Publications by authors named "Xin Tu"

326 Publications

Abbreviated San Diego Wisdom Scale (SD-WISE-7) and Jeste-Thomas Wisdom Index (JTWI).

Int Psychogeriatr 2021 Dec 3:1-10. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Objectives: Wisdom is a personality trait comprising seven components: self-reflection, pro-social behaviors, emotional regulation, acceptance of diverse perspectives, decisiveness, social advising, and spirituality. Wisdom, a potentially modifiable trait, is strongly associated with well-being. We have published a validated 28-item San Diego Wisdom Scale, the SD-WISE-28. Brief scales are necessary for use in large population-based studies and in clinical practice. The present study aimed to create an abbreviated 7-item version of the SD-WISE.

Method: Participants included 2093 people, aged 20-82 years, recruited and surveyed through the online crowdsourcing platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. The participants' mean age was 46 years, with 55% women. Participants completed the SD-WISE-28 as well as validation scales for various positive and negative constructs. Psychometric analyses (factor analysis and item response theory) were used to select one item from each of the seven SD-WISE-28 subscales.

Results: We selected a combination of items that produced acceptable unidimensional model fit and good reliability (ω = 0.74). Item statistics suggested that all seven items were strong indicators of wisdom, although the association was weakest for spirituality. Analyses indicated that the 28-item and 7-item SD-WISE are both very highly correlated (r = 0.92) and produce a nearly identical pattern of correlations with demographic and validity variables.

Conclusion: The SD-WISE-7, and its derived Jeste-Thomas Wisdom Index (JTWI) score, balances reliability and brevity for research applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610221002684DOI Listing
December 2021

Mechanistic insights into the interaction of cardiac sodium channel Na1.5 with MOG1 and a new molecular mechanism for Brugada syndrome.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Center for Human Genome Research, College of Life Science and Technology. Electronic address:

Background: Mutations in cardiac sodium channel Na1.5 cause Brugada syndrome (BrS). MOG1 is a chaperon that binds to Na1.5, facilitates Na1.5 trafficking to cell surface, and enhances amplitude of sodium current I.

Objective: To identify structural elements involved in MOG1-Na1.5 interaction and their relevance to the pathogenesis of BrS.

Methods: Systematic analyses of large deletions, microdeletions and point mutations. Glutathione S-transferases pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation, cell surface protein quantification and patch-clamping of I.

Results: Large deletion analysis defined the MOG1-Na1.5 interaction domain to amino acids S-H of Na1.5 Loop I connecting transmembrane domains I and II. Microdeletion and point mutation analyses further defined the domain to FTFRRR. Mutations F530A, F532A, R533A and R534A, but not T531A and R535A, significantly reduced MOG1-Na1.5 interaction, and eliminated MOG1-enhanced I. Mutagenesis analysis identified D24, E36, D44, E53, and E101A of MOG1 as critical residues for interaction with Na1.5 Loop I. We then characterized three mutations at the MOG1-Na1.5 interaction domain, p.F530V, p.F532C and p.R535Q reported from patients with LQTS and BrS. We found that p.F532C reduced MOG1-Na1.5 interaction, and eliminated MOG1 function on I; p.R535Q is also a loss-of-function mutation that reduces I amplitude in a MOG1-independent manner, whereas p.F530V is benign as it does not have apparent effect on MOG1 and I.

Conclusions: Our findings define the MOG1-Na1.5 interaction domain to a 5-amino-acid motif of FTFRR in Loop I. Mutation p.F532C associated with BrS abolishes Na1.5 interaction with MOG1 and reduces MOG1-enhanced I density, thereby uncovering a novel molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of BrS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2021.11.026DOI Listing
November 2021

Genetic association analysis between IL9 and coronary artery disease in a Chinese Han population.

Cytokine 2021 Nov 20;150:155761. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

Department of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China. Electronic address:

Interleukin-9 (IL-9) plays important role in coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the exact relationship between them is not explored yet. Here, four tag SNPs covering IL9 (rs31563, rs2069868, rs2069870 and rs31564) were selected to conduct case-control association analyses in a total of 3704 individuals from Chinese Han population (1863 CAD vs 1841 control). Results showed that: first, rs2069868 was associated with CAD combined with hypertension (P = 0.027); second, IL9 haplotype (CGAT) was associated with CAD (P = 0.035), and the combination genotype of "rs31563_CC/rs31564_TT" would remarkably decrease the risk of CAD (P = 0.001); third, significant associations were found between rs2069870 and decreased LDL-c levels and decreased total cholesterol levels, and between rs31563 and increased HDL-c levels (P < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that IL9 might play a causal role in CAD by interacted with CAD traditional risk factors, which might confer a new way to improve the prevention and treatment of CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155761DOI Listing
November 2021

Paradoxical cognitive trajectories in men from earlier to later adulthood.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Oct 14;109:229-238. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Center for Behavior Genetics of Aging, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA.

Because longitudinal studies of aging typically lack cognitive data from earlier ages, it is unclear how general cognitive ability (GCA) changes throughout the life course. In 1173 Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA) participants, we assessed young adult GCA at average age 20 and current GCA at 3 VETSA assessments beginning at average age 56. The same GCA index was used throughout. Higher young adult GCA and better GCA maintenance were associated with stronger specific cognitive abilities from age 51 to 73. Given equivalent GCA at age 56, individuals who had higher age 20 GCA outperformed those whose GCA remained stable in terms of memory, executive function, and working memory abilities from age 51 to 73. Thus, paradoxically, despite poorer maintenance of GCA, high young adult GCA still conferred benefits. Advanced predicted brain age and the combination of elevated vascular burden and APOE-ε4 status were associated with poorer maintenance of GCA. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between peak and current GCA for greater understanding of cognitive aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.10.002DOI Listing
October 2021

The Fusion of Microfluidics and Optics for On-Chip Detection and Characterization of Microalgae.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Sep 22;12(10). Epub 2021 Sep 22.

School of Mechanical Engineering and Electronic Information, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China.

It has been demonstrated that microalgae play an important role in the food, agriculture and medicine industries. Additionally, the identification and counting of the microalgae are also a critical step in evaluating water quality, and some lipid-rich microalgae species even have the potential to be an alternative to fossil fuels. However, current technologies for the detection and analysis of microalgae are costly, labor-intensive, time-consuming and throughput limited. In the past few years, microfluidic chips integrating optical components have emerged as powerful tools that can be used for the analysis of microalgae with high specificity, sensitivity and throughput. In this paper, we review recent optofluidic lab-on-chip systems and techniques used for microalgal detection and characterization. We introduce three optofluidic technologies that are based on fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy and imaging-based flow cytometry, each of which can achieve the determination of cell viability, lipid content, metabolic heterogeneity and counting. We analyze and summarize the merits and drawbacks of these micro-systems and conclude the direction of the future development of the optofluidic platforms applied in microalgal research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12101137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540680PMC
September 2021

Concurrent urinary organophosphate metabolites and acetylcholinesterase activity in Ecuadorian adolescents.

Environ Res 2021 Oct 8:112163. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Organophosphates are insecticides that inhibit the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Because of this, AChE is considered a physiological marker of organophosphate exposure in agricultural settings. However, limited research exists on the associations between urinary organophosphate metabolites and AChE activity in children.

Methods: This study included 526 participants from 2 exams (April and July-October 2016) of ages 12-17 years living in agricultural communities in Ecuador. AChE activity was measured at both examinations, and organophosphate metabolites, including para-nitrophenol (PNP), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) were measured in urine collected in July-October. We used generalized estimating equation generalized linear model (GEEGLM), adjusting for hemoglobin, creatinine, and other demographic and anthropometric covariates, to estimate associations of urinary metabolite concentrations with AChE activity (July-October) and AChE% change between April and July-October.

Results: The mean (SD) of AChE and AChE% change (April vs July-October) were 3.67 U/mL (0.54) and -2.5% (15.4%), respectively. AChE activity was inversely associated with PNP concentration, whereas AChE% change was inversely associated with PNP and MDA. There was evidence of a threshold: difference was only significant above the 80th percentile of PNP concentration (AChE difference per SD increase of metabolite = -0.12 U/mL [95%CI: 0.20, -0.04]). Likewise, associations with AChE% change were significant only above the 80th percentile of TCPy (AChE % change per SD increase of metabolite = -1.38% [95%CI: 2.43%, -0.32%]) and PNP -2.47% [95%CI: 4.45%, -0.50%]). PNP concentration at ≥80th percentile was associated with elevated ORs for low AChE activity of 2.9 (95% CI: 1.5, 5.7) and for AChE inhibition of ≤ -10% of 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4, 9.8).

Conclusions: Urinary organophosphate metabolites, including PNP, TCPy and MDA, particularly at concentrations above the 80th percentile, were associated with lower AChE activity among adolescents. These findings bring attention to the value of using multiple constructs of pesticide exposure in epidemiologic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112163DOI Listing
October 2021

Effects of Insomnia on Peptic Ulcer Disease Using Mendelian Randomization.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 25;2021:2216314. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

College of Life Science and Technology, Center for Human Genome Research, Cardio-X Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Objectives: Observational studies indicate that insomnia may increase risk of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Our purpose is to clarify the possible causal relationship between insomnia and PUD by Mendelian randomization analyses.

Methods: We carried out analyses using summary statistics data for genetic variants reported from a GWAS of insomnia ( = up to 1,331,010 individuals) and from a GWAS of PUD ( = up to 456,327 individuals). Three Mendelian randomization approaches were used to explore whether insomnia might play a causal role in PUD, and pathway and functional enrichment analyses were conducted to anticipate the underlying mechanisms.

Results: Conventional Mendelian randomization analysis showed clear causality between insomnia and PUD; 1 SD increased insomnia incident was related to a 19% higher risk of PUD ( = 6.69 × 10; OR, 1.19 (95% CI, 1.14-1.24)). The associations between insomnia and PUD were consistent in the other two analyses performed using the weighted median method ( = 7.75 × 10; OR, 1.16 (95% CI, 1.09-1.23)) and MR-Egger regression ( = 5.00 × 10; OR, 1.27 (95% CI, 1.07-1.50)). Moreover, no evidence indicated a reverse causality between PUD events and insomnia symptoms. Pathway and functional enrichment analyses indicated that the mechanisms of insomnia effect on PUD may be through various ways, such as the immune system and oxidative stress.

Conclusions: This Mendelian randomization study suggests insomnia as a causal risk factor for PUD. The potential mechanisms included may be immune and oxidative stress. These findings indicate that improving sleep quality could have substantial health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2216314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8487841PMC
September 2021

Long-term associations of cigarette smoking in early mid-life with predicted brain aging from mid- to late life.

Addiction 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background And Aims: Smoking is associated with increased risk for brain aging/atrophy and dementia. Few studies have examined early associations with brain aging. This study aimed to measure whether adult men with a history of heavier smoking in early mid-life would have older than predicted brain age 16-28 years later.

Design: Prospective cohort observational study, utilizing smoking pack years data from average age 40 (early mid-life) predicting predicted brain age difference scores (PBAD) at average ages 56, 62 (later mid-life) and 68 years (early old age). Early mid-life alcohol use was also evaluated.

Setting: Population-based United States sample.

Participants/cases: Participants were male twins of predominantly European ancestry who served in the United States military between 1965 and 1975. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) began at average age 56. Subsequent study waves included most baseline participants; attrition replacement subjects were added at later waves.

Measurements: Self-reported smoking information was used to calculate pack years smoked at ages 40, 56, 62, and 68. MRIs were processed with the Brain-Age Regression Analysis and Computation Utility software (BARACUS) program to create PBAD scores (chronological age-predicted brain age) acquired at average ages 56 (n = 493; 2002-08), 62 (n = 408; 2009-14) and 68 (n = 499; 2016-19).

Findings: In structural equation modeling, age 40 pack years predicted more advanced age 56 PBAD [β = -0.144, P = 0.012, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.257, -0.032]. Age 40 pack years did not additionally predict PBAD at later ages. Age 40 alcohol consumption, but not a smoking × alcohol interaction, predicted more advanced PBAD at age 56 (β = -0.166, P = 0.001, 95% CI = -0.261, -0.070) with additional influences at age 62 (β = -0.115, P = 0.005, 95% CI = -0.195, -0.036). Age 40 alcohol did not predict age 68 PBAD. Within-twin-pair analyses suggested some genetic mechanism partially underlying effects of alcohol, but not smoking, on PBAD.

Conclusions: Heavier smoking and alcohol consumption by age 40 appears to predict advanced brain aging by age 56 in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.15710DOI Listing
October 2021

Lifestyle and the aging brain: interactive effects of modifiable lifestyle behaviors and cognitive ability in men from midlife to old age.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Dec 19;108:80-89. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; Center for Behavior Genetics of Aging, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

We examined the influence of lifestyle on brain aging after nearly 30 years, and tested the hypothesis that young adult general cognitive ability (GCA) would moderate these effects. In the community-dwelling Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA), 431 largely non-Hispanic white men completed a test of GCA at mean age 20. We created a modifiable lifestyle behavior composite from data collected at mean age 40. During VETSA, MRI-based measures at mean age 68 included predicted brain age difference (PBAD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain signature, and abnormal white matter scores. There were significant main effects of young adult GCA and lifestyle on PBAD and the AD signature (ps ≤ 0.012), and a GCA-by-lifestyle interaction on both (ps ≤ 0.006). Regardless of GCA level, having more favorable lifestyle behaviors predicted less advanced brain age and less AD-like brain aging. Unfavorable lifestyles predicted advanced brain aging in those with lower age 20 GCA, but did not affect brain aging in those with higher age 20 GCA. Targeting early lifestyle modification may promote dementia risk reduction, especially among lower reserve individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.08.007DOI Listing
December 2021

Genetic Characteristics and Transcriptional Regulation of Sodium Channel Related Genes in Chinese Patients With Brugada Syndrome.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 5;8:714844. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Cardiology, Xiamen Key Laboratory of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Xiamen Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

To investigate the genetic characteristics and transcriptional regulation of the SCN5A gene of Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients in China. Using PubMed, Medline, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), and Wanfang Database, Chinese patients with BrS who underwent SCN5A gene testing were studied. A total of 27 suitable studies involving Chinese BrS patients who underwent the SCN5A gene test were included. A total of 55 SCN5A gene mutations/variations were reported in Chinese BrS patients, including 10 from southern China and 45 from northern China. Mutations/variations of BrS patients from southern China mostly occurred in the regions of the α-subunit of Nav1.5, including DIII (Domain III), DIV, DIII-DIV, C-terminus regions, and the 3'UTR region. Furthermore, we analyzed the post-transcriptional modifications (PTMs) throughout the Nav1.5 protein encoded by SCN5A and found that the PTM changes happened in 72.7% of BrS patients from southern China and 26.7% from northern China. SCN5A mutations/variations of BrS patients in southern China mostly occurred in the DIII-DIV to C-terminus region and the 3'-UTR region of the SCN5A gene, different from northern China. PTM changes were consistent with the mutation/variation distribution of SCN5A, which might be involved in the regulation of the pathogenesis of BrS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.714844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8374431PMC
August 2021

12-year prediction of mild cognitive impairment aided by Alzheimer's brain signatures at mean age 56.

Brain Commun 2021 23;3(3):fcab167. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Center for Behavior Genetics of Aging, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Neuroimaging signatures based on composite scores of cortical thickness and hippocampal volume predict progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease. However, little is known about the ability of these signatures among cognitively normal adults to predict progression to mild cognitive impairment. Towards that end, a signature sensitive to microstructural changes that may predate macrostructural atrophy should be useful. We hypothesized that: (i) a validated MRI-derived Alzheimer's disease signature based on cortical thickness and hippocampal volume in cognitively normal middle-aged adults would predict progression to mild cognitive impairment; and (ii) a novel grey matter mean diffusivity signature would be a better predictor than the thickness/volume signature. This cohort study was part of the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. Concurrent analyses compared cognitively normal and mild cognitive impairment groups at each of three study waves (s = 246-367). Predictive analyses included 169 cognitively normal men at baseline (age = 56.1, range = 51-60). Our previously published thickness/volume signature derived from independent data, a novel mean diffusivity signature using the same regions and weights as the thickness/volume signature, age, and an Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk score were used to predict incident mild cognitive impairment an average of 12 years after baseline (follow-up age = 67.2, range = 61-71). Additional analyses adjusted for predicted brain age difference scores (chronological age minus predicted brain age) to determine if signatures were Alzheimer-related and not simply ageing-related. In concurrent analyses, individuals with mild cognitive impairment had higher (worse) mean diffusivity signature scores than cognitively normal participants, but thickness/volume signature scores did not differ between groups. In predictive analyses, age and polygenic risk score yielded an area under the curve of 0.74 (sensitivity = 80.00%; specificity = 65.10%). Prediction was significantly improved with addition of the mean diffusivity signature (area under the curve = 0.83; sensitivity = 85.00%; specificity = 77.85%;  = 0.007), but not with addition of the thickness/volume signature. A model including both signatures did not improve prediction over a model with only the mean diffusivity signature. Results held up after adjusting for predicted brain age difference scores. The novel mean diffusivity signature was limited by being yoked to the thickness/volume signature weightings. An independently derived mean diffusivity signature may thus provide even stronger prediction. The young age of the sample at baseline is particularly notable. Given that the brain signatures were examined when participants were only in their 50 s, our results suggest a promising step towards improving very early identification of Alzheimer's disease risk and the potential value of mean diffusivity and/or multimodal brain signatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361427PMC
July 2021

Methamphetamine-Associated Heart Failure Hospitalizations Across the United States: Geographic and Social Disparities.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 08 7;10(16):e018370. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Medicine University of California San Diego La Jolla CA.

Background Although methamphetamine abuse is associated with the development of heart failure (HF), nationwide data on methamphetamine-associated HF (MethHF) hospitalizations are limited. This study evaluates nationwide HF hospitalizations associated with substance abuse to better understand MethHF prevalence trends and the clinical characteristics of those patients. Methods and Results This cross-sectional period-prevalence study used hospital discharge data from the National Inpatient Sample to identify adult primary HF hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of abuse of methamphetamines, cocaine, or alcohol in the United States from 2002 to 2014. All 2014 MethHF admissions were separated by regional census division to evaluate geographical distribution. Demographics, payer information, and clinical characteristics of MethHF hospitalizations were compared with all other HF hospitalizations. Total nationwide MethHF hospitalizations increased from 547 in 2002 to 6625 in 2014 with a predominance on the West Coast. Methamphetamine abuse was slightly more common among primary HF hospitalizations compared with all-cause hospitalizations (7.4 versus 6.4 per 1000; Cohen 0.012; 0.001). Among HF hospitalizations, patients with MethHF were younger (mean age, 48.9 versus 72.4 years; Cohen 1.93; 0.001), more likely to be on Medicaid (59.4% versus 8.8%; Cohen 1.16; 0.001) or uninsured (12.0% versus 2.6%; Cohen 0.36; 0.001), and more likely to present to urban hospitals (43.8% versus 28.3%; Cohen 0.320.001) than patients with non-methamphetamine associated HF. Patients with MethHF had higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities and were more likely to leave the hospital against medical advice. Conclusions MethHF hospitalizations have significantly increased in the United States, particularly on the West Coast. Coordinated public health policies and systems of care are needed to address this rising epidemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475042PMC
August 2021

Compassion toward others and self-compassion predict mental and physical well-being: a 5-year longitudinal study of 1090 community-dwelling adults across the lifespan.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 07 13;11(1):397. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

There is growing interest in the role of compassion in promoting health and well-being, with cross-sectional data showing an inverse correlation with loneliness. This is the first longitudinal study examining both compassion toward others (CTO) and compassion toward self (CTS) as predictors of mental and physical health outcomes including loneliness, across adult lifespan. We followed 552 women and 538 men in San Diego County for up to 7.5 (mean 4.8 and SD 2.2) years, using validated rating scales for CTO, CTS, and loneliness. Linear mixed-effects models were employed to examine age- and sex-related trajectories of CTO and CTS over time. Linear regression models were used to evaluate baseline and longitudinal relationships of CTO and CTS with mental well-being, physical well-being, and loneliness. CTS and CTO were weakly intercorrelated. Women had higher baseline CTO than men. While CTO was stable over time and across the lifespan, CTS scores had an inverse U-shaped relationship with age, peaking around age 77. There were significant baseline × slope interactions of both CTO and CTS predicting improvements in physical well-being in adults <60 years old. Increases in CTO and CTS predicted improvements in mental well-being. Higher baseline CTO and CTS as well as increases in CTO and CTS scores predicted lower loneliness scores at follow-up. Thus, CTO and CTS were associated with better mental well-being and loneliness across the adult lifespan, and physical well-being in younger adults, and are promising targets for interventions to improve health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01491-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287292PMC
July 2021

High-efficiency dual-band-multiplexing three-port grating coupler on 220-nm silicon-on-insulator with 248-nm deep-UV lithography.

Opt Lett 2021 Jul;46(13):3308-3311

We experimentally demonstrate a novel, to the best of our knowledge, three-port grating coupler (TPGC) for dual-wavelength-band operation. The TPGC can couple light to/from two ports for S/C-band with polarization diversity and a third port for O-band. Such a coupling scheme could be applied in an integrated wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (PON) unit, benefiting a polarization-diverse receiver for downstream S/C-band and transmitter for upstream O-band. The device is fabricated on a multi-project wafer, with peak coupling efficiency measured to be -3.8 and -5.4 for O-band and S/C-band, respectively. We also present a proof-of-concept demonstration for 10-Gb/s PON transmission based on the TPGC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.430807DOI Listing
July 2021

Physical and Mental Health Characteristics of 2,962 Adults With Subjective Cognitive Complaints.

Int J Aging Hum Dev 2021 Jul 1:914150211026548. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

8784 Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, CA, USA.

We investigated subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs), as well as physical and mental health factors, in adults and older adults. U.S. residents ( = 2,962) were recruited via the Amazon Mechanical Turk platform and completed a 90-item survey. Overall, 493/1930 (25.5%) of younger adults and 278/1032 (26.9%) of older adults endorsed SCCs. Analyses revealed worse physical and mental health characteristics in the SCC+ compared to the SCC- group, with primarily medium (Cohen's = 0.50) to large (0.80) effect sizes. Age did not moderate relationships between SCCs and physical/mental health. Results suggest that SCCs are associated with a diverse set of negative health characteristics such as poor sleep and high body mass index, and lower levels of positive factors, including happiness and wisdom. Effect sizes of psychological correlates were at least as large as those of physical correlates, indicating that mental health is critical to consider when evaluating SCCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00914150211026548DOI Listing
July 2021

The Implementation and Outcomes of a Nurse-Run Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Program, a Retrospective Single-Center Study.

Crit Care Explor 2021 Jun 15;3(6):e0449. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA.

Due to a shortage of perfusionists and increasing utilization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the United States, many programs are training nurses as bedside extracorporeal membrane oxygenation specialists (i.e., nurse-run extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). Our objective was to evaluate if a nurse-run extracorporeal membrane oxygenation program has noninferior survival to discharge and complication rates compared with a perfusionist-run extracorporeal membrane oxygenation program. Additionally, to sought to describe increases in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation capacity and the potential for cost savings by implementing a nurse-run extracorporeal membrane oxygenation program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCE.0000000000000449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208419PMC
June 2021

Periventricular and deep abnormal white matter differ in associations with cognitive performance at midlife.

Neuropsychology 2021 Mar;35(3):252-264

Center for Behavior Genetics of Aging, University of California.

Abnormal white matter (AWM) on magnetic resonance imaging is associated with cognitive performance in older adults. We explored cognitive associations with AWM during late-midlife. Participants were community-dwelling men ( = 242; = 61.90 years; range = 56-66). Linear-mixed effects regression models examined associations of total, periventricular, and deep AWM with cognitive performance, controlling for multiple comparisons. Models considering specific cognitive domains controlled for current general cognitive ability (GCA). We hypothesized that total AWM would be associated with worse processing speed, executive function, and current GCA; deep AWM would correlate with GCA and periventricular AWM would relate to specific cognitive abilities. We also assessed the potential influence of cognitive reserve by examining a moderation effect of early life (mean age of 20) cognition. Greater total and deep AWM were associated with poorer current GCA. Periventricular AWM was associated with worse executive function, working memory, and episodic memory. When periventricular and deep AWM were modeled simultaneously, both retained their respective significant associations with cognitive performance. Cognitive reserve did not moderate associations. Our findings suggest that AWM contributes to poorer cognitive function in late-midlife. Examining only total AWM may obscure the potential differential impact of regional AWM. Separating total AWM into subtypes while controlling for current GCA revealed a dissociation in relationships with cognitive performance; deep AWM was associated with nonspecific cognitive ability whereas periventricular AWM was associated with specific frontal-related abilities and memory. Management of vascular or other risk factors that may increase the risk of AWM should begin during or before early late-midlife. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500190PMC
March 2021

Aspirin and omega-3 fatty acid status interact in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Framingham Heart Study.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 06 24;169:102283. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dordt University, Sioux Center, Iowa, United States.

Background: The roles of omega-3 (n3) fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD) are controversial. Since omega-3 (n3) fatty acids and aspirin affect cyclooxygenase activity in platelets, there could be a clinically-relevant effect of aspirin combined with a particular n3 fatty acid level present in each individual.

Methods: RBC EPA+DHA, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were measured in 2500 participants without known CVD in the Framingham Heart Study. We then tested for interactions with reported aspirin use (1004 reported use and 1494 did not) on CVD outcomes. The median follow-up was 7.2 years.

Results: Having RBC EPA+DHA in the second quintile (4.2-4.9% of total fatty acids) was associated with significantly reduced risk for future CVD events (relative to the first quintile, <4.2%) in those who did not take aspirin (HR 0.54 (0.30, 0.98)), but in those reporting aspirin use, risk was significantly increased (HR 2.16 (1.19, 3.92)) in this quintile. This interaction remained significant when adjusting for confounders. Significant interactions were also present for coronary heart disease and stroke outcomes using the same quintiles. Similar findings were present for EPA and DHA alone but not for DPA and AA.

Conclusions: There is a complex interaction between aspirin use and RBC EPA+DHA levels on CVD outcomes. This suggests that aspirin use may be beneficial in one omega-3 environment but harmful in another, implying that a personalized approach to both aspirin use and omega-3 supplementation may be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2021.102283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159885PMC
June 2021

Comparison of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist Instruments From Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition vs Fifth Edition in a Large Cohort of US Military Service Members and Veterans.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 04 1;4(4):e218072. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Center for Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Importance: The definition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) changed markedly between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and DSM-5, creating challenges for studies and in medical settings spanning this transition.

Objective: To evaluate the ability to compare and assess PTSD, based on DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria, using PTSD Checklists (PCLs).

Design, Setting, And Participants: This diagnostic study was conducted with survey data collected in October 2019, from the Millennium Cohort Study, a population-based US military cohort study. The population for the present study was restricted to a subset of initial web responders of the 2019 survey cycle, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 survey groups.

Exposures: Each group received the DSM-IV and DSM-5 PCL (PCL-Civilian [PCL-C] version and PCL for DSM-5 [PCL-5]). PCL instruments were counterbalanced to control for order effects.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Survey data were used to assess PTSD (using the PCL-C and PCL-5), major depressive disorder (using the Patient Health Questionnaire), generalized anxiety (using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale), and problem drinking (using the Patient Health Questionnaire). Demographic and military characteristics included age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, service branch, pay grade, enrollment panel, and military service status.

Results: Among the 1921 participants (mean [SD] age, 50.1 [12.5] years), 1358 (70.7%) were men, 1638 (85.3%) were non-Hispanic White individuals, 1440 (75.0%) were married, and 1190 (61.9%) had at least a bachelor's degree; 295 (15.4%) had probable PTSD according to DSM-IV criteria with PCL-C compared with 286 (14.9%) using DSM-5 criteria with PCL-5 (κ = 0.77). There was substantial agreement between PCLs for probable PTSD based on DSM-IV criteria (295 [15.4%] with PCL-C; 316 [16.4%] with PCL-5; κ = 0.80) and DSM-5 criteria (286 [14.9%] with PCL-5; 258 [13.4%] with PCL-C; κ = 0.77). Estimated PTSD sum scores showed excellent agreement with observed scores. Using an established crosswalk, PCL-5 sum scores estimated with the PCL-C were similar to observed PCL-5 scores. Of the 17 corresponding items between the 2 instruments, 16 had substantial agreement. Appending 2 additional PCL-C items to the PCL-5 did not significantly alter estimates. The PCL-C and PCL-5 had nearly identical associations with comorbid conditions.

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this diagnostic study suggest that PTSD can be successfully assessed and compared over time with either PCL instrument in veteran and military populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.8072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080232PMC
April 2021

Association of Loneliness and Wisdom With Gut Microbial Diversity and Composition: An Exploratory Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 25;12:648475. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Loneliness and wisdom have opposite effects on health and well-being. Loneliness is a serious public health problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Wisdom is associated with better health and well-being. We have consistently found a strong negative correlation between loneliness and wisdom. The present study aimed to investigate the association of loneliness and wisdom with the gut microbiome. One hundred eighty-four community-dwelling adults (28-97 years) completed validated self-report-based measures of loneliness, wisdom, compassion, social support, and social engagement. Fecal samples were collected and profiled using 16S rRNA sequencing. Linear regression analyses, controlling for age and body mass index, revealed that lower levels of loneliness and higher levels of wisdom, compassion, social support, and social engagement were associated with greater phylogenetic richness and diversity of the gut microbiome. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis to investigate multivariate relationships extracted two composite variables. Linear regression model predicting alpha-diversity with PLS components revealed that a linear combination of all psychosocial predictors (with negative loading for loneliness and positive loadings for all others, including wisdom, compassion, social support, and social engagement) was significantly associated with alpha-diversity. For beta-diversity, compassion and wisdom accounted for a significant proportion of variance in overall microbial community composition. Findings may have implications for interventions to reduce loneliness and possibly its health-related adverse consequences. Future research should explore whether increasing compassion and wisdom may improve loneliness and overall well-being as well as microbial diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.648475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8029068PMC
March 2021

MRI-assessed locus coeruleus integrity is heritable and associated with multiple cognitive domains, mild cognitive impairment, and daytime dysfunction.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 06 13;17(6):1017-1025. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Introduction: The locus coeruleus (LC) undergoes extensive neurodegeneration in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). The LC is implicated in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, modulating cognitive function, and AD progression.

Methods: Participants were 481 men (ages 62 to 71.7) from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. LC structural integrity was indexed by neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast-to-noise ratio (LC ). We examined LC , cognition, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and daytime dysfunction.

Results: Heritability of LC was .48. Participants with aMCI showed greater daytime dysfunction. Lower LC was associated with poorer episodic memory, general verbal fluency, semantic fluency, and processing speed, as well as increased odds of aMCI and greater daytime dysfunction.

Discussion: Reduced LC integrity is associated with widespread differences across cognitive domains, daytime sleep-related dysfunction, and risk for aMCI. These findings in late-middle-aged adults highlight the potential of MRI-based measures of LC integrity in early identification of AD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248066PMC
June 2021

SNP rs2243828 in MPO associated with myeloperoxidase level and atrial fibrillation risk in Chinese Han population.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 09 16;24(17):10263-10266. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics of the Ministry of Education, College of Life Science and Technology, Center for Human Genome Research and Cardio-X Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Previous studies shown that myeloperoxidase (MPO) level is higher in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF); however, no genetic evidence between MPO and AF risk in human population was observed. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the association between rs2243828, a variant in promoter region of MPO and the risk of AF in Chinese GeneID population. The results demonstrated that the minor G allele of rs2243828 showed a significant association with AF in two independent population (GeneID-north population with 694 AF cases and 710 controls, adjusted P = 6.25 × 10 with an odds ratio was 0.77, GeneID-central population with 1106 cases and 1501 controls, P = 9.88 × 10 with an odds ratio was 0.75). The results also showed G allele was significantly associated with lower plasma concentration of myeloperoxidase in general population. We also observed a significant difference of odds ratio between subgroups of hypertension and non-hypertension. Therefore, our findings identified variant in MPO associated with risk of AF and it may give strong evidence to link the inflammation with the incidence of AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520285PMC
September 2020

Effect of gabapentin on hyperemesis gravidarum: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 01 29;3(1):100273. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.

Background: Hyperemesis gravidarum is a disabling disease of nausea, vomiting, and undernutrition in early pregnancy for which there are no effective outpatient therapies. Poor weight gain in hyperemesis gravidarum is associated with several adverse fetal outcomes including preterm delivery, low birthweight, small for gestational age, low 5-minute Apgar scores, and neurodevelopmental delay. Gabapentin is most commonly used clinically for treating neuropathic pain but also substantially reduces chemotherapy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Pregnancy registry data have shown maternal first-trimester gabapentin monotherapy to be associated with a 1.2% rate of major congenital malformations among 659 infants, which compares favorably with the 1.6% to 2.2% major congenital malformation rate in the general population. Open-label gabapentin treatment in hyperemesis gravidarum was associated with reduced nausea and vomiting and improved oral nutrition.

Objective: This study aimed to determine whether gabapentin is more effective than standard-of-care therapy for treating hyperemesis gravidarum.

Study Design: A double-blind, randomized, multicenter trial was conducted among patients with medically refractory hyperemesis gravidarum requiring intravenous hydration. Patients were randomized (1:1) to either oral gabapentin (1800-2400 mg/d) or an active comparator of either oral ondansetron (24-32 mg/d) or oral metoclopramide (45-60 mg/d) for 7 days. Differences in Motherisk-pregnancy-unique quantification of nausea and emesis total scores between treatment groups averaged over days 5 to 7, using intention-to-treat principle employing a linear mixed-effects model adjusted for baseline Motherisk-pregnancy-unique quantification of nausea and emesis scores, which served as the primary endpoint. Secondary outcomes included Motherisk-pregnancy-unique quantification of nausea and emesis nausea and vomit and retch subscores, oral nutrition, global satisfaction of treatment, relief, desire to continue therapy, Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Quality of Life, and Hyperemesis Gravidarum Pregnancy Termination Consideration. Adjustments for multiple comparisons were made employing the false discovery rate.

Results: A total of 31 patients with hyperemesis gravidarum were enrolled from October 2014 to May 2019. Among the 21 patients providing primary outcome data (12 assigned to gabapentin and 9 to the active comparator arm), 18 were enrolled as outpatients and all 21 were outpatients from days 5 to 7. The study groups' baseline characteristics were well matched. Gabapentin treatment provided a 52% greater reduction in days 5 to 7 baseline adjusted Motherisk-pregnancy-unique quantification of nausea and emesis total scores than treatment with active comparator (95% confidence interval, 16-88; P=.01). Most secondary outcomes also favored gabapentin over active comparator treatment including 46% and 49% decreases in baseline adjusted Motherisk-pregnancy-unique quantification of nausea and emesis nausea (95% confidence interval, 19-72; P=.005) and vomit and retch subscores (95% confidence interval, 21-77; P=.005), respectively; a 96% increase in baseline adjusted oral nutrition scores (95% confidence interval, 27-165; P=.01); and a 254% difference in global satisfaction of treatment (95% confidence interval, 48-459; P=.03). Relief (P=.06) and desire to continue therapy (P=.06) both showed trends favoring gabapentin treatment but Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy Quality of Life (P=.68) and Hyperemesis Gravidarum Pregnancy Termination Consideration (P=.58) did not. Adverse events were roughly equivalent between the groups. There were no serious adverse events.

Conclusion: In this small trial, gabapentin was more effective than standard-of-care therapy for reducing nausea and vomiting and increasing oral nutrition and global satisfaction in outpatients with hyperemesis gravidarum. These data build on previous findings in other patient populations supporting gabapentin as a novel antinausea and antiemetic therapy and support further research on gabapentin for this challenging complication of pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100273DOI Listing
January 2021

Associations between depression and cardiometabolic health: A 27-year longitudinal study.

Psychol Med 2021 Jan 12:1-11. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Clarifying the relationship between depression symptoms and cardiometabolic and related health could clarify risk factors and treatment targets. The objective of this study was to assess whether depression symptoms in midlife are associated with the subsequent onset of cardiometabolic health problems.

Methods: The study sample comprised 787 male twin veterans with polygenic risk score data who participated in the Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse ('baseline') and the longitudinal Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging ('follow-up'). Depression symptoms were assessed at baseline [mean age 41.42 years (s.d. = 2.34)] using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III, Revised. The onset of eight cardiometabolic conditions (atrial fibrillation, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, sleep apnea, and stroke) was assessed via self-reported doctor diagnosis at follow-up [mean age 67.59 years (s.d. = 2.41)].

Results: Total depression symptoms were longitudinally associated with incident diabetes (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07-1.57), erectile dysfunction (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.59), hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.53), and sleep apnea (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.74) over 27 years after controlling for age, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and polygenic risk for specific health conditions. In sensitivity analyses that excluded somatic depression symptoms, only the association with sleep apnea remained significant (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60).

Conclusions: A history of depression symptoms by early midlife is associated with an elevated risk for subsequent development of several self-reported health conditions. When isolated, non-somatic depression symptoms are associated with incident self-reported sleep apnea. Depression symptom history may be a predictor or marker of cardiometabolic risk over decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329172000505XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8547283PMC
January 2021

Extending the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon rank sum test to survey data for comparing mean ranks.

Stat Med 2021 03 4;40(7):1705-1717. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, UC San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Statistical methods for analysis of survey data have been developed to facilitate research. More recently, Lumley and Scott (2013) developed an approach to extend the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon (MWW) rank sum test to survey data. Their approach focuses on the null of equal distribution. In many studies, the MWW test is called for when two-sample t-tests (with or without equal variance assumed) fail to provide meaningful results, as they are highly sensitive to outliers. In such situations, the null of equal distribution is too restrictive, as interest lies in comparing centers of groups. In this article, we develop an approach to extend the MWW test to survey data to test the null of equal mean rank. Although not as popular as the mean and median, the mean rank is also a meaningful measure of the center of a distribution and is the same as the median for a symmetric distribution. We illustrate the proposed approach and show major differences with Lumley and Scott's alternative using both real and simulated data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8865DOI Listing
March 2021

Real diesel engine exhaust emission control: indirect non-thermal plasma and comparison to direct plasma for NO, THC, CO, and CO.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 26;18(2):743-754. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, 3619995161 Iran.

Recently, diesel engine exhaust emission control by non-thermal plasma (NTP) technology has been shown to be promising. However, carbon and soot deposition on the inner surface of the NTP reactor for direct plasma processing decreased the efficiency of the plasma process throughout the experiments. In the present work, the feasibility of indirect plasma processing was investigated as an innovative and novel method compared to direct plasma processing. Air was directed through an NTP at an applied voltage of V  = 7 kV and a flow rate of 1-4 L/min, and then, it was combined with engine exhaust gas at a flow rate of 5 L/min. In this case, the maximum conversion of NO was 64.9% at 4 L/min. However, for direct plasma processing at 5 L/min, NO conversion was 58%, which proves that the indirect NTP process can decrease NO concentration effectively. The maximum conversion for unburned hydrocarbon (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO) was obtained as 2%, 4% and 0.7% at 4, 2 and 3 L/min in indirect plasma processing; While their remove rate for direct plasma processing was 16.3%, -0.5% and 13.2%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00500-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721781PMC
December 2020

Three-dimensional visualization and analysis of flowing droplets in microchannels using real-time quantitative phase microscopy.

Lab Chip 2021 01;21(1):75-82

School of Mechanical Engineering and Electronic Information, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Recent years have witnessed the development of droplet-based microfluidics as a useful and effective tool for high-throughput analysis in biological, chemical and environmental sciences. Despite the flourishing development of droplet manipulation techniques, only a few methods allow for label-free and quantitative inspection of flowing droplets in microchannels in real-time and in three dimensions (3-D). In this work, we propose and demonstrate the application of a real-time quantitative phase microscopy (RT-QPM) technique for 3-D visualization of droplets, and also for full-field and label-free measurement of analyte concentration distribution in the droplets. The phase imaging system consists of a linear-CCD-based holographic microscopy configuration and an optofluidic phase-shifting element, which can be used for retrieving quantitative phase maps of flowing objects in the microchannels with a temporal resolution only limited to the frame rate of the CCD camera. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed imaging technique, we have experimentally validated the 3-D image reconstruction of the droplets generated in squeezing and dripping regimes and quantitatively investigated the volumetric and morphological variation of droplets as well as droplet parameters related to the depth direction under different flow conditions. We also demonstrated the feasibility of using this technique, as a refractive index sensor, for in-line quantitative measurement of carbamide analyte concentration within the flowing droplets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc00917bDOI Listing
January 2021

CO Hydrogenation at Atmospheric Pressure and Low Temperature Using Plasma-Enhanced Catalysis over Supported Cobalt Oxide Catalysts.

ACS Sustain Chem Eng 2020 Nov 17;8(47):17397-17407. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Van't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1090GD Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

CO is a promising renewable, cheap, and abundant C1 feedstock for producing valuable chemicals, such as CO and methanol. In conventional reactors, because of thermodynamic constraints, converting CO to methanol requires high temperature and pressure, typically 250 °C and 20 bar. Nonthermal plasma is a better option, as it can convert CO at near-ambient temperature and pressure. Adding a catalyst to such plasma setups can enhance conversion and selectivity. However, we know little about the effects of catalysts in such systems. Here, we study CO hydrogenation in a dielectric barrier discharge plasma-catalysis setup under ambient conditions using MgO, γ-AlO, and a series of Co O /MgO catalysts. While all three catalyst types enhanced CO conversion, Co O /MgO gave the best results, converting up to 35% of CO and reaching the highest methanol yield (10%). Control experiments showed that the basic MgO support is more active than the acidic γ-AlO, and that MgO-supported cobalt oxide catalysts improve the selectivity toward methanol. The methanol yield can be tuned by changing the metal loading. Overall, our study shows the utility of plasma catalysis for CO conversion under mild conditions, with the potential to reduce the energy footprint of CO-recycling processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssuschemeng.0c05565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709469PMC
November 2020

Prognostic Significance of HPV Status in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Large-Population Database Study.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 07 1;165(1):113-121. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Objective: To explore the survival implications of human papillomavirus (HPV) positivity and subtype in larynx cancer through a national cancer database. To investigate staging discrepancies in larynx cancer associated with HPV status.

Study Design: Retrospective observational cohort study.

Setting: National Cancer Database.

Methods: Data were extracted concerning adults with known HPV status who were treated between 2010 and 2016 for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients without known HPV subtype were excluded. Cox multivariable regression models were fit to evaluate the survival impact of HPV status, characterized as a binary variable (HPV+ vs HPV-) and by subtype. Two- and 5-year survival rates were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by stage between the HPV+ and HPV- cohorts per the log-rank test.

Results: Patients with HPV+ larynx cancer were younger (60.5 vs 64.3 years, < .001), more likely to have private insurance (37.2% vs 31.2%, < .001), more commonly White (84.6% vs 82.4%, = .013), and more likely to present with nodal disease (42.6% vs 33.0%, < .001). HPV positivity and HPV subtype 16 were associated with improved overall survival. One-stage discrepancies in 5-year survival were observed between the HPV+ and HPV- cohorts: stage II HPV+ (69.45%) vs stage I HPV- (65.77%); stage IV HPV+ (47.67%) vs stage III HPV- (46.80%).

Conclusions: HPV positivity and infection with HPV subtype 16 are correlated with improved overall survival in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, manifesting with a 1-stage incremental survival advantage. Future prospective studies are indicated to corroborate the findings from this large-population database retrospective study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0194599820976178DOI Listing
July 2021
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