. The insulin resistance and diastolic dysfunction were also ameliorated by ALK7 silencing. Furthermore, the depressed phosphorylation of Akt was restored while elevated phosphorylation of Smad2/3 decreased after the silencing of ALK7. The results suggest ALK7 silencing plays a protective role in DCM and may serve as a potential target for the treatment of human DCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15353702221095049DOI Listing
June 2022

Identification of cell types in multiplexed in situ images by combining protein expression and spatial information using CELESTA.

Nat Methods 2022 Jun 2;19(6):759-769. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Department of Biomedical Data Science, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Advances in multiplexed in situ imaging are revealing important insights in spatial biology. However, cell type identification remains a major challenge in imaging analysis, with most existing methods involving substantial manual assessment and subjective decisions for thousands of cells. We developed an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, CELESTA, which identifies the cell type of each cell, individually, using the cell's marker expression profile and, when needed, its spatial information. We demonstrate the performance of CELESTA on multiplexed immunofluorescence images of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Using the cell types identified by CELESTA, we identify tissue architecture associated with lymph node metastasis in HNSCC, and validate our findings in an independent cohort. By coupling our spatial analysis with single-cell RNA-sequencing data on proximal sections of the same specimens, we identify cell-cell crosstalk associated with lymph node metastasis, demonstrating the power of CELESTA to facilitate identification of clinically relevant interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-022-01498-zDOI Listing
June 2022

The CaMYB340 transcription factor induces chilling injury in post-harvest bell pepper by inhibiting fatty acid desaturation.

Plant J 2022 Jun 2. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

College of Food, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, 110866, China.

Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is a tradable and desirable crop; however, its perishable nature requires low-temperature handling. Paradoxically, cold causes chilling injury (CI) and postharvest waste. Current knowledge about CI in pepper is limited. The mechanism of CI is multi-faceted; thus, this study focused on fatty acid desaturation and identified an upstream nuclear transcription factor (TF) CaMYB340 belonging to the R2R3 MYB subfamily that negatively regulates fatty acid desaturation and CaCBF3, and is induced by low temperature (4°C) at the DNA and transcriptional levels. Specifically, McrBC treatment and bisulfite sequencing PCR indicate that exposure to cold triggers DNA methylation on one of the CHH sites in the CaMYB340 promoter. This epigenetic event at least partly contributes to the upregulation of CaMYB340 transcripts. Increased expression of CaMYB340 results in the formation of protein complexes with CaMYB340, CabHLH93, and CaMYB1R1 that in turn downregulates the expression of downstream genes. For peppers held at low temperature, transient overexpression of CaMYB340 reduced unsaturated fatty acid (FA) content and membrane fluidity, resulting in cold-induced poor peel texture. Transient CaMYB340 silencing increased FA desaturation and lowered electrolyte leakage, enhancing cold tolerance in CaMYB340 RNA interference (CaMYB340-RNAi) fruits. Overall, these results underscore the intricacy of transcriptional networks in plants and highlight the role of CaMYB340 in CI occurrence in pepper fruits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15854DOI Listing
June 2022

A reversible turn-on fluorescent probe for quantitative imaging and dynamic monitoring of cellular glutathione.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Jun 21;1214:339957. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, China; Analysis Center of Qingdao University, China. Electronic address:

Real-time quantification of glutathione (GSH) concentrations in living cells is essential for understanding GSH-related pathological events. However, most existing fluorescent probes are not suitable for this purpose due to their irreversible response mechanisms. Only a few probes have been successfully developed to realize this goal to date. Herein, we presented a fluorescent probe (QG-S) for quantifying cellular GSH and monitoring GSH dynamic variations. The probe QG-S was successfully employed in real-time monitoring of the dynamic variations of GSH in living cells upon reversible treatment with a GSH inhibitor (N-methylmaleimide) by using confocal microscopy. Moreover, the probe QG-S showed extremely low cytotoxicity and was facilely used to quantitatively determine the GSH concentration (4.25 mM) in living HeLa cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.339957DOI Listing
June 2022

Long-term risks for cardiovascular disease and mortality across the glycaemic spectrum in a male-predominant Chinese cohort aged 75 years or older: the Kailuan study.

Age Ageing 2022 06;51(6)

Department of Geriatrics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital; Tianjin Geriatrics Institute, Tianjin 300052, China.

Background: Ageing and diabetes are growing global health burdens. The current understanding of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality risk across the glycaemic spectrum in older populations is limited.

Objectives: This study sought to characterise CVD and all-cause mortality risk across the glycaemic spectrum among Chinese adults aged 75 years or older in a community-based setting over10 years.

Methods: The 3,989 adults in the Kailuan Study were aged over 75 years (median age was 79 years [interquartile range: 76-82]; 2,785 normoglycaemic, 691 prediabetic and 513 diabetic, determined by fasting blood glucose levels) at baseline, predominantly male (92.9% male) and followed until December 2019. Time-varying Cox regression and competing-risk models were used to examine the hazard ratio (HR) of incident CVD and mortality across the glycaemic exposures.

Results: During median follow-up of 11.3 years, 433 first CVD and 2,222 deaths were recorded. Compared with normoglycaemia, multivariable-adjusted models revealed the following: (i) prediabetes was not associated with future risks for CVD (HR: 1.17; 95% CI 0.82-1.69) and all-cause mortality (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.70-1.60); (ii) diabetes-associated enhanced risks for CVD and all-cause mortality were mainly confined to those exhibiting low-grade inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥2.0 mg/L) levels. The results were consistent after multiple sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: Among a male-predominant Chinese population aged 75 years or older, compared with normoglycaemic participants, prediabetes was not associated with an enhanced 10-year CVD and all-cause mortality risk, and diabetes-associated enhanced 10-year risk was mainly confined to individuals exhibiting low-grade inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afac109DOI Listing
June 2022

Editorial: Isolation, Modification, and Characterization of the Constituents (Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin, et al.) in Biomass and Their Bio-Based Applications.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 13;10:866531. Epub 2022 May 13.

Co-Innovation Center for Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.866531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9136403PMC
May 2022
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