Publications by authors named "Xin Xiao"

279 Publications

Use of Vascularized Fibular Epiphyseal Transfer with Massive Bone Allograft for Proximal Humeral Reconstruction in Children with Bone Sarcoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orthopedics, Xi Jing Hospital, Air force Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China.

Background: The vascularized fibula epiphyseal transfer provides a reconstructive option for longitudinal growth after oncologic resection of the proximal humerus in pediatric patients. However, postoperative fractures and poor shoulder function are common. The purpose of this review was to introduce a composite approach in oncologic reconstruction of the proximal humerus and assess its clinical outcomes.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated five children (3 osteosarcoma and 2 Ewing's sarcoma) who underwent biological reconstruction with combination of vascularized fibula epiphyseal transfer and massive bone allograft after oncologic resection of the proximal humerus. The mean follow-up was 46.8 months.

Results: All patients were alive at the last follow-up. There was no graft fracture, hardware failure, or infection. The mean time of osseous union was 2.9 months at fibula-humerus junction and 6.2 months at allograft-humerus junction. Hypertrophy and axial growth were evident in all, except one patient who has avascular necrosis of the fibula head. The mean hypertrophy index was 51.5%, and the mean growth was 4.4 mm per annum. The mean arm discrepancy was 4.6 cm. All reconstruction was in situ with the average abduction of 113° and forward flexion of 69°. The mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score was 85.4% at the final follow-up. All patients experienced dropped foot and resolved spontaneously.

Conclusions: The combination of vascularized fibula epiphyseal transfer with massive allograft bone provides a reliable oncologic reconstruction of proximal humerus in children. It not only offers the ability of longitudinal growth, hypertrophy, and osseous union but also diminishes reconstructive complications and improves shoulder function.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10032-yDOI Listing
May 2021

Efficient and effective removal of emerging contaminants through the parallel coupling of rapid adsorption and photocatalytic degradation: A case study of fluoroquinolones.

Chemosphere 2021 May 5;280:130770. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Chemistry, MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

The development of efficient, effective, and large-scale treatment methods to address high-risk emerging contaminants (ECs) is a growing challenge in environmental remediation. Herein, a novel parallel coupling strategy of adsorption separation and photodegradation regeneration (parallel ASPR) is proposed; subsequently, an adsorptive photocatalyst (Zn-doped BiOI) is designed to demonstrate how to effectively eliminate fluoroquinolones (FQs) from water with the proposed ASPR scheme. Compared with pure BiOI, the addition of Zn during synthesis has a significant influence on the morphology and structure of the products, resulting in Zn-doped BiOI samples with up to 5 times the specific surface area, 32 times the adsorption capacity, and 20 times the photocurrent intensity. The optimized Zn-doped BiOI sample has an excellent adsorption efficiency for FQs with a removal rate that exceeds 95% after 5 min of adsorption for all 6 tested FQ antibiotics. Then the adsorbed contaminants can be effectively degraded during the later visible-light irradiation process, and the adsorbent can be regenerated synchronously, showing excellent ASPR cycling performances. The mechanisms of rapid adsorption and photocatalysis were explored via material characterizations, adsorption models, density functional theory calculations, and photogenerated species analyses. The results reveal that the enhanced adsorption of Zn-doped BiOI for FQs is due to its high specific surface area, coordination-based chemical adsorption, and surface electrostatic attraction, while its superior visible-light photodegradation performance is mainly ascribed to its strong redox ability, abundant surface oxygen vacancies, and enhanced photogenerated carrier separation efficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130770DOI Listing
May 2021

Quyu Shengxin capsule (QSC) inhibits Ang-II-induced abnormal proliferation of VSMCs by down-regulating TGF-β, VEGF, mTOR and JAK-STAT pathways.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 24;275:114112. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Shaanxi Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Quyu Shengxin capsule (QSC) is an herbal compound commonly used to treat blood stasis syndrome in China, and blood stasis syndrome is considered to be the root of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the potential molecular mechanism of QSC is still unknown.

Aim Of Study: To study the therapeutic effect of QSC on the abnormal proliferation of VSMCs induced by Ang-II, and to explore its possible mechanism of action.

Materials And Methods: Qualitative analysis and quality control of QSC through UPLC-MS/MS and UPLC. The rat thoracic aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cultured in vitro, and then stimulated with Angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang-II) (10 mol/L) for 24 h to establish a cardiovascular cell model. The cells were then treated with different concentrations of QSC drug-containing serum or normal goat serum. MTT assay was used to detect the viability of VSMCs and abnormal cell proliferation. In order to analyze the possible signal transduction pathways, the content of various factors in the supernatant of VSMCs was screened and determined by means of the Luminex liquid suspension chip detection platform, and the phosphoprotein profile in VSMCs was screened by Phospho Explorer antibody array.

Results: Compared with the model group, serum cell viability and inflammatory factor levels with QSC were significantly decreased (P < 0.001). In addition, the expression levels of TGF-β, VEGF, mTOR and JAK-STAT in the QSC-containing serum treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group. QSC may regulate the pathological process of CVD by reducing the levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines, and protecting VSMCs from the abnormal proliferation induced by Ang-II.

Conclusion: QSC inhibits Ang-II-induced abnormal proliferation of VSMCs, which is related to the down-regulation of TGF-β, VEGF, mTOR and JAK-STAT pathways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114112DOI Listing
July 2021

Long term leaching behavior of arsenic from cemented paste backfill made of construction and demolition waste: Experimental and numerical simulation studies.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 7;416:125813. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Environment Science and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China.

The arsenic long-term leaching behavior of the cemented paste backfill obtained from the construction and demolition waste (CPB-CDW) is captured, which can be utilized in the potential engineering application. Laboratory studies were conducted on samples obtained from a mining site and the test results were imported into a numerical simulation model. It was found that the Elovich equation can describe well the As leaching behavior. Initially, the As concentrations decreased in the roadway in the mine and then increased along the roadway and attained a maximum concentration (8.149 × 10 mg/L) at the lower segment. When the groundwater was in the static mode, the As concentration increased dramatically followed by a gradual increase. Eventually, the concentration decreased gradually. For the dynamic condition, the As tended to move in a cluster form and the associated leaching and mass transfer process of As in the CPB-CDW were similar to those observed when the groundwater was in a static condition. However, the difference in the distribution of the amount of As in the leachate fluctuated continuously and the overall trend was to approach a steady state. As such, the time frame of such a mass transfer in the mobilized water is reduced significantly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125813DOI Listing
April 2021

Insight into binding characteristics of copper(II) with water-soluble organic matter emitted from biomass burning at various pH values using EEM-PARAFAC and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analysis.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 31;278:130439. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

The metal-binding characteristics of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) emitted from biomass burning (BB, i.e., rice straw (RS) and corn straw (CS)) with Cu(II) under various pH conditions (i.e., 3, 4.5, and 6) were comprehensively investigated. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) -PARAFAC analysis were applied to investigate the binding affinity and mechanism of BB WSOM. The results showed that pH was a sensitive factor affecting binding affinities of WSOM, and BB WSOMs were more susceptible to bind with Cu(II) at pH 6.0 than pH 4.5, followed by pH 3.0. Therefore, the Cu(II)-binding behaviors of BB WSOMs at pH 6.0 were then investigated in this study. The 2D-absorption-COS revealed that the preferential binding with Cu(II) was in the order short and long wavelengths (237-239 nm and 307-309 nm) > moderate wavelength (267-269 nm). The 2D-synchronous fluorescence-COS results suggested that protein-like substances generally exhibited a higher susceptibility and preferential interaction with Cu(II) than fulvic-like substances. EEM-PARAFAC analysis demonstrated that protein-like (C1) substances had a greater complexation ability than fulvic-like (C2) and humic-like (C3) substances for both BB WSOM. This indicated that protein-like substances within WSOM played dominant roles in the interaction with Cu(II). As a comparison, RS WSOM generally showed stronger complexation capacity than CS WSOM although they exhibited similar chemical properties and compositions. This suggested the occurrence of heterogeneous active metal-binding sites even within similar chromophores for different WSOM. The results enhanced our understanding of binding behaviors of BB WSOM with Cu(II) in relevant atmospheric environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130439DOI Listing
September 2021

Advances in Drug Resistance of Esophageal Cancer: From the Perspective of Tumor Microenvironment.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 19;9:664816. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Drug resistance represents the major obstacle to get the maximum therapeutic benefit for patients with esophageal cancer since numerous patients are inherently or adaptively resistant to therapeutic agents. Notably, increasing evidence has demonstrated that drug resistance is closely related to the crosstalk between tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME). TME is a dynamic and ever-changing complex biological network whose diverse cellular and non-cellular components influence hallmarks and fates of tumor cells from the outside, and this is responsible for the development of resistance to conventional therapeutic agents to some extent. Indeed, the formation of drug resistance in esophageal cancer should be considered as a multifactorial process involving not only cancer cells themselves but cancer stem cells, tumor-associated stromal cells, hypoxia, soluble factors, extracellular vesicles, . Accordingly, combination therapy targeting tumor cells and tumor-favorable microenvironment represents a promising strategy to address drug resistance and get better therapeutic responses for patients with esophageal cancer. In this review, we mainly focus our discussion on molecular mechanisms that underlie the role of TME in drug resistance in esophageal cancer. We also discuss the opportunities and challenges for therapeutically targeting tumor-favorable microenvironment, such as membrane proteins, pivotal signaling pathways, and cytokines, to attenuate drug resistance in esophageal cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.664816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017339PMC
March 2021

5-Substituted isatin thiosemicarbazones as inhibitors of tyrosinase: Insights of substituent effects.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 9;255:119669. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Toxicology and Environmental Ecology, Yancheng Teachers University, Xiwang Avenue South Rd. 2, Yancheng 224007, PR China. Electronic address:

Seven isatin-thiosemicarbazone analogues bearing different substituents (R) attached at C-5 of the indoline ring, TSC-ISA-R (R = -H, -CH, -OCH, -OCF, -F, -Cl and -NO), were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase (TYR). The inhibitory behaviour and performance of TSC-ISA-R were investigated spectroscopically in relation to the substituent modifications through examining their inhibition against the diphenolase activity of TYR using L-DOPA as a substrate. The IC values of TSC-ISA-R were determined to be in the range of 81-209 μM. The kinetic analysis showed that TSC-ISA-R were reversible and mixed type inhibitors. Three potential non-covalent interactions rather than complexation including the binding of TSC-ISA-R with free TYR, TYR-L-DOPA complex, and with substrate L-DOPA were found to be involved in the inhibition. The substituent modifications affected these interactions by varying the characters of the resulting TSC-ISA-R in different degrees. The thiosemicarbazido moiety of each TSC-ISA-R contributed predominantly to the inhibition, and the isatin moiety seemed to play a regulatory role in the binding of TSC-ISA-R to the target molecules. The results of theoretical calculations using density functional theory method indicated a different effect of -R on the electron distribution in HOMO of TSC-ISA-R. The LUMO-HOMO energy gap of TSC-ISA-R almost accords with the trend of their experimental inhibition potency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119669DOI Listing
July 2021

Genome-Wide Investigation of Major Enzyme-Encoding Genes in the Flavonoid Metabolic Pathway in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum).

J Mol Evol 2021 Jun 24;89(4-5):269-286. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

College of Life Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 46, Xikang Road, Ya'an, 625014, Sichuan, China.

Key enzymes play a vital role in plant growth and development. However, the evolutionary relationships between genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolic pathway of Tartary buckwheat flavonoids are poorly understood. Based on the published Tartary buckwheat genome sequence and related Tartary buckwheat transcriptome data, 48 key enzyme-encoding genes involved in flavonoid metabolism were screened from the Tartary buckwheat genome in this study; the chromosome localization, gene structure and promoter elements of these enzyme-encoding gene were also investigated. Gene structure analysis revealed relatively conserved 5' exon sequences among the 48 genes, indicating that the structural diversity of key enzyme-encoding genes is low in Tartary buckwheat. Through promoter analysis, these key enzyme-encoding genes were found to contain a large number of light-response elements and hormone-response elements. In addition, some genes could bind MYB transcription factors, participating in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis. The transcription level of the 48 key enzyme-encoding gene varied greatly among tissues. In this study, we identified 48 key enzyme-encoding genes involved in flavonoid metabolic pathways, and elucidated the structure, evolution and tissue-specific expression patterns of these genes. These results lay a foundation for further understanding the functional characteristics and evolutionary relationships of key enzyme-encoding genes involved in the flavonoid metabolic pathway in Tartary buckwheat.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00239-021-10004-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Air-Filtering Masks for Respiratory Protection from PM and Pandemic Pathogens.

One Earth 2020 Nov;3(5):574-589

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Air-filtering masks, also known as respirators, protect wearers from inhaling fine particulate matter (PM) in polluted air, as well as airborne pathogens during a pandemic, such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Fibrous medium, used as the filtration layer, is the most essential component of an air-filtering mask. This article presents an overview of the development of fibrous media for air filtration. We first synthesize the literature on several key factors that affect the filtration performance of fibrous media. We then concentrate on two major techniques for fabricating fibrous media, namely, meltblown and electrospinning. In addition, we underscore the importance of electret filters by reviewing various methods for imparting electrostatic charge on fibrous media. Finally, this article concludes with a perspective on the emerging research opportunities amid the COVID-19 crisis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oneear.2020.10.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962856PMC
November 2020

Selectively coupled small Pd nanoparticles on sp-hybridized domain of graphene-based aerogel with enhanced catalytic activity and stability.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 27;771:145396. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

The precisely coupling of metal nanoparticles with support domain are crucial to enhance the catalytic activity and stability of supported metal nanoparticle catalysts (MNPs). Here we selectively anchor Pd nanoparticles to the sp domain in graphene-based aerogel constructed with base-washed graphene oxide (BGO) by removing oxidative debris (OD). The effects of OD on the size and chemical composition of Pd nanoparticles in aerogels are initially unveiled. The removal of OD nanoparticles prompt selective coupling of Pd nanoparticles to the exposed sp-hybridized domain on BGO nanosheets, and then prevent it from agglomeration. As a result, the Pd nanoparticle size of self-assembled Pd/BGA is 4.67 times smaller than that of traditional Pd/graphene oxide aerogel (Pd/GA). The optimal catalytic activity of Pd/BGA for the model catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol is 15 times higher than that of Pd/GA. Pd/BGA could maintain its superior catalytic activity and achieves 98.72% conversion in the fifth cycle. The superior catalytic performance could be ascribed to the small Pd nanoparticles and high percentage of Pd(0) in Pd/BGA, and the enhanced electronic conductivity of Pd/BGA. These integrated merits of Pd/BGA as heterogeneous catalysts are attributed to selectively anchor Pd nanoparticles on sp-hybridized domain of graphene-based aerogel, and strongly coupled interaction of MNPs with support. The structure-regulated BGO nanosheets could serve as versatile building blocks for fabricating MNPs/graphene aerogels with superior performance for catalytic transformation of water pollutants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145396DOI Listing
June 2021

The influence of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome on the metabolism of newborns.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Feb;10(2):296-305

Department of Neonatology, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is associated with an increased number of neonatal complications, but its impact on neonatal metabolism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the differential metabolomics of infants born to mothers with and without PIH.

Methods: Blood samples of a total of 115 infants born to mothers with (n=56) and without (n=59) PIH were collected and assigned to two groups, respectively, from the neonatal department of Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University. A tandem mass spectrometer was used to generate metabolic profiling of amino acid, free carnitine, and acyl-carnitines. The resulting data were analyzed using orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis based on the difference between infants born to mothers with or without PIH.

Results: A significant relationship was observed between the two groups (with and without PIH) in the metabolic fingerprint. According to the pattern recognition analysis combined with variance importance, 25 metabolites with high importance were found. The top ten substances were selected for analysis. Compared with infants born to mothers without PIH, glycine levels increased, and C14DC, C22, C4DC, C5:1, C6DC, C5-OH, proline, C14-OH, and C20 decreased in infants born to mothers with PIH.

Conclusions: Using liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS metabolomics, a significant relationship was detected between neonatal metabolism and maternal hypertension. It is important to correct the subsequent infantile metabolic disorder by balancing the biomarker metabolites and suppling adequate nutrition to improve the health and growth of newborns of PIH mothers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-20-211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944188PMC
February 2021

Factors Associated with Anticoagulation Adherence in Chinese Patients with Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2021 1;15:493-500. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Outpatient Office, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Inadequate medication adherence among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) will directly affect the efficacy and safety of anticoagulation therapy, leading to a considerable increase in the risk of ischemic stroke and death. In this study, we aim to investigate medication adherence and identify the influencing factors, including social-demographic, disease-related information and self-efficacy.

Patients And Methods: We recruited 170 patients with NVAF from a tertiary hospital atrial fibrillation outpatient clinics and cardiology ward from June 2020 to September 2020. Patients who had been taking oral anticoagulation medication for at least 3 months were included. And Morisky medication adherence scale (MGL) was used to assess the adherence to anticoagulants, which scores <4 were considered as low adherence.

Results: Fifty (29.4%) NVAF patients had a MGL score<4. Monthly income, types of comorbidities, number of drugs, and self-efficacy were determinants of anticoagulation adherence. Binomial logistic regression showed that patients had been prescribed more durgs (OR: 3.51, p=0.002), had high monthly income (OR: 7.87, p=0.001), without other diseases (OR: 8.00, p=0.005), and with higher self-efficacy (OR: 1.42, p=0.001) showed high adherence.

Conclusion: Number of drugs, types of comorbidities, monthly income, and self-efficacy were associated with the adherence of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S285020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935330PMC
March 2021

Mechanisms of Pharmaceutical Therapy and Drug Resistance in Esophageal Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:612451. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Pharmaceutical therapies are essential for esophageal cancer (EC). For the advanced EC, the neoadjuvant therapy regimen, including chemotherapy plus radiotherapy and/or immunotherapy, is effective to achieve clinical benefit, even pathological complete response. For the unresectable, recurrent, and metastatic EC, the pharmaceutical therapy is the limited effective regimen to alleviate the disease and prolong the progression-free survival and overall survival. In this review, we focus on the pharmaceutical applications in EC treatment including cytotoxic agents, molecular targeted antibodies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The chemotherapy regimen is based on cytotoxic agents such as platinum-based complexes, fluorinated pyrimidines and taxenes. Although the cytotoxic agents have been developed in past decades, the standard chemotherapy regimen is still the cisplatin and 5-FU or paclitaxel because the derived drugs have no significant advantages of overcoming the shortcomings of side effects and drug resistance. The targeted molecular therapy is an essential supplement for chemotherapy; however, there are only a few targeted therapies available in clinical practice. Trastuzumab and ramucirumab are the only two molecular therapy drugs which are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat advanced and/or metastatic EC. Although the targeted therapy usually achieves effective benefits in the early stage therapy of EC, the patients will always develop drug resistance during treatment. ICIs have had a significant impact on routine clinical practice in cancer treatment. The anti-programmed cell death-1 monoclonal antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab, as the ICIs, are recommended for advanced EC by several clinical trials. However, the significant issues of pharmaceutical treatment are still the dose-limiting side effects and primary or secondary drug resistance. These defects of pharmaceutical therapy restrain the clinical application and diminish the effectiveness of treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.612451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905099PMC
February 2021

Interviews to better understand the burden of mental health disease among COVID-19 survivors: Things to consider.

J Affect Disord 2021 04 17;285:84-85. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, China; School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, China; Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.02.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887447PMC
April 2021

Disparate patterns of movements and visits to points of interest located in urban hotspots across US metropolitan cities during COVID-19.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Jan 13;8(1):201209. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University, 199 Spence Street, College Station, TX 77843-3112, USA.

We examined the effect of social distancing on changes in visits to urban hotspot points of interest. In a pandemic situation, urban hotspots could be potential superspreader areas as visits to urban hotspots can increase the risk of contact and transmission of a disease among a population. We mapped census-block-group to point-of-interest (POI) movement networks in 16 cities in the United States. We adopted a modified coarse-grain approach to examine patterns of visits to POIs among hotspots and non-hotspots from January to May 2020. Also, we conducted chi-square tests to identify POIs with significant flux-in changes during the analysis period. The results showed disparate patterns across cities in terms of reduction in hotspot POI visitors. Sixteen cities were divided into two categories using a time series clustering method. In one category, which includes the cities of San Francisco, Seattle and Chicago, we observed a considerable decrease in hotspot POI visitors, while in another category, including the cities of Austin, Houston and San Diego, the visitors to hotspots did not greatly decrease. While all the cities exhibited overall decreased visitors to POIs, one category maintained the proportion of visitors to hotspot POIs. The proportion of visitors to some POIs (e.g. restaurants) remained stable during the social distancing period, while some POIs had an increased proportion of visitors (e.g. grocery stores). We also identified POIs with significant flux-in changes, indicating that related businesses were greatly affected by social distancing. The study was limited to 16 metropolitan cities in the United States. The proposed methodology could be applied to digital trace data in other cities and countries to study the patterns of movements to POIs during the COVID-19 pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890478PMC
January 2021

Pyridine Detection Using Supramolecular Organic Frameworks Incorporating Cucurbit[10]uril.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 8;13(6):7434-7442. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Key Laboratory of Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry of Guizhou Province, Department of Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.

A physical impregnation method is presented in this study, providing a facile approach to encapsulating functional guest molecules (GMs) into robust crystalline supramolecular organic frameworks incorporating cucurbit[10]uril (Q[10]-SOF). As Q[10]-SOF has high evaporated pyridine affinity under normal atmospheric pressure, pyridine molecules in this method were successfully encapsulated into the nanospace formed by GMs and Q[10]-SOF while retaining their crystal framework, morphology, and high stability. [email protected][10]-SOF solid materials were found to respond to pyridine, being suitable to be used as solid sensors. Notably, Q[10]-SOF loading with pyrene exhibited a unique response to pyridine along with dramatic fluorescence quenching; loading with dansyl chloride exhibited a unique response to pyridine along with significant fluorescence enhancement, having a quick response within 60 s. Our findings represent a critical advancement in the design of pyridine detection and adsorption for commercial gas identification and sensing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c20292DOI Listing
February 2021

Effective treatment of anlotinib in giant delayed pulmonary metastasis of osteosarcoma: a case report and literature review.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, the Air Force Medical University, Xi'An, China.

Tumor relapse and pulmonary metastasis, especially unresectable lesions, are the major cause of poor prognosis of patients with osteosarcoma. Anlotinib, a novel small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has been proved to have desirable anti-tumor effects via blocking VEGFR2 and PDGFRβ phosphorylation in several tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer and soft tissue sarcoma. In this study, we presented a case of giant delayed pulmonary metastasis of osteosarcoma which was effectively treated by anlotinib. CT scan of this patient showed a giant neoplasm with the size of 1,366 cm3 in the left lung, clinically diagnosed as pulmonary metastasis of osteosarcoma. Due to refusing to chemotherapy and not eligible for surgery of the giant neoplasm, anlotinib was recommended. As a result, the tumor volume decreased more than 82% during 24-week anlotinib administration, from 1,366 to 247 cm3 . Unfortunately, disease progression was observed at 27-week. Although argon-helium cryoablation (AHC) was performed followed by apatinib administration, the patient was dead in 16 weeks after disease progression. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival since anlotinib administration of this patient was 27 weeks and 43 weeks, respectively. The toxicity included hypertension, fatigue and hand-foot skin syndrome in grade1-2, which were controllable and well tolerated. Meanwhile, immunohistochemical staining showed that the expression of VEGFR2 and PDGFRβ was decreased significantly and the whole exon sequencing revealed that c-MYC was duplicated, which was potentially associated with anlotinib resistance. Anlotinib had promising anti-tumor efficiency in the treatment of delayed pulmonary metastatic osteosarcoma. However, the potential mechanism of anlotinib resistance and the subsequent therapy after resistance were still challengeable and needed further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1790DOI Listing
January 2021

Plasma membrane H-ATPase overexpression increases rice yield via simultaneous enhancement of nutrient uptake and photosynthesis.

Nat Commun 2021 02 2;12(1):735. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, College of Resources and Environment Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) are essential elements for plant growth and crop yield. Thus, improved N and C utilisation contributes to agricultural productivity and reduces the need for fertilisation. In the present study, we find that overexpression of a single rice gene, Oryza sativa plasma membrane (PM) H-ATPase 1 (OSA1), facilitates ammonium absorption and assimilation in roots and enhanced light-induced stomatal opening with higher photosynthesis rate in leaves. As a result, OSA1 overexpression in rice plants causes a 33% increase in grain yield and a 46% increase in N use efficiency overall. As PM H-ATPase is highly conserved in plants, these findings indicate that the manipulation of PM H-ATPase could cooperatively improve N and C utilisation, potentially providing a vital tool for food security and sustainable agriculture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20964-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854686PMC
February 2021

The emerging role of long noncoding RNAs in esophageal carcinoma: from underlying mechanisms to clinical implications.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Apr 19;78(7):3403-3422. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guoxue Alley, Wuhou District, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a type of transcriptional product more than 200 nucleotides in length, have emerged as crucial regulators in human cancers. Accumulating data have recently indicated relationships between lncRNAs and esophageal carcinoma (EC). Of note, lncRNAs act as decoys/sponges, scaffolds, guides, and signals to regulate the expression of oncogenes or tumor suppressors at epigenetic, post-transcriptional, and protein levels, through which they exert their unique EC-driving or EC-suppressive functions. Moreover, the features of EC-related lncRNAs have been gradually exploited for developing novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in clinical scenarios. LncRNAs have the potential to be used as diagnostic and prognostic indicators individually or in combination with other clinical variables. Beyond these, although the time is not yet ripe, therapeutically targeting EC-related lncRNAs via gene editing, antisense oligonucleotides, RNA interference, and small molecules is likely one of the most promising therapeutic strategies for the next generation of cancer treatment. Herein, we focus on summarizing EC-driving/suppressive lncRNAs, as well as discussing their different features regarding expression profiles, modes of action, and oncological effects. Moreover, we further discuss current challenges and future developing possibilities of capitalizing on lncRNAs for EC early diagnosis and treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-020-03751-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Progastrin-Releasing Peptide Precursor and Neuron-Specific Enolase Predict the Efficacy of First-Line Treatment with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Among Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients Harboring EGFR Mutations.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 5;12:13607-13616. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Huaian City Second People's Hospital, Huaian 223000, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80-90% of all lung cancers. However, biomarkers to predict the prognosis of NSCLC patients upon treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors remain unreliable. Different types of EGFR mutations can help predict the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment among advanced NSCLC patients harboring them. However, survival varies among individuals harboring the same mutation after targeted therapy. This study aimed to investigate the value of serum tumor markers (STMs) and EGFR mutations in the prognostic assessment of progression-free survival (PFS) in advanced-stage EGFR-mutated NSCLC.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective clinical review was performed on 81 NSCLC patients harboring EGFR mutations and for whom STM data, measured before commencement of first-line treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, were available. Associations among EGFR mutations, STMs, baseline clinical features, and PFS were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot survival curves, and Cox logistic regression models were used to identify independent prognostic factors.

Results: Exon 19 deletion (19-del) in EGFR, negative neuron-specific enolase (NSE), negative pro-gastrin-releasing peptide precursor (ProGRP) value, and "never smoking" status were significantly associated with improved PFS (P=0.007, P=0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that 19-del in EGFR, never smoking, negative ProGRP value, and negative NSE were independent predictors of PFS.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that 19-del in EGFR may predict longer PFS in advanced-stage EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with TKIs. Additionally, longer PFS can be predicted by serum tumor markers with negative ProGRP value, negative NSE value before initial treatment, and "never smoking." Therefore, in addition to the EGFR mutation type and smoking status, physicians can also prognosticate the PFS of tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment according to the values of ProGRP and NSE before treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S285121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802014PMC
January 2021

Selective recognition of tryptophan by a methylpillar[5]arene-based supramolecular fuorescent probe.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Apr 24;250:119381. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Key Laboratory of Macrocyclic and Supramolecular Chemistry of Guizhou Province, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China. Electronic address:

Herein we present a simple fluorescence quenching method to selectively recognise and determine L-tryptophan (L-Trp) out of other 19 natural amino acids. Methylpillar[5]arene (MeP5), which is employed as a macrocyclic fluorescent probe, exhibits fluorescence activity in the solution of poor solvents because of aggregation-induced emission (AIE) effect. Fluorescence quenching of MeP5 in the solution of EtOH/CHCl (98/2, v/v) was observed upon the addition of L-Trp whereas other 19 natural amino acids did not bring about obvious change in fluorescence intensity. H NMR titration, fluorescence spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and theoretical analysis revealed that L-Trp can be encapsulated into the cavity of MeP5 to form a stable 1:1 host-guest inclusion complex which accounts for the quenching characteristics. The proposed procedure in this investigation offers an attractive and promising method for the selective detection of L-Trp in a mixture of natural amino acids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.119381DOI Listing
April 2021

Detecting Pesticide Dodine by Displacement of Fluorescent Acridine from Cucurbit[10]uril Macrocycle.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jan 30;69(1):584-591. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan 243002, China.

According to a simple guest-replacement fluorescence turn-on mechanism, we constructed a fluorescent probe system based on cucurbit[10]uril (Q[10]) and protonated acridine () to detect the pesticide dodine (). Formation of a homoternary inclusion complex @Q[10] in both aqueous solution and solid state was studied by means of H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Although can emit strong fluorescence in aqueous solution, the homoternary inclusion complex @Q[10] does not exhibit any fluorescence. Upon the addition of the pesticide into the aqueous solution of @Q[10], the molecules in the Q[10] cavity are displaced by the pesticide , and strong fluorescence recovers. The fluorescent probe system based on Q[10] and provided a wide determination of from 0 to 4.0 × 10 mol·L with a low limit of detection of 1.827 × 10 mol·L. The guest-replacement fluorescence turn-on mechanism is also confirmed by H NMR spectroscopy. Further, the fluorescent probe can directly detect residues in real agricultural products, and obvious fluorescence signal was observed under UV irradiation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05577DOI Listing
January 2021

Poria cocos polysaccharides reduces high-fat diet-induced arteriosclerosis in ApoE mice by inhibiting inflammation.

Phytother Res 2021 Apr 22;35(4):2220-2229. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries, which is closely related to dyslipidemia, inflammatory factors, and oxidative stress. Poria cocos polysaccharides (PCP) are one of the main active ingredients of Poria, which has significant pharmacological effects. In this study, the potential protective mechanism of PCP on AS was discussed in the ApoE mice model induced by high-fat diet. These pathological changes were evaluated by H&E and oil red O staining. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in aortic tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. These protein expressions were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that PCP inhibited the serum inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and nitric oxide) and lipids (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride, and total cholesterol) increase. Moreover, PCP also reduced the concentration of malondialdehyde, increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, and improved the pathological changes of the aorta. Finally, PCP inhibited the activation of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway in the aorta and blocked the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 proteins. In short, PCP intervenes in AS by reducing inflammatory factors and blood lipid levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6980DOI Listing
April 2021

Bioactive compounds of African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don) and its modulatory effect on metabolic activities linked to type 2 diabetes in isolated rat psoas muscle.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jan 3;45(1):e13576. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Clinical Medicines, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.

The infusion of Chrysophyllum albidum was investigated for its antidiabetic mechanism by studying its ability to promote glucose uptake and utilization as well as its modulatory effect on metabolic activities linked to type 2 diabetes in isolated psoas muscle. Isolated psoas muscle was incubated with different concentrations of the infusion in the presence of glucose at 37°C for 2 hr. The infusion improved muscle glucose uptake, with concomitant elevated muscular levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ectonucleotidase activities, while depleting malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, adenosine triphosphatase, acetylcholinesterase, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-biphosphatase, and lipase activities. It also maintained muscular morphology, while increasing magnesium, calcium, and iron levels. The infusion inhibited α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities in vitro. LC-MS analysis of the infusion revealed the presence of phenolics. These results indicate that C. albidum may mediate antidiabetic activities by stimulating muscle glucose uptake and modulation of key metabolisms linked to diabetes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The African star apple is among the underutilized fruits consumed for nutritional and medicinal purposes in Western Africa. The fruits are usually wasted during its season leading to postharvest loss owing to poor utilization. The present study gives credence to its use in treating diabetes and its complications. Thus, the fruits can be utilized in the development of cheap and affordable nutraceuticals for the management of diabetes which has been reported for its high-cost treatment. Utilization of the fruits will also reduce its postharvest loss and improve its economic values.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13576DOI Listing
January 2021

Fingerprinting characterization of sedimentary PAHs and black carbon in the East China Sea using carbon and hydrogen isotopes.

Environ Pollut 2020 Dec 8;267:115415. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

School of Ocean Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083, China.

In this study, we present the application of a dual-isotope approach for the source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) in the East China Sea (ECS). The δC and δH isotope signatures of the PAHs were determined from surface sediments collected from the ECS. A Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) model was used to the environmental source identifications with dual-isotope PAHs data. The results indicate that the coal combustion source is predominant (with average of 41%) in the ECS. Liquid fossil fuels combustion, biomass combustion, and petrogenic sources account for 23%, 20%, and 12% of the total PAH burden, respectively. Additionally, we also determine the stable and radio carbon isotopes (δC and ΔC) of total BC in sediment samples of the ECS. The results demonstrate the quantitative source apportionments for different sources, reflecting the contributions of fossil fuels (coal combustion and petroleum-related emissions), biomass (C3 and C4 plants) combustion, and rock-weathering sources. The fossil combustion in BC accounts for 67%, with 23% for biomass sources, meanwhile the rock weathering source in BC is an average of 10%. These results show a remarkable similarity and extensive homologies at source apportionment of PAHs and BC in the ECS, even though some differences in source mechanisms and processes. These findings on the environmental source apportionment will provide a reference for improved emission inventories, and will help to provide guidance for the efforts to mitigate environmental pollution in the coastal areas and marginal sea.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115415DOI Listing
December 2020

The inhibitory effect of (-)-Epicatechin gallate on the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells weakens and stabilizes atherosclerosis.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jan 27;891:173761. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, PR China. Electronic address:

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) lesions play an important role in atherosclerosis. The latest findings indicate that green tea extract has potential benefits for patients with atherosclerosis, but the components and mechanisms of action are unknown. (-)-Epicatechin gallate (ECG) is the main active ingredient extracted from green tea and has significant biological functions. However, the mechanism of ECG in atherosclerosis remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the intervention of ECG on VSMCs induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). The results show that ECG reduces the inflammatory response by preventing the overproduction of inflammatory mediators in VSMCs. ECG regulates the cell cycle and down-regulates the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclinD1, and then exerts an anti-proliferative effect. Furthermore, inhibition of the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) may be the mechanism by which ECG inhibits the migration of ox-LDL-induced VSMCs. Oil red O staining results show that ECG can improve cell foaming and reduce the content of total cholesterol (TC). In addition, ECG significantly reduces reactive oxygen species activity and also reduces the expression of p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK1/2, p-IκBα, p-NF-κBp65, and TLR4. These results indicate that ECG has potential clinical applications for preventing atherosclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173761DOI Listing
January 2021

Imperatorin reduces the inflammatory response of atherosclerosis by regulating MAPKs signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jan 17;90:107170. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, PR China; Key Laboratory of Material Basis Analysis of Chinese Medicine, Shaanxi Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xi'an 710061, PR China. Electronic address:

Inflammation plays an important role in the process of atherosclerosis (AS). Inhibition of inflammation is an effective way to prevent AS. Imperatorin (IMP) is a kind of furan coumarin with various activities. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of IMP was explored in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced VSMCs and high fat diet (HFD)-induced ApoE mice. The results showed that IMP attenuated the elevation of TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 and NO induced by ox-LDL in supernatant of VSMCs. IMP has normalized the levels of serum lipids (TC, TG, LDL-C and HDL-C) and attenuated inflammatory cytokines in serum. IMP also improved pathological changes and lipid accumulation in aorta. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression in aorta was down-regulated by IMP. IMP could inhibit the phosphorylation of MAPKs pathway in the aorta and VSMCs, resulting in a significant decrease in the contents of p-ERK 1/2, p-JNK and p-P38. Overall, IMP could exert anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro to interfere with AS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107170DOI Listing
January 2021

Designing a Nanoscale Three-phase Electrochemical Pathway to Promote Pt-catalyzed Formaldehyde Oxidation.

Nano Lett 2020 12 17;20(12):8719-8724. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

Gas-phase heterogeneous catalysis is a process spatially constrained on the two-dimensional surface of a solid catalyst. Here, we introduce a new toolkit to open up the third dimension. We discovered that the activity of a solid catalyst can be dramatically promoted by covering its surface with a nanoscale-thin layer of liquid electrolyte while maintaining efficient delivery of gas reactants, a strategy we call three-phase catalysis. Introducing the liquid electrolyte converts the original surface catalytic reaction into an electrochemical pathway with mass transfer facilitated by free ions in a three-dimensional space. We chose the oxidation of formaldehyde as a model reaction and observed a 25000-times enhancement in the turnover frequency of Pt in three-phase catalysis as compared to conventional heterogeneous catalysis. We envision three-phase catalysis as a new dimension for catalyst design and anticipate its applications in more chemical reactions from pollution control to the petrochemical industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03560DOI Listing
December 2020

Late-Onset Carnitine-Acylcarnitine Translocase Deficiency With c.199-10T>G Variation: Case Report and Pathologic Analysis of Liver Biopsy.

Front Pediatr 2020 30;8:585646. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Pediatrics, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency (CACTD) is a rare and life-threatening autosomal recessive disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation caused by variation of the Solute carrier family 25 member 20 () gene. Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase is one of the crucial transport proteins in the oxidation process of mitochondrial fatty acids. In Asia, the c.199-10T>G splice site variation is the most frequently reported variant of . Patients with CACTD with c.199-10T>G variation usually present with a severe clinical phenotype. Herein, we report a neonatal case of late-onset CACTD in mainland China. Symptoms emerged 61 days after birth; the patient presented with a severe metabolic crisis, and her clinical condition rapidly deteriorated, and she died of respiratory insufficiency and cardiac arrest at 61 days. We present the clinical and biochemical features of this patient and briefly review previously reported CACTD cases with c.199-10T>G variation. Acylcarnitine profiling by tandem mass spectrometry and high-throughput sequencing revealed that our patient was homozygous for the c.199-10T>G variation, confirming the diagnosis of CACTD. Histopathologic analysis of the liver by Prussian blue staining showed focal iron deposition in hepatocytes, and electron microscopy analysis revealed a large number of lipid droplet vacuoles in diffusely distributed hepatocytes. The development of CACTD in our patient 61 days after birth is the latest reported onset for CACTD with c.199-10T>G variation. Early recognition of symptoms and timely and appropriate treatment are critical for improving the outcome of this highly lethal disorder. Death from late-onset CACTD may be caused by the accumulation of long-chain fatty acids as well as iron deposition in the heart leading to heart failure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.585646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661852PMC
October 2020

Limited aerenchyma reduces oxygen diffusion and methane emission in paddy.

J Environ Manage 2021 Feb 10;279:111583. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China; Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization in Lower-Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

Greenhouse gasses (GHG) emission from the agricultural lands is a serious threat to the environment. Plants such as rice (Oryza sativa L.) that are cultivated in submerged conditions (paddy field) contribute up to 19% of CH emission from agricultural lands. Such plants have evolved lysigenous aerenchyma in their root system which facilitates the exchange of O and GHG between aerial parts of plant and rhizosphere. Currently, the regulation of GHG and O via aerenchyma formation is poorly understood in plants, especially in rice. Here, a reverse genetic approach was employed to reduce the aerenchyma formation by analyzing two mutants i.e., oslsd1.1-m12 and oslsd1.1-m51 generated by Tos17 and T-DNA insertion. The wild-type (WT) and the mutants were grown in paddy (flooded), non-paddy and hydroponic system to assess phenotypic traits including O diffusion, GHG emission and aerenchyma formation. The mutants exhibited significant reductions in several morphophysiological traits including 20-60% aerenchyma formation at various distances from the root apex, 25% root development, 50% diffusion of O and 27-36% emission of methane (CH) as compared to WT. The differential effects of the oslsd1.1 mutants in aerenchyma-mediated CH mitigation were also evident in the diversity of (pmoA, mcrA) methanotrophs in the rhizosphere. Our results indicate the novel pathway in which reduced aerenchyma in rice is responsible for the mitigation of CH, diffusion of O and the root growth in rice. Limited aerenchyma mediated approach to mitigate GHG specially CH mitigation in agriculture is helpful technique for sustainable development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111583DOI Listing
February 2021