Publications by authors named "Xin Wang"

9,632 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fermentation process optimization, chemical analysis, and storage stability evaluation of a probiotic barley malt kvass.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling District, Xianyang, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Kvass is a popular low-alcohol beverage produced by the natural fermentation of dark rye bread or malt with complex microbial flora. However, few pieces of research focus on the microflora of traditional bread kvass, and the industrial kvass based on malt concentrate has some disadvantages, including the lack of viable probiotics and containing multiple artificial additives. Therefore, in the present study, based on the different homemade traditional bread kvass, the predominant species including Lacticaseibacillus paracasei, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were screened and identified. In addition, barley malt was used instead of bread for kvass production, and the co-fermentation conditions with three different strains were optimized as wort concentration of 7.4°Brix, cell ratio of 2/2/1 (S. cerevisiae/L. paracasei/A. pasteurianus), inoculum amount of 8%, fermentation temperature of 29.5 °C and fermentation time of 24.6 h. Moreover, the physicochemical (pH, total soluble solids, color, and alcohol content) and probiotic (microorganisms counting and antioxidant activity) properties of the barley malt kvass prepared at optimal conditions were symmetrically evaluated. Besides, compared with the commercial kvass products, the produced barley malt kvass exhibited better taste and more desirable antioxidant activity, and also maintained around 6-7 log CFU/mL of viable probiotic microorganisms during a week of storage. The present study not only enriched the biological resource of the traditional kvass, but also promoted the development of the kvass as a live-bacteria beverage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-022-02734-8DOI Listing
May 2022

d-Amino Acid-Based Antifouling Peptides for the Construction of Electrochemical Biosensors Capable of Assaying Proteins in Serum with Enhanced Stability.

ACS Sens 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

State Key Laboratory Base of Eco-chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optic-Electric Sensing and Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, MOE, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science & Technology, Qingdao 266042, China.

The susceptibility of peptides to proteolytic degradation in human serum significantly hindered the potential application of peptide-based antifouling biosensors for long-term assaying of clinical samples. Herein, a robust antifouling biosensor with enhanced stability was constructed based on peptides composed of d-amino acids (d-peptide) with prominent proteolytic resistance. The electrode was electropolymerized with poly(3,4-ehtylenedioxythiophene) and electrodeposited with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), and the d-peptide was then immobilized onto the AuNPs, and a typical antibody specific for immunoglobulin M (IgM) was immobilized. Because of the effect of d-amino acids, the d-peptide-modified electrode surface showed prominent antifouling capability and high tolerance to enzymatic hydrolysis. Moreover, the d-peptide-modified electrode exhibited much stronger long-term stability, as well as antifouling ability in human serum than the electrode modified with normal peptides. The electrochemical biosensor exhibited a sensitive response to IgM linearly within the range of 100 pg mL to 1.0 μg mL and a very low detection limit down to 37 pg mL, and it was able to detect IgM in human serum with good accuracy. This work provided a new strategy to develop robust peptide-based biosensors to resist the proteolytic degradation for practical application in complex clinical samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.2c00518DOI Listing
May 2022

Interventional Microbubble Enhanced Sonothrombolysis on Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 May 26:e2201291. Epub 2022 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is often used in the treatment of heart failure. However, 4% to 9% implanted LVAD will have thrombosis problem in one year, which is fatal to the patient's life. In this work, an interventional sonothrombolysis (IST) method is developed to realize the thrombolysis on LVAD. A pair of ultrasound transducer rings is installed on the shell of LVAD, and drug-loaded microbubbles are injected into the LVAD through the interventional method. The microbubbles are adhere on the thrombus with the coated thrombus-targeted drugs, and the thrombolytic drugs carried by the bubbles are brought into the thrombus by the cavitation of bubbles under the ultrasound. In a proof-of-concept experiment in a live sheep model, the thrombus on LVAD is dissolved in 30 min, without damages on LVADs and organs. This IST exhibits to be more efficient and safer compared with other thrombolysis methods on LVAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202201291DOI Listing
May 2022

Comparable long-term outcomes between upfront haploidentical and identical sibling donor transplant in aplastic anemia: a national registry-based study.

Haematologica 2022 May 26. Epub 2022 May 26.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Institute of Hematology, Beijing, China; National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Disease, Beijing, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Beijing, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Beijing, China.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains a curative option for severe aplastic anemia (SAA), and transplantation from identical sibling donors (ISDs) has been recommended as a first-line treatment. Haploidentical donor (HID) transplantation for SAA has made great advances; thus, an increased role of HID-SCT in SAA should be considered. We performed a national registry-based analysis comparing long-term outcomes in the upfront HID or upfront ISD SCT setting. A total of 342 SAA patients were enrolled, with 183 patients receiving HID SCT and 159 receiving ISD SCT. The estimated 9-year overall survival (OS) and failure-free survival (FFS) were 87.1±2.5% and 89.3±3.7% (P = 0.173) and 86.5±2.6% vs. 88.1±3.8% (P = 0.257) for patients in the HID and ISD SCT groups, respectively. Transplantation from HID or ISD SCT has greatly improved quality of life (QoL) levels post-HSCT compared to pre-HSCT. The occurrence of chronic graft versus host disease was the only identified adverse factor affecting each subscale of QoL. Physical and mental component summaries in adults as well as physical, mental, social, and role well-being in children were all similar between HID and ISD SCT at 5-year points. At the last followup, the proportion of returning to society was comparable between the HID and ISD groups, showing 78.0% versus 84.6% among children and 74.6% versus 81.2% among adults. These data suggest that haploidentical transplant can be considered a potential therapeutic option in the upfront setting for SAA patients in the absence of an HLA identical related or unrelated donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2022.280758DOI Listing
May 2022

Machine Learning-Based Evaluation on Craniodentofacial Morphological Harmony of Patients After Orthodontic Treatment.

Front Physiol 2022 9;13:862847. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Machine learning is increasingly being used in the medical field. Based on machine learning models, the present study aims to improve the prediction performance of craniodentofacial morphological harmony judgment after orthodontic treatment and to determine the most significant factors. A dataset of 180 subjects was randomly selected from a large sample of 3,706 finished orthodontic cases from six top orthodontic treatment centers around China. Thirteen algorithms were used to predict the value of the cephalometric morphological harmony score of each subject and to search for the optimal model. Based on the feature importance ranking and by removing features, the regression models of machine learning (including the Adaboost, ExtraTree, XGBoost, and linear regression models) were used to predict and compare the score of harmony for each subject from the dataset with cross validations. By analyzing the prediction values, the most optimal model and the most significant cephalometric characteristics were determined. When nine features were included, the performance of the XGBoost regression model was MAE = 0.267, RMSE = 0.341, and Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.683, which indicated that the XGBoost regression model exhibited the best fitting and predicting performance for craniodentofacial morphological harmony judgment. Nine cephalometric features including L1/NB (inclination of the lower central incisors), ANB (sagittal position between the maxilla and mandible), LL-EP (distance from the point of the prominence of the lower lip to the aesthetic plane), SN/OP (inclination of the occlusal plane), SNB (sagittal position of the mandible in relation to the cranial base), U1/SN (inclination of the upper incisors to the cranial base), L1-NB (protrusion of the lower central incisors), Ns-Prn-Pos (nasal protrusion), and U1/L1 (relationship between the protrusions of the upper and lower central incisors) were revealed to significantly influence the judgment. The application of the XGBoost regression model enhanced the predictive ability regarding the craniodentofacial morphological harmony evaluation by experts after orthodontic treatment. Teeth position, teeth alignment, jaw position, and soft tissue morphology would be the most significant factors influencing the judgment. The methodology also provided guidance for the application of machine learning models to resolve medical problems characterized by limited sample size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.862847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9124867PMC
May 2022

Associations between Autoimmunity and Depression: Serum IL-6 and IL-17 Have Directly Impact on the HAMD Scores in Patients with First-Episode Depressive Disorder.

J Immunol Res 2022 16;2022:6724881. Epub 2022 May 16.

Psychiatry Department, Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, No. 382, Wuyi Road, Taiyuan, 030001 Shanxi Province, China.

Objective: The study is aimed at evaluating the immune-activation state before and after treatment in patients with first-episode depressive disorder (FDD) with evaluating the ILs and CRP levels and further clarifying the association between autoimmunity and the etiology and pathogenesis of FDD.

Methods: We designed a case-control study. FDD patients and healthy subjects were enrolled in the FDD group and control group. Serum IL-6, IL-17, and CRP were measured before and after selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) therapy, as well as Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and life event scale (LES) scores. The correlations between IL-6 and IL-17 and HAMD and LES scores were analysed, and multiple linear regression analysis was performed for HAMD score.

Results: 40 FDD patients and 40 healthy subjects were included in the FDD and control group from October 2009 to September 2012. Before treatment, the IL-6 (28.99 ± 5.51, < 0.001) and IL-17 (41.15 ± 4.80, < 0.001) in the FDD group were significantly higher than the control group (16.84 ± 3.78 and 21.68 ± 3.72, respectively). The C-reactive protein (CRP) level in two groups was comparable ( = 0.879). After treatment, the IL-6 (18.69 ± 5.07, < 0.001) and IL-17 (30.67 ± 3.47, < 0.001) levels and HAMD scores (6.73 ± 4.15) in the FDD group were significantly decreased than before treatment ( < 0.001, respectively). CRP level was slightly increased after treatment without statistically significant ( = 0.239). The HAMD score correlated with IL-6 ( = 0.638, < 0.001) and IL-17 ( = 0.927, < 0.001); the total LES and negative LES also correlated with IL-6 ( = 0.226, < 0.05) ( = 0.366,  <0.001) and IL-17 ( = 0.348, < 0.001) ( = 0.493, < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that both of the IL-6 and IL-17 had direct impact on HAMD score.

Conclusion: The autoimmunity status was overactivated in FDD patients, and serum IL-6 and IL-17 levels had direct impact on the HAMD score. Patients who experienced more negative life events had higher activation level of autoimmunity status and HAMD scores, and serum IL-6 and IL-17 levels can be decreased by SSRI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6724881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9126704PMC
May 2022

RNA Sequencing of Tumor-Educated Platelets Reveals a Three-Gene Diagnostic Signature in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2022 9;12:824354. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

There is no cost-effective, accurate, and non-invasive method for the detection of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic potential of tumor-educated platelets in ESCC. In this study, seventy-one ESCC patients and eighty healthy individuals were enrolled and divided into a training cohort (23 patients and 27 healthy individuals) and a validation cohort (48 patients and 53 healthy individuals). Next-generation RNA sequencing was performed on platelets isolated from peripheral blood of all participants, and a support vector machine/leave-one-out cross validation (SVM/LOOCV) approach was used for binary classification. A diagnostic signature composed of , and discriminated ESCC patients from healthy individuals with 91.3% sensitivity and 85.2% specificity in the training cohort and 87.5% sensitivity and 81.1% specificity in the validation cohort. The AUC was 0.924 (95% CI, 0.845-0.956) and 0.893 (95% CI, 0.821-0.966), respectively, in the training cohort and validation cohort. This 3-gene platelet RNA signature could effectively discriminate ESCC from healthy control. Our data highlighted the potential of tumor-educated platelets for the noninvasive diagnosis of ESCC. Moreover, we found that keratin and collagen protein families and ECM-related pathways might be involved in tumor progression and metastasis of ESCC, which might provide insights to understand ESCC pathobiology and advance novel therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.824354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9124963PMC
May 2022

The macular inner plexiform layer thickness as an early diagnostic indicator for Parkinson's disease.

NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2022 May 25;8(1):63. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Whether structural alterations of intraretinal layers are indicators for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unclear. We assessed the retinal layer thickness in different stages of PD and explored whether it can be an early diagnostic indicator for PD. In total, 397 [131, 146, and 120 with Hoehn-Yahr I (H-Y I), H-Y II, and H-Y III stages, respectively] patients with PD and 427 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. The peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), total macular retinal thickness (MRT), and macular volume (TMV) were measured by high-definition optical coherence tomography, and the macular intraretinal thickness was analyzed by the Iowa Reference Algorithms. As a result, the PD group had a significantly lower average, temporal quadrant pRNFL, MRT, and TMV than the HCs group (all p < 0.001). Moreover, the ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and outer nuclear layer were thinner in patients with PD with H-Y I, and significantly decreased as the H-Y stage increased. In addition, we observed that GCL and IPL thicknesses were both correlated with Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale III (MDS-UPDRS III) scores and non-motor symptoms assessment scores. Furthermore, macular IPL thickness in the superior inner (SI) quadrant (IPL-SI) had the best diagnostic performance in patients with PD with H-Y I versus HCs, with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.06% and 81.67%, respectively. In conclusion, we confirmed the retinal structure was significantly altered in patients with PD in different clinical stages, and that GCL and IPL changes occurred during early PD disease and were correlated with MDS-UPDRS III scores and non-motor symptoms assessment scores. Furthermore, macular IPL-SI thickness might be performed as an early diagnostic indicator for PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41531-022-00325-8DOI Listing
May 2022

Electrically Modulated Near-Infrared/Visible Light Dual-Mode Perovskite Photodetectors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Information Display and Visualization, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China.

Dual-mode photodetectors (PDs) have attracted increasing interest owing to their potential optoelectrical applications. However, the widespread use of PDs is still limited by the high cost of epitaxial semiconductors. In contrast, the solution processability and wide spectral tunability of perovskites have led to the development of various inexpensive and high-performance optoelectronic devices. In this study, we develop a high-performance electronically modulated dual-mode PD with near-infrared (NIR) narrowband and visible light broadband detection based on organic-inorganic hybrid methylammonium lead halide perovskite (MAPbX; MA = CHNH and X = Cl, Br, and I) single crystals with a pnp configuration. The operating mode of the dual-mode PD can be switched according to voltage bias polarity because the photon absorption region and carrier transport performance are tuned at different bias voltages. The dual-mode PD exhibits a NIR light responsivity of 0.244 A/W and a narrow full width at half-maximum of ∼12 nm at 820 nm at positive voltages and an average visible light responsivity of ∼0.13 A/W at negative voltages. The detectivities of both modes are high (∼10 Jones), and the linear dynamic range is wide (>100 dB). Our study provides a new method for fabricating multifunctional PDs and can expand their application in integrated imaging systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c01796DOI Listing
May 2022

Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the children's empathy quotient and systemizing quotient: 4-12 years.

Autism Res 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

We aimed to validate the Children's Empathy Quotient (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ-C) in Mainland China, which can reflect the profiles of empathizing and systemizing, and describing specific characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and gender-typical behaviors in general population. A total of 800 typically developing (TD) children, aged 4-12 years was recruited initially with whose parents/guardians complete the measurements, and 782 TD children who met inclusion criteria were finally included. A 23-item three-factor EQ-C and a 22-item four-factor SQ-C was developed with good internal consistency (Omega total values of 0.87 and 0.86) and test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.82 and 0.69). In TD children, girls scored significantly higher on EQ-C (31.4 ± 7.8 vs. 28.2 ± 7.7) but there were no gender differences in SQ-C scores. TD children showed different cognitive styles (empathizing-dominant for girls with 42.6% identified as Type E; systemizing-dominant for boys with 40.7% identified as Type S). A further sample of 222 children with ASD indicated that they scored lower on EQ/SQ-C compared to TD children (13.2 ± 5.1 vs. 29.7 ± 7.9, 12.4 ± 5.8 vs. 23.5 ± 8.3) and were generally systemizing-dominant (Type S: 50.8% for boys and 64.0% for girls). Autistic children scored higher on the SQ-C in those without intellectual disability and with higher paternal education level and family income (14.2 ± 6.1 vs. 10.9 ± 5.0, 13.3 ± 6.2 vs. 11.5 ± 5.1, 13.7 ± 5.6 vs. 11.9 ± 5.8), while there were no differences in the EQ-C. This study indicated good reliability and validity of the Chinese version of EQ/SQ-C, which can be used in Chinese children with and without ASD. LAY SUMMARY: We developed the Chinese version of the Children's Empathy Quotient (EQ-C) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ-C) in 782 typically developing (TD) children aged 4-12 years in Mainland China, yielding a 23-item, 3-factor EQ-C and a 22-item, 4-factor SQ-C with good psychometric properties. In TD children, we found gender difference only in scores of EQ-C. Further analyses of 222 autistic children indicated that differences were found in scores of SQ-C when considering their gender, intelligence and socio-economic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2743DOI Listing
May 2022

Physiological and molecular responses of Phalaris arundinacea under salt stress on the Tibet plateau.

J Plant Physiol 2022 May 10;274:153715. Epub 2022 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Phalaris arundinacea, with its characteristics of rapid growth and high biological yield, is regarded as an excellent forage grass in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau region of China. To explore the physiological and molecular response mechanism of Phalaris arundinacea under salt stress, we monitored the biomass and physiological indexes of two locally grown strains under conditions of exposure to 150 and 300 mM NaCl solution. Z0611 exhibited better salt stress tolerance than YS. Transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that YS and Z0611 had 1713 and 4290 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), respectively, including on metabolic processes, single-organism process, catalytic activity, and plant hormone signal transduction in the GO and KEGG databases. We also identified a large number of genes involved in hormone signaling, antioxidant systems, ion homeostasis, and photosynthetic systems. Our study provides physiological and molecular insight for establishing a salt resistance database and mining salt tolerance genes in Phalaris arundinacea, and also provides theoretical guidance for the restoration of saline-alkali land on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2022.153715DOI Listing
May 2022

Achieving Balanced Electrical Performance of Host Material through Dual N-P═O Resonance Linkage for Efficient Electroluminescence.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Electronics and Information Displays, Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing University of Posts & Telecommunications, 9 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing 210023, China.

Developing high-performance host materials is one of the biggest challenges for blue and white thermally activated delayed-fluorescence (TADF) organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology due to the rigorous requirements of both efficient carrier flux ability and high triplet energy () levels in static donor-acceptor molecules. Here, with the aid of a dual-resonance strategy, a host molecule showing dynamic adaption features in the acceptor-resonance-donor-resonance-acceptor (A-r-D-r-A) molecular configuration has been successfully developed through the implantation of two acceptors of diphenylphosphine oxide into electron-donating 5,10-dihydrophenazine with N-P═O resonance linkages. Owing to the dual enantiotropic N═P-O resonances, the designed A-r-D-r-A molecule exhibits an extraordinarily balanced charge flux transportation attribute at high (2.96 eV). Excitingly, blue and warm-white TADF OLEDs hosted by the A-r-D-r-A molecule exhibit outstanding external quantum efficiencies of 14.7 and 20.3%, respectively. Our studies not only broaden the scope of resonance molecules but also indicate that a resonance structure is an effective linkage to develop optoelectronic materials with dynamically adaptive properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c02745DOI Listing
May 2022

Efficient improvement of the lithium ionic conductivity for a polymer electrolyte introducing porous metal-organic frameworks.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, P. R. China.

The electrolyte membrane plays a vital role in the practical conduction application of lithium-ion batteries. In this study, a series of PVDF-HFP/MOF-5 composite electrolyte materials were harvested by incorporating MOF-5 into PVDF-HFP, presenting excellent electrochemical characteristics and mechanical properties. Importantly, the performances of the PVDF-HFP/MOF-5 composites depended greatly on the content of MOF-5 introduced and the channels change. The PVDF-HFP/MOF-5-II with a MOF-5 content of 2 wt% revealed optimal ionic conductivity of 1.20 × 10 S cm and lithium ion transference number of 0.9 at room temperature, which shows potential application prospects in the field of electrolyte materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc01458kDOI Listing
May 2022

Worldwide Research Trends on Artemisinin: A Bibliometric Analysis From 2000 to 2021.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 6;9:868087. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Objective: Artemisinin is an organic compound that comes from Artemisia annua. Artemisinin treatment is the most important and effective method for treating malaria. Bibliometric analysis was carried out to identify the global research trends, hot spots, scientific frontiers, and output characteristics of artemisinin from 2000 to 2021.

Methods: Publications and their recorded information from 2000 to 2021 were retrieved through the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC). Using VOSviewer and Citespace, the hotspots and trends of studies on artemisinin were visualized.

Results: A total of 8,466 publications were retrieved, and for the past 22 years, the annual number of publications associated with artemisinin kept increasing. The United States published most papers. The H-index and number of citations of the United States ranked first. The University of Oxford and MALARIA JOURNAL were the most productive affiliation and journal, respectively. A paper written by E.A. Ashley in 2011 achieved the highest global citation score. Keywords, such as "malaria," "artesunate," "plasmodium-falciparum," "," "artemisinin resistance," "plasmodium falciparum," "resistance," and "artemether-lumefantrine," appeared most frequently. The research on artemisinin includes clinical research and animal and cell experiments.

Conclusion: The biosynthesis, drug resistance mechanism, and combination of artemisinin have become more popular than before. Studies on artemisinin treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been carried out, and good research results have been obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.868087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9121127PMC
May 2022

Optimal NaCl Medium Enhances Squalene Accumulation in sp. ATCC 26185 and Influences the Expression Levels of Key Metabolic Genes.

Front Microbiol 2022 4;13:900252. Epub 2022 May 4.

Center for Marine Environmental Ecology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Squalene, a natural lipid of the terpenoid family, is well-recognized for its roles in regulating cholesterol metabolism, preventing tumor development, and improving immunity. For large-scale squalene production, the unicellular marine protists-thraustochytrids-have shown great potential. However, the growth of thraustochytrids is known to be affected by salt stress, which can eventually influence the squalene content. Here, we study the effects of an optimal concentration of NaCl on the squalene content and transcriptome of sp. ATCC 26185. Under the optimal culture conditions (glucose, 30 g/L; yeast extract, 2.5 g/L; and NaCl, 5 g/L; 28°C), the strain yielded 67.7 mg squalene/g cell dry weight, which was significantly greater than that (5.37 mg/g) under the unoptimized conditions. NaCl was determined as the most significant ( = 135.24) factor for squalene production among glucose, yeast extract, and NaCl. Further comparative transcriptomics between the ATCC 26185 culture with and without NaCl addition revealed that NaCl (5 g/L) influences the expression of certain key metabolic genes, namely, , , , , , and . The differential expression of these genes possibly influenced the acetyl-CoA and glutamate metabolism and resulted in an increased squalene production. Through the integration of bioprocess technology and transcriptomics, this report provides the first evidence of the possible mechanisms underscoring increased squalene production by NaCl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.900252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9114700PMC
May 2022

Gut Microbiota and Bone Diseases: A Growing Partnership.

Front Microbiol 2022 6;13:877776. Epub 2022 May 6.

Gene Hospital of Henan Province, Precision Medicine Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Gut microbiota is key to human health and disease. Convincing studies have demonstrated that dysbiosis in the commensal gut microbiota is associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Recent explorations have significantly contributed to the understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and bone diseases (osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and bone cancer). Gut microbiota and its metabolites may become associated with the development and progression of bone disorders owing to their critical role in nutrient absorption, immunomodulation, and the gut-brain-bone axis (regulation hormones). In this work, we review the recent developments addressing the effect of gut microbiota modulation on skeletal diseases and explore a feasible preventive approach and therapy for bone diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.877776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9121014PMC
May 2022

Beneficial Effect of High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the Verbal Memory and Default Mode Network in Healthy Older Adults.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 4;14:845912. Epub 2022 May 4.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a non-invasive effective treatment for cognitive disorder, but its underlying mechanism of action remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of a 2-week high-frequency (HF) active or sham 10 Hz rTMS on verbal memory in 40 healthy older adults. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) was used to measure functional connectivity (FC) within the default mode network (DMN). Verbal memory performance was evaluated using an auditory verbal learning test (AVLT). Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between memory improvement and FC changes within the DMN. The results revealed that HF-rTMS can enhance immediate recall and delayed recall of verbal memory and increased the FC of the bilateral precuneus (PCUN) within the DMN. The positive correlations between the immediate recall memory and the FC of the left PCUN after a 2-week intervention of HF-rTMS were detected. In conclusion, HF-rTMS may have the potential to improve verbal memory performance in older adults, which relation to FC changes in the DMN. The current findings are useful for increasing the understanding of the mechanisms of HF-rTMS, as well as guiding HF-rTMS treatment of cognitive disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.845912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9114775PMC
May 2022

Correction: LncRNA AFAP1-AS1 promotes growth and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma cells.

Oncotarget 2022 19;13:694. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Affiliated Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.16880.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.28216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9119686PMC
May 2022

A COVID-19 CXR image recognition method based on MSA-DDCovidNet.

IET Image Process 2022 Jun 15;16(8):2101-2113. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of the District of Columbia Washington DC USA.

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been contained. It is a safe and effective way to detect infected persons in chest X-ray (CXR) images based on deep learning methods. To solve the above problem, the dual-path multi-scale fusion (DMFF) module and dense dilated depth-wise separable (D3S) module are used to extract shallow and deep features, respectively. Based on these two modules and multi-scale spatial attention (MSA) mechanism, a lightweight convolutional neural network model, MSA-DDCovidNet, is designed. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the MSA-DDCovidNet model on COVID-19 CXR images is as high as 97.962%, In addition, the proposed MSA-DDCovidNet has less computation complexity and fewer parameter numbers. Compared with other methods, MSA-DDCovidNet can help diagnose COVID-19 more quickly and accurately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ipr2.12474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9111165PMC
June 2022

Prevalence and inconformity of refractive errors and ocular biometry of 3573 medical university freshman students for 4 consecutive years.

Int J Ophthalmol 2022 18;15(5):807-812. Epub 2022 May 18.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin Branch of National Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, Tianjin 300384, China.

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of refractive errors and ocular biometry in 3573 freshman students at Tianjin Medical University for 4 consecutive years.

Methods: In this university-based, cross-sectional study, comprising 3573 students, visual acuity (VA), slit-lamp examination, non-cycloplegic auto-refraction, and ocular biometry were recorded.

Results: The prevalence of myopia increased annually, from 2017 to 2020 were 93.5%, 94.5%, 95.9%, and 96.2%, respectively (=0.03), and the prevalence of high myopia was 25.7%, 26.9%, 28.6%, and 28.6%, respectively. Males tended to have a higher percentage of total astigmatism than females, with astigmatism ≥0.75 and ≥1.0 D criteria. The percentage of with-the-rule astigmatism, against-the-rule astigmatism, and oblique astigmatism was 90.3%, 5.8%, and 3.9%, respectively, with astigmatism ≥1.00 D criteria. The mean spherical equivalent, axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), corneal radius (CR), and lens position (LP) were 4.37±2.52 D, 25.28±1.24 mm, 539.49±34.98 µm, 3.31±0.34 mm, 3.47±0.21 mm, 7.8±0.28 mm, and 5.04±0.32 mm, respectively. With diopter increase in myopia, the AL became longer, CR became steeper, ACD became deeper, LT became thinner, and LP became more posterior (all <0.01). Females had a shorter AL, thinner CCT, smaller CR, shallower ACD, thicker lens, and more anterior LP than males (<0.01). The 64% of high myopia had AL≥26 mm, meanwhile, 5.8% mild myopia and 21.1% moderate myopia had AL≥26 mm. With AL≥26 mm, mild and moderate myopia compared to high myopia, AL was shorter (26.51±0.46 26.87±0.70 mm), CR was larger (8.10±0.3 7.85±0.23 mm) and LT was thinner (3.39±0.19 3.45±0.19 mm, <0.001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of myopia and high myopia is significantly high in freshman students. The majority of astigmatism is with-the-rule. Inconformity of refractive errors and ocular biometry existed in some students. Attention should be paid to the ocular biometry of myopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2022.05.18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091886PMC
May 2022

Real-time visualization of exo- and endocytosis membrane dynamics with confocal and super-resolution microscopy.

STAR Protoc 2022 Jun 17;3(2):101404. Epub 2022 May 17.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Real-time confocal and super-resolution imaging reveals membrane dynamics of exo- and endocytosis, including hemi-fusion, fusion pore opening, expansion, constriction, closure (kiss-and-run), fused-vesicle shrinking (shrink fusion), and flat membrane transition to vesicles via intermediate Λ- and Ω-shape structures. Here, we describe a protocol for imaging these membrane dynamics, including primary culture of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, fluorescent probe application, patch-clamp to deliver depolarization and evoke exo- and endocytosis, electron microscopy (EM), and real-time confocal and stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Zhao et al. (2016), Shin et al. (2018), and Shin et al. (2021).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2022.101404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9120246PMC
June 2022

Serum Metabonomics Reveals Key Metabolites in Different Types of Childhood Short Stature.

Front Pharmacol 2022 5;13:818952. Epub 2022 May 5.

Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Daqing, China.

Nowadays, short stature (SS) in childhood is a common condition encountered by pediatricians, with an increase in not just a few families. Various studies related to the variations in key metabolites and their biological mechanisms that lead to SS have increased our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease. However, little is known about the role of metabolite variation in different types of childhood SS that influence these biological processes and whether the understanding of the key metabolites from different types of childhood SS would predict the disease progression better. We performed a systematic investigation using the metabonomics method and studied the correlation between the three groups, namely, the control, idiopathic short stature (ISS), and short stature due to growth hormone deficiency (GHD). We observed that three pathways (viz., purine metabolism, sphingolipid signaling pathway, and sphingolipid metabolism) were significantly enriched in childhood SS. Moreover, we reported that two short peptides (Thr Val Leu Thr Ser and Trp Ile Lys) might play a significant role in childhood SS. Various metabolites in different pathways including 9,10-DiHOME, 12-HETE, 12(13)-EpOME, arachidonic acid methyl ester, glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, curvulinic acid (2-acetyl-3,5-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid), nonanoic acid, and N'-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-methylformamidine in human serum were compared between 60 children diagnosed with SS and 30 normal-height children. More investigations in this area may provide insights and enhance the personalized treatment approaches in clinical practice for SS by elucidating pathophysiology mechanisms of experimental verification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.818952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9117746PMC
May 2022

Is Required for Zebrafish Lateral Line Development Through Regulation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Cellular Senescence Signaling Pathways.

Front Mol Neurosci 2022 5;15:844668. Epub 2022 May 5.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, China.

Cingulin, a cytoplasmic element of tight junctions (TJs), is involved in maintenance of the integrity of epithelial and endothelial cells. However, the role of cingulin in the development of auditory organs remains unclear. Zebrafish is popular as a model organism for hearing research. Using the whole mount hybridization (WISH) experiment, we detected the expression of in the posterior lateral line system (PLLs) of zebrafish. We traced the early development progress of zebrafish PLLs from 36 hpf to 72 hpf, and found that inhibition of by target morpholinos resulted in severe developmental obstruction, including decreased number of neuromasts, reduced proliferative cells in the primordium, and repressed hair cell differentiation in the neuromasts. To examine the potential mechanism of in the development of zebrafish PLL neuromasts, we performed RNA-seq analysis to compare the differently expressed genes (DEGs) between knockdown samples and the controls. The KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that MAPK signaling pathway and cellular senescence were the key pathways with most DEGs in -MO morphants compared to the Control-MO embryos. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed the findings by RNA-seq that the transcript levels of cell cycle negative regulators such as and , were remarkably upregulated after inhibition of . Our results therefore indicated an important role of in the development of auditory organs, and MAPK signaling pathway was inhibited while cellular senescence pathway was activated after downregulation of . We bring forward new insights of cingulin by exploring its function in auditory system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2022.844668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9119177PMC
May 2022

Global, regional, and national disease burden estimates of acute lower respiratory infections due to respiratory syncytial virus in children younger than 5 years in 2019: a systematic analysis.

Lancet 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection in young children. We previously estimated that in 2015, 33·1 million episodes of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection occurred in children aged 0-60 months, resulting in a total of 118 200 deaths worldwide. Since then, several community surveillance studies have been done to obtain a more precise estimation of RSV associated community deaths. We aimed to update RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection morbidity and mortality at global, regional, and national levels in children aged 0-60 months for 2019, with focus on overall mortality and narrower infant age groups that are targeted by RSV prophylactics in development.

Methods: In this systematic analysis, we expanded our global RSV disease burden dataset by obtaining new data from an updated search for papers published between Jan 1, 2017, and Dec 31, 2020, from MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, OpenGrey, CNKI, Wanfang, and ChongqingVIP. We also included unpublished data from RSV GEN collaborators. Eligible studies reported data for children aged 0-60 months with RSV as primary infection with acute lower respiratory infection in community settings, or acute lower respiratory infection necessitating hospital admission; reported data for at least 12 consecutive months, except for in-hospital case fatality ratio (CFR) or for where RSV seasonality is well-defined; and reported incidence rate, hospital admission rate, RSV positive proportion in acute lower respiratory infection hospital admission, or in-hospital CFR. Studies were excluded if case definition was not clearly defined or not consistently applied, RSV infection was not laboratory confirmed or based on serology alone, or if the report included fewer than 50 cases of acute lower respiratory infection. We applied a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM) to estimate RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection incidence, hospital admission, and in-hospital mortality both globally and regionally (by country development status and by World Bank Income Classification) in 2019. We estimated country-level RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection incidence through a risk-factor based model. We developed new models (through GLMM) that incorporated the latest RSV community mortality data for estimating overall RSV mortality. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021252400).

Findings: In addition to 317 studies included in our previous review, we identified and included 113 new eligible studies and unpublished data from 51 studies, for a total of 481 studies. We estimated that globally in 2019, there were 33·0 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes (uncertainty range [UR] 25·4-44·6 million), 3·6 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection hospital admissions (2·9-4·6 million), 26 300 RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital deaths (15 100-49 100), and 101 400 RSV-attributable overall deaths (84 500-125 200) in children aged 0-60 months. In infants aged 0-6 months, we estimated that there were 6·6 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes (4·6-9·7 million), 1·4 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection hospital admissions (1·0-2·0 million), 13 300 RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital deaths (6800-28 100), and 45 700 RSV-attributable overall deaths (38 400-55 900). 2·0% of deaths in children aged 0-60 months (UR 1·6-2·4) and 3·6% of deaths in children aged 28 days to 6 months (3·0-4·4) were attributable to RSV. More than 95% of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes and more than 97% of RSV-attributable deaths across all age bands were in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Interpretation: RSV contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality burden globally in children aged 0-60 months, especially during the first 6 months of life and in LMICs. We highlight the striking overall mortality burden of RSV disease worldwide, with one in every 50 deaths in children aged 0-60 months and one in every 28 deaths in children aged 28 days to 6 months attributable to RSV. For every RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital death, we estimate approximately three more deaths attributable to RSV in the community. RSV passive immunisation programmes targeting protection during the first 6 months of life could have a substantial effect on reducing RSV disease burden, although more data are needed to understand the implications of the potential age-shifts in peak RSV burden to older age when these are implemented.

Funding: EU Innovative Medicines Initiative Respiratory Syncytial Virus Consortium in Europe (RESCEU).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00478-0DOI Listing
May 2022

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation promotes response inhibition in patients with major depression during the stop-signal task.

J Psychiatr Res 2022 May 13;151:427-438. Epub 2022 May 13.

School of Mental Health and Psychological Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China; Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

Background: Response inhibition (RI) deficit is an aspect of cognitive impairment in depressed individuals, but currently no effective treatment has been established. This study aimed to explore the effect of individualized repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (lDLPFC)-nucleus accumbens (NAcc) network on RI in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Methods: Fourty-four patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized to receive 15 once-daily sessions of active (10 Hz, 100% of resting motor threshold) or sham rTMS within a double-blind, sham-controlled trial. We measured the efficacy of rTMS by the improvements in behavioral and neurological manifestations during the stop-signal task. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HAMD-17) was used to assess depressive symptoms. We analyzed the differences in RI performance between MDD patients and 30 healthy controls (HCs) at baseline and assessed whether MDD patients who completed rTMS treatment had comparable RI ability to HCs.

Results: At baseline, the depressed patients showed longer stop-signal response time (SSRT), smaller P3 amplitudes, and weaker theta-band power in successful stop trials (SSTs) than HCs. The active group exhibited RI ability comparable to that of HCs after rTMS treatment, but the improvements were not significant in the sham group. The active group showed significant remission in depression symptoms post-treatment compared to the sham group, and the changes in P3 amplitudes and theta-band power during SSTs were negatively correlated with the decrease of HAMD-17 scores.

Conclusion: The depressed patients have impaired RI and treatment with the individualized rTMS protocol may be an effective approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.05.014DOI Listing
May 2022

Pharmacological Activation of GPR55 Improved Cognitive Impairment Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in Mice.

J Mol Neurosci 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, Anhui Institute of Innovative Drugs, School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Our previous research found that activation of GPR55 can alleviate cognitive impairment induced by amyloid-beta 1-42 (Aβ) and streptozotocin in mice, but the role of GPR55 in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment remains unknown. Here, we used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mouse model to further investigate the role and mechanism of O-1602, a GPR55 agonist, on cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were treated with an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of LPS, followed by cognitive function tests. The expression of GPR55, NF-κB p65, caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus was examined by Western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines and microglia were detected by ELISA kit and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively. The levels of MDA, GSH, SOD, and CAT were examined by assay kits. Furthermore, TUNEL-staining was used to detect neuronal apoptosis. Our results showed that i.c.v. injection of LPS in mice exhibited impaired performance in the behavior tests, which were ameliorated by O-1602 treatment (2.0 or 4.0 μg/mouse, i.c.v.). Importantly, we found that O-1602 treatment reversed GPR55 downregulation, decreased the expression of NF-κB p65, suppressed the accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines and microglia activation, increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reduced the levels of MDA, increased the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT in the hippocampus. In addition, O-1602 treatment also significantly reduced Bax and increased Bcl-2 expression as well as decreased caspase-3 activity and TUNEL-positive cells in the hippocampus. These observations indicate that O-1602 may ameliorate LPS-induced cognition deficits via inhibiting neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis mediated by the NF-κB pathway in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-022-02020-yDOI Listing
May 2022

Feasibility and Safety of Anlotinib Monotherapy for Patients with Previously Treated Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Real-World Exploratory Study.

Cancer Manag Res 2022 13;14:1715-1727. Epub 2022 May 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450052, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of anlotinib monotherapy for patients with advanced or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) retrospectively.

Methods: This study was designed as a real-world study. A total of 83 patients with advanced or metastatic ESCC who received anlotinib monotherapy were included. Demographic characteristics of the patients, efficacy data of the treatment and adverse reactions during the treatment were documented and analyzed through the electronic medical record system in the hospital. All the patients were followed up regularly. The primary endpoint of this study was progression-free survival (PFS), secondary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), safety profile and PFS analysis according to adverse reactions.

Results: A total of 83 patients with ESCC who received anlotinib monotherapy were included. Partial response was observed in 7 patients, stable disease was noted in 51 patients and progressive disease was found in 25 patients, which yielded an ORR of 8.4% (95% CI: 3.5-16.6%), and a DCR of 69.9% (95% CI: 58.8-79.5%). Furthermore, the median PFS of the 83 patients with advanced ESCC was 3.3 months (95% CI: 2.20-4.40) and the median OS was 7.8 months (95% CI: 5.40-10.20). Common adverse reactions among the 83 patients were hypertension (51.8%), fatigue (48.2%), weight loss (41.0%), diarrhea (34.9) and hand-foot syndrome (30.1%). Correlation analysis between hypertension status and PFS suggested that PFS of the patients with hypertension was longer than that of those with non-hypertension (median PFS: 4.5 vs 3.0 months, = 0.019).

Conclusion: Anlotinib monotherapy demonstrated promising efficacy and tolerable toxicity for patients with previously treated advanced or metastatic ESCC. Hypertension that occurs during anlotinib administration might be used as a potential biomarker to predict PFS of patients with ESCC. The conclusion should be confirmed in prospective clinical trials subsequently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S359482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9113659PMC
May 2022

The clinical utility of dynamic ctDNA monitoring in inoperable localized NSCLC patients.

Mol Cancer 2022 May 19;21(1):117. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No.17 PanjiayuanNanli, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100021, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-022-01590-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9118575PMC
May 2022

Occurrence of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in foodstuffs from ten provinces in China and its implications for human dietary exposure.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 May 16;165:113134. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110819, China; State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) are widely used as food additives to delay the oxidation rate of oils and oil products. The concentrations and compositions of SPAs in Chinese residents' most popular daily foods and the resulting exposure risk of SPAs are not clear. Therefore, this study collected food samples in 13 food categories (n = 289) from 10 provinces in China. At least one of the SPAs was detected in approximately 99.7% of foodstuffs, and the concentration of ∑SPAs ranged from not detected to 7830 (geometric mean (GM): 296 ng/g wet weight). 2,6-2 tert butyl p-1,4-benzoquinone (BHT-Q) was the main transformation product, but SPAs in food tend to exist in the parent form. A significant difference between food categories was analyzed. The highest GM of ΣSPAs occurred in cereals and cereal products, which was approximately 8 times higher than that in beverages. The estimated daily intakes of ΣSPAs in Chinese preschoolers, school-age children, adults and elderly individuals were 22200, 9970, 7540 and 7700 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. The exposure risks of SPAs decreased with age. This is the first simultaneous analysis of SPAs in multiple provinces and multiple categories of foodstuffs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2022.113134DOI Listing
May 2022

Gene Mining and Flavour Metabolism Analyses of Y-1 Isolated From a Chinese Liquor Fermentation Starter.

Front Microbiol 2022 2;13:891387. Epub 2022 May 2.

College of Biological Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China.

Luzhou-flavoured liquor is one of Chinese most popular distilled liquors. Hundreds of flavoured components have been detected from this liquor, with esters as its primary flavouring substance. Among these esters, ethyl hexanoate was the main component. As an essential functional microbe that produces ethyl hexanoate, yeast is an important functional microorganism that produces ethyl hexanoate. The synthesis of ethyl hexanoate in yeast mainly involves the lipase/esterase synthesis pathway, alcohol transferase pathway and alcohol dehydrogenase pathway. In this study, whole-genome sequencing of Y-1 isolated from a Chinese liquor fermentation starter, a fermented wheat starter containing brewing microorganisms, was carried out using the Illumina HiSeq X Ten platform. The sequence had a length of 15,127,803 bp with 34.56% GC content, encoding 7,024 CDS sequences, 69 tRNAs and 1 rRNA. Then, genome annotation was performed using three high-quality databases, namely, COG, KEGG and GO databases. The annotation results showed that the ko7019 pathway of gene 6,340 contained the Eht1p enzyme, which was considered a putative acyltransferase similar to Eeb1p and had 51.57% homology with two known medium-chain fatty acid ethyl ester synthases, namely, Eht1 and Eeb1. Ethyl hexanoate in was found to be synthesised through the alcohol acyltransferase pathway, while acyl-coenzyme A and alcohol were synthesised under the catalytic action of Eht1p. The results of this study are beneficial to the exploration of key genes of ester synthesis and provide reference for the improvement of liquor flavoured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.891387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9108772PMC
May 2022
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