Publications by authors named "Xin Tian"

636 Publications

Effects of , and Genetic Variants on 6-Mercaptopurine Toxicity for Pediatric Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Yunnan of China.

Front Pediatr 2021 1;9:719803. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Children's Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is the cornerstone of current antileukemia regimen and contributes greatly to improve the survival of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. However, 6-MP dose-related toxicities limit its application. , and are pharmacogenetic markers predicting 6-MP-related toxicities, but their genetic polymorphisms differ from those of ethnic populations. In Yunnan province, a multiethnic region of China, we had no genetic data to predict 6-MP toxicities. In this study, we evaluated the most common variants involved in 6-MP metabolism- 3C (rs1142345), c.415C>T (rs116855232), and c.94C>A (rs1127354) variants-in our cohort of pediatric ALL patients. A total of 149 pediatric ALL patients in the Affiliated Children's Hospital of Kunming Medical University (Yunnan Children's Medical Center) from 2017 to 2019 were enrolled in this retrospective study. We assessed the 3C (rs1142345), c.415C>T (rs116855232), and c.94C>A (rs1127354) frequencies and evaluated association between genotypes and 6-MP toxicities, 6-MP dose, and event-free survival (EFS) in these ALL patients. The allele frequencies of 3C (rs1142345), c.415C>T (rs116855232), and c.94C>A (rs1127354) were 1.34%, 14.43%, and 18.79%, respectively. Only c.415C>T (rs116855232) was strongly associated with 6-MP toxicity and 6-MP tolerable dose. c.415C>T was related to leukopenia, = 0.008, OR = 2.743 (95% CI: 1.305-5.768). The T allele was significantly correlated with 6-MP tolerable dose, dose of c.415C>T wild genotype CC 39.80 ± 1.32 mg/m, heterozygotes CT 35.20 ± 2.29 mg/m, and homozygotes TT 18.95 ± 3.95 mg/m. 6-MP tolerable dose between CC and TT had a significant difference, = 0.009. Between CC and CT, and CT and TT, they had no significant difference. EFS showed no significant difference among c.415C>T genotypes. c.415C>T (rs116855232) was an optimal predictor for 6-MP toxicity and tolerable dose in pediatric ALL patients from Yunnan province, a multiethnic region in China, and would play an important role in precise therapy for ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.719803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518605PMC
October 2021

Renal plasticity revealed through reversal of polycystic kidney disease in mice.

Nat Genet 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Initiation of cyst formation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) occurs when kidney tubule cells are rendered null for either PKD1 or PKD2 by somatic 'second hit' mutations. Subsequent cyst progression remodels the organ through changes in tubule cell shape, proliferation and secretion. The kidney develops inflammation and fibrosis. We constructed a mouse model in which adult inactivation of either Pkd gene can be followed by reactivation of the gene at a later time. Using this model, we show that re-expression of Pkd genes in cystic kidneys results in rapid reversal of ADPKD. Cyst cell proliferation is reduced, autophagy is activated and cystic tubules with expanded lumina lined by squamoid cells revert to normal lumina lined by cuboidal cells. Increases in inflammation, extracellular matrix deposition and myofibroblast activation are reversed, and the kidneys become smaller. We conclude that phenotypic features of ADPKD are reversible and that the kidney has an unexpected capacity for plasticity controlled at least in part by ADPKD gene function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00946-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Intensity-Aware Single-Image Deraining With Semantic and Color Regularization.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 13;30:8497-8509. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Rain degrades image visual quality and disrupts object structures, obscuring their details and erasing their colors. Existing deraining methods are primarily based on modeling either visual appearances of rain or its physical characteristics (e.g., rain direction and density), and thus suffer from two common problems. First, due to the stochastic nature of rain, they tend to fail in recognizing rain streaks correctly, and wrongly remove image structures and details. Second, they fail to recover the image colors erased by heavy rain. In this paper, we address these two problems with the following three contributions. First, we propose a novel PHP block to aggregate comprehensive spatial and hierarchical information for removing rain streaks of different sizes. Second, we propose a novel network to first remove rain streaks, then recover objects structures/colors, and finally enhance details. Third, to train the network, we prepare a new dataset, and propose a novel loss function to introduce semantic and color regularization for deraining. Extensive experiments demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method over state-of-the-art deraining methods on both synthesized and real-world data, in terms of visual quality, quantitative accuracy, and running speed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3116794DOI Listing
October 2021

Near real-time determination of B.1.1.7 in proportion to total SARS-CoV-2 viral load in wastewater using an allele-specific primer extension PCR strategy.

Water Res 2021 Oct 23;205:117681. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address:

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has claimed millions of lives to date. Antigenic drift has resulted in viral variants with putatively greater transmissibility, virulence, or both. Early and near real-time detection of these variants of concern (VOC) and the ability to accurately follow their incidence and prevalence in communities is wanting. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), which uses nucleic acid amplification tests to detect viral fragments, is a reliable proxy of COVID-19 incidence and prevalence, and thus offers the potential to monitor VOC viral load in a given population. Here, we describe and validate a primer extension PCR strategy targeting a signature mutation in the N gene of SARS-CoV-2. This allows quantification of B.1.1.7 versus non-B.1.1.7 allele frequency in wastewater without the need to employ quantitative RT-PCR standard curves. We show that the wastewater B.1.1.7 profile correlates with its clinical counterpart and benefits from a near real-time and facile data collection and reporting pipeline. This assay can be quickly implemented within a current SARS-CoV-2 WBE framework with minimal cost; allowing early and contemporaneous estimates of B.1.1.7 community transmission prior to, or in lieu of, clinical screening and identification. Our study demonstrates that this strategy can provide public health units with an additional and much needed tool to rapidly triangulate VOC incidence/prevalence with high sensitivity and lineage specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459324PMC
October 2021

A review of the mechanisms of keratinocytes damage caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with atopic dermatitis.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Sep 29. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Institute of Dermatology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The dysregulation of skin microflora in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) has become a research hotspot in recent years. Metagenomic studies have shown that microbial diversity is decreased, whereas the Staphylococcus aureus infection is increased in AD. Keratinocytes are the primary barrier against the invasion of external pathogenic microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus infection can abnormally activate innate and adaptive immune responses in keratinocytes, resulting in a vicious cycle between Staphylococcus aureus infection and AD. This article reviews the mechanisms of inflammatory damage of keratinocytes induced by Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with AD, providing a theoretical basis for the study of new targeted drugs. This review also suggests for the management of Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.3MR0921-030RRRDOI Listing
September 2021

Effectiveness of anisodamine for the treatment of critically ill patients with septic shock: a multicentre randomized controlled trial.

Crit Care 2021 Sep 27;25(1):349. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, No 3, East Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 310016, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Septic shock is characterized by an uncontrolled inflammatory response and microcirculatory dysfunction. There is currently no specific agent for treating septic shock. Anisodamine is an agent extracted from traditional Chinese medicine with potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, its clinical effectiveness remains largely unknown.

Methods: In a multicentre, open-label trial, we randomly assigned adults with septic shock to receive either usual care or anisodamine (0.1-0.5 mg per kilogram of body weight per hour), with the anisodamine doses adjusted by clinicians in accordance with the patients' shock status. The primary end point was death on hospital discharge. The secondary end points were ventilator-free days at 28 days, vasopressor-free days at 28 days, serum lactate and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score from days 0 to 6. The differences in the primary and secondary outcomes were compared between the treatment and usual care groups with the χ test, Student's t test or rank-sum test, as appropriate. The false discovery rate was controlled for multiple testing.

Results: Of the 469 patients screened, 355 were assigned to receive the trial drug and were included in the analyses-181 patients received anisodamine, and 174 were in the usual care group. We found no difference between the usual care and anisodamine groups in hospital mortality (36% vs. 30%; p = 0.348), or ventilator-free days (median [Q1, Q3], 24.4 [5.9, 28] vs. 26.0 [8.5, 28]; p = 0.411). The serum lactate levels were significantly lower in the treated group than in the usual care group after day 3. Patients in the treated group were less likely to receive vasopressors than those in the usual care group (OR [95% CI] 0.84 [0.50, 0.93] for day 5 and 0.66 [0.37, 0.95] for day 6).

Conclusions: There is no evidence that anisodamine can reduce hospital mortality among critically ill adults with septic shock treated in the intensive care unit. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02442440 ; Registered on 13 April 2015).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03774-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8474812PMC
September 2021

The Efficacy of Brief School-Based Exercise Programs in Improving Pubertal Bone Mass and Physical Fitness: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 13;18(18). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

College of Physical Education, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, China.

Purpose: To examine the effects of three types of school-based exercises on bone health and physical fitness function in Chinese boys and girls.

Methods: One hundred and seventy-four Chinese boys and girls were randomly assigned into four groups: (1) sham exercise (ShEx); (2) high-impact exercise (HiEx); (3) high-impact exercise with various directions (HiExVi); and (4) high-intensity interval exercise (HiInEx). Speed of sound (SOS) and physical fitness parameters were determined before and after six-month intervention.

Results: At the end of six-month intervention, participants in all groups show an increment of SOS compared with the baseline ( < 0.05), and the changes were higher in HiEx (mean: 38.878 m/s, 95% CI: 32.885~44.872, = 0.001) and HiExVi groups (49.317 m/s, 42.737~55.897, < 0.001) compared with ShEx group (20.049 m/s, 13.751~26.346). Six-month exercise training generated a reduction of percent of body fat (PBF) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) ( < 0.05). The decrease of PBF was greater in HiExVi (-1.222%, -1.820~-0.624, = 0.012) and HiInEx groups (-1.395%, -1.809~-0.982, = 0.003), whereas the reduction of WHR was larger in HiEx (-0.026, -0.039~-0.014, = 0.009), HiExVi (-0.024, -0.036~-0.012, = 0.021), and HiInEx groups (-0.035, -0.046~-0.024, < 0.001) compared with ShEx group. Balance function (BLF), vital capacity (VC), standing long jump (SLJ), and sit up (SU) increased in all intervention groups ( < 0.05). The BLF increased in HiEx (6.332 s, 4.136~8.528, = 0.001), HiExVi (10.489 s, 8.934~12.045, < 0.001), and HiInEx groups (9.103 s, 7.430~10.776, < 0.001) showed a greater change than that of ShEx group (1.727 s, 0.684~2.770). The increment of VC (273.049 mL, 199.510~346.587, < 0.001) and SU (2.537 times/min, 0.639~4.435, = 0.017) was higher in HiInEx group, whereas the accrual in SLJ was larger in HiExVi (7.488 cm, 4.936~10.040, = 0.007) compared with ShEx group (58.902 mL, 7.990~109.814; -0.463 times/min, -2.003~1.077; 1.488 cm, -0.654~3.630).

Conclusion: The brief school-based exercises were effective in improving schoolchildren's health, but they showed different effects, with HiEx mostly improving bone health, HiInEx largely benefiting physical fitness function, and HiExVi enhancing both bone and physical fitness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472274PMC
September 2021

Roles of Nursing in the Management of Geriatric Cardiovascular Diseases.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 8;8:682218. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Basic Medicine, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

The nursing field occupies the largest secion of the cardiovascular healthcare services. Despite this, the roles of nursing within the cardiovascular healthcare system has not been well displayed. The authors searched PubMed and Embase (between January 1, 1950, and June 17, 2021) and created a narrative review of recent publications regarding the role of nursing in the management of geriatric cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with geriatric CVD, which includes mainly myocardial ischemia and heart failure, were enrolled. Nursing can improve the outcomes of myocardial ischemia and heart failure. It plays a pivotal role in the recovery, rehabilitation, and outcomes of geriatric CVD, especially for chronic heart diseases. Taken together, this paper compiled is focused on the current status of cardiovascular nursing and may facilitate future treatment and rehabilitation in geriatric CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.682218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455815PMC
September 2021

UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneously determining nucleosides and methyl-nucleosides in liver mRNA of Epimedin C-induced liver injury mouse model.

Chin Med 2021 Sep 21;16(1):91. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Epimedin C, one of the main active ingredients of Epimedium, has been reported to have potential hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanism of Epimedin C-induced liver injury has not been studied. mRNA methylation, mainly including N6-methyladenosine and N5-methylcytidine, is implicated in the regulation of many biological processes and diseases. The study of quantifying mRNA methylation alterations in Epimedin C-induced liver injury mice may contribute to clarify the mechanism of its hepatotoxicity. Therefore, an analysis method needs to be established to determine nucleoside and methyl-nucleoside levels in liver mRNA.

Methods: An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine six nucleosides (adenosine, uridine, cytidine, guanosine, N6-methyladenosine and N5-methylcytidine) in liver mRNA. Besides, the Epimedin C-induced liver injury mouse model was studied by intragastrical administration Epimedin C at a daily dose of 10 or 40 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The nucleoside samples of the mice liver mRNA were prepared and separated on an UPLC column using 0.1% formic acid water and methanol after enzymatic digestion. Then the sample was detected by a Qtrap 6500 mass spectrometer.

Results: In this method, calibration curves of the six nucleosides showed good linearity over their concentration ranges. The linear ranges were 40-20,000 pg/mL for adenosine, cytidine, N6-methyladenosine and N5-methylcytidine, 0.2-100 ng/mL for guanosine, and 2-1000 ng/mL for uridine. Epimedin C-induced liver injury mouse model was successfully established,which could be proved by the elevation of serum aminotransferase levels, and the increased inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vacuolar degeneration in liver. The N6-methyladenosine and N5-methylcytidine levels, and the ratios of N6-methyladenosine to adenosine and N5-methylcytidine to cytidine of the mice liver mRNA were all significantly increased after Epimedin C treatment.

Conclusion: The established method was successfully applied to the determination of six nucleosides levels in liver mRNA of the Epimedin C-induced liver injury mice model and the control group. The results indicated that mRNA methylation might be associated with Epimedin C-induced liver injury. This study will facilitate the mechanism research on the hepatotoxicity of Epimedin C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-021-00501-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8454167PMC
September 2021

Effects of Adaptive Non-linear Frequency Compression in Hearing Aids on Mandarin Speech and Sound-Quality Perception.

Front Neurosci 2021 13;15:722970. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Division of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Ohio University, Athens, OH, United States.

Objective: This study was aimed at examining the effects of an adaptive non-linear frequency compression algorithm implemented in hearing aids (i.e., SoundRecover2, or SR2) at different parameter settings and auditory acclimatization on speech and sound-quality perception in native Mandarin-speaking adult listeners with sensorineural hearing loss.

Design: Data consisted of participants' unaided and aided hearing thresholds, Mandarin consonant and vowel recognition in quiet, and sentence recognition in noise, as well as sound-quality ratings through five sessions in a 12-week period with three SR2 settings (i.e., SR2 off, SR2 default, and SR2 strong).

Study Sample: Twenty-nine native Mandarin-speaking adults aged 37-76 years old with symmetric sloping moderate-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss were recruited. They were all fitted bilaterally with Phonak Naida V90-SP BTE hearing aids with hard ear-molds.

Results: The participants demonstrated a significant improvement of aided hearing in detecting high frequency sounds at 8 kHz. For consonant recognition and overall sound-quality rating, the participants performed significantly better with the SR2 default setting than the other two settings. No significant differences were found in vowel and sentence recognition among the three SR2 settings. Test session was a significant factor that contributed to the participants' performance in all speech and sound-quality perception tests. Specifically, the participants benefited from a longer duration of hearing aid use.

Conclusion: Findings from this study suggested possible perceptual benefit from the adaptive non-linear frequency compression algorithm for native Mandarin-speaking adults with moderate-to-profound hearing loss. Periods of acclimatization should be taken for better performance in novel technologies in hearing aids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.722970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414550PMC
August 2021

Fostamatinib for the treatment of hospitalized adults with COVD-19 A randomized trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) requiring hospitalization is characterized by robust antibody production, dysregulated immune response and immunothrombosis. Fostamatinib, is a novel spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor we hypothesize will ameliorate Fc activation and attenuate harmful effects of the anti-COVID-19 immune response.

Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in hospitalized adults requiring oxygen with Covid-19 where patients receiving standard of care were randomized to receive fostamatinib or placebo. The primary outcome was serious adverse events by day 29.

Results: A total of 59 patients underwent randomization (30 to fostamatinib and 29 to placebo). Serious adverse events occurred in 10.5% of patients in the fostamatinib group compared to 22% in placebo (P = .2). Three deaths occurred by day 29, all receiving placebo. The mean change in ordinal score at day 15 was greater in the fostamatinib group (-3.6 ± 0.3 vs. -2.6 ± 0.4, P = .035) and the median length in the ICU was 3 days in the fostamatinib group vs. 7 days in placebo (P = .07). Differences in clinical improvement were most evident in patients with severe or critical disease (median days on oxygen, 10 vs. 28, P = .027). There were trends towards more rapid reductions in C-reactive protein, D-dimer, fibrinogen and ferritin levels in the fostamatinib group.

Conclusion: For COVID-19 requiring hospitalization, the addition of fostamatinib to standard of care was safe and patients were observed to have improved clinical outcomes compared to placebo. These results warrant further validation in larger confirmatory trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab732DOI Listing
September 2021

Rechargeable Na/Cl and Li/Cl batteries.

Nature 2021 08 25;596(7873):525-530. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Chemistry and Bio-X, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are widely used in applications ranging from electric vehicles to wearable devices. Before the invention of secondary LIBs, the primary lithium-thionyl chloride (Li-SOCl) battery was developed in the 1970s using SOCl as the catholyte, lithium metal as the anode and amorphous carbon as the cathode. This battery discharges by lithium oxidation and catholyte reduction to sulfur, sulfur dioxide and lithium chloride, is well known for its high energy density and is widely used in real-world applications; however, it has not been made rechargeable since its invention. Here we show that with a highly microporous carbon positive electrode, a starting electrolyte composed of aluminium chloride in SOCl with fluoride-based additives, and either sodium or lithium as the negative electrode, we can produce a rechargeable Na/Cl or Li/Cl battery operating via redox between mainly Cl/Cl in the micropores of carbon and Na/Na or Li/Li redox on the sodium or lithium metal. The reversible Cl/NaCl or Cl/LiCl redox in the microporous carbon affords rechargeability at the positive electrode side and the thin alkali-fluoride-doped alkali-chloride solid electrolyte interface stabilizes the negative electrode, both are critical to secondary alkali-metal/Cl batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03757-zDOI Listing
August 2021

COVID-19 wastewater surveillance in rural communities: Comparison of lagoon and pumping station samples.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 13;801:149618. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology/wastewater surveillance has been a topic of significant interest over the last year due to its application in SARS-CoV-2 surveillance to track prevalence of COVID-19 in communities. Although SARS-CoV-2 surveillance has been applied in more than 50 countries to date, the application of this surveillance has been largely focused on relatively affluent urban and peri-urban communities. As such, there is a knowledge gap regarding the implementation of reliable wastewater surveillance in small and rural communities for the purpose of tracking rates of incidence of COVID-19 and other pathogens or biomarkers. This study examines the relationships existing between SARS-CoV-2 viral signal from wastewater samples harvested from an upstream pumping station and from an access port at a downstream wastewater treatment lagoon with the community's COVID-19 rate of incidence (measured as percent test positivity) in a small, rural community in Canada. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) targeting the N1 and N2 genes of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrate that all 24-h composite samples harvested from the pumping station over a period of 5.5 weeks had strong viral signal, while all samples 24-h composite samples harvested from the lagoon over the same period were below the limit of quantification. RNA concentrations and integrity of samples harvested from the lagoon were both lower and more variable than from samples from the upstream pumping station collected on the same date, indicating a higher overall stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA upstream of the lagoon. Additionally, measurements of PMMoV signal in wastewater allowed normalizing SARS-CoV-2 viral signal for fecal matter content, permitting the detection of actual changes in community prevalence with a high level of granularity. As a result, in sewered small and rural communities or low-income regions operating wastewater lagoons, samples for wastewater surveillance should be harvested from pumping stations or the sewershed as opposed to lagoons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360995PMC
August 2021

Research on the speed thresholds of trucks in a sharp turn based on dynamic rollover risk levels.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(8):e0256301. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Shaoxing Communications Investment Group Co., Ltd., Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China.

Truck rollover is a problem that seriously endangers the safety of human life. Under special conditions, when the driver takes a sharp turn, the truck is most prone to rollover. Speed seriously affects the driving stability of the truck in a sharp turn, but the calculation of the safe speed is not accurate enough at present. The aim of this paper is to develop a more accurate safe speed calculation method to avoid the truck rollover in a sharp turn. Firstly, the calculation formula of the rollover threshold was derived based on a theoretical model, then, the simulation tests were carried out. We selected a 4-axle truck with a total weight of 30t as the subject, simulated the dynamic process of the truck rollover in a sharp turn with TruckSim, evaluated the dynamic rollover risk levels of the truck during this process, and verified the accuracy of the simulation results by results of the theoretical model. Finally, by analyzing the steering principle of the vehicle, the safe speed threshold and the limit speed threshold of the truck in a sharp turn were calculated according to the lateral acceleration corresponding to the rollover risk levels. The results show that no matter what the loading condition of the truck is, when the rollover margin is reduced to about 0.15g, the truck just reaches the risk level of critical rollover; the result provides an accurate algorithm for speed thresholds of the truck when turning radius is less than 250 m. The research provides a calculation method for safe speed of trucks from a dynamic perspective. The research results can be applied to the speed warning system of trucks, which can make drivers better control the rollover risk of trucks in the process of driving and improve driving safety.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256301PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378712PMC
August 2021

Childhood maltreatment and self-harm in Chinese adolescents: moderation and mediation via resilience.

BMC Public Health 2021 08 17;21(1):1561. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 650500, Yunnan, China.

Background: Published studies examining the association between childhood maltreatment (CM) and self-harm (SH) among adolescents have been accumulated. It is possible that resilience serves as a moderator or mediator in CM-SH association, nevertheless, this topic has never been thoroughly investigated.

Methods: In this population-based cross-sectional study, we surveyed 3146 students aged 10-17 in southwest China. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Modified version of Adolescents Self-Harm Scale (MASHS), and the Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents (RSCA) were used to measure CM, SH, and resilience. Correlational analyses, hierarchical multivariate linear regression, and structural equation modeling (SEM) were performed to test the moderation and mediation of resilience in CM-SH association.

Results: Findings revealed that, resilience with its five dimensions, CM, and SH were significantly correlated with each other. Resilience partially moderated and mediated the association between CM and SH. Besides, among all dimensions of resilience, emotion regulation, interpersonal assistance, and family support presented the strongest mediation in CM-SH association.

Conclusions: Our results highlight the importance of resilience in CM related SH among Chinese teenagers. Resilience-oriented intervention could be considered in SH intervention measures for adolescents who had experienced CM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11605-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371889PMC
August 2021

Epidemiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Yunnan Province, China, 2008-2019.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Aug 4;21(1):751. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Yunnan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 158 Dongsi Street, Kunming, Yunnan, 650022, People's Republic of China.

Background: Since 2016, enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccines have been approved for market entry, and little is known about how the epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been affected by the introduction of the vaccines in Yunnan Province. The study describes the epidemiological characteristics of HFMD before and after the introduction of EV71 vaccination in Yunnan Province.

Methods: Surveillance data collected between 2008 and 2019 were analyzed to produce epidemiological distribution on cases, etiologic composition, and EV71 vaccination coverage, as well as to compare these characteristics before and after EV71 vaccination.

Results: A total of 1,653,533 children received EV71 vaccines from 2016 through 2019 in Yunnan. The annual EV71 vaccination coverage rate ranged from 5.53 to 15.01% among children ≤5 years old. After the introduction of EV71 vaccines, the overall incidence of HFMD increased and reached over 200 cases per 100,000 population-years in 2018 and 2019. However, the case severity and case fatality rate decreased and remained lower than 1 and 0.005% after 2016, respectively. EV71-associated mild, severe and fatal cases sharply decreased. The predominant viral serotype changed to non-EV71/non-CV-A16 enteroviruses which were detected across the whole province.

Conclusions: Non-EV71/non-CV-A16 enteroviruses became the predominant strain and led to a higher incidence in Yunnan. Expanding EV71 vaccination and strengthening laboratory-based surveillance could further decrease the burden of severe HFMD and detect and monitor emerging enteroviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06462-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336324PMC
August 2021

Pulse therapy with vincristine and dexamethasone for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCCG-ALL-2015): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 09 27;22(9):1322-1332. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, Shanghai, China.

Background: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses are generally used throughout maintenance treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. However, previous studies remain inconclusive about the benefit of this maintenance therapy and the absence of randomised, controlled trials in patients with low-risk or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia provides uncertainty. We therefore aimed to determine if this therapy could be safely omitted beyond 1 year of treatment without leading to an inferior outcome in any risk subgroup of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Methods: This open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial involved 20 major medical centres across China. We enrolled patients who were aged 0-18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia that was subsequently in continuous remission for 1 year after initial treatment. Patients with secondary malignancy or primary immunodeficiency were excluded. Eligible patients were classified as having low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia based on minimal residual disease and immunophenotypic and genetic features of leukaemic cells. Randomisation and analyses were done separately for the low-risk and intermediate-to-high-risk cohorts. Randomisation was generated by the study biostatistician with a block size of six. Stratification factors included participating centre, sex, and age at diagnosis; the low-risk cohort was additionally stratified for ETV6-RUNX1 status, and the intermediate-to-high-risk cohort for cell lineage. Patients in each risk cohort were randomly assigned (1:1) to either receive (ie, the control group) or not receive (ie, the experimental group) seven pulses of intravenous vincristine (1·5 mg/m) plus oral dexamethasone (6 mg/m per day for 7 days) during the second year of treatment. The primary endpoint was difference in 5-year event-free survival between the experimental group and the control group for both the low-risk and intermediate-to-high-risk cohorts, with a non-inferiority margin of 0·05 (5%). The analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-14005706.

Findings: Between Jan 1, 2015, and Feb 20, 2020, 6141 paediatric patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were registered to this study. Approximately 1 year after diagnosis and treatment, 5054 patients in continuous remission were randomly assigned, including 2923 (1442 in the control group and 1481 in the experimental group) with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 2131 (1071 control, 1060 experimental) with intermediate-to-high risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Median follow-up for patients who were alive at the time of analysis was 3·7 years (IQR 2·8-4·7). Among patients with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, no difference was observed in 5-year event-free survival between the control group and the experimental group (90·3% [95% CI 88·4-92·2] vs 90·2% [88·2-92·2]; p=0·90). The one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in 5-year event-free survival probability was 0·024, establishing non-inferiority. Among patients with intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, no difference was observed in 5-year event-free survival between the control group and the experimental group (82·8% [95% CI 80·0-85·7] vs 80·8% [77·7-84·0]; p=0·90), but the one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in 5-year event-free survival probability was 0·055, giving a borderline inferior result for those in the experimental group. In the low-risk cohort, we found no differences in the rates of infections, symptomatic osteonecrosis, or other complications during the second year of maintenance treatment between patients in the control and experimental groups. Patients with intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the control group were more likely to develop grade 3-4 pneumonia (26 [2·4%] of 1071 vs ten [0·9%] of 1060) and vincristine-related peripheral neuropathy (17 [1·6%] vs six [0·6%]) compared with the experimental group. Incidence of grade 5 fatal infection was similar between the control group and the experimental group in both the low-risk cohort (two [0·1%] of 1442 vs five [0·3%] of 1481) and intermediate-to-high risk cohort (six [0·6%] of 1071 vs five [0·5%] of 1060).

Interpretation: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses might be omitted beyond 1 year of treatment for children with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Additional studies are needed for intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Funding: VIVA China Children's Cancer Foundation, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the China fourth round of Three-Year Public Health Action Plan (2015-2017), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, US National Cancer Institute, St Baldrick's Foundation, and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00328-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416799PMC
September 2021

Pharmacokinetics, Urinary Excretion, and Pharmaco-Metabolomic Study of Tebipenem Pivoxil Granules After Single Escalating Oral Dose in Healthy Chinese Volunteers.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:696165. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Tebipenem pivoxil (TBPM-PI), an oral carbapenem antibiotic, has shown special advantages in pediatric infections and was in urgent need in China. Although pharmacokinetics, urinary excretion, and metabolite information of its active form tebipenem (TBPM) has been reported, ethnic differences may exist among the Chinese and Japanese population. By now, no systematic pharmacokinetics, urinary excretion, metabolites, or safety information has been revealed to the Chinese population. The purpose of the present work was to investigate abovementioned information of TBPM-PI granules after oral single ascending doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg in Chinese volunteers. Based on the pharmacokinetic study, the urine pharmaco-metabolomic analysis was conducted to reveal metabolomic interruptions and metabolite information. The study design was a single-center, open-label, randomized, single-dose pharmacokinetic study of 36 healthy volunteers (with half of them being male and the other half female). Time to maximum concentration ( ) was reached at 0.50, 0.50, or 0.67 h for 100, 200, or 400 mg, respectively. The linear pharmacokinetic characteristic of maximum plasma concentration ( ) was detected over 100-200 mg. The area under the concentration time curve () was proportional to the dose in the range of 100-400 mg. The maximum urinary excretion rate was detected at 0-1 or 1-2 h for dose of 100 or 200-400 mg. Cumulative amount of TBPM excreted in urine by 24 h accounted up to 90, 95, and 80% of dose administered for three groups, respectively. The pharmaco-metabolomic analysis revealed urine metabolic trajectory of deviation at 0-1 or 1-2 h and gradually regressing back to the pre-dose group at the following time periods. Urine metabolites from M1 to M4 were identified, indicating ethnic difference in metabolites among the Chinese or Japanese population. The current work proved safety and tolerance of single-dose administration of oral TBPM-PI in Chinese healthy volunteers over doses of 100-400 mg. All these results provide pharmacokinetics, urine excretion, urine metabolomics, urine metabolites, and safety information in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral single ascending doses of TBPM-PI, benefitting further development and clinical utilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.696165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8314177PMC
July 2021

Watermelon crinkle leaf-associated virus 1 and watermelon crinkle leaf-associated virus 2 have a bipartite genome with molecular signatures typical of the members of the genus Coguvirus (family Phenuiviridae).

Arch Virol 2021 Oct 28;166(10):2829-2834. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

National Citrus Engineering and Technology Research Center, Citrus Research Institute, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, 400712, China.

Watermelon crinkle leaf-associated virus 1 and watermelon crinkle leaf-associated virus 2 (WCLaV-1 and WCLaV-2), two unclassified members of the order Bunyavirales, are phylogenetically related to members of the genus Coguvirus (family Phenuiviridae). The genome of both viruses was reported previously to be composed of three RNA segments. However, the terminal sequences of two genomic RNA segments, namely those encoding the putative movement protein (MP) and the nucleocapsid (NP) protein, remained undetermined. High-throughput sequencing of total RNA and small RNA preparations, combined with reverse transcription PCR amplification followed by sequencing, revealed that the WCLaV-1 and WCLaV-2 possess a bipartite genome consisting of a negative-sense RNA1, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and an ambisense RNA2, encoding the putative movement (MP) and nucleocapsid (NP) proteins. The two open reading frames of RNA2 are in opposite orientations and are separated by a long AU-rich intergenic region (IR) that may assume a hairpin conformation. RNA1 and RNA2 of both viruses share almost identical 5' and 3' termini, which are complementary to each other up to 20 nt. This genome organization is typical of members of the genus Coguvirus, with which WCLaV-1 and WCLaV-2 also share similar terminal 5' and 3' sequences of RNA1 and RNA2. These molecular features, together with phylogenetic reconstructions support the classification of WCLaV-1 and WCLaV2 as members of two new species in the genus Coguvirus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05181-0DOI Listing
October 2021

Fabrication of an injectable hydrogel with inherent photothermal effects from tannic acid for synergistic photothermal-chemotherapy.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Aug;9(30):6084-6091

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

Developing injectable hydrogels with near-infrared (NIR)-responsive photothermal effects has increasingly become a promising strategy for local cancer treatment via combinational photothermal-chemotherapy. Herein, a biocompatible hydrogel with a remarkable shear-thinning and recovery capability for injection application was fabricated from 4-arm-PEG-SH and tannic acid through chemical crosslinking and multiple physical interactions. Benefiting from the formation of dynamic TA/Fe3+ complexes within gel networks, the obtained hydrogel exhibited an intrinsic NIR absorption property for photothermal ablation of tumor cells, and enhanced cellular uptake of chemotherapeutic drugs. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed that the injectable hydrogel exhibited an excellent biocompatibility and a synergistic therapeutic effect on tumor growth via combinational photothermal-chemotherapy. Therefore, this work provides a promising attempt to develop an injectable and NIR-responsive hydrogel from TA/Fe3+ complexes, which could work as a localized drug delivery platform for synergistic photothermal-chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb01057cDOI Listing
August 2021

Contamination, sources and health risk of heavy metals in soil and dust from different functional areas in an industrial city of Panzhihua City, Southwest China.

J Hazard Mater 2021 10 13;420:126638. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

The contamination of heavy metals in urban soil and dust is closely related to anthropogenic emissions, while to what extent the metal contamination varies among different functional areas in industrial cities remains unclear. In this study, the contamination and health risk of seven heavy metals in the soil and dust were assessed at different functional areas of Panzhihua City, Southwest China, and their sources were identified by the spatial divisions and Pb isotopes. The results showed that the contamination of V and Cr in the vanadium/steel plant (VsA) and the contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn in the iron-ore smelting (IsA) were significantly higher relative to other functional areas. The sources of the contaminated heavy metals in the soil and dust were mainly from smelting and manufacturing vanadium/steel products, coal combustion and traffic. Vanadium and Cr were the major metals primarily contributing to the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, despite the low contamination level of Cr. The results indicate that the VsA is the priority control area in the Panzhihua City, and besides V, more attention should be paid in the future to monitor Cr risk in the soil and dust because of its high contribution to the health risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126638DOI Listing
October 2021

[Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor in a girl].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;23(7):739-742

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Medical Center, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital/First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410005, China.

A girl, aged 7 years, was admitted due to pain in both lower limbs for more than one year. Lumbar MRI showed soft tissue masses in the paravertebral region. Cerebral MRI showed nodular masses in the cavernous sinus at both sides. Chest CT showed high-density nodules in the outer basal segment of the right inferior lobe and the anterior segment of the left upper lobe of the lung. Biopsy of lumbar lesions showed Epstein-Barr (EB) virus-related smooth muscle tumor. Genetic testing showed a mutation, c.725_730delAGAGTA (p.K242_S243del), in the gene. The masses in the lumbar vertebra were removed by surgery, and then the pain in both lower limbs disappeared. This article reports a case of EB virus-related smooth muscle tumor with a deletion mutation in the gene, which provides experience for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292655PMC
July 2021

Polarisation-modulated photon-counting 3D imaging based on a negative parabolic pulse model.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(13):20577-20589

Indirect methods based on intensity for time-of-flight measurement have attracted considerable research interest in recent years because they can provide high spatial resolution in 3D imaging. However, the majority of indirect methods are inapplicable when echo signals are small (e.g., less than one photon). We propose a novel polarisation-modulated photon-counting 3D imaging method based on a negative parabolic pulse model (NPPM) to solve this problem. We measure weak signals using the number of received photons after repetitive pulsed laser emission. We establish a computational method by exploring the relationship between photon flight time that corresponds to the polarisation-modulated state of photons controlled by phase shift and calculated photon rates from received photon-counting values based on Poisson negative log-likelihood function to calculate the distance. We specifically utilise the NPPM to estimate distribution of echo signals and reduce ranging error given that echo signals are constantly time-varying. We build the first experimental system for polarisation-modulated photon-counting 3D imaging for verification by integrating it with a dual-axis galvo scanning device. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve ranging accuracy at the millimeter-level and exhibit superior 3D imaging performance even when the average received number of echo signals per pulsed laser emission is smaller than 0.05.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.427997DOI Listing
June 2021

Polarization prior to single-photon counting image denoising.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):21664-21682

Single-photon counting (SPC) imaging technique, which can detect targets in extremely low light levels, has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. To reduce the influence of noise under the low light condition, traditional approaches typically seek various priors from images themselves to construct denoising models, leading to inferior performance as the signal and noise cannot be efficiently distinguished. To address this challenging problem, in this study we propose a novel polarization prior to SPC image denoising based on the observation that a special polarization SPC (PSPC) image has a higher SNR than the SPC image. It enables us to construct a polarization prior to the PSPC image that can transfer efficient targets' spatial details to the denoised SPC image, and hence improves the denoising performance. Specifically, we group similar patches of the PSPC image to form 'anti-noise' dictionaries with high SNR. Then we construct a non-local prior-oriented sparse representation constraint based on the fact that each noisy patch of the SPC image can be sparsely represented by the corresponding 'anti-noise' dictionary. According to this sparse representation constraint, we further formulate an SPC image denoising model by incorporating two terms, i.e., a negative Poisson log-likelihood function for preserving the data fidelity and a total variation constraint to reduce the influence of noise, which is solved by an efficient variable splitting method. In the experiment, we have verified the effectiveness of the proposed method from simulated and real data in terms of visual comparison and quantitative analysis, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.429889DOI Listing
July 2021

Self-cascade MoS nanozymes for efficient intracellular antioxidation and hepatic fibrosis therapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Aug 15;13(29):12613-12622. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Biotechnology, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China.

Cascade biocatalytic reactions involving multiple antioxidative enzymes are necessary in living cells to regulate cellular metabolism and redox homeostasis. Substantial efforts have been made to construct cascade reactions through engineered enzyme mimics to improve intracellular metabolic flux, especially under pathophysiological conditions. Here, we show that MoS nanozymes exhibit activities of four major cellular cascade antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase. Meanwhile, MoS nanozymes attenuate electron transfer in cytochrome c/HO to ameliorate the inherent antioxidant defense system under stress conditions. Thus, MoS nanozymes function as a self-cascade platform to inhibit intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by modulating mitochondrial function and scavenging abundant ROS through their intrinsic antioxidant capacity. Density functional theory calculations reveal the underlying mechanisms of the intracellular environment-dependent catalase-like activity of MoS nanozymes. Furthermore, we find that the MoS nanozymes play a cytoprotective role in cells and significantly improve the treatment outcomes in a hepatic fibrosis mouse model. These results demonstrate the ROS-scavenging capacity of a single-component MoS nanozyme-based cascade reaction system and reveal the in-depth mechanism, which may advance the development of nanozyme-based antioxidative agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02366gDOI Listing
August 2021

Integrative analysis of key candidate genes and signaling pathways in ovarian cancer by bioinformatics.

J Ovarian Res 2021 Jul 12;14(1):92. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical Lab, The Children's Hospital of Tianjin (Children's Hospital of Tianjin University), No. 238, Longyan Road, Beichen District, Tianjin, 300000, PR China.

Background: Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecological tumors, and among gynecological tumors, its incidence and mortality rates are fairly high. However, the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the differentially expressed genes and signaling pathways associated with ovarian cancer by bioinformatics analysis.

Methods: The data from three mRNA expression profiling microarrays (GSE14407, GSE29450, and GSE54388) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differentially expressed genes between ovarian cancer tissues and normal tissues were identified using R software. The overlapping genes from the three GEO datasets were identified, and profound analysis was performed. The overlapping genes were used for pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis using the Metascape online tool. Protein-protein interactions were analyzed with the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING). Subnetwork models were selected using the plugin molecular complex detection (MCODE) application in Cytoscape. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyze the univariate survival outcomes of the hub genes. The Human Protein Atlas (HPA) database and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) were used to validate hub genes.

Results: In total, 708 overlapping genes were identified through analyses of the three microarray datasets (GSE14407, GSE29450, and GSE54388). These genes mainly participated in mitotic sister chromatid segregation, regulation of chromosome segregation and regulation of the cell cycle process. High CCNA2 expression was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and tumor stage. The expression of CDK1, CDC20, CCNB1, BUB1B, CCNA2, KIF11, CDCA8, KIF2C, NDC80 and TOP2A was increased in ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal tissues according to the Oncomine database. Higher expression levels of these seven candidate genes in ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal tissues were observed by GEPIA. The protein expression levels of CCNA2, CCNB1, CDC20, CDCA8, CDK1, KIF11 and TOP2A were high in ovarian cancer tissues, which was further confirmed via the HPA database.

Conclusion: Taken together, our study provided evidence concerning the altered expression of genes in ovarian cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. In vivo and in vitro experiments are required to verify the results of the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13048-021-00837-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276467PMC
July 2021

Intestinal Klebsiella pneumoniae infection enhances susceptibility to epileptic seizure which can be reduced by microglia activation.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jul 7;7(1):175. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurology, Chongqing, China.

Epilepsy is a common nervous system disease, and the existing theory does not fully clarify its pathogenesis. Recent research suggests that intestinal microbes may be involved in the development of epilepsy, but which microbe is involved remains unclear. We used 16s rRNA sequencing to identify the most relevant gut microbe. To determine the relationship between this microbe and epilepsy, we used an animal model. In addition, western blotting and immunofluorescence, as well as inhibitor studies, were used to evaluate and confirm the role of microglia in this process. In this study, we first report an increase in gut Klebsiella pneumoniae in patients with epilepsy. Subsequently, animal studies revealed that Klebsiella pneumoniae in the intestinal tract affects seizure susceptibility and activates microglial cells to release inflammatory factors. Furthermore, the inflammatory response of microglial cells plays a protective role in the seizure susceptibility caused by an increased abundance of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Our results suggest that gut disruption may be involved in seizure regulation and microglia protect the brain against seizure under this condition. These findings provide a new perspective for research on the pathogenesis and prevention of epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00559-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263697PMC
July 2021

Cardiac Shock Wave Therapy Improves Ventricular Function by Relieving Fibrosis Through PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway: Evidence From a Rat Model of Post-infarction Heart Failure.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 16;8:693875. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Cumulative studies have identified the effectiveness of cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT) in treating heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but little have been discussed with regard to the beneficial effects of CSWT on anti-fibrosis along with the underlying mechanism. In this study, we investigated whether CSWT could reduce post-AMI fibrosis and further explored the molecular mechanism. Rat heart failure (HF) models induced by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery were established and validated by echocardiography. Eligible animals were randomly categorized into five groups: the sham group, the HF group, the HF + CSWT group, the HF + LY294002 group, and the HF + CSWT + LY294002 group. The cardiac weight, serum level of BNP, NT-pro BNP and echocardiography parameters were measured to assess cardiac function in different groups. Masson's trichrome staining was used to assess the proportions of the fibrotic area. The expression level of CD34, αSMA was measured by RT-PCR, Immunohistochemistry and Immunofluorescent analyses and the level of PI3K/Akt was quantified by Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The application of CSWT significantly improved cardiac function and reduced myocardial fibrosis and level of CD34 and αSMA, compared to the HF group. CSWT led to significant elevations of p-PI3K and p-Akt expression levels compared to that of the HF group and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway abolished the observed beneficial effects of CSWT. CSWT can facilitate the alleviation of cardiac fibrosis induced by AMI through the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.693875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241915PMC
June 2021

Secukinumab-induced multiple lentigines in areas of resolved psoriatic plaques: A case report and literature review.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Sep 7;34(5):e15048. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Institute of Dermatology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease commonly associated with postinflammatory hyper- and hypo-pigmentation. Psoriasis-related cytokines such as IL-17 and TNF can contribute to these pigmentation changes by regulating both the growth and pigment production of melanocytes. Here, we present the first reported the case of a patient with a 10-year history of severe psoriasis vulgaris, who developed multiple lentigines in areas of resolved psoriatic plaques during anti-IL-17A antibody secukinumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.15048DOI Listing
September 2021

Investigation of the pump coupling efficiency of a side-pumping combiner based on tapered-fused method.

Opt Express 2021 Jun;29(12):17784-17794

Side-pumping combiner is used for pumping double-clad fiber in various fiber laser schemes. However, its coupling efficiency and temperature characteristics suffer when pumped via a large numerical aperture (NA) pump light. We investigated the method of optimizing the coupling efficiency of a (2 + 1) ×1 combiner under a large NA pump light injection. After optimization of taper ratio and length of the pump fiber and fusion area between pump and signal fiber, the coupling efficiency increased and the temperature characteristic improved, which could be useful for fabrication of a side-pumping combiner for high-power fiber laser applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.427234DOI Listing
June 2021
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