Publications by authors named "Xin Sun"

1,167 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Triple-signaling amplification strategy based electrochemical sensor design: boosting synergistic catalysis in metal-metalloporphyrin-covalent organic frameworks for sensitive bisphenol A detection.

Analyst 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, PR China.

A covalent organic framework (COF) is a promising type of porous material with customizable surface characteristics. Confining multiple catalytic units within a mesoporous COF can generate abundant active sites and improve the catalytic performance. In this work, a COF with both metalloporphyrin and a metal nanoparticle complex denoted as hemin/TAPB-DMTP-COF/AuNPs (TAPB: 1,3,5-tris(4-amino-phenyl)benzene, DMTP: 2,5-dimethoxyterephaldehyde, AuNPs: Au nanoparticles) has been successfully fabricated through a hierarchical encapsulation method. The as-synthesized composite was then employed to construct an electrochemical sensing platform for the efficient detection of bisphenol A (BPA). Under the optimal conditions, the hemin/TAPB-DMTP-COF/AuNP sensor presented a linear range of 0.01-3 μmol L-1 and a low detection limit of 3.5 nmol L-1. The satisfactory signal amplification is based on a triple-signaling amplification strategy due to the abundant Fe3+ sites of Fe-porphyrin, high conductivity of AuNPs and a large specific surface area of the TAPB-DMTP-COF. The proposed method was used to measure the content of BPA in different water samples with a satisfactory recovery from 95.5 to 104.0%, suggesting the great potential of the sensor in practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an00665gDOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of a novel SPT inhibitor WXP-003 by docking-based virtual screening and investigation of its anti-fungi effect.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2021 Dec;36(1):1007-1015

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China.

Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) plays the key role on catalysing the formation of 3-ketodihydrosphingosine, which is the first step of the biosynthesis of sphingolipids. SPT is linked to many diseases including fungal infection, making it a potential therapeutic target. Thus, a logical docking-based virtual screening method was used to screen selective SPT inhibitor against fungi, not human. We used myriocin-similarity database to identify compounds with good binding with fungal SPT and poor binding with homology human SPT model. Preliminary bio-assay led to the discovery of a promising inhibitor , which displayed good inhibitory activity against diversity fungi strains with MIC ranging from 0.78 to 12.5 μg/mL. could significantly reduce sphingolipids content in fungi and no effect on mouse fibroblast cell line L929. Molecular dynamics simulation depicted that SPT/ complex formed the favoured interactions. Taken together, discovery of provided valuable guide for the development of novel anti-fungal agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14756366.2021.1915301DOI Listing
December 2021

Risk factors for the mortality of hemodialysis patients with COVID-19: A multicenter study from the overall hemodialysis population in Wuhan.

Semin Dial 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Nephrology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Introduction: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are highly threatened in the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but evidence of risk factors for mortality in this population is still lacking.

Methods: We followed outcomes of the overall MHD population of Wuhan, including 7154 MHD patients from 65 hemodialysis centers, from January 1 to May 4, 2020. Among them, 130 were diagnosed with COVID-19. The demographic and clinical data of them were collected and compared between survivors and nonsurvivors.

Results: Compared to the corresponding period of last year, the all-cause mortality rate of the Wuhan MHD population significantly rose in February, and dropped down in March 2020. Of the 130 COVID-19 cases, 51 (39.2%) were deceased. Advanced age, decreased oxygen saturation, low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) on admission, and complications including acute cardiac injury (HR 5.03 [95% CI 2.21-11.14], p < 0.001), cerebrovascular event (HR 2.80 [95% CI 1.14-6.86], p = 0.025) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 3.50 [95% CI 1.63-7.51], p = 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for the death of COVID-19. The median virus shedding period of survivors was 25 days, longer than the general population.

Conclusions: Maintenance hemodialysis patients are a highly vulnerable population at increased risk of mortality and prolonged virus shedding period in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Advanced age, decreased oxygen saturation, low DBP on admission, and complications like acute cardiac injury are parameters independently associated with poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sdi.12995DOI Listing
June 2021

Apatinib plus ifosfamide and etoposide for relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma: A retrospective study in two centres.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 24;22(1):552. Epub 2021 May 24.

Musculoskeletal Tumor Center, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, P.R. China.

For osteosarcoma that progresses following first-line chemotherapy, prognosis remains poor although anti-angiogenesis tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been verified to prolong progression-free survival. Apatinib has led to positive responses in the treatment of refractory osteosarcoma. However, it demonstrates only short-lived activity, and the disease control rate of musculoskeletal lesions is worse compared with that of pulmonary lesions. This treatment failure has been partly overcome by the addition of ifosfamide and etoposide (IE). The present study retrospectively compared the activity of apatinib + IE in relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma in two sarcoma centres in China. The included patients had received a combination of apatinib 500 mg (orally) daily and the IE regimen (n=33) between June 3 2017 and July 17 2020. The tumour burden was considerable in these patients: 16/33 (48.5%) Patients had lung and musculoskeletal lesions, and 31/33 (93.9%) patients had progressed to two lines of therapies at baseline. With a median follow-up duration of 28.4 [interquartile range (IQR), 16.1-38.3] months, 21/33 (63.6%) patients had objective responses, and the median event-free survival was 11.4 (IQR, 6.7-18.4) months. The median overall survival time was 19.8 (IQR, 13.1-30.6) months. At the last follow-up, 16/33 patients had tumour downstaging, and all lesions had been completely resected. For osteosarcoma with multiple sites of metastasis, apatinib + IE demonstrated clinically meaningful antitumor activity and delayed disease progression in patients with recurrent or refractory osteosarcoma after failure of chemotherapy. This combination with manageable toxicity deserves further investigation in prospective trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12813DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170178PMC
July 2021

Blending urea and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer increases dryland maize yield and nitrogen use efficiency while mitigating ammonia volatilization.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 28;790:148058. Epub 2021 May 28.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas of the Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Agricultural non-point source pollution has become the main pollution source in China. Ammonia (NH) volatilization is one of the main factors of agricultural non-point source pollution. Slow-release nitrogen fertilizer (S) has been widely recognized as an efficient management measure to increase crop yields and mitigate NH volatilization. However, few studies have reported the effects of urea (U) blended with slow-release nitrogen fertilizer (UNS) on maize yield and NH volatilization under dryland farming conditions. A two-season field experiment with U, S and various blending ratios of U and S (UNS) under two N application rates (N1: 180 kg N ha, N2: 240 kg N ha) was conducted to determine their effects on maize yield, NH volatilization and residual soil NO-N. The results showed that UNS substantially reduced NH volatilization compared with U, primarily because of the relatively low soil pH and electrical conductivity, and the relatively high soil organic matter. UNS significantly increased dry matter, grain yield, N uptake and N use efficiency (NUE), but reduced residual soil NO-N compared with U and S. Among UNS treatments, the blending ratio of U and S at 3:7 (UNS2) was most effective in improving maize yield and NUE, while mitigating NH volatilization and soil NO-N leaching. N1 not only reduced N losses, but also increased NUE compared with N2. In conclusion, UNS2N1 is recommended as the best N fertilizer application strategy for the sustainable production of dryland maize in northwest China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148058DOI Listing
May 2021

Effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the survival outcomes of patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Surg Oncol 2021 May 26;38:101590. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) versus primary surgery on survival outcomes for resectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using an approach based on a meta-analysis.

Methods: The PubMed, EmBase, Cochrane library, and CNKI databases were systematically browsed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which met a set of predetermined inclusion criteria throughout January 2020. Hazard ratios (HRs) were applied for the pooled overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) values, and the pooled survival rates at 1-year and 3-year were used as the relative risk (RR). All the pooled effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model.

Results: Nineteen RCTs contained a total of 4372 NSCLC at I-III stages was selected for final meta-analysis. We noted NACT was significantly associated with an improvement in OS (HR: 0.87; 95%CI: 0.81-0.94; P < 0.001) and PFS (HR: 0.86; 95%CI: 0.78-0.96; P = 0.005). Moreover, the survival rate at 1-year (RR: 1.07; 95%CI: 1.02-1.12; P = 0.007) and 3-year (RR: 1.16; 95%CI: 1.06-1.27; P = 0.001) in the NACT group was significantly higher than the survival rate for the primary surgery group. Finally, the treatment effects of NACT versus primary surgery on survival outcomes might be different when stratified by the mean age of patients and the tumor stages.

Conclusions: NACT could improve survival outcomes for patients with resectable NSCLC, suggesting its suitable future applicability for clinical practice. However, large-scale RCT should be conducted to assess the chemotherapy regimen on the prognosis of resectable NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2021.101590DOI Listing
May 2021

Anisodamine (654-2) inhibits inflammation to alleviate influenza A virus-induced acute lung injury.

J Med Virol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xian Jiaotong University, Xi'an, shaanxi, 710061, China.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the leading causes of acute respiratory failure (ARF) and respiratory virus caused death. This study aimed to elucidate the potential effect of Anisodamine (ANI 654-2) on influenza A virus (IAV)-induced ALI, as well as its involved mechanism. HE staining showed ANI 654-2 attenuated lung lesions in ALI treated C57BL/6 mice. The alleviated lung lesion was validated with the increased alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) ratio, decreased lung wet/dry (W/D) weight and reduced protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Flow cytometry analysis showed that ANI 654-2 reversed the increase of neutrophil count and M1 type macrophage number and the decrease of M2 type macrophage number in IAV-induced ALI mice. ELISA of BALF validated that ANI 654-2 decreased TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-18 while increased IL-10. Mechanically, ANI 654-2 decreased the protein expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β R II, TGF-β RI, TAK1, p-AKT/AKT and p-p105/p105, all of which were elevated with IAV. The effects of ANI 654-2 were validated in IAV treated A549 cells. As a result, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were partly reverted with activators of TAK1, AKT or NF-κB. Taken together, this study implicated that ANI 654-2 improved IAV-induced ALI via TAK1, AKT and NF-κB regulated inflammation. The study proposed that ANI 654-2 could be a potential therapy for treatment of ALI caused by virus infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27043DOI Listing
June 2021

C1q/TNF-related protein-9 ameliorates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by regulating secretion of endothelin-1 and nitric oxide mediated by AMPK in rats.

Sci Rep 2021 May 31;11(1):11372. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 127 Changlexi Road, Xi'an, 710032, China.

Injury/dysfunction of the endothelium of pulmonary arteries contributes to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH). We investigated whether C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-9 (CTRP9), a newly identified cardiovascular agent, has protective roles in the development of HPH. HPH was induced in adult male rats by chronic hypobaric hypoxia. CTRP9 overexpression by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-CTRP9 transfection attenuated the increases in right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy index, and pulmonary arterial remodeling of rats under hypoxia. Importantly, CTRP9 overexpression improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation in pulmonary arterioles in HPH rats. CTRP9 overexpression enhanced expression of phosphorylated 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS), and reduced phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK1/2) expression in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) of HPH rats. In cultured PMVECs, CTRP9 not only preserved the decrease of AMPK and eNOS phosphorylation level and nitric oxide (NO) production induced by hypoxia, but also blocked the increase in hypoxia-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation level and endothelin (ET)-1 production. Furthermore, the effects of CTRP9 were interrupted by inhibitors or knockdown of AMPK. CTRP9 enhances NO production and reduces ET-1 production by regulating AMPK activation. CTRP9 could be a target for HPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90779-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166879PMC
May 2021

A Threose Nucleic Acid Enzyme with RNA Ligase Activity.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 24;143(21):8154-8163. Epub 2021 May 24.

State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Artificial Functional Materials, Chemistry and Biomedicine Innovation Center (ChemBIC), Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210023, China.

Threose nucleic acid (TNA) has been considered a potential RNA progenitor in evolution due to its chemical simplicity and base pairing property. Catalytic TNA sequences with RNA ligase activities might have facilitated the transition to the RNA world. Here we report the isolation of RNA ligase TNA enzymes by selection. The identified TNA enzyme T8-6 catalyzes the formation of a 2'-5' phosphoester bond between a 2',3'-diol and a 5'-triphosphate group, with a of 1.1 × 10 min (40 mM Mg, pH 9.0). For efficient reaction, T8-6 requires UA|GA at the ligation junction and tolerates variations at other substrate positions. Functional RNAs such as hammerhead ribozyme can be prepared by T8-6-catalyzed ligation, with site-specific introduction of a 2'-5' linkage. Together, this work provides experimental support for TNA as a plausible pre-RNA genetic polymer and also offers an alternative molecular tool for biotechnology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c02895DOI Listing
June 2021

Cu/HZSM-5 Sorbent Treated by NH Plasma for Low-Temperature Simultaneous Adsorption-Oxidation of HS and PH.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 21;13(21):24670-24681. Epub 2021 May 21.

Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, P. R. China.

In this study, an NH plasma-treated Cu/HZSM-5 sorbent was introduced to simultaneously remove HS and PH in low-temperature and low-oxygen environments. The effects of the Cu loading amounts, modification methods, and plasma-treatment conditions on the adsorption-oxidation performance of the sorbents were investigated. From the performance test results, the sorbent treated by NH plasma with the specific energy input (SEI, electrical input energy to the unit volume of gas) value of 1 J·mL (Cu/HZSM-5-[S1]) was identified as having the highest breakthrough capacities of 108.9 mg S·g and 150.9 mg P·g among all of the materials tested. After three times of regeneration, the sorbent can still maintain the ideal performance. The results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and CO temperature-programmed desorption (CO-TPD) indicated that the NH plasma treatment can introduce amino groups (functional groups) onto the sorbent surface, which greatly increases the number and strength of the basic sites on the sorbent surface. Results of N adsorption/desorption isotherms and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) showed that the morphology of the sorbent changed after the plasma treatment, which exposed more active sites (copper species). In situ IR spectra showed that the amino groups are continuously consumed during the reaction process, indicating that these amino groups can help sorbents to capture gas molecules. Moreover, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses indicated that CuO is the main active species and the consumption of CuO and accumulation of the reaction products on the surface and inner pores of the sorbent are the primary reasons for the deactivation of the sorbent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c02584DOI Listing
June 2021

Activation of the cGAS-STING signaling pathway in adenomyosis patients.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The 3rd Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Objective: Adenomyosis is characterized by the presence of endometrium or endometrium-like glands and stroma within the myometrium. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the cGAS-STING pathway was activated and correlated with clinical outcomes in adenomyosis patients.

Materials And Methods: Twenty patients diagnosed with adenomyosis and 10 patients diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN-3) but no adenomyosis were enrolled in this study. Specimens were collected during surgery from August 2017 to December 2017 at Third Xiangya Hospital. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of key cGAS-STING pathway factors in uterine tissue were detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The correlations of gene expression and clinical outcomes, including dysmenorrhea and uterine volume, were analyzed.

Results: The cGAS, STING, TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK-1), interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA and protein levels in the ectopic endometrial tissue from adenomyosis patients were significantly higher compared with that from the controls in endometrium (p < .05). cGAS and STING gene expression were correlated with TBK-1, IFN-β, and TNF-α expression (p < .05). Importantly, TBK-1 and TNF-α expression were correlated with the clinical outcome of dysmenorrhea (p < .05).

Conclusion: Our study reveals that the cGAS-STING pathway is activated in adenomyosis patients and its activation is subsequently correlated with clinical outcomes, which suggests that the cGAS-STING pathway may contribute to adenomyosis pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.452DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparison of the Efficacy of Danhong Injections at Different Time-points During the Perioperative Period of Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:643446. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Evidence-Based Medicine Research Centre, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China.

Danhong injections (DHI) are widely used in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). As there are no guidelines for the timing of DHI in the peri-percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) period for AMI, we investigated the effects of DHI timing. We reviewed reports published before September 30, 2020 in PubMed, embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Chinese BioMedical database, Chinese VIP database, Wanfang database, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Only randomized controlled trials of DHI with percutaneous coronary intervention for AMI were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane evaluation manual 5.3.3 criteria. A meta-analysis was performed, and forest plots were drawn. We included 23 studies which all revealed that patients in DHI groups had better efficacy than control groups. Subgroup analysis revealed that DHI administered intraoperatively and continued postoperatively was more effective in increasing left ventricular ejection fraction when compared to other time-points ( < 0.001). The pre- and intraoperative use of DHI could improve reflow more effectively than conventional treatment, while the effect was not significant in the postoperative intervention study ( = 0.654). The 16 postoperative interventions revealed that the effect of DHI at 14 days was better than that at 7 and 10 days for hs-CRP ( = 0.013), the 10-days treatment produced better results for CK-MB than for the other treatments ( < 0.001) and a dosage of 30 ml proved most effective for IL-6 ( < 0.001). DHI proved to be superior to conventional Western medicine in reducing the incidence of adverse cardiac events, promoting reperfusion, improving cardiac function, reducing inflammatory factors, and protecting the myocardium. DHI should be administered early in the perioperative period and continued postoperatively because of its ability to improve cardiac function. Furthermore, in the PCI postoperative, 30 ml is recommended to inhibit IL-6 levels, for patients with high hs-CRP, a course of 14 days is most effective, for patients with obvious abnormalities of CK-MB, a 10-days course of treatment is recommended. However, due to the limited number and quality of the original randomized controlled trials, our conclusions need large, multi-centre RCTs to validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.643446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117241PMC
April 2021

Association between blood transfusion and ventilator-associated events: a nested case-control study.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 May 17:1-6. Epub 2021 May 17.

Chinese Evidence-based Medicine Center and CREAT Group, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objectives: The association between blood transfusion and ventilator-associated events (VAEs) has not been fully understood. We sought to determine whether blood transfusion increases the risk of a VAE.

Design: Nested case-control study.

Setting: This study was based on a registry of healthcare-associated infections in intensive care units at West China Hospital system.

Patients: 1,657 VAE cases and 3,293 matched controls were identified.

Methods: For each case, 2 controls were randomly selected using incidence density sampling. We defined blood transfusion as a time-dependent variable, and we used weighted Cox models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for all 3 tiers of VAEs.

Results: Blood transfusion was associated with increased risk of ventilator-associated complication-plus (VAC-plus; HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.22-1.77; P <.001), VAC-only (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.65; P = .038), infection-related VAC-plus (IVAC-plus; HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.33-2.39; P < .001), and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP; HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.10-3.99; P = .024). Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was also associated with increased risk of VAC-plus (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.08-1.65; P = .007), IVAC-plus (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.22-2.36; P = .002), and PVAP (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.17-5.28; P = .018). Compared to patients without transfusion, the risk of VAE was significantly higher in patients with RBC transfusions of >3 units (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.25-2.40; P = .001) but not in those with RBC transfusions of 0-3 units.

Conclusion: Blood transfusions were associated with increased risk of all tiers of VAE. The risk was significantly higher among patients who were transfused with >3 units of RBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2021.178DOI Listing
May 2021

Thermally Aged Li-Mn-O Cathode with Stabilized Hybrid Cation and Anion Redox.

Nano Lett 2021 May 14;21(10):4176-4184. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

Though low-cost and environmentally friendly, Li-Mn-O cathodes suffer from low energy density. Although synthesized LiMnO-like overlithiated spinel cathode with reversible hybrid anion- and cation-redox (HACR) activities has a high initial capacity, it degrades rapidly due to oxygen loss and side-reaction-induced electrolyte decomposition. Herein, we develop a two-step heat treatment to promote local decomposition as LiMnO → 2LiMnO + LiMnO + 1/2 O↑, which releases near-surface reactive oxygen that is harmful to cycling stability. The produced nanocomposite delivers a high discharge capacity of 225 mAh/g and energy density of over 700 Wh/kg at active-material level at a current density of 100 mA/g between 1.8 to 4.7 V. Benefiting from suppressed oxygen loss and side reactions, 80% capacity retention is achieved after 214 cycles in half cells. With industrially acceptable electrolyte amount (6 g/Ah), full cells paired with LiTiO anode have a good retention over 100 cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04920DOI Listing
May 2021

Increased peripheral blood neutrophil activation phenotypes and NETosis in critically ill COVID-19 patients: a case series and review of the literature.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego (UCSD), La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Background: Increased inflammation has been well defined in COVID-19, while definitive pathways driving severe forms of this disease remain uncertain. Neutrophils are known to contribute to immunopathology in infections, inflammatory diseases and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Changes in neutrophil function in COVID-19 may give insight into disease pathogenesis and identify therapeutic targets.

Methods: Blood was obtained serially from critically ill COVID-19 patients for eleven days. Neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis), oxidative burst, phagocytosis and cytokine levels were assessed. Lung tissue was obtained immediately post-mortem for immunostaining. Pubmed searches for neutrophils, lung and COVID-19 yielded ten peer-reviewed research articles in English.

Results: Elevations in neutrophil-associated cytokines IL-8 and IL-6, and general inflammatory cytokines IP-10, GM-CSF, IL-1b, IL-10 and TNF, were identified both at first measurement and across hospitalization (p<0.0001). COVID neutrophils had exaggerated oxidative burst (p<0.0001), NETosis (p<0.0001) and phagocytosis (p<0.0001) relative to controls. Increased NETosis correlated with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, and neutrophils and NETs were identified within airways and alveoli in lung parenchyma of 40% of SARS-CoV-2 infected lungs available for examination (2 out of 5). While elevations in IL-8 and ANC correlated with disease severity, plasma IL-8 levels alone correlated with death.

Conclusions: Literature to date demonstrates compelling evidence of increased neutrophils in the circulation and lungs of COVID-19 patients. importantly, neutrophil quantity and activation correlates with severity of disease. Similarly, our data shows that circulating neutrophils in COVID-19 exhibit an activated phenotype with enhanced NETosis and oxidative burst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab437DOI Listing
May 2021

Influence of drying and calcination temperatures for Ce-Cu-Al trimetallic composite catalyst on simultaneous removal HS and PH: Experimental and DFT studies.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Jun 23;104:277-287. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China. Electronic address:

This work explored the influences of the drying and calcination temperatures on a Ce-Cu-Al trimetallic composite catalyst for the simultaneous removal of HS and PH. The effects of both temperatures on the structural features and activity were examined. The density functional theory method was used to calculate adsorption energies and further analyze their adsorption behavior on different slabs. Experiments revealed suitable drying and calcination temperatures to be 60 and 500°C, respectively. The capacity reached 323.8 and 288.1 mg/g. Adjusting drying temperature to 60°C is more inclined to form larger and structured grains of CuO. Rising calcinating temperature to 500°C could increase the grain size and redox capacity of CuO to promote performance. Higher temperatures would destroy the surface structure and lead to a crystal phase transformation, which was that the CuO and AlO were gradually recombined into CuAlO with a spinel structure. The exposed crystal planes of surficial CuO and CuAlO were determined according to characterization results. Calculation results showed that, compared with CuO (111), HS and PH have weaker adsorption strength on CuAlO (100) which is not conducive to their adsorption and removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.12.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Persistent alterations of cortical hemodynamic response in asymptomatic concussed patients.

Concussion 2020 Oct 28;6(1):CNC84. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Michigan Concussion Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Aim: The underlying neurophysiological effects of concussion often result in attenuated cognitive and cortical function. To understand the relation between cognition and brain injury, we investigated the effects of concussion on attentional networks using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

Materials & Methods: Healthy controls and concussed patients, tested within 72 h from injury (T1) and after symptoms resolved (T2) completed a computerized attention task during fNIRS imaging.

Results: T1 patients exhibited slower reaction times and reduced brain activation pattern relative to healthy controls. Interestingly, the cortical oxygenation hemoglobin response at T2 was greater relative to T1 and healthy controls, while reaction time was normative.

Conclusion: The exploratory findings of this study suggest once asymptomatic, a compensatory hemodynamic response may support the restoration of reaction time despite ongoing physiological recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/cnc-2020-0014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097509PMC
October 2020

The extracellular matrix protein agrin is essential for epicardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during heart development.

Development 2021 May 10;148(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Burdon-Sanderson Cardiac Science Centre, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT, UK.

During heart development, epicardial cells residing within the outer layer undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migrate into the underlying myocardium to support organ growth and morphogenesis. Disruption of epicardial EMT results in embryonic lethality, yet its regulation is poorly understood. Here, we report epicardial EMT within the mesothelial layer of the mouse embryonic heart at ultra-high resolution using scanning electron microscopy combined with immunofluorescence analyses. We identified morphologically active EMT regions that associated with key components of the extracellular matrix, including the basement membrane-associated proteoglycan agrin. Deletion of agrin resulted in impaired EMT and compromised development of the epicardium, accompanied by downregulation of Wilms' tumor 1. Agrin enhanced EMT in human embryonic stem cell-derived epicardial-like cells by decreasing β-catenin and promoting pFAK localization at focal adhesions, and promoted the aggregation of dystroglycan within the Golgi apparatus in murine epicardial cells. Loss of agrin resulted in dispersal of dystroglycan in vivo, disrupting basement membrane integrity and impairing EMT. Our results provide new insights into the role of the extracellular matrix in heart development and implicate agrin as a crucial regulator of epicardial EMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.197525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172119PMC
May 2021

[Development and trends of real-world research based on bibliometric and knowledge map analysis].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(2):317-325

Chinese Evidence-based Medicine Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, P.R.China.

To explore the focus and trends in real-world studies in Chinese through knowledge mapping method, databases CNKI, VIP, Wanfang and Sinomed were retrieved, with 1 757 relevant articles published before September 30rd, 2020 finally included, whose bibliographical records were imported into NoteExpress to avoid duplication and check relativity. VOSviewer, a bibliometric analysis tool, was used to analyze their development. It was found that real-world studies have mainly taken shape after 2010, in which traditional Chinese medicine research plays an important role. was the leading journal with 120 papers, the China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences the most contribution institution with 338 papers, and Xie Yanming from the institution the most contribution author with 250 papers. This study helps clinicians and researchers in better understanding the evolution of real-world research over more than two decades in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202101006DOI Listing
April 2021

Safety of Nitrous Oxide Anesthesia in a Selected Group of Patients Undergoing Neurosurgery: An Exploratory Subgroup Analysis of the ENIGMA Trials.

J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH Departments of Neurosurgery Anesthesia, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Alfred Hospital and Monash University Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, and Centre for Integrated Critical Care Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.

Background: The Evaluation of Nitrous Oxide in the Gas Mixture for Anesthesia (ENIGMA)-I and ENIGMA-II were randomized clinical trials that assessed the safety of nitrous oxide anesthesia in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. In this study, we performed an exploratory pooled analysis of both ENIGMA trials to assess the safety of nitrous oxide in a selected group of patients undergoing neurosurgery.

Methods: Data from each ENIGMA trial were collated into a single database. Information regarding patient demographics, comorbidities, medication use, anesthesia, surgical procedure, and postoperative complications was extracted. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted for postoperative complications to assess the risk associated with nitrous oxide.

Results: A total of 830 patients were included in our analysis: 417 received nitrous oxide anesthesia, and 413 received nitrous oxide-free anesthesia. Baseline patient and perioperative characteristics were comparable. Procedural data were available for 535 patients (64%); of these, 507 (95%) underwent spinal neurosurgery and 28 (5%) underwent cranial neurosurgery. Patients in the nitrous oxide group had lower inspired oxygen concentration (30% vs. 38%; P<0.001) and end-tidal volatile agent concentration (0.56 vs. 0.89 minimal alveolar concentration equivalents; P<0.001) compared with the nitrous oxide-free group. Use of nitrous oxide was not associated with increased risk of postoperative complications (myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, stroke, infection, severe vomiting, fever, pneumonia, pneumothorax, blood transfusion, venous thromboembolism, or death) (odds ratio: 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 0.89-1.65; P=0.22) or prolonged length of hospital stay (median 5.0 vs. 4.2 d for nitrous oxide and nitrous oxide-free groups; P=0.28).

Conclusion: Nitrous oxide did not increase the risk of postoperative complications or prolonged length of hospital stay in the neurosurgical cohort enrolled in the ENIGMA-I and ENIGMA-II trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ANA.0000000000000771DOI Listing
April 2021

The Clinical Implications of Tumor Mutational Burden in Osteosarcoma.

Front Oncol 2020 7;10:595527. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Musculoskeletal Tumor Center, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Osteosarcoma (OTS) is aggressive bone malignancy without well-recognized prognosis biomarker. Tumor mutational burden (TMB) has been proved as effective biomarker in predicting clinical outcomes in several cancer types. However, its prognostic value in OTS remains unknown. In this study, we aim to evaluate the implication of TMB in OTS patients.

Methods: To depict the landscape of somatic mutations in OTS, we performed Whole-Exome Sequencing (WES) on 31 OTS tissue samples and corresponding White Blood Cells (WBCs) as matched control. TMB was calculated as the total number of somatic alterations in coding regions normalized to the per sequenced genomic megabase (~30.4Mb in WES). The prognostic values of TMB were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression models.

Results: The median age was 16.0 years at diagnosis, and 54.8% of patients were male. The most common genetic alterations were mainly involved in cell cycle and DNA damage response and repair, including H3F3A, TP53, MYC, and CDKN2A/B. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 775.5 days in TMB-High (defined as third quartile of TMB value, <2.565) versus 351 days in TMB-Low (<2.565). All patients with TMB-High are PFS-Long (>400 days), while 36.4% of all patients with TMB-Low were PFS-Long (=0.003). TMB were significantly greater in PFS-Long than in PFS-Short (<400 days) (=0.002). Moreover, the median overall survival (OS) was 1,307 days in TMB-High versus 672.5 days in TMB-Low. Furthermore, TMB-High group had significantly improved PFS (=0.04) and OS (=0.03).

Conclusions: TMB-High can be used as prognostic marker for OTS. Our findings demonstrate that TMB may be helpful in combination with traditionally clinicopathologic risk factors to optimize risk stratification and guide treatment decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.595527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059407PMC
April 2021

The prevalence of occupational exposure to noise: A systematic review and meta-analysis from the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of the Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury.

Environ Int 2021 Sep 17;154:106380. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Workers' Health and Human Ecology Research Center, National School of Public Health Sergio Arouca, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing joint estimates of the work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), with contributions from a large network of individual experts. Evidence from mechanistic and human data suggests that occupational exposure to noise may cause cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of occupational exposure to noise for estimating (if feasible) the number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years from cardiovascular disease that are attributable to exposure to this risk factor, for the development of the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates.

Objectives: We aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse estimates of the prevalence of occupational exposure to noise.

Data Sources: We searched electronic academic databases for potentially relevant records from published and unpublished studies, including Ovid Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and CISDOC. We also searched electronic grey literature databases, Internet search engines, and organizational websites; hand-searched reference list of previous systematic reviews and included study records; and consulted additional experts.

Study Eligibility And Criteria: We included working-age (≥15 years) workers in the formal and informal economies in any WHO Member and/or ILO member State, but excluded children (<15 years) and unpaid domestic workers. We included all study types with an estimate of the prevalence of occupational exposure to noise, categorized into two levels: no (low) occupational exposure to noise (<85dBA) and any (high) occupational exposure to noise (≥85dBA).

Study Appraisal And Synthesis Methods: At least two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts against the eligibility criteria at a first stage and full texts of potentially eligible records at a second stage, followed by extraction of data from qualifying studies. We combined prevalence estimates using random-effect meta-analysis. Two or more review authors assessed the risk of bias and the quality of evidence, using the RoB-SPEO tool and QoE-SPEO approach developed specifically for the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates.

Results: Sixty-five studies (56 cross-sectional studies and nine cohort studies) met the inclusion criteria, comprising 157,370 participants (15,369 females) across 28 countries and all six WHO regions (Africa, Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific). For the main analyses, we prioritized the four included studies that surveyed national probability samples of general populations of workers over the 58 studies of workers in industrial sectors and/or occupations with relatively high occupational exposure to noise. The exposure was generally assessed with dosimetry, sound level meter, or official or company records; in the population-based studies, it was assessed with validated questions. Estimates of the prevalence of occupational exposure to noise are presented for all 65 included studies, by country, sex, 5-year age group, industrial sector, and occupation where feasible. The pooled prevalence of any (high) occupational exposure to noise (≥85dBA) among the general population of workers was 0.17 (95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.19, 4 studies, 108,256 participants, 38 countries, two WHO regions, I 98%, low quality of evidence). Subgroup analyses showed that pooled prevalence differed substantially by WHO region, sex, industrial sector, and occupation.

Conclusions: Our systematic review and meta-analysis found that occupational exposure to noise is prevalent among general populations of workers. The current body of evidence is, however, of low quality, due to serious concerns for risk of bias and indirectness. Producing estimates of occupational exposure to noise nevertheless appears evidence-based, and the pooled effect estimates presented in this systematic review are suitable as input data for the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates (if feasible). Protocol identifier: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.09.040 PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018092272.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204275PMC
September 2021

Response of macrobenthic communities to heavy metal pollution in Laoshan Bay, China: A trait-based method.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jun 16;167:112292. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Fisheries College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

The effects of multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors on the functional trait composition and diversity of marine macrobenthic communities in Laoshan Bay were investigated using biological trait analysis (BTA). Seven traits, including 27 trait modalities and four functional diversity indices (functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence, and Rao's quadratic entropy), were considered. The results of RLQ (environmental variables (R), species taxa (L), and traits (Q)) and variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that the trait compositions and functional diversity of macrobenthic communities were influenced by a combination of stressors, among which heavy metals were the major factors. At the sites with high heavy metal pollution, the prevalent traits were infauna, burrower, and deposit feeder, whereas epifauna, carnivores and crawlers were dominant at the sites of low heavy metal contamination. The impact of natural environmental gradients on macrobenthic communities is also worthy of attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112292DOI Listing
June 2021

The NLRP3-related inflammasome modulates pain behavior in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain.

Life Sci 2021 Jul 13;277:119489. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) may play an important role in neuropathic pain. Treatment for trigeminal neuropathic pain remains a challenge, as common drugs either do not demonstrate beneficial therapeutic effects or induce intolerance in patients.

Main Methods: In a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain, pain caused by the malpositioning of dental implants is similar to that experienced by humans. We used masculine Sprague-Dawley rats with inferior alveolar nerve damage as a model to investigate the differential regulation of NLRP3. First, we confirmed the level of NLRP3 in the medullary dorsal horn and variation of pain response behavior after silencing the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome bodies in rats with trigeminal neuropathic pain. Second, under localized anesthesia, we extracted the lower left second molar, implanted a micro-dental implant, and deliberately injured the inferior alveolar nerve.

Key Findings: After nerve damage, the level of NLRP3-related inflammasomes was upregulated in microglia and the expression of a component of the inflammasome gradually increased during postoperative days 3-21. The suppression of adenovirus-shRNA-NLRP3 on postoperative day 1 markedly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the activation of the inflammasome and mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, it attenuated cell death in microglia, as evidenced by increased Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, and Bik expression.

Significance: The level of NLRP3 in the dorsal horn is a pivotal factor in trigeminal neuropathic pain, and inhibition of the early expression of NLRP3 might serve as a potential therapeutic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119489DOI Listing
July 2021

Venous Tumor Thrombus in Primary Bone Sarcomas in the Pelvis: A Clinical and Radiographic Study of 451 Cases.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Musculoskeletal Tumor Center, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Few investigations of venous tumor thrombus (VTT) in primary pelvic bone sarcomas are available. We aimed to identify the prevalence, associated factors, and prognosis of VTT across different types of pelvic sarcomas and to propose an algorithm for management.

Methods: We included 451 consecutive cases of primary, bone-derived, treatment-naive, pelvic sarcomas in this study. Demographic data and the results of initial laboratory tests, imaging examinations, and oncological evaluations were extracted and analyzed. Forty-four cases of VTT were diagnosed with radiographic examinations, and 18 of them were verified histologically.

Results: The cohort consisted of chondrosarcomas (41.2%), osteosarcomas (30.4%), Ewing sarcomas (15.5%), bone-derived undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (5.8%), and other bone sarcomas (7.1%). The prevalence of VTT was 9.8% in the whole group, and associated factors included a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level of ≥230.5 U/L and invasion of the L5-S1 intervertebral foramen. Patients with pelvic osteosarcoma had a high prevalence of VTT (22.6%), and the associated factors in this group included a chondroblastic subtype, an LDH level of ≥187 U/L, and invasion of the obturator foramen and the L5-S1 intervertebral foramen. Patients with VTT had a poor prognosis with a median overall survival time of 14 months. Subgroup analyses of localized pelvic osteosarcoma indicated that the presence of VTT decreased the median overall survival time (21.5 versus 54.0 months for those without VTT, p = 0.003), median recurrence-free survival time (18.6 versus 32.4 months, p = 0.020), and median metastasis-free survival time (11.2 versus 41.0 months, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: VTT is most common in patients with pelvic osteosarcoma as compared with patients with other primary bone sarcomas, and it is associated with several factors. It is a negative prognostic factor. An algorithm for management of pelvic sarcomas with VTT stratified by the classification of the VTT might be beneficial, but further validation is necessary.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.00569DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessing whether isoniazid is essential during the first 14 days of tuberculosis therapy: a phase 2a, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Microbe 2020 Jun 8;1(2):e84-e92. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Center for TB Research, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Clinical studies suggest that isoniazid contributes rapid bacterial killing during the initial two days of tuberculosis treatment but that isoniazid's activity declines significantly after day three. We conducted a 14-day phase IIa open label, randomized trial to assess the essentiality of isoniazid in standard tuberculosis therapy.

Methods: A total of 69 adults with newly diagnosed sputum-positive tuberculosis from the South African Western Cape region were enrolled and randomized to a four-arm parallel assignment model. Participants were followed for 14 days as inpatients at either the University of Cape Town Lung Institute or at the TASK Applied Science clinical research organization. All arms received standard daily rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide but differed as follows: isoniazid only on days one and two (n=17), isoniazid on days one and two then moxifloxacin on days three through 14 (n=16), no isoniazid (n=18), and a control group that received isoniazid for all 14 days (standard therapy, n=18). The primary endpoint was the rate of colony forming unit (CFU) decline during the first 14 days of treatment.

Results: For 62 participants analyzed, the initial 14-day mean daily fall in log CFU (95% CI) was 0·14 (0·11, 0·18) for participants receiving isoniazid for two days only; 0·13 (0·09, 0·17) for participants receiving isoniazid for two days followed by moxifloxacin; 0·12 (0·08, 0·15) for those not receiving isoniazid; and 0·13 (0·09, 0·16) for the standard therapy group.

Conclusions: The 14 day EBA for the combination rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide was not significantly changed by the addition of isoniazid for the first two days or for the first 14 days of treatment. In a post hoc analysis, significantly higher day-two EBAs were observed for all groups among participants with higher baseline sputum CFUs. Our finding that INH does not contribute to EBA suggests that INH could be replaced with another drug during standard treatment to improve efficacy and decrease rates of resistance to first-line drugs. (Funded by the NIH AIDS Clinical Trial Groups and NIH; A5307 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01589497).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2666-5247(20)30011-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023625PMC
June 2020

Lightweight Image Restoration Network for Strong Noise Removal in Nuclear Radiation Scenes.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

School of Information Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China.

In order to remove the strong noise with complex shapes and high density in nuclear radiation scenes, a lightweight network composed of a Noise Learning Unit (NLU) and Texture Learning Unit (TLU) was designed. The NLU is bilinearly composed of a Multi-scale Kernel Module (MKM) and a Residual Module (RM), which learn non-local information and high-level features, respectively. Both the MKM and RM have receptive field blocks and attention blocks to enlarge receptive fields and enhance features. The TLU is at the bottom of the NLU and learns textures through an independent loss. The entire network adopts a Mish activation function and asymmetric convolutions to improve the overall performance. Compared with 12 denoising methods on our nuclear radiation dataset, the proposed method has the fewest model parameters, the highest quantitative metrics, and the best perceptual satisfaction, indicating its high denoising efficiency and rich texture retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21051810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961967PMC
March 2021

Complete remission of metastatic osteosarcoma using combined modality therapy: a retrospective analysis of unselected patients in China.

BMC Cancer 2021 Mar 31;21(1):337. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Musculoskeletal Tumor Center, Peking University People's Hospital, No. 11 Xizhimen South Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, PR China.

Background: Complete surgical remission (CSR) is the best predictor of overall survival (OS) for patients with metastatic osteosarcoma. However, metastasectomy has not been widely implemented in China in the last decade due to various factors, and instead, most physicians choose hypofractionated radiotherapy to treat pulmonary lesions. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of different local treatments for pulmonary lesions and identify the best local therapy strategies for these patients.

Methods: We reviewed the clinical courses of osteosarcoma patients with pulmonary metastases who were initially treated in two sarcoma centres in Beijing, China, from June 1st, 2009, to March 26th, 2020. With a median follow-up of 32.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 30.8, 36.1) months, a total of 127 patients with 605 pulmonary nodules, all of whom had received local therapy and firstly achieved CSR or complete radiated/metabolic remission (CRR), were included in the analysis. A total of 102 patients with 525 nodules were initially diagnosed with resectable lung metastases, while 25 patients had 80 indeterminate nodules at presentation and relapsed with pulmonary metastases within 6 months after the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy.

Results: Eighty-eight of 127 (69.3%) patients had fewer than 5 nodules at the time of local therapy, with 48 of 127 (37.8%) located in the unilateral pleura. No patient underwent thoracotomy, and 42 of 127 patients (85 nodules) received video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). In addition, 79 of 127 patients (520 nodules) received hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (RT), such as Gamma Knife radiosurgery or CyberKnife radiosurgery. The twelve-month event-free survival (EFS) (from local therapy to progression) rate of this entire study cohort was 35.6% (95% CI: 26.8, 44.4%), without a significant difference between the two groups (44.7% for VATS vs. 28.4% for RT, P = 0.755). Radiation-induced pneumonitis was observed in 62 of 86 (72.1%) patients, with one patient (1/86, 1.2%) in grade 4.

Conclusions: Our past data showed a similar prognosis with the use of hypofractionated radiotherapy and VATS for the treatment of pulmonary metastasis and no inferiority to thoracotomy regarding historical outcomes. Currently, high-resolution chest computed tomography (CT) provides sufficient information on nodules, and less invasive modalities can thus be considered for treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08071-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010982PMC
March 2021

Molecular identification of an androgen receptor and the influence of long-term aggressive interaction on hypothalamic genes expression in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii).

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2021 May 27;207(3):401-413. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Fisheries College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, 316022, China.

This study aims to explore the mechanism on how aggressive interaction alters reproductive physiology by testing whether aggressive interaction can activate the reproductive neuroendocrine function via the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii). The expressions of the androgen receptor gene (ar) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes (gnrhs), the concentration of plasma androgens, and GSI (the ratio of testes mass to body mass) were compared between the interaction group (dominant males or subordinate males) and the isolation group in male black rockfish after 3 weeks. A full-length cDNA encoding an androgen receptor (AR) of 766 amino acids was isolated. Transcripts encoding this AR were detected at a high relative abundance in the liver, kidney, testis, ovary, muscle, and intestine tissue. Further evaluation of brain genes transcripts abundance revealed that the mRNA levels of gnrh I and ar genes were significantly different between the interaction group and the isolation group in the hypothalamus. However, no significant difference was detected in testosterone, 11-keto-testosterone, and GSI between these two groups. This study indicates that a long-term aggressive interaction affect the expression of hypothalamic gnrh I and ar but may not change the physiological function of the HPG axis in an all-male condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00359-021-01480-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Fabricating a nano-bionic sensor for rapid detection of HS during pork spoilage using Ru NPs modulated catalytic hydrogenation conversion.

Meat Sci 2021 Jul 19;177:108507. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PR China. Electronic address:

Rapid, sensitive and on-site monitoring of meat spoilage is highly essential for food safety. Hydrogen sulfide (HS) a typical volatile, produced during enzymatic hydrolysis is considered as a reliable marker for evaluating meat freshness. Herein, a novel nano-bionic sensor based on the superior catalytic activity of ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) has been fabricated for HS quantification. The activity sites of Ru NPs were poisoned in the presence of HS, thereby affecting its catalytic efficiency via reducing the degradation of azo dye. The developed nano-bionic sensor achieved a selective response toward HS, with capability for on-site surveillance of the pork freshness in the linear range (0-1800 nM). A higher correlation was obtained between the HS content and the total viable count during the 9-period pork spoilage process (R = 0.9633 and 0.9769). Moreover, the proposed method exhibits high selectivity in the presence of other characteristic volatiles encountered during the pork storage process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2021.108507DOI Listing
July 2021