Publications by authors named "Xin Peng"

345 Publications

Distance dilution of antibiotic resistance genes of sediments in an estuary system in relation to coastal cities.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 22;281:116980. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Urban Water Supply and Drainage System Safety and Energy Saving Engineering Technology Center, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou, 350118, China.

Coastal tourist and industrial cities are most likely to have differential effects on the distance dilution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in an estuary system. This study used high-throughput fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction to identify sediment ARGs in two typical estuaries of coastal tourist and industrial cities (Xiamen and Taizhou) in China. The distance dilution of ARGs and its relationship with key environmental factors were analysed. The results indicated that along the river inlet towards the sea, the distance dilution effect on ARG abundance in estuary sediments of Taizhou was approximately double that in Xiamen, and the macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSB) and vancomycin genes were replaced by the fluoroquinolone, quinolone, florfenicol, chloramphenicol, and amphenicol (FCA) and β-lactam genes in Taizhou, whereas β-lactam genes succeeded the MLSB and sul genes in Xiamen. The abundance and number of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were positively correlated with the particle size and total organic carbon (TOC) contents of sediments, whereas they were negatively associated with the oxidation and reduction potential (E) and pH of sediments, as well as the seawater salinity. The sediment particle size (SPZ) was the dominant physicochemical factor affecting the abundance of ARGs (r = 0.826, p < 0.05) and MGEs (r = 0.850, p < 0.01). These findings suggest that although the distance dilution effect on the ARG abundance of estuary sediments of the industrial city is greater than that of the tourist city, the larger SPZ, higher TOC content, and lower salinity, pH, and E in estuary regions adjacent to the industrial city can more significantly facilitate the proliferation and propagation of ARGs in the sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116980DOI Listing
March 2021

Management of Plastic Bronchitis Using α-Chymotrypsin: A Novel Treatment Modality.

Cureus 2021 Feb 25;13(2):e13551. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Emergency, The Affiliated Children's Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, CHN.

Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a rare pediatric respiratory disease, characterized by the formation of obstructive casts in the bronchial tract that causes partial or extensive airway obstruction, leading to obstructive dyspnea mimicking a foreign body in the trachea. The clinical presentation and radiologic examination of plastic bronchitis are nonspecific, and the confirmation of the diagnosis is only possible via the direct observation of the casts via bronchoscopy or expectorating. So far, no effective treatment for PB has been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials, and presently, there are no reports regarding the use of α-chymotrypsin as a treatment modality. α-Chymotrypsin, as a mucolytic agent, liquefies the mucus and decreases the viscosity of sputum by acting directly on mucus. Here, we report a PB case that is associated with influenza A virus infection, developing in an eight-year-old boy. The diagnosis of PB was confirmed via cast observation following its removal via bronchoscopy. Specifically, the casts were successfully removed via bronchoscopy coupled with endotracheal instilled α-chymotrypsin. Thereafter, the patient gradually improved and successfully extubated. In the clinical follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic and without recurrent casts. Therefore, α-chymotrypsin may be one modality of treatment to remove casts in PB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001215PMC
February 2021

Hope and symptom burden of women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy: A cross-sectional study.

J Clin Nurs 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Nursing, Jilin University, Jilin, China.

Aim: This research aimed to explore the level of hope and symptom burden of breast cancer women undergoing chemotherapy, and predictive factors of hope were also investigated.

Background: Chemotherapy brings physical and psychological stress to breast cancer patients. As an effective coping strategy, hope gives them the courage to overcome difficulties and improve prognosis and survival. Therefore, efforts are needed to raise hope.

Design/methods: A total of 450 women who were undergoing breast cancer chemotherapy participated in this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data, disease characteristics, and measures of hope and symptom burden were collected using questionnaires. Hope was assessed using the validated Herth Hope Index, and the previously validated Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale was used to assess symptom burden. This paper adhered to the STROBE guidelines.

Results: Chinese breast cancer chemotherapy women hope average scores of 30.15 ± 4.82 were in the medium range of the Hearth Hope Index as specified by Herth to be 24-35. Patients with age ≤45, religious beliefs and lighter symptom burden have a higher level of hope. These variables explained a total of 22.9% of the variation in hope.

Conclusions: The level of hope for women undergoing breast cancer chemotherapy still needs to be further improved. Symptom burden can negatively predict hope.

Relevance To Clinical Practice: If nurses can decrease breast cancer chemotherapy women symptom burden, there is an impact on increasing levels of hope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15759DOI Listing
March 2021

MiniCAFE, a CRISPR/Cas9-based compact and potent transcriptional activator, elicits gene expression in vivo.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Cancer Research Institute, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

CRISPR-mediated gene activation (CRISPRa) is a promising therapeutic gene editing strategy without inducing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, in vivo implementation of these CRISPRa systems remains a challenge. Here, we report a compact and robust miniCas9 activator (termed miniCAFE) for in vivo activation of endogenous target genes. The system relies on recruitment of an engineered minimal nuclease-null Cas9 from Campylobacter jejuni and potent transcriptional activators to a target locus by a single guide RNA. It enables robust gene activation in human cells even with a single DNA copy and is able to promote lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through activation of longevity-regulating genes. As proof-of-concept, delivered within an all-in-one adeno-associated virus (AAV), miniCAFE can activate Fgf21 expression in the liver and regulate energy metabolism in adult mice. Thus, miniCAFE holds great therapeutic potential against human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab174DOI Listing
March 2021

Metabolism of Dendritic Cells in Tumor Microenvironment: For Immunotherapy.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:613492. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of an antigen-presenting cell which undertake a job on capturing antigens coming from pathogens or tumors and presenting to T cells for immune response. The metabolism of DCs controls its development, polarization, and maturation processes and provides energy support for its functions. However, the immune activity of DCs in tumor microenvironment (TME) is inhibited generally. Abnormal metabolism of tumor cells causes metabolic changes in TME, such as hyperglycolysis, lactate and lipid accumulation, acidification, tryptophan deprivation, which limit the function of DCs and lead to the occurrence of tumor immune escape. Combined metabolic regulation with immunotherapy can strengthen the ability of antigen-presentation and T cell activation of DCs, improve the existing anti-tumor therapy, and overcome the defects of DC-related therapies in the current stage, which has great potential in oncology therapy. Therefore, we reviewed the glucose, lipid, and amino acid metabolism of DCs, as well as the metabolic changes after being affected by TME. Together with the potential metabolic targets of DCs, possible anti-tumor therapeutic pathways were summarized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.613492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959811PMC
February 2021

The Significance of HOXC11 and LSH in Survival Prediction in Gastric Adenocarcinoma.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 1;14:1517-1529. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education; Department of Pathology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410078, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the most important causes of cancer death and lacks effective treatment. Eighty-four gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples along with the clinical information were collected. After analyzing the expression of HOXC11 and LSH in the gastric adenocarcinoma tissues, we explored the prognosis of patients and its correlation with clinical characteristics. Both HOXC11 and LSH were over-expressed in MKN-45 cell lines to verify the effect of high expression of HOXC11 and LSH on GAC.

Methods: The expression of HOXC11 and LSH in 84 cases with gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) was detected via immunohistochemistry, including 17 cases in stage I, 7 cases in stage II, 27 cases in stage III and 33 cases in stage IV. The expression levels of HOXC11 and LSH, and the clinicopathological characteristics of the samples, were also studied. Cell proliferation, migration, cell cycle and apoptosis assays were utilized for demonstrating malignancy of HOXC11 and LSH over-expressed cells.

Results: Among 84 GAC pathological samples, 12 high HOXC11 expression, and 72 showed low expression; 54.8% (46/84) high LSH expression, and 45.2% (38/84) exhibited low expression. Survival analysis of the Kaplan-Meier plotter gastric cancer datasets showed that subjects with low expression of HOXC11 and LSH had a longer survival time, with a median survival time of 40.2 and 36.4 months, while the subjects with high HOXC11 and LSH expression were only 20.5 and 10 months, respectively. Meanwhile, HOXC11 and LSH over-expressed cells showed a stronger proliferous and migratory ability, and a sped up cell cycle.

Conclusion: The high expression level of HOXC11 and LSH both manifested the poor survival prognosis of GAC patients, and more pronounced malignant phenotype in GAC cells indicated that HOXC11 and LSH can be a strong predictive factor of inferior disease-free survival. From this, we can consider that HOXC11 and LSH both have significant status in GAC stage and survival prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S273195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935444PMC
March 2021

STAT3 Inhibitor Napabucasin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Cooperates with Proteasome Inhibition in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells.

Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Tianjin Key Laboratory on Technologies Enabling Development of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnostics, School of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070. China.

Background: Ovarian cancer is a disease with the highest mortality in gynecologic malignancies. Activation of STAT3 pathway is well known to be associated with tumor progression and metastasis in a number of cancers including ovarian cancer. Therefore, STAT3 may be an ideal target for ovarian cancer treatment.

Objective: The present study aims to determine the antitumor activity of STAT3 inhibitor Napabucasin as a single agent or in combination with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 in ovarian cancer cells.

Methods: MTT was performed to determine the anti-proliferative effect of Napabucasin on ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. The involved anti-tumor mechanism was explored by flow cytometry, qRT-PCR and western blot. MDC staining and tandem mRFP-GFP-LC3 fluorescence microscopy were used to analyze the autophagy inducing capability of Napabucasin with or without MG-132. The combinational anticancer effect of Napabucasin and MG-132 was evaluated according to Chou and Talalay's method (1984).

Results: Napabucasin showed obvious tumor-inhibitory effects against SKOV-3 cells. Treatment by Napabucasin arrested cell cycle progression in G2/M phase. Mechanistically, elevated expression of p21 may contribute to the blockade of cell cycle. Moreover, we demonstrated that Napabucasin induced autophagy in SKOV-3 cells by using various assays including MDC staining, autophagic flux examination, and detection of the autophagy markers. In addition, combination of Napabucaisin with MG-132 exhibited significant synergistic anti-proliferative effect, probably by inducing apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. The two compounds induced pro-survival autophagies, and co-treated with autophagy inhibiter might further enhance their antitumor effects.

Conclusion: Napabucasin alone or in combination with MG-132 might be promising treatment strategies for ovarian cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1574892816666210224155403DOI Listing
February 2021

Bacillus coagulans 13002 and fructo-oligosaccharides improve the immunity of mice with immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide through modulating intestinal-derived and fecal microbiota.

Food Res Int 2021 Feb 16;140:109793. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, 381 Wushan Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510641, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

This study aims to evaluate the effects of probiotic Bacillus coagulans 13,002 (BCS) and prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on mice treated with the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CTX). We found that both BCS and FOS, especially BCS, significantly alleviated CTX-induced injury by modulating intestinal-derived and fecal microbiota. BCS and BCS + FOS increased serum immunoglobulin levels, which were reduced by CTX. In addition, BCS and BCS + FOS upregulated IFN-γ and IL-4, which protect mucosal barriers and the balance of Th1/Th2. BCS promoted the growth of some beneficial bacteria, such as Bacteroides, Coprococcus, Enterococcus, Oscillospira, and Ruminococcus in mouse gut. In addition, BCS + FOS inhibited the growth of several harmful bacteria, including Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Corynebacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Sporosarcina, and Staphylococcus. Furthermore, BCS potentially improved the growth of Anaerotruncus bacteria, which can promote the production of butyrate acids. In summary, according our results suggest that BCS and FOS improved the immunity of mice with immunosuppression induced by CTX through modulating intestinal-derived and fecal microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109793DOI Listing
February 2021

Detection of nucleotides in hydrated ssDNA via 2D h-BN nanopore with ionic-liquid/salt-water interface.

Electrophoresis 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, USA.

Accomplishing slow translocation speed with high sensitivity has been the most critical mission for solid-state nanopore (SSN) device to electrically detect nucleobases in ssDNA. In this study, a method to detect nucleobases of ssDNA using a 2D SSN is introduced by considerably reducing the translocation speed and effectively increasing its sensitivity. The ultra-thin titanium dioxide coated hexagonal boron nitride nanopore was fabricated, along with an ionic-liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate/2.0 M KCl aqueous (cis/trans) interface, for increasing both the spatial and the temporal resolutions. As the ssDNA molecules entered the nanopore, a brief surge of electrical conductivity occurred, which was followed by multiple resistive pulses from nucleobases during the translocation of ssDNA and another brief current surge flagging the exit of the molecule. The continuous detection of nucleobases using a 2D SSN device is a novel achievement: the water molecules bound to ssDNA increased the molecular conductivity and amplified electrical signals during the translocation. Along with the experiment, computational simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics are presented to explain the pivotal role of water molecules bound to ssDNA to detect nucleobases using a 2D SSN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.202000356DOI Listing
February 2021

Perioperative comparison of video-assisted thoracic surgery and open lobectomy for pT1-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients in China: a multi-center propensity score-matched analysis.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Jan;10(1):402-414

Department of Thoracic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Compared with open surgery, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has innovated the concept of the minimally invasive approach for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in past decades. This present study aimed to compare the perioperative and lymph node dissection outcomes between VATS lobectomy and open lobectomy for pathological stage T1 (pT1) NSCLC patients from both surgical and oncologic perspectives.

Methods: This was a retrospective multicenter study. Patients who underwent surgical resection for pT1 NSCLC between January 2014 and September 2017 were retrospectively reviewed from 10 thoracic surgery centers in China. Perioperative and lymph node dissection outcomes of pT1 NSCLC patients who accepted VATS or open lobectomies were compared by propensity score matching (PSM) analysis.

Results: Of the 11,360 patients who underwent surgery for pT1 NSCLC, 7,726 were enrolled based on the selection criteria, including 1,222 cases of open lobectomies and 6,504 cases of VATS lobectomies. PSM resulted in 1,184 cases of open lobectomies and 1,184 cases of VATS lobectomies being well matched by common prognostic variables, including age, sex, and surgical side. VATS lobectomy led to better perioperative outcomes, including less blood loss (133.5±200.1 233.3±318.4, P<0.001), lower blood transfusion rate (2.4% 6.4%, P<0.001), shorter postoperative hospital stay (8.6±5.7 10.1±5.1, P<0.001), less chest drainage volume (1,109.5±854.0 1,324.1±948.8, P<0.001), and less postoperative complications (4.9% 8.2%, P<0.001). However, open lobectomy had better lymph node dissection outcomes than VATS, with increased lymph node dissection numbers (16.1±9.4 13.7±7.7, P<0.001) and more positive lymph nodes being dissected (1.5±3.9 1.1±2.5, P=0.002). Compared with VATS, open lobectomy harvested more lymph node stations (5.5±1.9 5.2±1.8, P=0.001), including more pathological N2 (pN2) lymph node stations (3.4±1.4 3.1±1.3, P<0.001).

Conclusions: VATS lobectomy was associated with better perioperative outcomes, such as less blood loss, lower blood transfusion rate, shorter postoperative hospital stay, less chest drainage volume and less postoperative complications. Open lobectomy has improved lymph node dissection outcomes, as more lymph nodes and positive lymph nodes were dissected for pT1 NSCLC patients during surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-20-1132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867771PMC
January 2021

Protective effects of three structurally similar polyphenolic compounds against oxidative damage and their binding properties to human serum albumin.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 14;349:129118. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Function and Application of Biological Macromolecular Structures, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China. Electronic address:

Brazilin (Bra), hematoxylin (Hto) and hematein (Hte) are structurally similar polyphenols having rich biological activities, but their antioxidant ability has not been well studied. Here, their protective ability against human serum albumin (HSA) oxidative degradation were investigated using 2,2'-Azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH), NaClO and Fenton like reactions methods. The results indicated that polyphenols inhibited the oxidative injuries of HSA in the order: Hto > Bra > Hte. Additionally, the biological effects of polyphenols were mostly influenced by their binding to protein. Therefore, the structure-affinity relationships of polyphenols binding to HSA were also explored. Fluorescence experiments indicated that polyphenols bound to HSA through static quenching mechanism. Furthermore, some conformational changes of HSA could be observed in the presence of polyphenols. Altogether, molecular structure of polyphenols played a significant role in their protective effect against HSA oxidative damage and binding ability, which provided fundamental insights into their application as health care foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129118DOI Listing
July 2021

[Clinical strategies to prevent falls].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Feb;35(2):108-111

With the aging of population structure, the age-related balance dysfunction increases gradually, and the injuries related fall are increasing, which cause a serious social and economic burden. In addition, dizziness or vertigo is very common clinically, and these patients also have a higher risk of falling. In order to reduce the incidence of falls, targeted prevention measures are urgently needed. In this paper, the risk assessment, preventive measures and rehabilitation strategies of falls are systematically expounded, it is hoped that it will be helpful for the prevention and treatment of falls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.02.004DOI Listing
February 2021

Long non-coding RNA LINC02446 suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of bladder cancer cells by binding with EIF3G and regulating the mTOR signalling pathway.

Cancer Gene Ther 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Urology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Accumulating evidence has been obtained to understand the mechanisms of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in bladder cancer (BC). However, due to the recurrence and metastasis of BC, searching for lncRNAs that are related to prognosis and metastasis and exploring the pathogenesis of BC might provide new insights for the treatment of BC. In the present study, we used the TCGA and GEO databases and identified LINC02446 as associated with prognosis and differentially expressed in bladder cancer tissues and para-cancer tissues. Then, we found that LINC02446 could affect the proliferation, migration and invasion of BC cells. Additionally, we found that LINC02446 could bind to the EIF3G protein and regulate the protein stability of EIF3G and then inhibit the mTOR signalling pathway. In summary, all these findings show that LINC02446 might serve as a promising therapeutic target for BC intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41417-020-00285-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Differential protein metabolism and regeneration in hypertrophic diaphragm and atrophic gastrocnemius muscles in hibernating Daurian ground squirrels.

Exp Physiol 2021 Apr 19;106(4):958-971. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Animal Conservation, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710069, China.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? The aim was to investigate whether diaphragm hypertrophy and gastrocnemius atrophy during hibernation of Daurian ground squirrels involve differential regulation of protein metabolism and regeneration. What is the main finding and its importance? We clarified the differences in protein metabolism and muscle regenerative potential in the diaphragm and gastrocnemius of hibernating ground squirrels, reflecting the different adaptability of muscles.

Abstract: Are differences in the regulation of protein metabolism and regeneration involved in the different phenotypic adaptation mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy and atrophy in hibernators? Two fast-type muscles (diaphragm and gastrocnemius) in summer active and hibernating Daurian ground squirrels were selected to detect changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and protein expression indicative of protein synthesis metabolism (protein expression of P-Akt, P-mTORC1, P-S6K1 and P-4E-BP1), protein degradation metabolism (MuRF1, atrogin-1, calpain-1, calpain-2, calpastatin, desmin, troponin T, Beclin1 and LC3-II) and muscle regeneration (MyoD, myogenin and myostatin). In the hibernation group compared with the summer active group, the CSA of the diaphragm muscle increased significantly by 26.1%, whereas the CSA of the gastrocnemius muscle decreased significantly by 20.4%. Our study also indicated that increased protein synthesis, decreased protein degradation and increased muscle regenerative potential contributed to diaphragm muscle hypertrophy, whereas decreased protein synthesis, increased protein degradation and decreased muscle regenerative potential contributed to gastrocnemius muscle atrophy. In conclusion, the differences in muscle regeneration and regulatory pattern of protein metabolism might contribute to the different adaptive changes observed in the diaphragm and gastrocnemius muscles of ground squirrels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP089187DOI Listing
April 2021

Improved procedure for Brown's Class III maxillary reconstruction with composite deep circumflex iliac artery flap using computer-assisted technique.

Comput Assist Surg (Abingdon) 2021 Dec;26(1):9-14

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Reconstruction of Brown's Class III maxillary defect can be challenging due to the complex geometry of maxilla. We aimed to introduce an improved method for maxillary reconstruction with a composite deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap aided by virtual surgical planning and intraoperative navigation. A 27-year-old woman diagnosed with left maxillary fibromyxoma was admitted to our institution in December 2018. Pre-operative facial and iliac computed tomography data were obtained for virtual surgical planning. Personalized cutting template, tooth-supported surgical guide, and rapid prototype model with reconstructed orbital floor were printed for pre-operative preparation. Surgery was completely guided by the intraoperative navigation system. The root mean square estimate of the reconstructed area was 3.68 mm. The average errors measured on the lateral and medial DCIA segments were 0.61 and 0.85 mm, respectively. Application of virtual surgical planning and intraoperative navigation could potentially enhance the reconstruction outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/24699322.2021.1876168DOI Listing
December 2021

Efficacy of computed tomography features in the differentiation of basal cell adenoma and Warthin tumor in the parotid gland.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2021 Jan 2:4540. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify computed tomography (CT) features that differentiate basal cell adenoma (BCA) from Warthin tumor (WT).

Materials And Methods: Histopathologically confirmed parotid gland tumors (57 BCAs and 83 WTs) were retrospectively reviewed. CT images were evaluated to determine location, distribution, cyst formation, size, the new vessel facing sign (VFS), and enhancement behavior including the CT attenuation of solid portions of the tumor (AST), the vessel near the tumor (AVT), and maxillary artery (AMA) on early stage 2-phase contrast CT. Tumor CT attenuation ratios (AST/AVT and AST/AMA) were calculated. Chi-square tests, independent t-tests, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were conducted.

Results: Male:female ratio, patient age, posteroinferior location, tumor size, and presence of VFS were significantly lower for BCA than WT. The average AST/AVT was significantly higher for BCA than WT. The threshold value for AST/AVT on early stage 2-phase contrast CT was 0.72 between BCA and WT, and sensitivity and specificity were 94.7% and 98.8%, respectively, as calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis.

Conclusion: Gender ratio, age, location, size, presence of VFS, and AST/AVT value may help to differentiate BCA from WT in parotid glands on CT examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2020.12.022DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparative study of inhibition mechanisms of structurally different flavonoid compounds on α-glucosidase and synergistic effect with acarbose.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 9;347:129056. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Function and Application of Biological Macromolecular Structures, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China. Electronic address:

Flavonoid compounds have anti-diabetic activity, which can control blood glucose levels by inhibiting α-glucosidase activity. In this paper, the inhibition mechanisms between four flavonoid compounds and α-glucosidase were studied by multispectroscopic methods and molecular docking. The results showed that the inhibitory activities of flavonoid compounds were higher than that of acarbose, and the sequence of inhibition effect was scutellarein > nepetin > apigenin > hispidulin > acarbose. Also, the synergistic effects of flavonoid compounds combined with acarbose on inhibiting α-glucosidase activity were observed. The fluorescence results showed that flavonoid compounds combined with α-glucosidase to form a stable complex. And the spectral analysis indicated that the microenvironmental and secondary structure of α-glucosidase were changed. The present study demonstrated that the molecular structure of flavonoid compounds played an important role in the inhibition process, namely, scutellarein with more hydroxyl groups on the A-ring might serve as the most effective α-glucosidase inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129056DOI Listing
June 2021

Globally-Optimal Contrast Maximisation for Event Cameras.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Jan 20;PP. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Event cameras are bio-inspired sensors that perform well in challenging illumination conditions and have high temporal resolution. However, their concept is fundamentally different from traditional frame-based cameras. The pixels of an event camera operate independently and asynchronously. They measure changes of the logarithmic brightness and return them in the highly discretised form of time-stamped events indicating a relative change of a certain quantity since the last event. New models and algorithms are needed to process this kind of measurements. The present work looks at several motion estimation problems with event cameras. The flow of the events is modelled by a general homographic warping in a space-time volume, and the objective is formulated as a maximisation of contrast within the image of warped events. Our core contribution consists of deriving globally optimal solutions to these generally non-convex problems, which removes the dependency on a good initial guess plaguing existing methods. Our methods rely on branch-and-bound optimisation and employ novel and efficient, recursive upper and lower bounds derived for six different contrast estimation functions. The practical validity of our approach is demonstrated by a successful application to three different event camera motion estimation problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3053243DOI Listing
January 2021

Investigation on the binding interaction of rhodamine B with human serum albumin: effect of metal ions.

J Environ Sci Health B 2021 17;56(3):259-271. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

School of Life Sciences, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Function and Application of Biological Macromolecular Structures, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

The binding of rhodamine B (RB) to human serum albumin (HSA) in the absence and presence of Cu or Fe under simulated physiological conditions was studied by using various biophysical methods for the first time. The results showed that the interaction between HSA and RB could spontaneously result in the formation of HSA-RB complex (namely, static quenching mechanism) through hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds irrespective of the absence or presence of metal ions. The presence of metal ions led to the reduction of binding affinity of RB to HSA compared with no metal ions, which might result from the conformational change of HSA caused by the binding of metal ions. Furthermore, the analysis of UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence experiments demonstrated that the addition of RB induced conformational and microenvironmental changes of HSA without and with metal ions. In short, this work will be helpful to in-depth understand the transport mechanism and biological effect of RB and the effect of metal ions on the interaction of HSA-RB .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2021.1873030DOI Listing
January 2021

Complete mitochondrial genome and the phylogenetic position of the unicorn cod ().

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Nov 5;4(2):3836-3837. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Zhejiang Mariculture Research Institute, Wenzhou, P. R. China.

The mitochondrial genome of was elucidated and analyzed for the first time in this study. It had a double-stranded DNA molecule with 17,319 bp in length and was made up of 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes), and one control region. Phylogenetic analysis of 18 included species indicated that was clustered closely with and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1682482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707566PMC
November 2019

Lindera aggregata intervents adenine-induced chronic kidney disease by mediating metabolism and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Feb 16;134:111098. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Ningbo Research Institute of Zhejiang University, No. 1, Qianhu South Road, Ningbo 315100, PR China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Lindera aggregata is a main Chinese herb of ancient prescriptions Suoquan pill applied for treating the chronic kidney disease (CKD). A large number of application histories of Lindera aggregata in the treatment of CKD have been recorded in Chinese traditional medical literature. The previous reports revealed that Lindera aggregata can treat CKD.

Methods: Rats were randomly divided into control, model, Huangkui,Lindera aggregata ethanol extract (LEE) and Lindera aggregata water extract (LWE) groups. hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to detect the pathology of kidney. The levels of serum creatinine (Scr), serum Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urine protein (UP), kidney index(KI) were evaluated. The UPLC - QTOF/MS were applied to probe the metabolic profile. Furthermore, Indoxyl sulfate-induced human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cell model was built to determine the expression levels of pathogenesis-related proteins.

Results: The results demonstrated that LEE and LWE significantly inhibited the rebound in Scr, BUN, NGAL, UP and KI in models, except for the effect of LWE at low dose (LWE-L) and LEE at low dose (LEE-L) on KI and the effect of LWE-H at high dose (LWE-H) and LEE-L on BUN and NGAL. Moreover,Lindera aggregata extracts alleviated renal tubular dilatation, interstitial fibrosis and interstitial inflammation. By analysis, twenty-eight metabolites were related to CKD. After intervention of Lindera aggregata extracts, some metabolites approach to a normal-like level, such as Indoxyl sulfate. These metabolites are mainly involved in tryptophan, fatty acid, glycerophospholipid, tyrosine and arachidonic acid metabolic pathways. Furthermore, Lindera aggregata extracts mediate the expression of smad2, smad3, smad7 and TGF-β in Indoxyl sulfate-induced HK-2 cell.

Conclusions: Lindera aggregata extracts can mitigate adenine-induced CKD by modulating the metabolic profile and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, providing important supports for developing protective agent of Lindera aggregata for CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111098DOI Listing
February 2021

Integrated analysis of the transcriptome, metabolome and analgesic effect provide insight into potential applications of different parts of Lindera aggregata.

Food Res Int 2020 12 16;138(Pt B):109799. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 311400, China. Electronic address:

Lindera aggregata(L. aggregata) is a wild shrub growing in the forests of Southeast Asia, whose main bioactive constituents are isoquinoline alkaloids. They are widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. The studies on the metabolites and biosynthesis pathways inL. aggregata remain poorly understood. Nine isoquinoline alkaloid compounds were identified by UPLC Triple TOF-MS/MS in this study. Except for N-methyllaurotetanine, most isoquinoline alkaloid compounds were widely distributed in various parts ofL. aggregata and accumulated preferentially in roots than in leaves. Transcriptome data showed that several isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic genes, such as TyrAT, PPO, TDC, and SOMT, were identified to play important roles in generating differential metabolites in roots and leaves ofL. aggregata. Concentration-dependent analgesic effects and toxic effects of them were demonstrated in zebrafish experiments, and the overall ranking was JRAL > TRAL > LAL. The results of this study would provide useful information for the synthesis mechanisms of isoquinoline alkaloids inL. aggregata, and provide valuable information for the application of traditional non-medicinal parts ofL. aggregata in food and pharmaceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109799DOI Listing
December 2020

A real-time system using deep learning to detect and track ureteral orifices during urinary endoscopy.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jan 12;128:104104. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Institute of Medical Robotics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: To automatically identify and locate various types and states of the ureteral orifice (UO) in real endoscopy scenarios, we developed and verified a real-time computer-aided UO detection and tracking system using an improved real-time deep convolutional neural network and a robust tracking algorithm.

Methods: The single-shot multibox detector (SSD) was refined to perform the detection task. We trained both the SSD and Refined-SSD using 447 resectoscopy images with UO and tested them on 818 ureteroscopy images. We also evaluated the detection performance on endoscopy video frames, which comprised 892 resectoscopy frames and 1366 ureteroscopy frames. UOs could not be identified with certainty because sometimes they appeared on the screen in a closed state of peristaltic contraction. To mitigate this problem and mimic the inspection behavior of urologists, we integrated the SSD and Refined-SSD with five different tracking algorithms.

Results: When tested on 818 ureteroscopy images, our proposed UO detection network, Refined-SSD, achieved an accuracy of 0.902. In the video sequence analysis, our detection model yielded test sensitivities of 0.840 and 0.922 on resectoscopy and ureteroscopy video frames, respectively. In addition, by testing Refined-SSD on 1366 ureteroscopy video frames, the sensitivity achieved a value of 0.922, and a lowest false positive per image of 0.049 was obtained. For UO tracking performance, our proposed UO detection and tracking system (Refined-SSD integrated with CSRT) performed the best overall. At an overlap threshold of 0.5, the success rate of our proposed UO detection and tracking system was greater than 0.95 on 17 resectoscopy video clips and achieved nearly 0.95 on 40 ureteroscopy video clips.

Conclusions: We developed a deep learning system that could be used for detecting and tracking UOs in endoscopy scenarios in real time. This system can simultaneously maintain high accuracy. This approach has great potential to serve as an excellent learning and feedback system for trainees and new urologists in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2020.104104DOI Listing
January 2021

A Temporal Examination of Cytoplasmic Ca Levels, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca Levels, and Ca -Handling-Related Proteins in Different Skeletal Muscles of Hibernating Daurian Ground Squirrels.

Front Physiol 2020 21;11:562080. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Animal Conservation, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, China.

To explore the possible mechanism of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the maintenance of cytoplasmic calcium (Ca) homeostasis, we studied changes in cytoplasmic Ca, SR Ca, and Ca-handling proteins of slow-twitch muscle (soleus, SOL), fast-twitch muscle (extensor digitorum longus, EDL), and mixed muscle (gastrocnemius, GAS) in different stages in hibernating Daurian ground squirrels (). Results showed that the level of cytoplasmic Ca increased and SR Ca decreased in skeletal muscle fiber during late torpor (LT) and inter-bout arousal (IBA), but both returned to summer active levels when the animals aroused from and re-entered into torpor (early torpor, ET), suggesting that intracellular Ca is dynamic during hibernation. The protein expression of ryanodine receptor1 (RyR1) increased in the LT, IBA, and ET groups, whereas the co-localization of calsequestrin1 (CSQ1) and RyR1 in GAS muscle decreased in the LT and ET groups, which may increase the possibility of RyR1 channel-mediated Ca release. Furthermore, calcium pump (SR Ca-ATPase 1, SERCA1) protein expression increased in the LT, IBA, and ET groups, and the signaling pathway-related factors of SERCA activity [i.e., β-adrenergic receptor2 protein expression (in GAS), phosphorylation levels of phospholamban (in GAS), and calmodulin kinase2 (in SOL)] all increased, suggesting that these factors may be involved in the up-regulation of SERCA1 activity in different groups. The increased protein expression of Ca-binding proteins CSQ1 and calmodulin (CaM) indicated that intracellular free Ca-binding ability also increased in the LT, IBA, ET, and POST groups. In brief, changes in cytoplasmic and SR Ca concentrations, SR RyR1 and SERCA1 protein expression levels, and major RyR1 and SERCA1 signaling pathway-related factors were unexpectedly active in the torpor stage when metabolic functions were highly inhibited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.562080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609816PMC
October 2020

The performance of the alarmin HMGB1 in pediatric diseases: From lab to clinic.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Mar 2;9(1):8-30. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Introduction: The ubiquitously expressed nonhistone nuclear protein high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) has different functions related to posttranslational modifications and cellular localization. In the nucleus, HMGB1 modulates gene transcription, replication and DNA repair as well as determines chromosomal architecture. When the post-transcriptional modified HMGB1 is released into the extracellular space, it triggers several physiological and pathological responses and initiates innate immunity through interacting with its reciprocal receptors (i.e., TLR4/2 and RAGE). The effect of HMGB1-mediated inflammatory activation on different systems has received increasing attention. HMGB1 is now considered to be an alarmin and participates in multiple inflammation-related diseases. In addition, HMGB1 also affects the occurrence and progression of tumors. However, most studies involving HMGB1 have been focused on adults or mature animals. Due to differences in disease characteristics between children and adults, it is necessary to clarify the role of HMGB1 in pediatric diseases.

Methods And Results: Through systematic database retrieval, this review aimed to first elaborate the characteristics of HMGB1 under physiological and pathological conditions and then discuss the clinical significance of HMGB1 in the pediatric diseases according to different systems.

Conclusions: HMGB1 plays an important role in a variety of pediatric diseases and may be used as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for new strategies for the prevention and treatment of pediatric diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860603PMC
March 2021

Heavy shackles: The experience of symptom distress and coping behaviors of Chinese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Nurs Health Sci 2020 Dec 16;22(4):1177-1185. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exhibit various symptoms, some of which can negatively affect their daily lives. Thus, they may adopt coping behaviors to improve their condition. This qualitative descriptive study investigated symptom distress and coping behaviors among 19 Chinese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using individual, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. We identified the following three themes for the patients' symptom distress: distressing symptoms, inescapable imprisonment, and no choice other than being a burden to the family. The various coping behaviors of the patients were categorized into the following three themes: struggle during the medical treatment process, careful maintenance of daily life, and coping with negative emotions. Although all patients experienced physical and psychological distress, they displayed a strong desire to improve their lives and health. By recognizing the patients' symptom distress and coping behaviors, tailored interventions could be developed to improve the quality of their lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nhs.12790DOI Listing
December 2020

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy combined with multiple drilling and intramedullary drug injection for treating early-stage Femur Head Necrosis: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Oct;99(40):e22598

Department of Orthopedics, Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu.

Background: Early diagnosis and treatment of the osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), a refractory disease, is imperative to prevent femoral head collapse; however, the existing solutions remain controversial. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) combined with multiple drilling and intramedullary drug injection, a novel cocktail therapy, as a randomized controlled trial (RCT) model to postulate an alternative therapy for patients with early-stage ONFH.

Methods: Femoral head necrosis patients aged 20 to 60 years with stage ARCO I-II were recruited. One hundred twenty eligible participants were randomized into four groups in a 1:1:1:1 ratio: extracorporeal shock wave therapy combined with multiple drilling and intramedullary drug injection (group EMI), extracorporeal shock wave therapy (group E), multiple drilling combined with intramedullary drug injection (group MI), and multiple drilling ("positive" control group; group M). The primary outcomes included effective rate, subchondral collapse rate of the femoral head, lesion size, and grade of bone marrow edema. Secondary outcomes included the Harris Hip Score and the visual analog scale. All outcomes were measured at the screening visit (baseline) and at the planned time intervals during treatment and follow-up, and the efficacy was statistically analyzed according to the intention-to-treat sub-populations and per-protocol sub-populations.

Objectives: To examine the clinical efficacy of ESWT combined with multiple drilling and intramedullary drug injection to provide a safe and more effective method for treating early-stage ONFH.

Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR1900020888; Pre-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7535671PMC
October 2020

Quercetin alleviates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by inhibiting microglia-derived oxidative stress and TLR4-mediated inflammation.

Inflamm Res 2020 Dec 18;69(12):1201-1213. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, No. 17 Yongwaizheng Street, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi Province, China.

Objective And Design: Microglia stimulated by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) were treated with quercetin to investigate the effect on oxidative stress and the inflammatory response and to explore whether toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling was involved. In addition, the effect of quercetin on the neurological functions of neonatal mice with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) was examined.

Materials And Subjects: Mouse BV2 microglial cells and postnatal day 7 neonatal mice were used.

Treatment: A predetermined concentration of quercetin was used in cell experiments. Quercetin was injected i.p. (50 mg/kg) at three time points after HI insult: 0, 24, and 48 h.

Methods: Cell viability assay, Western blotting, qRT-RCR, ELISA, HIBI model construction and behavioral tests.

Results: This study first showed that quercetin protected BV2 cells from OGD-induced damage and reversed the changes in microglial oxidative stress-related molecules. Second, quercetin inhibited OGD-induced expression of inflammatory factors in BV2 cells and suppressed TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling. Finally, quercetin was disclosed to be effective in mitigating cerebral infarct volume and cognitive and motor function deficits in HIBI mice.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the neuroprotective effect of quercetin in HIBI mice is partially due to the inhibition of oxidative stress and TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in activated microglia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-020-01402-5DOI Listing
December 2020

Mechanically Strong, Tough, and Shape Deformable Poly(acrylamide--vinylimidazole) Hydrogels Based on Cu Complexation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Sep 15;12(39):44205-44214. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P. R. China.

Shape deformable hydrogels have drawn great attention due to their wide applications as soft actuators. Here we report a novel kind of mechanically strong, tough, and shape deformable poly(acrylamide--vinylimidazole) [poly(AAm--VI)] hydrogel prepared by photoinitiated copolymerization and the followed immersing in a Cu aqueous solution. Strong Cu complexation with imidazole groups dramatically enhances the mechanical properties of the hydrogels, whose tensile strength, elastic modulus, toughness, and fracture energy reach up to 7.7 ± 0.76 MPa, 15.4 ± 1.2 MPa, 23.2 ± 2.5 MJ m, and 22.1 ± 2.3 kJ m, respectively. More impressively, shape deformation (bending) can be easily achieved by coating Cu solution on one side of hydrogel strips. Furthermore, precise control of the shape deformation from 1D to 2D and 2D to 3D can be achieved by adjusting Cu concentration, coating time, region, and one or two side(s) of hydrogel samples. The Cu complexation provides a simple way to simultaneously improve the mechanical properties of hydrogels and enable them with shape deformability. The mechanically strong, tough, and shape deformable hydrogels might be a promising candidate for soft actuators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c13654DOI Listing
September 2020

Probable Evidence of Fecal Aerosol Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a High-Rise Building.

Ann Intern Med 2020 12 1;173(12):974-980. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

The State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China (N.Z.).

Background: The role of fecal aerosols in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been suspected.

Objective: To investigate the temporal and spatial distributions of 3 infected families in a high-rise apartment building and examine the associated environmental variables to verify the role of fecal aerosols.

Design: Epidemiologic survey and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses on throat swabs from the participants; 237 surface and air samples from 11 of the 83 flats in the building, public areas, and building drainage systems; and tracer gas released into bathrooms as a surrogate for virus-laden aerosols in the drainage system.

Setting: A high-rise apartment building in Guangzhou, China.

Participants: 9 infected patients, 193 other residents of the building, and 24 members of the building's management staff.

Measurements: Locations of infected flats and positive environmental samples, and spread of virus-laden aerosols.

Results: 9 infected patients in 3 families were identified. The first family had a history of travel to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epicenter Wuhan, whereas the other 2 families had no travel history and a later onset of symptoms. No evidence was found for transmission via the elevator or elsewhere. The families lived in 3 vertically aligned flats connected by drainage pipes in the master bathrooms. Both the observed infections and the locations of positive environmental samples are consistent with the vertical spread of virus-laden aerosols via these stacks and vents.

Limitation: Inability to determine whether the water seals were dried out in the flats of the infected families.

Conclusion: On the basis of circumstantial evidence, fecal aerosol transmission may have caused the community outbreak of COVID-19 in this high-rise building.

Primary Funding Source: Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province and the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M20-0928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464151PMC
December 2020