Publications by authors named "Xin Wen"

504 Publications

Application of a Modified Porphyrin in a Polymer Electrolyte with Superior Properties for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

School of Chemical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Porphyrins and their derivatives are a unique class of multifunctional and modifiable π-conjugated heterocyclic organic molecules, which have been widely applied in the fields of optoelectronic devices and catalysis. However, the application of porphyrins in polymer electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSLIBs) has rarely been reported. Herein, porphyrin molecules modified by polyether chains are used for composite solid-state polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) for the first time. The introduction of a modified porphyrin in an electrolyte can not only promote the electrochemical properties by constructing ordered ion channels via the intermolecular interaction between π-conjugated heterocyclic porphyrins, but also significantly improve the mechanical strength and interface contact between the electrolyte membrane and the lithium metal anode. Consequently, the all-solid-state batteries assembled by the modified porphyrin composite polymer electrolyte, LiFePO cathodes, and Li anodes deliver a higher discharge capacity of 158.2 mA h g at 60 °C, 0.2 C, which remains at 153.6 mA h g after 120 cycles with an average coulombic efficiency of ∼99.60%. Furthermore, the flexible porphyrin-based composite polymer electrolyte can also enable a Li || LiCoO battery to exhibit a maximum discharge capacity of 108.6 mA h g at 60 °C, 0.1 C with an active material loading of 2-3 mg cm, which is unable to realize for the corresponding batteries with a pure PEO-based polymer electrolyte. This work not only broadens the application scope of porphyrins, but also proposes a novel method to fabricate CSPEs with improved electrochemical and mechanical properties, which may shed new light on the development of CSPEs for next-generation high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12086DOI Listing
October 2021

Facet-dependent CO reduction reactions on kesterite CuZnSnS photo-electro-integrated electrodes.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Information Materials, Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center of Structure and Property for New Energy and Materials, School of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, China.

Photoelectrochemical CO reduction by CuZnSnS (CZTS) photocathodes is a potentially low-cost and high-efficiency CO conversion approach. However, the current CZTS-based photocathodes for the CO reduction reaction (CORR) are challenged by the active side reaction of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the incompatibility with efficient electrocatalysts. In this work, by means of density functional theory (DFT), we predict that a (220)-facet-suppressed kesterite CZTS could be an efficient photo-electro-integrated photocathode for formic acid production in the CORR. The results show that the competitive HER is mostly favored on the (220) facet. And the CORR for formic acid production on the (112) and (312) facets exhibits a thermodynamic energy barrier lower than 0.26 eV. Different from the d-band theory in metal electrocatalysts, it is found that the density of low energy unoccupied states in the S 3p orbital plays a key role in determining the CORR reaction path of the kesterite CZTS. Furthermore, two different trends of adsorption energy depending on the chemical characteristic of adsorbates are analyzed. Our study unveils the potential for selectively reducing CO into formic acid with kesterite CZTS and provides a possible route for manipulating the electrocatalytic properties of metal sulfide catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp03595aDOI Listing
September 2021

Sodium butyrate reduce ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions by regulating bacterial community balance in swine cecal content in vitro.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 24;226:112827. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Tropical Agricultural Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Harmless Treatment and Resource Utilization of Livestock Waste, Yunfu, Xinxing 527400, China. Electronic address:

Reducing the production of odor during swine breeding has attracted attention. Ammonia (NH) and hydrogen sulfide (HS) contributed to the odor emissions from swine breeding because NH emissions are high and hydrogen sulfide (HS) has a low odor threshold. Sodium butyrate reduces the odor emissions caused by NH and HS, but the corresponding mechanism is unclear. After mixing the feces of six fattening pigs, the mixture was used to process in vitro fermentation experiment. The purpose was researching the effect of sodium butyrate reduced NH and HS emissions in swine cecal contents. The control group was denoted CK, and the treatment groups with different sodium butyrate concentrations (0.015%, 0.030% and 0.150%) were denoted L, M and H. The NH, HS, total gas production and physicochemical indexes were measured, and the bacterial communities in the fermented product were analyzed by 16 S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that group M reduced NH, HS and total gas production by 17.96%, 12.26% and 30.30%, respectively. Sodium butyrate promoted SO accumulation and lowered the pH. Importantly, sodium butyrate decreased the relative abundance of bacteria positively correlated with NH and HS production, but increased the negatively correlated ones. Proteobacteria made a greater contribution to reducing emissions than did other bacterial phyla. Our results showed that adding 0.030% sodium butyrate can significantly reduce NH and HS production, which occurred via alterations in the physicochemical indicators to adjust the abundance of the bacteria related to odor production, including Proteobacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112827DOI Listing
September 2021

Multiple driving factors contribute to the variations of typical antibiotic resistance genes in different parts of soil-lettuce system.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Dec 22;225:112815. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China; Maoming Branch, Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Maoming 525000, China; Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Harmless Treatment and Resource Utilization of Livestock Waste, Yunfu, Xinxing 527400, China. Electronic address:

The application of manure compost may cause the transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in agroecological environment, which poses a global threat to public health. However, the driving factors for the transmission of ARGs from animal manure to agroecological systems remains poorly understood. Here, we explored the spatiotemporal variation in ARG abundance and bacterial community composition as well as relative driving factors in a soil-lettuce system amended with swine manure compost. The results showed that ARGs abundance had different variation trends in soil, lettuce phylloplane and endophyere after the application of swine manure compost. The temporal variations of total ARGs abundance had no significant different in soil and lettuce phylloplane, while lettuce endosphere enriched half of ARGs to the highest level at harvest. There was a significant linear correlation between ARGs and integrase genes (IGs). In contrast to the ARGs variation trend, the alpha diversity of soil and phylloplane bacteria showed increasing trends over planting time, and endosphere bacteria remained stable. Correlation analysis showed no identical ARG-related genera in the three parts, but the shared Proteobacteria, Pseudomonas, Halomonas and Chelativorans, from manure compost dominated ARG profile in the soil-lettuce system. Moreover, redundancy analysis and structural equation modelling showed the variations of ARGs may have resulted from the combination of multiple driving factors in soil-lettuce system. ARGs in soil were more affected by the IGs, antibiotic and heavy metals, and bacterial community structure and IGs were the major influencing factors of ARG profiles in the lettuce. The study provided insight into the multiple driving factors contribute to the variations of typical ARGs in different parts of soil-lettuce system, which was conducive to the risk assessment of ARGs in agroecosystem and the development of effective prevention and control measures for ARGs spread in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112815DOI Listing
December 2021

Robust Colloidal Synthesis of Palladium-Gold Alloy Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Sensing.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 20;13(38):45758-45767. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.

Metal nanoparticles are currently used in a variety of applications, ranging from life sciences to nanoelectronic devices to gas sensors. In particular, the use of palladium nanoparticles is gaining increasing attention due to their ability to catalyze the rapid dissociation of hydrogen, which leads to an excellent response in hydrogen-sensing applications. However, current palladium-nanoparticle-based sensors are hindered by the presence of hysteresis upon hydride formation and decomposition, as this hysteresis limits sensor accuracy. Here, we present a robust colloidal synthesis for palladium-gold alloy nanoparticles and demonstrate their hysteresis-free response when used for hydrogen detection. The obtained colloidal particles, synthesized in an aqueous, room-temperature environment, can be tailored to a variety of applications through changing the size, ratio of metals, and surface stabilization. In particular, the variation of the viscosity of the mixture during synthesis resulted in a highly tunable size distribution and contributed to a significant improvement in size dispersity compared to the state-of-the-art methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c15315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8485326PMC
September 2021

TREM2: Keeping Pace With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Immunotherapy.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:716710. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Cancer Institute, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

To date, immune checkpoint inhibitors have been successively approved and widely used in clinical cancer treatments, however, the overall response rates are very low and almost all cancer patients eventually progressed to drug resistance, this is mainly due to the intricate tumor microenvironment and immune escape mechanisms of cancer cells. One of the main key mechanisms leading to the evasion of immune attack is the presence of the immunosuppressive microenvironment within tumors. Recently, several studies illustrated that triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2), a transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, was a crucial pathology-induced immune signaling hub, and it played a vital negative role in antitumor immunity, such as inhibiting the proliferation of T cells. Here, we reviewed the recent advances in the study of TREM2, especially focused on its regulation of tumor-related immune signaling pathways and its role as a novel target in cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.716710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446424PMC
September 2021

Whether Immunostimulants Are Effective in Susceptible Children Suffering From Recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections: A Modeling Analysis Based on Literature Aggregate Data.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Center for Drug Clinical Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Immunostimulants are gradually being used in the prevention and treatment of recurrent respiratory tract infections in susceptible children, but their drug effects have not been quantified. The purpose of this study was to confirm the efficacy of immunostimulants in the prevention and treatment of recurrent respiratory tract infections in susceptible children. A model-based meta-analysis was used to describe the time course of placebo and immunostimulants in the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children. The cumulative number of respiratory tract infections was used as an indicator of efficacy. A meta-analysis was used to analyze the incidence of drug-related adverse events. Fourteen articles with 2400 pediatric subjects were finally included in the analysis. The results showed that the cumulative number of respiratory tract infections increased linearly with time, with the incidence of respiratory tract infections in the placebo group being 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-0.75) per month. OM-85 BV and pidotimod reduced the incidence of respiratory tract infections by 0.21 (95%CI, 0.16-0.26) and 0.19 (95%CI, 0.17-0.21) compared to placebo per month, respectively. Pidotimod and OM-85 BV can effectively reduce the incidence of respiratory tract infections in susceptible children, with no significant increase in the incidence of drug-related adverse events when compared with placebo (risk ratio values were 1.07 [95%CI, 0.66-1.71] and 1.31 [95%CI, 0.54-3.19], respectively). This study provides quantitative support for the application of immunostimulants for the prevention of recurrent respiratory tract infections in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1969DOI Listing
September 2021

Pulsed low-dose rate radiotherapy has an improved therapeutic effect on abdominal and pelvic malignancies.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Sept 15;22(9):774-781

Cancer Institute of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221000, China.

Until now, there has been a lack of standard and effective treatments for patients with recurrent malignant tumors or abdominal and pelvic malignancies with extensive invasion (Morris, 2000). Generally, these patients face problems such as inability to undergo surgery or chemotherapy resistance (Combs et al., 2016). Re-radiotherapy has achieved a prominent place in the treatment of patients who have received radiotherapy previously and developed in-field recurrences (Straube et al., 2018). However, re-radiotherapy is very complicated, requiring comprehensive consideration of appropriate radiation dose, interval from first radiotherapy, boundary of the radiotherapy target area, and damage to surrounding normal tissues (Straube et al., 2019). In other words, it is necessary to focus on the protection of surrounding normal tissues while maximizing the efficacy of re-radiotherapy in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435343PMC
September 2021

Study on Concrete Deterioration in Different NaCl-NaSO Solutions and the Mechanism of Cl Diffusion.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 3;14(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Civil Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Chang'an University, Xi'an 710064, China.

The diffusion of sulfate (SO) and chloride (Cl) ions from rivers, salt lakes and saline soil into reinforced concrete is one of the main factors that contributes to the corrosion of steel reinforcing bars, thus reducing their mechanical properties. This work experimentally investigated the corrosion process involving various concentrations of NaCl-NaSO leading to the coupled erosion of concrete. The appearance, weight, and mechanical properties of the concrete were measured throughout the erosion process, and the Cl and SO contents in concrete were determined using Cl rapid testing and spectrophotometry, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy, energy spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, and mercury porosimetry were also employed to analyze microstructural changes and complex mineral combinations in these samples. The results showed that with higher NaSO concentration and longer exposure time, the mass, compressive strength, and relative dynamic elastic modulus gradually increased and large pores gradually transitioned to medium and small pores. When the NaSO mass fraction in the salt solution was ≥10 wt%, there was a downward trend in the mechanical properties after exposure for a certain period of time. The Cl diffusion rate was thus related to NaSO concentration. When the NaSO mass fraction in solution was ≤5 wt% and exposure time short, SO and cement hydration/corrosion products hindered Cl migration. In a concentrated NaSO environment (≥10 wt%), the Cl diffusion rate was accelerated in the later stages of exposure. These experiments further revealed that the Cl migration rate was higher than that of SO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14175054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434449PMC
September 2021

A RGO aerogel/TiO/MoS composite photocatalyst for the removal of organic dyes by the cooperative action of adsorption and photocatalysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, 710055, Shaanxi, China.

A composite consisting of reduced graphene oxide aerogel/titanium dioxide/molybdenum disulfide (abbreviated as RGO aerogel/TiO/MoS) was developed for the removal of organic dyes from solution cooperatively by adsorption and photocatalytic degradation mechanisms. The composite was successfully synthesized by stepwise layered assembly integration, including sol-gel and physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods. The resulting multi-component composite material featured a high specific surface area (255.441 m/g) containing a myriad of negatively charged carboxylate functional groups on the surface of the composite, which enabled the composite material to demonstrate a high removal efficiency of cationic dyes, such as rhodamine B, from solution. In addition, the composite featured optimal optical and photocatalytic properties for facilitating efficient photodegradation of the dye molecules, including a large absorbance in the visible light region and a fast transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis and reactive oxygen species scavenging experiments confirmed that superoxide radicals (O), holes (h), and hydroxyl radicals (OH) were involved in photocatalytic degradation of the organic dyes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16143-zDOI Listing
September 2021

Factors affecting the efficacy and safety of docetaxel combined with platinum in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2021 Oct 24;14(10):1295-1303. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Center for Drug Clinical Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate factors influencing the efficacy and safety of the docetaxel-platinum regimen to provide reliable information for optimizing chemotherapy regimens.

Research Design And Methods: A parametric survival function model was used to describe the time course of overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving a docetaxel-platinum regimen. A random-effects model in a single-arm meta-analysis was used to analyze the objective response rate and grade 3-4 adverse event rates based on various docetaxel-platinum regimens.

Results: The model revealed that the risk of death in East Asians was approximately 1.5-fold higher than that in non-East Asians, with a median OS of 13.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.8-14.7) months and 9.3 (95% CI: 7.7-11.1) months, respectively. No significant impact of different administration regimens on OS was found. However, when drug exposure increased, the incidence of grade 3-4 anemia or neutropenia significantly increased.

Conclusions: The docetaxel-platinum regimen has different efficacies in the treatment of advanced NSCLC between East Asian and non-East Asian populations. A better benefit-risk ratio can be obtained with a lower exposure regimen of docetaxel combined with platinum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2021.1976638DOI Listing
October 2021

A new classification of congenital abnormalities of UPVS: sonographic appearances, screening strategy and clinical significance.

Insights Imaging 2021 Sep 6;12(1):125. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University, Hongli Road No. 2004, Futian, Shenzhen, 518028, Guangdong, China.

The umbilical-portal venous system (UPVS) plays an important role in embryonic development, as well as a significant blood circulation system to ensure the normal blood supply of fetal heart and brain and other vital organs. Congenital anomalies of UPVS contain many subtypes with a broad spectrum of manifestations and prognoses. Furthermore, because of fetal small lumen of UPVS, the sonographic evaluation remains difficult in utero. Appreciation of normal embryology and anatomy of UPVS is essential to an understanding of sonographic characteristics of anomalies of UPVS and fetal sequential changes. Through reviewing previous references and our experience with congenital abnormalities of UPVS, a new comprehensive classification is proposed. The new classification identifies three types of congenital abnormalities of UPVS based on morphological abnormalities and shunts. The embryology and etiology, sonographic, clinical and prognostic characteristics of each subtype of the new classification are described in detail. Knowledge of congenital abnormalities of UPVS can give sonographers a clue and aid prenatal sonographic diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to help the sonographers to understand the new classification of congenital abnormalities of UPVS, master the sonographic characteristics of each subtype and prenatal ultrasonographic screening strategy, and guide subsequent appropriate counseling and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-021-01068-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421501PMC
September 2021

"Hand as Foot" figural teaching method in anatomy of C-shaped brain structure.

Asian J Surg 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Affiliated Huaian No. 1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, 223300, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.07.051DOI Listing
August 2021

Microplastics influence on Hg methylation in diverse paddy soils.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 12;423(Pt A):126895. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics are widespread in estuarine, coastal, and deep sea sediments. The influence of microplastics on mercury (Hg) methylation in paddy soils with different characteristics, however, has not been well reported. In this research, we conducted a microcosmic experiment using red soil and alkaline soil with 2%, 7% and 10% polyvinyl chloride microplastics (PVC-MPs). Diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) were used to test bioavailable Hg and bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg) in soils. Results showed that PVC-MPs could decrease bioavailable MeHg concentrations both in red soil and alkaline soil. We demonstrated that these decreases could be due to three possible mechanisms: (1) PVC-MPs affected DOM composition, which resulted in a difference in combining capacity for bioavailable Hg; (2) PVC-MPs decreased MeHg via changing soil properties (including sulfate and dissolved Fe); (3) PVC-MPs affected the abundance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and hgcA gene in soils. Our results emphasized the significance of investigating effects of microplastics on specific contaminants to implement effective environmental remediation strategies in polluted paddy soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126895DOI Listing
August 2021

LZTFL1 mediates phototaxis via controlling BBSome recruitment to the basal body and its reassembly at the ciliary tip.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(35)

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Institute of Health Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457, People's Republic of China;

Many G protein-coupled receptors and other signaling proteins localize to the ciliary membrane for regulating diverse cellular processes. The BBSome composed of multiple Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) proteins is an intraflagellar transport (IFT) cargo adaptor essential for sorting signaling proteins in and/or out of cilia via IFT. Leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1 (LZTFL1) protein mediates ciliary signaling by controlling BBSome ciliary content, reflecting how LZTFL1 mutations could cause BBS. However, the mechanistic mechanism underlying this process remains elusive thus far. Here, we show that LZTFL1 maintains BBSome ciliary dynamics by finely controlling BBSome recruitment to the basal body and its reassembly at the ciliary tip simultaneously in LZTFL1 directs BBSome recruitment to the basal body via promoting basal body targeting of Arf-like 6 GTPase BBS3, thus deciding the BBSome amount available for loading onto anterograde IFT trains for entering cilia. Meanwhile, LZTFL1 stabilizes the IFT25/27 component of the IFT-B1 subcomplex in the cell body so as to control its presence and amount at the basal body for entering cilia. Since IFT25/27 promotes BBSome reassembly at the ciliary tip for loading onto retrograde IFT trains, LZTFL1 thus also directs BBSome removal out of cilia. Therefore, LZTFL1 dysfunction deprives the BBSome of ciliary presence and generates cells defective in phototaxis. In summary, our data propose that LZTFL1 maintains BBSome dynamics in cilia by such a dual-mode system, providing insights into how LZTFL1 mediates ciliary signaling through maintaining BBSome ciliary dynamics and the pathogenetic mechanism of the BBS disorder as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2101590118DOI Listing
August 2021

Scalp Acupuncture Protects Against Neuronal Ferroptosis by Activating The p62-Keap1-Nrf2 Pathway in Rat Models of Intracranial Haemorrhage.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) can be a catastrophic event; even if the initial stages of the pathology were well-managed, a number of patients experience varied residual neurological deficits following the insult. Ferroptosis is a recently identified type of cell demise which is tightly linked to the neurological impairment associated with ICH. In the current work, the prophylactic impact of scalp acupuncture (SA) therapy on autologous blood injection murine models of ICH was investigated in order to establish whether SA could mitigate the secondary damage arising following ICH by moderating ferroptosis. The pathophysiological mechanisms associated with this process were also explored. Ludmila Belayev tests were utilised for the characterisation of neurological damage. Haematoxylin-eosin staining was employed in order to determine the cerebral impact of the induced ICH. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and iron titres in peri-haemorrhagic cerebral tissues were appraised using purchased assay kits. Transmission electron microscopy delineated mitochondrial appearances within nerve cell bodies from the area of haemorrhage. Western blotting techniques were utilised to assay the degree of protein expression of NeuN, sequestosome 1 (p62), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1). The frequencies of Nrf2, GPX4 and FTH1 positive cells, respectively, were documented with immunohistochemical staining. The results demonstrated that therapy with SA after ICH mitigated MDA and iron sequestration, diminished the appearance of contracted mitochondria with increased outer mitochondrial membrane diameter within the nerve cell bodies, and suppressed neuronal ferroptosis. The pathways responsible for these effects may encompass amplified p62, Nrf2, GPX4 and FTH1 expression, together with decreased Keap1 expression. Application of SA reduced identified neurobehavioural abnormalities after ICH; no disparities were observed between the consequences of SA therapy and deferoxamine delivery. It can be surmised that intervention with SA enhanced recovery after ICH by triggering the antioxidant pathway, p62/Keap1/Nrf2, and causing FTH1 and GPX4 upregulation, factors that participate in diminishing excess iron and thus in mitigating lipid peroxidation insults arising from ferroptosis following ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-021-01890-yDOI Listing
August 2021

Cordyceps polysaccharide marker CCP modulates immune responses via highly selective TLR4/MyD88/p38 axis.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Nov 16;271:118443. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Cordyceps, one of the most expensive natural health supplements, is popularly used to modulate immune function. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism of its immunomodulatory activity. We newly reported a Cordyceps quality marker CCP (Mw 433.778 kDa) which was characterized as a 1,4-α glucan by chemical and spectral analysis and is able to induce significant immune responses of macrophages. Herein, we further investigated the molecular mechanism of CCP's immunomodulatory effects. The results indicate that CCP modulates the TLR4/MyD88/p38 signaling pathway of macrophages, where TLR4 plays a crucial role as verified on TLR4-deficient (TLR4) bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and TLR4 mice. These findings provide a precise understanding of the molecular mechanism of Cordyceps' immunomodulatory benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118443DOI Listing
November 2021

MYOC Promotes the Differentiation of C2C12 Cells by Regulation of the TGF-β Signaling Pathways via CAV1.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Jul 20;10(7). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

The Laboratory of Cell and Development, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Myocilin (MYOC) is a glycoprotein encoded by a gene associated with glaucoma pathology. In addition to the eyes, it also expresses at high transcription levels in the heart and skeletal muscle. MYOC affects the formation of the murine gastrocnemius muscle and is associated with the differentiation of mouse osteoblasts, but its role in the differentiation of C2C12 cells has not yet been reported. Here, MYOC expression was found to increase gradually during the differentiation of C2C12 cells. Overexpression of MYOC resulted in enhanced differentiation of C2C12 cells while its inhibition caused reduced differentiation. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation indicated that MYOC binds to Caveolin-1 (CAV1), a protein that influences the TGF-β pathway. Laser confocal microscopy also revealed the common sites of action of the two during the differentiation of C2C12 cells. Additionally, CAV1 was upregulated significantly as C2C12 cells differentiated, with CAV1 able to influence the differentiation of the cells. Furthermore, the Western blotting analysis demonstrated that the expression of MYOC affected the TGF-β pathway. Finally, MYOC was overexpressed while CAV1 was inhibited. The results indicate that reduced CAV1 expression blocked the promotion of C2C12 cell differentiation by MYOC. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that MYOC regulates TGF-β by influencing CAV1 to promote the differentiation of C2C12 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10070686DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8301362PMC
July 2021

Three-Dimensional Morphology and Size Measurement of High-Temperature Metal Components Based on Machine Vision Technology: A Review.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 8;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Software, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110870, China.

The three-dimensional (3D) size and morphology of high-temperature metal components need to be measured in real time during manufacturing processes, such as forging and rolling. Since the surface temperature of a metal component is very high during the forming and manufacturing process, manually measuring the size of a metal component at a close distance is difficult; hence, a non-contact measurement technology is required to complete the measurement. Recently, machine vision technology has been developed, which is a non-contact measurement technology that only needs to capture multiple images of a measured object to obtain the 3D size and morphology information, and this technology can be used in some extreme conditions. Machine vision technology has been widely used in industrial, agricultural, military and other fields, especially fields involving various high-temperature metal components. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the application of machine vision technology in measuring the 3D size and morphology of high-temperature metal components. Furthermore, according to the principle and method of measuring equipment structures, this review highlights two aspects in detail: laser scanning measurement and multi-view stereo vision technology. Special attention is paid to each method through comparisons and analyses to provide essential technical references for subsequent researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21144680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309514PMC
July 2021

A specific and bioactive polysaccharide marker for Cordyceps.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Oct 16;269:118343. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Cordyceps is one of the most expensive and widely used functional foods. But the authenticity is still a concern due to the lack of appropriate markers. By targeting polysaccharides, this study aimed to develop a specific, and bioactive marker for Cordyceps. Firstly, the results of screening tests of 250 samples by examining both genetic markers and polysaccharide profile showed that a unique polysaccharide fraction (named CCP) was particular to the caterpillar parts. Its potential as a marker was further demonstrated by its ability to induce NO and cytokine production in RAW 264.7 cells. CCP was characterized to be an α-1,4-glucan with a branch at C-6 by the conventional structure analyzing and de novo oligosaccharides sequencing. The content of CCP was closely correlated to the traditional classification criteria. Generally, CCP was a marker that simultaneously enables qualitative and quantitative analysis of Cordyceps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118343DOI Listing
October 2021

Neurological Complications of Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 1;8:698242. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

To explore the epidemiology, clinical features, risk indicators, and long-term outcomes of neurological complications caused by veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO). We retrospectively analyzed 60 adult patients who underwent V-A ECMO support in our unit from February 2012 to August 2020. These patients were separated into the neurological complications group (NC group) and the non-neurological complications group (nNC group). The differences in basic data and ECMO data between the two groups were compared. The data of long-term neurological prognosis were collected by telephone follow-up. Thirty-nine patients (65.0%) had neurological complications. There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of median age, hypertension, median blood urea nitrogen, median troponin I (TNI), median lactic acid, pre-ECMO percutaneous coronary intervention, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, median peak inspiratory pressure, median positive end expiratory pressure, and median fresh frozen plasma ( < 0.05). The median Intensive Care Unit length of stay (ICU LOS), 28-day mortality, median post-ECMO vasoactive inotropic score, non-pulsate perfusion (NP), and median ECMO duration of the NC group were significantly higher than those of the nNC group ( < 0.05). Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that TNI ( = 0.043), CRRT ( = 0.047), and continuous NP > 12 h ( = 0.043) were independent risk indicators for neurological complications in patients undergoing ECMO. Forty-four patients (73.3%) survived after discharge, and 38 patients (63.3%) had Cerebral Performance Category score of 1-2. And there were significant differences between the two groups in long-term neurological outcomes after discharge for 6 months ( < 0.05). The incidence of neurological complications was higher in patients undergoing V-A ECMO and was closely related to adverse outcomes (including ICU LOS and 28-day mortality). TNI, CRRT, and continuous NP > 12 h were independent risk indicators for predicting neurological complications in ECMO supporting patients. And the neurological complications of patients during ECMO support had significant adverse effect on long-term surviving and neurological outcomes of patients after discharge for 6 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.698242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280317PMC
July 2021

NAFLD or MAFLD: Which Has Closer Association With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality?-Results From NHANES III.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 1;8:693507. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

The recent change of terminology from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has raised heated discussion. We aim to investigate the association of MAFLD or NAFLD with all-cause and cause-specific mortality to compare the outcomes of the two diagnostic criteria in population-based study. We recruited 12,480 participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) with matched mortality data in 2015. Participants were divided into four groups for survival analysis: without NAFLD or MAFLD, with only NAFLD, only MAFLD. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Subgroup analysis were applied in MAFLD patients. The weighted prevalence of MAFLD and NAFLD was relatively 27.4 and 27.9%. Participants with NAFLD or MAFLD were largely overlapped (weighted Cohen's kappa coefficient 0.76). MAFLD increased the overall risk for total mortality in a greater magnitude than NAFLD [HR 2.07 (95% CI 1.86, 2.29) vs. 1.47 (1.20, 1.79)], However, the difference was non-significant after metabolic parameters were adjusted. Risks for cardiovascular, neoplasm, and diabetes-related mortality were similar between MAFLD and NAFLD. Referring to individuals without both NAFLD and MAFLD, individuals with only NAFLD showed reduced total mortality [HR 0.48 (0.34, 0.68)] and neoplasm mortality [HR 0.46 (0.24, 0.89)] in crude. Nevertheless, individuals with only MAFLD independently increased the risk for total mortality [adjusted HR 1.47 (1.22, 1.77)] and neoplasm mortality [aHR 1.58 (1.09, 2.28)]. The risk for overall mortality in MAFLD was consistent between subgroups except for race-ethnicity and whether secondary to viral hepatitis. Participants with MAFLD or NAFLD were highly concordant. MAFLD showed greater risk for all-cause mortality and equal risk for cause-specific mortality referring to NAFLD. The new terminology excluded participants with lower mortality risk and included participants with higher risk. Drug development for MAFLD should consider ethnic differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.693507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280321PMC
July 2021

Age-dependent cross frequency coupling features from children to adults during general anesthesia.

Neuroimage 2021 10 7;240:118372. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing, 100875, China; Center for Cognition and Neuroergonomics, State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University at Zhuhai, Zhuhai, 519087, China. Electronic address:

Background: The frequency coupling characteristics in electroencephalogram (EEG) induced by anesthetics have been well studied in adults, but the investigation of the age-dependent cross frequency coupling features from children to adults is still lacking.

Methods: We analyzed EEG signals recorded from pediatric to adult patients (n = 131), separated into six age groups: <1 year (n = 15), 1-3 years (n = 23), 3-6 years (n = 19), 6-12 years (n = 18), 12-18 years (n = 16), and 18-45 years (n = 40). Age related EEG power and cross frequency coupling analysis (phase amplitude coupling (PAC) and quadratic phase coupling) of data from maintenance of a surgical state of anesthesia (MOSSA) was conducted. Also, for patients of ages less than 6 years, we analyzed the performance of cross frequency coupling derived indices in distinguishing the states of wakefulness, MOSSA, and recovery of consciousness (ROC).

Results: (1) During MOSSA, EEG power substantially increased with age from infancy to 3-6 years then decreased with age in the theta-gamma frequency bands. The infant group (<1 year) had the highest slow oscillation (SO) power among all age groups. (2) The distinct PAC pattern is absent in patients less than 1 year of age both in SO-alpha and delta-alpha frequency band coupling during propofol induced unconsciousness. The modulation index between delta and alpha oscillations in MOSSA increased with age. (3) Wavelet bicoherence derived indices reach their peaks in the 3-6 years group and then decrease with age growth. (4) The Diag_En index (normalized entropy of the diagonal bicoherence entries of the bicoherence matrix) performed the best at distinguishing different states for ages less than 6 years (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The combination of propofol induction and sevoflurane maintenance exhibited age-dependent EEG power spectra, PAC, and bicoherence, likely related to brain development. These observations suggest new rules for infant and child brain state monitoring during general anesthesia are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118372DOI Listing
October 2021

Modulation of proteoglycan receptor regulates RhoA/CRMP2 pathways and promotes axonal myelination.

Neurosci Lett 2021 08 21;760:136079. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shenzhen University General Hospital, Shenzhen University Clinical Medical Academy, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

The function of the myelinating system is important because a defective myelin sheath results in various nervous disorders, including multiple sclerosis and peripheral neuropathies. The dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) is a transitional area between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that is generated by two types of cells-oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells (SCs). It is well known that after injury the extracellular matrix, including the CSPG, impairs axonal myelination by activating protein tyrosine phosphatase-σ (PTPσ) in both cells. The Intracellular Sigma Peptide (ISP) is memetic of the PTPσ wedge region. It competitively binds to PTPσ and regulates the downstream signaling of RhoA. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the ISP increased myelination in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro assay was meant to further verify the in vivo mechanisms. We observed that ISP administration could increase axonal myelination both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we provide evidence that, in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, the myelination-induced effects of ISP application entail an inverse expression of the RhoA/CRMP2 signaling pathway. Overall, our results indicate that the ISP modulation of PTPσ enhances axonal myelination via the RhoA/CRMP2 signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136079DOI Listing
August 2021

Synthesis of centimeter-scale high-quality polycrystalline hexagonal boron nitride films from Fe fluxes.

Nanoscale 2021 Jul;13(25):11223-11231

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. and Interdisciplinary Institute of Light-Element Quantum Materials and Research Center for Light-Element Advanced Materials, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

High-quality hexagonal BN (hBN) crystals, owing to their irreplaceable roles in new functional devices such as universal substrates and excellent layered insulators are exceedingly required in the field of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Although large-scale monolayer hBN crystals have been successfully grown on catalytic metals, the synthesis of large-area continuous hBN films with thickness in microns is challenging, hindering their applications at the mesoscopic level. Herein, we report the single-metal flux growth of centimeter-large, micron-thick, and high-quality continuous hBN films by balancing the grain size and coverage. The as-grown films can be readily exfoliated and transferred onto arbitrary substrates. Isotopically engineered hBN crystals can be obtained as well by the method. The narrow Raman line widths of the intralayer E2g mode peak (2.9 cm-1 for h11BN, 3.3 cm-1 for h10BN, and 7.9 cm-1 for hNaBN) and ultrahigh thermal conductivity (830 W m-1 K-1 for 4L h11BN) demonstrate high crystal quality and low defect density. Our results provide the foundation for the cost-efficient and lab-achievable synthesis of high-quality hBN films aimed at its mesoscopic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02408fDOI Listing
July 2021

Fecal microbiota transplantation ameliorates experimental colitis gut microbiota and T-cell modulation.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun;27(21):2834-2849

Department of Gastroenterology, The Affiliated Huaian No. 1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai'an 223300, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Emerging evidence has demonstrated that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has a promising therapeutic effect on mice with experimental colitis and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), although the mechanism of FMT is unclear.

Aim: To evaluate the protective effect of FMT on UC and clarify its potential dependence on the gut microbiota, through association analysis of gut microbiota with colon transcriptome in mice.

Methods: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced experimental colitis was established and fecal microbiota was transplanted by gavage. Severity of colon inflammation was measured by body weight, disease activity index, colon length and histological score. Gut microbiota alteration was analyzed through 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the colon were obtained by transcriptome sequencing. The activation status of colonic T lymphocytes in the lamina propria was evaluated by flow cytometry.

Results: Compared with the DSS group, the weight loss, colon length shortening and inflammation were significantly alleviated in the FMT group. The scores of disease activity index and colon histology decreased obviously after FMT. FMT restored the balance of gut microbiota, especially by upregulating the relative abundance of and downregulating the relative abundance of and . In the transcriptomic analysis, 128 DEGs intersected after DSS treatment and FMT. Functional annotation analysis suggested that these DEGs were mainly involved in T-lymphocyte activation. In the DSS group, there was an increase in colonic T helper CD4 and T cytotoxic CD8 cells by flow cytometry. FMT selectively downregulated the ratio of colonic CD4 and CD8 T cells to maintain intestinal homeostasis. Furthermore, was significantly related to inflammation-related genes including , and .

Conclusion: FMT ameliorated DSS-induced colitis in mice regulating the gut microbiota and T-cell modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v27.i21.2834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173381PMC
June 2021

Novel data-driven two-dimensional Q-learning for optimal tracking control of batch process with unknown dynamics.

ISA Trans 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Sciences, Liaoning Petrochemical University, China.

In view that the previous control methods usually rely too much on the models of batch process and have difficulty in a practical batch process with unknown dynamics, a novel data-driven two-dimensional (2D) off-policy Q-learning approach for optimal tracking control (OTC) is proposed to make the batch process obtain a model-free control law. Firstly, an extended state space equation composing of the state and output error is established for ensuring tracking performance of the designed controller. Secondly, the behavior policy of generating data and the target policy of optimization as well as learning is introduced based on this extended system. Then, the Bellman equation independent of model parameters is given via analyzing the relation between 2D value function and 2D Q-function. The measured data along the batch and time directions of batch process are just taken to carry out the policy iteration, which can figure out the optimal control problem despite lacking systematic dynamic information. The unbiasedness and convergence of the designed 2D off-policy Q-learning algorithm are proved. Finally, a simulation case for injection molding process manifests that control effect and tracking effect gradually become better with the increasing number of batches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.06.007DOI Listing
June 2021

Comprehensive Proteomic Profiling of Aqueous Humor Proteins in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 05;10(6)

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Purpose: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a serious ocular disease that can lead to retinal microvascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. To date, no studies have explored PDR development by analyzing the aqueous humor (AH). Therefore we carried out tandem mass tag (TMT) proteomic quantification to compare AH protein profiles between PDR and non-PDR subjects.

Methods: We enrolled six PDR and six control (senile cataract) subjects. AH samples were collected during surgery and stored at -80°C. Proteins were extracted, trypsin-digested, and labeled with TMTs for mass spectrometric analysis.

Results: We found 191 proteins to be changed with |log2 (fold change)| ≥1 (P < 0.05 and identification with at least two peptides per protein). Of them, 111 were downregulated, whereas 80 were upregulated in the PDR group. Proteomic bioinformatic analysis indicated that PDR development was related to complement and coagulation cascades, platelet activation, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, protein digestion and absorption, human papillomavirus infection, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, cholesterol metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathways, fat digestion and absorption, and vitamin digestion and absorption pathways.

Conclusions: Comprehensive proteomic profiling of the AH revealed 191 differentially expressed proteins between the two groups. Most of these proteins belong to secretory pathways, and therefore can be used as biomarkers in clinical testing and basic research.

Translational Relevance: Pathway analysis and a review of the literature enabled us to draw a novel biological map that will support further studies on the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic control of PDR development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.6.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107506PMC
May 2021

Cadmium transport in red paddy soils amended with wheat straw biochar.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jun 3;193(7):381. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, People's Republic of China.

Cadmium (Cd) can be leached from soil into the groundwater and exhibit its adverse effect on the health of animals and humans. While previous studies have studied the process of Cd transport in water-saturated sand columns, literature regarding Cd transport in soil is scarce. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the transport of Cd in soil columns and biochar application rate effects on the mobility and distribution of Cd in soil. The red paddy soil was collected from the paddy of Changsha County, Hunan Province in southern China. Batch sorption and column experiments were conducted to study the adsorption isotherms of Cd and its mobility at different biochar application rate treatments (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) referenced here as A0, A10, A20, A30, and A40, respectively. The Cd concentration of in effluent samples and digestion solutions was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). After finishing the column experiment, columns were dissected into five layers (1-cm segments), the Cd fractions in soil were performed by the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The amount of Cd sorption among treatments decreased in the order of A40 > A30 > A20 > A10 > A0, and the Langmuir model was more suitable to study the Cd adsorption on biochar-amended soil than Freundlich model. Breakthrough curves showed that increasing biochar application rate increased the initial breakthrough time, whereas the pore-water velocity and dispersion coefficient were 81.0 and 99.8% lower in the A40 treatments than in the A0 treatments, respectively. Increasing biochar application rate enhanced the pH but reduced redox potential (Eh) in the most of effluents. Compared with A0, the concentration of Cd retained in soil columns increased by 86.6% in the A40 treatments. However, BCR sequential extractions showed that biochar addition in A40 treatments increased the acid soluble fraction but reduced the reducible fraction. In A40 treatments, compared with the 0-1-cm soil layer, the relative Cd concentration (N/Ni) in the 1-2-, 2-3-, 3-4-, and 4-5-cm soil layers increased by 5.4, 10.9, 14.3, and 21.9%, respectively. Biochar application in A40 treatments showed strong capacity for retarding Cd transport in soil, while the potential mobility of Cd in soil should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09162-3DOI Listing
June 2021
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