Publications by authors named "Xin Zhang"

6,513 Publications

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WVALE: Weak variational autoencoder for localisation and enhancement of COVID-19 lung infections.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2022 May 14;221:106883. Epub 2022 May 14.

School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic is a major global health crisis of this century. The use of neural networks with CT imaging can potentially improve clinicians' efficiency in diagnosis. Previous studies in this field have primarily focused on classifying the disease on CT images, while few studies targeted the localisation of disease regions. Developing neural networks for automating the latter task is impeded by limited CT images with pixel-level annotations available to the research community.

Methods: This paper proposes a weakly-supervised framework named "Weak Variational Autoencoder for Localisation and Enhancement" (WVALE) to address this challenge for COVID-19 CT images. This framework includes two components: anomaly localisation with a novel WVAE model and enhancement of supervised segmentation models with WVALE.

Results: The WVAE model have been shown to produce high-quality post-hoc attention maps with fine borders around infection regions, while weak supervision segmentation shows results comparable to conventional supervised segmentation models. The WVALE framework can enhance the performance of a range of supervised segmentation models, including state-of-art models for the segmentation of COVID-19 lung infection.

Conclusions: Our study provides a proof-of-concept for weakly supervised segmentation and an alternative approach to alleviate the lack of annotation, while its independence from classification & segmentation frameworks makes it easily integrable with existing systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2022.106883DOI Listing
May 2022

Ghrelin-Ghrelin receptor (GSHR) pathway via endocannabinoid signal affects the expression of NPY to promote the food intake of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

Horm Behav 2022 May 18;143:105199. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Aquaculture, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, 211#, Huimin Road, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Previous data suggested that activation of endocannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) was necessary for the orexigenic effect of Ghrelin in rodents, but the information is limited in teleosts. To investigate the feeding regulation pathway of Ghrelin and CB1 in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), this study first identified the Ghrelin (345 bp, complete coding sequence) and Ghrelin receptor (GHSR, 500 bp, partial coding sequence) sequences, and then detected their tissue distribution patterns, which showed that Ghrelin is mainly distribution in peripheral tissues, while GSHR is mainly in different brain divisions. Besides, the qPCR before and after feeding showed that the mRNA expressions of Ghrelin and GHSR were inhibited after feeding in telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon. Subsequently, the food intake and appetite factor expressions were measured by i.c.v. co-injection of Ghrelin and GSHR antagonist. The results showed that Ghrelin promoted the food intake of Siberian sturgeon, which was reversed by its receptor antagonist. Besides, i.c.v. injection of Ghrelin decreased telencephalon CART expression while increased NPY expression in the three brain regions. In addition, to further explore the relationship of Ghrelin and CB1 signal regulating feeding, the co-injection of Ghrelin and CB1 antagonists was performed. The results showed that AM6545 (CB1 peripheral restricted antagonist) failed to affect the orexigenic effect of Ghrelin and the expression pattern of NPY mRNA in the telencephalon. While in the diencephalon, the increase of food intake and NPY mRNA expression induced by Ghrelin was completely reversed by Rimonabant (CB1 global antagonist). These results indicate Ghrelin-GSHR pathway promotes the food intake of Siberian sturgeon by inducing the expression of NPY in the diencephalon, and the stimulating effect will be reversed by cannabinoid receptor antagonism. This study provides a foundation for understanding the pathways Ghrelin and CB1 signals in appetite regulation of the teleost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2022.105199DOI Listing
May 2022

FLOURY ENDOSPERM20 encoding SHMT4 is required for rice endosperm development.

Plant Biotechnol J 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13858DOI Listing
May 2022

Tirapazamine-loaded CalliSpheres microspheres enhance synergy between tirapazamine and embolization against liver cancer in an animal model.

Biomed Pharmacother 2022 May 17;151:113123. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Radiology, Hubei Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Tirapazamine (TPZ) is a promising hypoxia-selective cytotoxic agent that may exert synergistic tumor-killing activity with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for liver cancer. To investigated whether TPZ-loaded microspheres enhance the synergy between TPZ and TAE in liver cancer, we prepared TPZ-loaded CalliSpheres microspheres (CSMTPZs) and characterized their properties as a chemoembolization agent in vitro. Tumor hypoxia after TAE was detected in the rabbit VX2 model of liver cancer using a modified Clark-type microelectrode research system. CSMTPZ therapy was performed in the animal model. The plasma and tumor concentrations of TPZ and its metabolites were measured, and the efficacy and safety of CSMTPZ therapy were evaluated and compared with those of the conventional combination of intraarterial TPZ injection and embolization. The results showed that CSMTPZs displayed favorable in vitro properties including drug loading and release and microsphere size, shape, and surface profiles. TAE induced acute tumor hypoxia, but residual tumor cells responded to hypoxia through hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. CSMTPZ therapy improved TPZ delivery into tumor tissue with minimal systemic exposure. Accordingly, CSMTPZ therapy exhibited advantages in terms of hypoxia-selected cytotoxicity, tumor apoptosis and necrosis, animal survival, and safety over the conventional combination of TPZ and TAE. We revealed the improved synergistic anti-tumor effects of CSMTPZ therapy in the rabbit VX2 liver cancer model. Our data support the clinical evaluation of CSMTPZs in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, and CSMTPZ administration might serve as a successful therapeutic strategy for this malignancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113123DOI Listing
May 2022

An Efficient Lightweight SAR Ship Target Detection Network with Improved Regression Loss Function and Enhanced Feature Information Expression.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Apr 30;22(9). Epub 2022 Apr 30.

College of Automation, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065, China.

It is difficult to identify the ship images obtained by a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) due to the influence of dense ships, complex background and small target size, so a deep learning-based target detection algorithm was introduced to obtain better detection performance. However, in order to achieve excellent performance, most of the current target detection algorithms focus on building deep and high-width neural networks, resulting in bloated network structure and reduced detection speed, which is not conducive to the practical application of target detection algorithms. Thereby, an efficient lightweight network Efficient-YOLO for ship detection in complex situations is proposed in the present work. Firstly, a new regression loss function ECIOU is proposed to enhance the detection boxes localization accuracy and model convergence speed. Secondly, We propose the SCUPA module to enhance the multiplexing of picture feature information and the model generalization performance. Thirdly, The GCHE module is proposed to strengthen the network's ability to extract feature information. At last, the effectiveness of our method is tested on the specialized ship dataset: SSDD and HRSID datasets. The results show that Efficient-YOLO outperforms other state-of-the-art algorithms in accuracy, recall and detection speed, with smaller model complexity and model size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s22093447DOI Listing
April 2022

Chest CT tomography vs. intracavitary electrocardiogram guidance in predicting the length of PICC placement.

BMC Surg 2022 May 19;22(1):197. Epub 2022 May 19.

Shijiazhuang General Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Background: To evaluate chest computed tomography (CT) compared to intracavitary electrocardiogram (ECG) in predicting the length of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) placement and analyzing the accuracy of the positioning methods.

Methods: This study included a total number of 436 patients who underwent PICC placement. The patients enrolled were randomly divided into two groups: ECG group (n = 218, received IC-ECG) and chest CT group (n = 218, received chest CT). The tip length of the catheter in the superior vena cava, the measured length of the catheter and the actual insertion length of the catheter were observed and recorded in the two groups.

Results: The best catheterization rate of tip positioning and the one-time placement rate of tip positioning in ECG group were significantly higher than that in the chest CT group (all P < 0.05). The comfort level and satisfaction rate in ECG group was significantly higher than that of chest CT group (all P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Accurate catheterization length could be achieved by both chest CT and intracavitary electrocardiogram guidance in the process of predicting PICC placement length. However, IC-ECG guided procedure was more worthy of promotion in clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-022-01604-0DOI Listing
May 2022

A sensitive simultaneous detection approach for the determination of 30 atmospheric carbonyls by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization with HPLC-MS technique and its preliminary application.

Chemosphere 2022 May 16:134985. Epub 2022 May 16.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China; Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, China.

Atmospheric carbonyls are important precursors of PM and ground-level ozone, and some carbonyls are toxic and harmful; thus, it is crucial to obtain accurate information on the ambient levels of carbonyls. However, the detection of carbonyls is difficult due to their relatively higher reactivities and chemical instabilities; therefore, accurate determination of atmospheric carbonyls is important. In this study, an analytical method for atmospheric carbonyls with high concentration or reactivity was developed, the precursor ion of each carbonyl compound was selected, and the declustering potential (DP) and entrance potential (EP) for each precursor ion were optimized. A 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine cartridge derivatization-high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (DNPH-HPLC/APCI-MS) method for the determination of 30 carbonyls was established. The results showed that the linear range of 30 carbonyls was not less than 1.2-300 ng/mL, and the detection limits ranged from 0.092 to 0.947 ng/mL (0.005-0.049 μg/m with an ambient air sampling volume of 96 L). The intra-day and inter-day repeatability ranges were 0.55-4.20% and 1.40-12.48%, respectively. A preliminary application of the method was carried out in the urban area of Beijing in the spring and summer of 2021, and it was found that the mean total mass concentration of 30 carbonyls was 35.894 μg/m. This study provided additional concentration information for 14 atmospheric carbonyls, including mono-carbonyl, di-carbonyl, oxygen-containing carbonyl and heterocyclic carbonyls, which accounted for 38% and 35% of the total mass concentration and OH radical reactivities of 30 carbonyls, respectively. This is the first investigation of the simultaneous quantitative analysis of multiple atmospheric carbonyls based on commercial standard derivatives. The optimized method could provide more comprehensive information for atmospheric carbonyls and further support research concerning the role of chemical reaction processes and health effects than traditional monitoring techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134985DOI Listing
May 2022

Occurrence and behavior of arsenic in groundwater-aquifer system of irrigated areas.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 16:155991. Epub 2022 May 16.

State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology and School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Groundwater arsenic pollution has received much attention worldwide for decades as a serious threat to public health, but the mechanisms responsible for arsenic mobilization are not fully understood. Groundwater and bore drilling sediment samples from Qiji county, a small geographical agricultural area with endemic arsenicosis, are collected for demonstrating the occurrence and speciation of arsenic in groundwater and sediments, and arsenic release between solid-liquid phase influenced by human activities. Results show that arsenic concentrations in groundwater vary from 5 μg/L to 19.6 μg/L, with 80% exceeding the maximum permissible limits required by WHO (10 μg/L) for drinking water and therefore constituting a health risk for humans. In a weak oxidizing environment (oxidation-reduction potential (ORP): 12.9 mV-151 mV), inorganic As(V) accounts for 85% of total dissolved As, which to some extent alleviates the harm of As pollution on humans. Total As content in the sediments is in the range of 6.98 mg/kg and 14.34 mg/kg (median of 10.71 mg/kg), three times higher than the average value of many countries. Sequential chemical leaching indicates that 11% of arsenic in sediments is labile bound and may be closely related to the arsenic in groundwater. Additionally, irrigation intensity contributes to arsenic release with diverse As/As by dissolving weakly bound arsenic rapidly. Subsequently part of As(III) is oxidized to As(V). Competitive and/or alkaline desorption of As(V), which had been adsorbed by FeMn (hydrous)-oxides and carbonates in the unsaturated zone and the aquifer, exerts a significant role in releasing arsenic into the groundwater. Our study indicates that systematic management and regulation of irrigation intensity are required to prevent further deterioration of groundwater resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155991DOI Listing
May 2022

Homozygous missense mutation in CCDC155 disrupts the transmembrane distribution of CCDC155 and SUN1, resulting in non-obstructive azoospermia and premature ovarian insufficiency in humans.

Hum Genet 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) represent the most serious forms of human infertility caused by gametogenic failure. Although whole-exome sequencing (WES) has uncovered multiple monogenic causes of human infertility, our knowledge of the genetic basis of human gametogenesis defects remains at a rudimentary stage. Coiled-coil-domain-containing protein 155 (CCDC155) encodes a core component of the linker of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex that is essential for modulating telomere-led chromosome movements during the meiotic prophase of mice. Additionally, Ccdc155 deficiency in mice causes infertility in both sexes with meiotic arrest. In this study, we applied WES to identify the pathogenic genes for 15 NOA and POI patients whose parents were consanguineous and identified a novel homozygous missense mutation in CCDC155 [c.590T>C (p.Leu197Pro)] in a pair of familial NOA and POI patients whose parents were first cousins. The affected spermatocytes were unable to complete meiotic division coupled with unresolved repair of the DNA double-strand break. This rare missense mutation with lesions in the conserved CC domain of CCDC155 blocked nuclear envelope (NE) distribution and subsequently prevented NE-specific enrichment of Sad1- and UNC84-domain-containing 1 either ex vivo or in vitro, eventually leading to disruptive NE anchoring of chromosome-induced meiotic arrest in both sexes. This study presents the first evidence of the necessity of the SUN1-CCDC155 complex during human meiosis and provides insight into the CCDC155 CC domain, thereby expanding the genetic spectrum of human NOA and POI and promoting adequate genetic counselling and appropriate fertility guidance for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-022-02459-4DOI Listing
May 2022

Epidemiological Investigation of an Inhalational Anthrax Patient Traveling for Medical Treatment in Beijing Municipality, China, August 2021.

China CDC Wkly 2022 Jan;4(1):4-7

Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

What Is Already Known About This Topic?: Inhalational anthrax, also known as pulmonary anthrax, is an infectious disease caused by The patients are usually infected by inhaling aerosolized spores from dead animals or animal products. Compared to cutaneous anthrax, inhalational anthrax is rare and deadly and few cases in China were reported.

What Is Added By This Report?: This report covers all information of clinical features, laboratory testing, and epidemiological characteristics as well as exposure history of a recent primary inhalational anthrax patient who was seeking medical treatment in Beijing Municipality in August 2021. New laboratory techniques, including second-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction, and rapid test for serum antibody, played an important role in the process.

What Are The Implications For Public Health Practice?: The information provided in this report, including the correct sample type, epidemiological investigation details, and application of the new diagnostic criteria of anthrax, could assist public health professionals in dealing with anthrax epidemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8796723PMC
January 2022

Cholera Caused by a New Clone of Serogroup O1 - Beijing Municipality, China, June 2021.

China CDC Wkly 2022 Jan;4(2):31-32

Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Traceability Technologies for Food Poisoning, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2021.279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8796729PMC
January 2022

First report of Neopestalotiopsis clavispora causing leaf spot disease on banana (Musa acuminate L.) in China.

Plant Dis 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Haikou, China;

Banana (Musa acuminate L.) is an important tropical fruit in China. In October 2020, a new leaf spot disease was observed on banana plants at an orchard of Zhenkang county (23°45'23.46″ N, 98°48'46.52″ E), Lincang city, Yunnan province, China. The disease incidence was about 1%. The leaf spots occurred sporadically and the percentage of the leaf area covered by lesions was less than 5%. Symptoms on the leaves were initially small, irregular, reddish-brown spots that gradually expanded to fusiform-shaped lesions with a yellow halo and eventually become necrotic, dry, and cracked. To isolate the pathogen, thirty symptomatic leaves (15 mm2) from five plants were surface disinfected in 70% ethanol (10 s) and 0.8% NaClO (2 min), rinsed in sterile water three times, and transferred to potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28°C for 5 days. Twenty-five colonies formed on the PDA plates were white with cottony aerial mycelium, round with a light orange underside. Abundant black globular acervuli semi-immersed on PDA were observed after a week. Conidia were straight or slightly curved, clavate to spindle, five cells, four septa with dimensions of 17.49 to 34.51 µm × 4.24 to 7.28 µm (avg. 23.83 × 5.62 µm; n=50). The apical and basal cells were hyaline, whereas the three median cells were dark brown. Conidia had a single basal appendage with lengths of 2.95 to 17.7 µm (avg. 7.18 µm; n=50) and two to three apical appendages with lengths of 10.7 to 53.84 µm (avg. 17.36 µm; n=50). These morphological characteristics are consistent with those of Neopestalotiopsis spp. (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2014). To confirm species, single-spore cultures of two representative isolates CATAS-102001 and CATAS-102002 were selected for further identification. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1-α) and β-tubulin (TUB2) genes of the two isolates were amplified with primers ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), EF1-728/EF2 (O'Donnell et al. 1998; Carbone and Kohn, 1999) and T1/Bt2b (Glass and Donaldson, 1995; O'Donnell and Cigelnik, 1997), respectively, and sequenced. The sequences were deposited in GenBank (ITS: OM281005 and OM281006; TEF1-α: OM328820 and OM328821; TUB2: OM328818 and OM328819). A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA 7.0 (Kumar et al. 2016) based on the concatenated sequences ITS region, EF1-α and TUB2 gene, and the cluster analysis placed the representative isolates CATAS-102001 and CATAS-102002 within a clade comprising Neopestalotiopsis clavispora. The pathogenicity of two isolates was conducted on six 7-leaf-old banana seedlings. Two leaves from each potted plants were stab inoculated by puncturing into 1-mm using a sterilized needle, and stabbing three points at both sides of leaf midrib, and then placing 10 μl conidial suspension (1×106 conidia/ml) on one side of wounded points and the other side of wounded points were inoculated with sterile water as control. Inoculated plants were kept inside a plastic bag for 72 h and maintained in the greenhouse (12 h/12 h light/dark, 28°C, 90% relative humidity). The experiments were repeated twice. Irregular necrotic lesions on inoculated leaves appeared 7 days after inoculation, whereas controls were asymptomatic. The fungus was recovered from inoculated leaves, and its taxonomy was confirmed morphologically and molecularly, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Neopestalotiopsis clavispora has been reported to cause leaf spot on Mangifera indica (Shu et al. 2020), Macadamia integrifolia (Santos et al. 2019) and Ligustrum lucidum (Chen et al. 2020). To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. clavispora on banana in China. The identification of N. clavispora as the causal agent of the observed leaf spot disease on banana is critical to the prevention and control of this disease in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-22-0455-PDNDOI Listing
May 2022

Surgical career choices of medical students in China: does gender bias play a role?

BMC Med Educ 2022 May 17;22(1):378. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Health Management, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Nangang District, Harbin, China.

Background: Gender bias in career choices has always been a matter of great concern, including in the field of medicine. This study reports on the current situation in this regard in China, including the reasons for Chinese medical students' willingness to engage in surgical careers; investigates their accounts of gender bias; and analyzes the effect of gender bias on their surgical career choices.

Methods: This study invited medical students from Harbin Medical University to fill out a non-mandatory questionnaire on whether they had witnessed gender bias, their surgical career intentions, and factors influencing their career intentions. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the differences between continuous variables. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to compare the differences between the categorical variables, the Kendall correlation coefficient (tau) was used to assess the correlation between the reasons rankings reported by gender, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted by logit model.

Results: A total of 643 students responded to the questionnaire. Of them, 63.76% expressed a willingness for a surgical career, with "interest" being a key driving factor (73.41%). Almost all respondents (96.27%) answered that there were more male leaders in the surgical departments they had rotated through or had contacted. Only a few respondents reported gender barriers influencing recruitment (32.19%). However, witnessing gender bias (recruitment of male required) was correlated to choice of surgical career (P < 0.05). Females were less willing to pursue a career in surgery if they had witnessed gender barriers in surgical recruitment. Male dominance also correlated to the choice of a surgical career (P < 0.1). Of the respondents, 53.19% believed that surgery was not suitable for females; among female respondents, this number was 56.12%, higher than for male respondents. When females think that the surgical profession is not suitable for them, it reduces the possibility of their pursuing a career in surgery.

Conclusion: Most medical students were interested in surgical care. Witnessing gender bias decreases females' willingness to pursue a career in surgery. It is necessary to stimulate medical students' interest in surgery when formulating strategies to promote surgical career choices, as well as to reduce gender bias in surgery; in this way, females' surgical careers should be ensured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-022-03453-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9112434PMC
May 2022

Relationship between impaired BMP signalling and clinical risk factors at early-stage vascular injury in the preterm infant.

Thorax 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Institute for Lung Biology and Disease and Comprehensive Pneumology Center with the CPC-M bioArchive, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany

Introduction: Chronic lung disease, that is, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication in preterm infants and develops as a consequence of the misguided formation of the gas-exchange area undergoing prenatal and postnatal injury. Subsequent vascular disease and its progression into pulmonary arterial hypertension critically determines long-term outcome in the BPD infant but lacks identification of early, disease-defining changes.

Methods: We link impaired bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling to the earliest onset of vascular pathology in the human preterm lung and delineate the specific effects of the most prevalent prenatal and postnatal clinical risk factors for lung injury mimicking clinically relevant conditions in a multilayered animal model using wild-type and transgenic neonatal mice.

Results: We demonstrate (1) the significant reduction in BMP receptor 2 (BMPR2) expression at the onset of vascular pathology in the lung of preterm infants, later mirrored by reduced plasma BMP protein levels in infants with developing BPD, (2) the rapid impairment (and persistent change) of BMPR2 signalling on postnatal exposure to hyperoxia and mechanical ventilation, aggravated by prenatal cigarette smoke in a preclinical mouse model and (3) a link to defective alveolar septation and matrix remodelling through platelet derived growth factor-receptor alpha deficiency. In a treatment approach, we partially reversed vascular pathology by BMPR2-targeted treatment with FK506 in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusion: We identified impaired BMP signalling as a hallmark of early vascular disease in the injured neonatal lung while outlining its promising potential as a future biomarker or therapeutic target in this growing, high-risk patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-218083DOI Listing
May 2022

Long-term nickel contamination increased soil fungal diversity and altered fungal community structure and co-occurrence patterns in agricultural soils.

J Hazard Mater 2022 May 10;436:129113. Epub 2022 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Nickel (Ni) contamination imposes deleterious effects on the stability of soil ecosystem. Soil fungal community as a crucial moderator of soil remediation and biochemical processes has attracted more and more research interests. In the present study, soil fungal community composition and diversity under long-term Ni contamination were investigated and fungal interaction networks were built to reveal fungal co-occurrence patterns. The results showed that moderate Ni contamination significantly increased fungal diversity and altered fungal community structure. Functional predictions based on FUNGuild suggested that the relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) significantly increased at moderate Ni contamination level. Ni contamination strengthened fungal interactions. Keystone taxa at different Ni contamination levels, such as Penicillium at light contamination, were identified, which might have ecological significance in maintaining the stability of fungal community to Ni stress. The present study provided a deeper insight into the effect of long-term Ni contamination on fungal community composition and co-occurrence patterns, and was helpful to further explore ecological risk of Ni contamination in cultivated field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129113DOI Listing
May 2022

The texture of plant protein-based meat analogs by high moisture extrusion: A review.

J Texture Stud 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Meat analogs produced by high moisture extrusion (HME) are considered to be one of the products that have great potential for replacing real meat. The key issue as a meat analog is whether the texture can meet the standards of real meat. Nowadays, there have been some advances in the textural characterization of meat analogs, which are discussed in detail in this review. Firstly, this review describes the current characterizations of meat analogs in terms of fiber structure, hardness, springiness, tensile resistant force and sensory evaluation. Then, methods for analyzing the texture of meat analogs, such as texture analyzer, microstructure-based methods and other methods for characterizing fiber structure, are summarized. In addition, these characterizations are discussed in relation to the factors that influence the texture of meat analogs during HME. Finally, we propose priorities and some promising methods for future meat analogs conformation studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12697DOI Listing
May 2022

Efficacy and safety of acupuncture as a complementary therapy for sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acupunct Med 2022 May 17:9645284221086288. Epub 2022 May 17.

Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China.

Background: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulation of the host response to infection. Acupuncture is used for treatment of inflammatory diseases; however, its effectiveness and safety as a complementary therapy for sepsis has not been fully explored.

Methods: Data were retrieved from eight databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture plus conventional therapies versus conventional therapies alone were included. Pre-specified primary outcomes were mortality at 28 days and Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores.

Results: A total of 17 studies with 1099 participants were included in this study. In terms of the primary outcomes, acupuncture plus routine therapy reduced mortality at 28 days (risk ratio (RR)): 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52 to 0.91, p < 0.001) and APACHE II scores (mean difference (MD): -2.84, 95% CI: -4.09 to -1.58, p < 0.001) at day 7 after treatment compared with routine therapy alone. In terms of secondary outcomes, acupuncture plus routine therapy reduced white blood cell counts and levels of procalcitonin (PCT), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and lactic acid and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and improved CD3+, CD4+ and monocytes of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR at day 7 after treatment compared with routine therapy alone. However, acupuncture plus routine therapy had no significant effects on levels of IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP), CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ ratios compared with routine therapy alone. Quality of evidence was low to very low for all parameters (GRADE).

Conclusion: The available evidence showed that combination of acupuncture and routine therapy may have benefit for sepsis compared with use of routine therapy only. Due to the low degree of certainty regarding its effects, further research is required.

Trial Registration Number: ICRD42019141491 (PROSPERO).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09645284221086288DOI Listing
May 2022

A Novel Necroptosis-Associated lncRNA Signature Can Impact the Immune Status and Predict the Outcome of Breast Cancer.

J Immunol Res 2022 5;2022:3143511. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Breast Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin 150081, China.

Breast cancer (BRCA) is one of the leading causes of death among women worldwide, and drug resistance often leads to a poor prognosis. Necroptosis is a type of programmed cell death (PCD) and exhibits regulatory effects on tumor progression, but few studies have focused on the relationships between necroptosis-associated lncRNAs and BRCA. In this study, we established a signature basis of 7 necroptosis-related lncRNAs associated with prognosis and divided BRCA patients into high- and low-risk groups. Kaplan-Meier curves all showed an adverse prognosis for patients in the high-risk group. Cox assays confirmed that risk score was an independent prognostic factor for BRCA patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve proved the predictive accuracy of the signature and the area under the curve (AUC) values of the risk score reached 0.722. The nomogram relatively accurately predicted the prognosis of the patients. GSEA analysis suggested that the related signaling pathways and biological processes enriched in the high- and low-risk groups may influence the tumor microenvironment (TME) of BRCA. ssGSEA showed the difference in immune cell infiltration, immune pathway activation, and immune checkpoint expression between the two risk groups, with the low-risk group more suitable for immunotherapy. According to the significant difference in IC50 between risk groups, patients can be guided for an individualized treatment plan. Overall, the authors established a prognostic signature consisting of 7 necroptosis-associated lncRNAs that can independently predict the clinical outcome of BRCA patients. The difference in the tumor immune microenvironment between the low- and high-risk populations may be the reason for the resistance to immunotherapy in some patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3143511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9107037PMC
May 2022

Optoplasmonic MOFs film for SERS detection.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 May 11;278:121362. Epub 2022 May 11.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Soft Condensed Matter Physics and Smart Materials, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China. Electronic address:

Optoplasmonic hybrid structures composed of photonic and plasmonic elements with excellent optical properties are of great significance for the development of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. In this work, the optoplasmonic hybrid structure is composed of SiO microsphere and two-dimensional (2D) plasmonic- metal organic frameworks (MOF) film. Among them, the 2D plasmonic-MOF film is prepared from silver nanoparticles encapsulated by zeolitic imidazole acid framework ([email protected]) by self-assembly method. This optoplasmonic hybrid structure with gas adsorption properties could be used as a SERS substrate for 4-Mercaptophenol (4-MP) gas detection. Experimental data show that this substrate is dependent on the thickness of the ZIF shell and the size of the SiO microspheres. In addition, it is confirmed by the electromagnetic field simulation of finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD). The optoplasmonic hybrid microstructures exhibit good uniformity for detection of 4-MP gas molecules. This work not only broadens the understanding of our optoplasmonic hybrid structure, but also has broad application prospects in SERS and gas sensing related fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2022.121362DOI Listing
May 2022

A Deep Learning Model for Classification of Parotid Neoplasms Based on Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Image Sequences.

Laryngoscope 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

ENT Institute and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To design a deep learning model based on multimodal magnetic resonance image (MRI) sequences for automatic parotid neoplasm classification, and to improve the diagnostic decision-making in clinical settings.

Methods: First, multimodal MRI sequences were collected from 266 patients with parotid neoplasms, and an artificial intelligence (AI)-based deep learning model was designed from scratch, combining the image classification network of Resnet and the Transformer network of Natural language processing. Second, the effectiveness of the deep learning model was improved through the multi-modality fusion of MRI sequences, and the fusion strategy of various MRI sequences was optimized. In addition, we compared the effectiveness of the model in the parotid neoplasm classification with experienced radiologists.

Results: The deep learning model delivered reliable outcomes in differentiating benign and malignant parotid neoplasms. The model, which was trained by the fusion of T2-weighted, postcontrast T1-weighted, and diffusion-weighted imaging (b = 1000 s/mm ), produced the best result, with an accuracy score of 0.85, an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.96, a sensitivity score of 0.90, and a specificity score of 0.84. In addition, the multi-modal paradigm exhibited reliable outcomes in diagnosing the pleomorphic adenoma and the Warthin tumor, but not in the identification of the basal cell adenoma.

Conclusion: An accurate and efficient AI based classification model was produced to classify parotid neoplasms, resulting from the fusion of multimodal MRI sequences. The effectiveness certainly outperformed the model with single MRI images or single MRI sequences as input, and potentially, experienced radiologists.

Level Of Evidence: 3 Laryngoscope, 2022.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.30154DOI Listing
May 2022

Preoperative Pectoralis Muscle Index Predicts Distant Metastasis-Free Survival in Breast Cancer Patients.

Front Oncol 2022 29;12:854137. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers, and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in females worldwide. Sarcopenia is related to adverse clinical outcomes in patients with malignancies. Muscle index is a key parameter in evaluating sarcopenia. However, there is no data investigating the association between muscle index and distant metastasis in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to explore whether muscle index can effectively predict distant metastasis and death outcomes in breast cancer patients.

Study Design: The clinical data of 493 breast cancer patients at the Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital between January 2014 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Quantitative measurements of pectoralis muscle area and skeletal muscle area were performed at the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra (T4) and the eleventh thoracic vertebra (T11) of the chest computed tomography image, respectively. The pectoralis muscle index (PMI) and skeletal muscle index (SMI) were assessed by the normalized muscle area (area/the square of height). Survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.

Result: The patients with metastases had lower PMI at T4 level (PMI/T4) and SMI at T11 level (SMI/T11) compared with the patients without metastases. Moreover, there were significant correlations between PMI/T4 and lymphovascular invasion, Ki67 expression, multifocal disease, and molecular subtype. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that PMI/T4, not SMI/T11, was an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients.

Conclusions: Low PMI/T4 is associated with worse DMFS and OS in breast cancer patients. Future prospective studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.854137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9098931PMC
April 2022

CmWRKY15-1 Promotes Resistance to Chrysanthemum White Rust by Regulating Expression.

Front Plant Sci 2022 27;13:865607. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

College of Forestry, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, China.

Chrysanthemum white rust (CWR), a disease caused by the fungus Henn., seriously impairs the production and ornamental value of chrysanthemums. We previously isolated the disease-resistance gene from the chrysanthemum and generated transgenic plants. Here, we determined that -overexpressing lines of the susceptible cultivar 'Jinba' show higher defensive enzyme activity and lower HO levels than a wild type after inoculation with , indicating that positively regulates plant responses to . To further explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we performed RNA sequencing using the leaves of wild-type and -RNA interference lines of the resistant cultivar 'C029' after treatment with . We identified seven differentially expressed genes in the salicylic acid (SA) pathway, including (), encoding an important regulator of this pathway. We isolated the promoter by hiTAIL-PCR and predicted that it contains pathogen-induced W-box elements. The promoter region of was activated by in a β-glucuronidase activity assay. Yeast one-hybrid assays showed that CmWRKY15-1 binds to the promoter region to regulate its expression. Finally, we confirmed the interaction between CmWRKY15-1 and CmNPR1 in a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. We propose that CmWRKY15-1 interacts with CmNPR1 to activate the expression of downstream pathogenesis-related genes that enhance resistance to through the SA pathway. These findings shed light on the mechanism underlying resistance to CWR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.865607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9094113PMC
April 2022

Research Progress and Trends in Metabolomics of Fruit Trees.

Front Plant Sci 2022 29;13:881856. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, China.

Metabolomics is an indispensable part of modern systems biotechnology, applied in the diseases' diagnosis, pharmacological mechanism, and quality monitoring of crops, vegetables, fruits, etc. Metabolomics of fruit trees has developed rapidly in recent years, and many important research results have been achieved in combination with transcriptomics, genomics, proteomics, quantitative trait locus (QTL), and genome-wide association study (GWAS). These research results mainly focus on the mechanism of fruit quality formation, metabolite markers of special quality or physiological period, the mechanism of fruit tree's response to biotic/abiotic stress and environment, and the genetics mechanism of fruit trait. According to different experimental purposes, different metabolomic strategies could be selected, such as targeted metabolomics, non-targeted metabolomics, pseudo-targeted metabolomics, and widely targeted metabolomics. This article presents metabolomics strategies, key techniques in metabolomics, main applications in fruit trees, and prospects for the future. With the improvement of instruments, analysis platforms, and metabolite databases and decrease in the cost of the experiment, metabolomics will prompt the fruit tree research to achieve more breakthrough results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.881856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9106391PMC
April 2022

The Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 and Neurotrophin-3 Promote Functional Recovery and Alleviate Spasticity After Spinal Cord Injury.

Front Neurosci 2022 29;16:863793. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

School of Rehabilitation, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the exogenous overexpression of nerve growth factors NT-3 and IGF-1 on the recovery of nerve function after spinal cord injury (SCI) and identify the potential mechanism involved.

Methods: Sixty-four female SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: an SCI group, an adeno-associated viral (AAV)-RFP and AAV-GFP injection group, an AAV-IGF-1 and AAV-NT-3 injection group, and a Sham group. After grouping, the rats were subjected to a 10-week electrophysiological and behavioral evaluation to comprehensively evaluate the effects of the intervention on motor function, spasticity, mechanical pain, and thermal pain. Ten weeks later, samples were taken for immunofluorescence (IF) staining and Western blot (WB) detection, focusing on the expression of KCC2, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors in motor neurons and the spinal cord.

Results: Electrophysiological and behavioral data indicated that the AAV-IGF-1 and AAV-NT-3 groups showed better recovery of motor function ( < 0.05 from D14 compared with the AAV-RFP + AAV-GFP group; < 0.05 from D42 compared with SCI group) and less spasticity (4-10 weeks, at 5 Hz all < 0.05 compared with SCI group and AAV- RFP + AAV-GFP group) but with a trend for more pain sensitivity. Compared with the SCI group, the von Frey value result of the AAV-IGF-1 and AAV-NT-3 groups showed a lower pain threshold ( < 0.05 at 4-8 weeks), and shorter thermal pain threshold ( < 0.05 at 8-10 weeks). IF staining further suggested that compared with the SCI group, the overexpression of NT-3 and IGF-1 in the SCI-R + G group led to increased levels of KCC2 ( < 0.05), 5-HT2A ( < 0.05), and 5-HT2C ( < 0.001) in motor neurons. WB results showed that compared with the SCI group, the SCI-R + G group exhibited higher expression levels of CHAT ( < 0.01), 5-HT2A ( < 0.05), and 5-HT2C ( < 0.05) proteins in the L2-L6 lumbar enlargement.

Conclusion: Data analysis showed that the overexpression of NT-3 and IGF-1 may improve motor function after SCI and alleviate spasms in a rat model; however, these animals were more sensitive to mechanical pain and thermal pain. These behavioral changes may be related to increased numbers of KCC2, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptors in the spinal cord tissue. The results of this study may provide a new theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.863793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9099063PMC
April 2022

SPHERICAL TRANSFORMER FOR QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF PEDIATRIC CORTICAL SURFACES.

Proc IEEE Int Symp Biomed Imaging 2022 Mar 26;2022. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Radiology and BRIC, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.

Brain cortical surfaces, which have an intrinsic spherical topology, are typically represented by triangular meshes and mapped onto a spherical manifold in neuroimaging analysis. Inspired by the strong capability of feature learning in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), spherical CNNs have been developed accordingly and achieved many successes in cortical surface analysis. Motivated by the recent success of the transformer, in this paper, for the first of time, we extend the transformer into the spherical space and propose the spherical transformer, which can better learn contextual and structural features than spherical CNNs. We applied the spherical transformer in the important task of automatic quality assessment of infant cortical surfaces, which is a necessary procedure to identify problematic cases due to extremely low tissue contrast and strong motion effects in pediatric brain MRI studies. Experiments on 1,860 infant cortical surfaces validated its superior effectiveness and efficiency in comparison with spherical CNNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/isbi52829.2022.9761609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097946PMC
March 2022

Yinchenhao Decoction ameliorates the high-carbohydrate diet induced suppression of immune response in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2022 May 13;125:141-151. Epub 2022 May 13.

Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Vodňany, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Yinchenhao Decoction (YD), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic liver diseases. A 10-week feeding trail was carried out to examine the effects of YD supplementation in a high carbohydrate diet (HCD) on liver histopathology, immune response, disease resistance, and expression of genes associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, apoptosis, necroptosis and inflammation in juvenile largemouth. A diet containing 9% carbohydrate was used as a low carbohydrate diet (LCD), and a HCD was formulated to contain 18% carbohydrate and supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2 or 4% YD (HCD, HCD+0.5YD, HCD+1YD, HCD+2YD and HCD+4YD). Triplicate groups of fish (5.6 ± 0.2 g) were feed the test diets to visual satiety for 10 weeks. The highest survival rate after Nocardia seriolae challenge was recorded for the HCD+4YD group. YD application led to reduced ACP, AKP, AST and ALT activities. HCD-induced cells swelling, ruptured cell membrane, migrated nuclei and increasing inflammatory cells in hepatocytes were mitigated by YD addition. Moreover, YD decreased the expressions of pro-inflammation genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, hepcidin1, NF-κB, COX2, CD80 and CD83) and increased the mRNA levels of anti-inflammation genes (IL-10 and IKBα). The mode of liver cell death was preferably changed to programed apoptosis rather than uncontrolled necroptosis by application of YD in HCD. Furthermore, the expression of UPR genes (IRE1, Eif2α, ATF6, XBP1 and GRP78/Bip) and autophagy genes (LC3-2, BNIP3 and P62) was increased by YD supplementation. In summary, our results demonstrated that YD addition in HCD enhances UPR, autophagy and programed apoptosis maintaining the homeostasis, and decreases uncontrolled necroptosis and inflammation, ultimately leading to improved immune response in largemouth bass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2022.05.015DOI Listing
May 2022

Changes of the main components, physicochemical properties of distiller's grains after extrusion processing with focus on modification mechanism.

Food Chem 2022 May 10;390:133187. Epub 2022 May 10.

School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Distiller's grains (DGs) possessed great potential utilization value due to their rich active ingredients. However, its utilization efficiency was limited by the large amount of lignocellulose components and water-insoluble proteins. In this work, single screw extrusion was applied to modify physicochemical properties of DGs. Results indicated that extruded distiller's grains (EDGs) exhibited the lower crude fiber content (26.01%), the higher soluble fiber (9.07%) and the smaller particle size when compared with those of Control, and subsequently achieving the increased bulk density, swelling capacity and water/oil holding capacity. The crude protein in EDGs decreased slightly, while the total amount of acid hydrolyzed amino acids showed a significant increase. Additionally, the looser, coarser and fragmentary microstructure of EDGs were observed. The main macromolecules in EDGs had been modified distinctly based on thermal analysis, crystallinity and functional groups analyses, while the possible schematic diagram was conducted to better understand the modification mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133187DOI Listing
May 2022

Effects of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances on vaccine antibodies: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on epidemiological studies.

Environ Pollut 2022 May 11:119442. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071, PR China. Electronic address:

Vaccines are essential for children to defend against infection. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are emerging contaminants with the characteristics of persistence and bioaccumulation. PFAS exposure can affect the function of the nervous, endocrine, and immune system of animals and humans. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiological studies investigating potential relationships between PFAS exposure and vaccine antibody levels, and assessed whether PFAS would affect vaccine response in healthy children. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases up to February 2022. We chose studies that measured serum vaccines antibodies and PFAS concentrations of the participants. Essential information, including mean difference of percentage change, regression coefficient, odds ratio, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% confidence intervals, were extracted from the selected studies to conduct descriptive analysis and meta-analysis where appropriate. The qualities of these studies were evaluated as well. Finally, nine epidemiological studies about children met our inclusion criteria. A high degree of heterogeneity was observed in terms of breastfeeding time, confounder control, and detection method. Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid was negatively associated with tetanus antibody level in children without heterogeneity by Cochran's Q test (p = 0.26; p = 0.55), and exposure to perfluorohexane sulfonate was negatively associated with tetanus antibody level but with heterogeneity (p = 0.04). This comprehensive review suggests that PFAS can have adverse health effects on children by hindering the production of vaccine antibodies. There were some consistent and negative associations between children exposure to certain PFAS and tetanus antibody level. The association of the other four vaccines (measles, rubella, mumps, and influenza) with PFAS remains uncertain, because very few studies are available. Further studies are needed to validate the possible associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119442DOI Listing
May 2022

Plant Polysaccharides Modulate Immune Function via the Gut Microbiome and May Have Potential in COVID-19 Therapy.

Molecules 2022 Apr 26;27(9). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmacy, Lishui Central Hospital, Lishui 323000, China.

Plant polysaccharides can increase the number and variety of beneficial bacteria in the gut and produce a variety of active substances, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Gut microbes and their specific metabolites have the effects of promoting anti-inflammatory activity, enhancing the intestinal barrier, and activating and regulating immune cells, which are beneficial for improving immunity. A strong immune system reduces inflammation caused by external viruses and other pathogens. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still spreading globally, and patients with COVID-19 often have intestinal disease and weakened immune systems. This article mainly evaluates how polysaccharides in plants can improve the immune system barrier by improving the intestinal microecological balance, which may have potential in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9101721PMC
April 2022

Determination of Dapoxetine Hydrochloride in Human Plasma by HPLC-MS/MS and Its Application in a Bioequivalence Study.

Molecules 2022 Apr 22;27(9). Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, No. 232, Waihuandong Road, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Dapoxetine is used for the treatment of premature ejaculation. The present study developed an HPLC-MS/MS method to determine the levels of dapoxetine in human plasma processed using simple protein precipitation. Dapoxetine-d was selected as the internal standard. The established method was performed using a mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source in multiple positive ion reactions to monitor the mode using the precursor-to-product ion transitions of 306.2-157.2 and 313.2-164.2 for dapoxetine-d7 and dapoxetine, respectively. The method was evaluated based on its selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision, accuracy, matrix effects, dilution integrity, stability, and extraction recovery. As a result of the model used in the present study, the validated linear ranges of dapoxetine were determined to be 2.00~1000 ng/mL in plasma, and the selectivity, precision, accuracy, dilution integrity, stability, and extraction recovery met the accepted standard. No matrix interference was observed. The method was successfully validated and applied to pharmacokinetic studies in healthy Chinese volunteers during the fasting and postprandial periods, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27092707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9101379PMC
April 2022
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