Publications by authors named "Xin Liu"

5,586 Publications

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Tetrahydroberberrubine retards heart aging in mice by promoting PHB2-mediated mitophagy.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Pharmacology (the State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research, Ministry of Education), College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150081, China.

Heart aging is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, which in turn induces a variety of cardiovascular diseases. There is still no therapeutic drug to ameliorate cardiac abnormities in heart aging. In this study we investigated the protective effects of berberine (BBR) and its derivative tetrahydroberberrubine (THBru) against heart aging process. Heart aging was induced in mice by injection of D-galactose (D-gal, 120 mg · kg · d, sc.) for 12 weeks. Meanwhile the mice were orally treated with berberine (50 mg · kg · d) or THBru (25, 50 mg · kg · d) for 12 weeks. We showed that BBR and THBru treatment significantly mitigated diastolic dysfunction and cardiac remodeling in D-gal-induced aging mice. Furthermore, treatment with BBR (40 μM) and THBru (20, 40 μM) inhibited D-gal-induced senescence in primary neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro. Overall, THBru exhibited higher efficacy than BBR at the same dose. We found that the levels of mitophagy were significantly decreased during the aging process in vivo and in vitro, THBru and BBR promoted mitophagy with different potencies. We demonstrated that the mitophagy-inducing effects of THBru resulted from increased mRNA stability of prohibitin 2 (PHB2), a pivotal factor during mitophagy, thereby upregulating PHB2 protein expression. Knockdown of PHB2 effectively reversed the antisenescence effects of THBru in D-gal-treated cardiomyocytes. On the contrary, overexpression of PHB2 promoted mitophagy and retarded cardiomyocyte senescence, as THBru did. In conclusion, this study identifies THBru as a potent antiaging medicine that induces PHB2-mediated mitophagy and suggests its clinical application prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-022-00956-wDOI Listing
August 2022

Glycolaldehyde as a Bio-based C1 Building Block for Selective N-Formylation of Secondary Amines.

ChemSusChem 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Leibniz Institut fuer Katalyse e.V., Catalytic Conversion of Renewable Resources, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 29a, 18055, Rostock, GERMANY.

Biomass derived glycolaldehyde was employed as C1 building block for the N-formylation of secondary amines using air as oxidant. The reaction is efficient, highly selective and proceeds under catalyst free conditions. This strategy can be used for the synthesis of of cyclic and acyclic formylamines, including DMF. Mechanistic studies suggest a radical oxidation pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202201264DOI Listing
August 2022

Paclitaxel induces cognitive impairment via necroptosis, decreased synaptic plasticity and M1 polarisation of microglia.

Pharm Biol 2022 Dec;60(1):1556-1565

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Hospital of HeBei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Context: Paclitaxel (PTX) leads to chemotherapy brain (chemo-brain) which is characterised by cognitive impairment. It has been reported that necroptosis is associated with cognitive impairment in some neurodegenerative diseases, but it is not clear whether it is related to the development of chemo-brain.

Objective: To investigate the role of necroptosis and related changes in PTX-induced cognitive impairment.

Materials And Methods: C57bl/6n mice were randomly divided into five groups: control, vehicle, and different concentrations of PTX (6, 8, 10 mg/kg). Two additional groups received pre-treatment with Gdcl3 or PBS through Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection before PTX-treatment. Cognitive function, necroptosis, synaptic plasticity and microglia polarisation were analysed.

Results: PTX (10 mg/kg) induced significant cognitive impairment, accompanied by changes in synaptic plasticity, including decreased density of PSD95 (0.65-fold), BDNF (0.44-fold) and dendritic spines (0.57-fold). PTX induced necroptosis of 53.41% (RIP3) and 61.91% (MLKL) in hippocampal neurons, with high expression of RIP3 (1.58-fold) compared with the control group. MLKL (1.87-fold) exhibited the same trend, reaching a peak on the 14th day. The increased expression of iNOS (1.63-fold) and inflammatory factors such as TNF-α (1.85-fold) and IL-β (1.89-fold) compared to the control group suggests that M1 polarisation of microglia is involved in the process of cognitive impairment. Pre-treatment with Gdcl3 effectively reduced the number of microglia (0.50-fold), inhibited the release of TNF-α (0.73-fold) and IL-β (0.56-fold), and improved cognitive impairment.

Conclusion: We established a stable animal model of PTX-induced cognitive impairment and explored the underlying pathophysiological mechanism. These findings can guide the future treatment of chemo-brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2022.2108064DOI Listing
December 2022

Emerging Potential Therapeutic Targets of Ferroptosis in Skeletal Diseases.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 30;2022:3112388. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, China.

Ferroptosis is a new programmed cell death characterized by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation mediated by iron and inflammation. Since the transcentury realization of ferroptosis as an iron-dependent modality of nonapoptotic cell death in 2012, there has been growing interest in the function of ferroptosis and its relationship to clinical diseases. Recent studies have shown that ferroptosis is associated with multiple diseases, including degenerative diseases, ischemia reperfusion injury, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Cell death induced by ferroptosis has also been related to several skeletal diseases, such as inflammatory arthritis, osteoporosis, and osteoarthritis. Research on ferroptosis can clarify the pathogenesis of skeletal diseases and provide a novel therapeutic target for its treatment. In this review, we summarize current information about the molecular mechanism of ferroptosis and describe its emerging role and therapeutic potential in skeletal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3112388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9356861PMC
August 2022

Quantitative Evaluation of a Cross-Sectional Area of the Fetal Straight Sinus by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Its Clinical Value.

Front Neurol 2022 22;13:875402. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Medical Imaging, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: The intracranial venous system plays an important role in ensuring blood circulation and a stable blood supply to the fetal brain. In the present study, a cross-sectional area of the fetal straight sinus was quantitatively evaluated by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to explore the method's clinical value.

Methods: The clinical and MRI data of 126 normal fetuses in mid-to-late stage pregnancies were retrospectively analyzed. The "dominant" sequence of the fetal straight sinus was selected, and the cross-sectional area of the lumen was measured at each gestational age to obtain the normal range at different ages and to analyze the developmental pattern and characteristics of the fetal straight sinus.

Results: There were statistically significant differences in the cross-sectional area of the fetal straight sinus among different gestational ages ( < 0.05). The cross-sectional area of the fetal straight sinus was positively correlated with gestational age (coefficient of determination = 0.6892, < 0.05). That is, the cross-sectional area of the fetal straight sinus grew with increasing gestational age, and the regression equation was = 0.27 - 2.14 ( < 0.05). Additionally, there were five fetuses with cerebral venous abnormalities, including four with heart failure and one with venous sinus thrombosis.

Conclusion: Quantitative measurement of a cross-sectional area of the fetal straight sinus by MRI enhanced understanding of the anatomical features and developmental pattern of fetal cerebral veins and provided a reference for the clinical diagnosis of related diseases and investigation concerning pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.875402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355316PMC
July 2022

USP25 deficiency exacerbates acute pancreatitis via upregulating TBK1-NF-κB signaling in macrophages.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Chemical Biology Research Center, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325035, China; Affiliated Xiangshan Hospital of Wenzhou Medial University (Xiangshan First People's Hospital Medical and Health Group), Xiangshan, Zhejiang, 315799, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Severe acute pancreatitis can easily lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and death. Macrophages are known to be involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP), and macrophage activation correlates with disease severity. In this study, we examined the role of ubiquitin-specific protease 25 (USP25), a deubiquitinating enzyme and known regulator of macrophages, in the pathogenesis of AP.

Methods: We utilized L-arginine, cerulein, and choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented diet (CDE)-induced models of AP in Usp25 mice and wild-type mice. We also generated bone marrow Usp25 chimeric mice and initiated L-arginine-mediated AP. Primary acinar cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were isolated from wild-type and Usp25 mice to dissect molecular mechanisms.

Results: Our results show that Usp25 deficiency exacerbates pancreatic and lung injury, neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, and systemic inflammatory responses in L-arginine, cerulein, and CDE-induced models of AP. Bone marrow Usp25 chimeric mice challenged with L-arginine shows that Usp25 deficiency in macrophages exaggerates AP by upregulating the TBK1-NF-κB signaling pathway. Similarly, in vitro data confirm that Usp25-deficiency enhances TBK1-NF-κB pathway, leading to increased expression of inflammatory cytokines in BMDMs.

Conclusions: Usp25 deficiency in macrophages enhances TBK1-NF-κB signaling and the induction of inflammatory chemokines and type I interferon-related genes exacerbates pancreatic and lung injury in AP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmgh.2022.07.013DOI Listing
August 2022

Integration of probabilistic exposure assessment and risk characterization for perchlorate in infant formula and supplementary food.

Food Chem Toxicol 2022 Aug 4;168:113347. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, 430023, China; Key Laboratory for Deep Processing of Major Grain and Oil, Ministry of Education, Hubei Key Laboratory for Processing and Transformation of Agricultural Products, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, 430023, China. Electronic address:

Infants are the primary susceptible population to perchlorate exposure-related adverse health effects, while information on their dietary intake of perchlorate via infant food remains limited. This study determined perchlorate in six categories of baby food commodities commonly consumed by 0-36 months infants. A probabilistic approach with Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate perchlorate's daily intake (EDI) considering uncertainty and variability. Results showed that the average perchlorate concentration in infant food ranged from 3.42 to 22.26 μg/kg. The mean (SD) EDIs of perchlorate were 0.42(0.20), 0.62(0.20), and 0.46(0.14) μg/kg-bw/day for 0-6, 7-12, and 13-36-months infants, respectively. Infant formula was the major contributor (34%-74%) to EDIs of perchlorate in all age groups. Probabilistic risk characterization showed the cumulative probability of EDIs exceeding the RfD (0.70 μg/kg-bw/day) were 6.5%, 37.9%, and 4.5% for 0-6, 7-12, and 13-36-months infants, respectively. The cumulative risk of perchlorate exposure from different infant food intake should be noted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2022.113347DOI Listing
August 2022

Risk assessment and dose-effect of co-exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene (BTEXS) on pulmonary function: A cross-sectional study.

Environ Pollut 2022 Aug 3:119894. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 74 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition, and Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 74 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Inhalation is the most frequent route and the lung is the primary damaged organ for human exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and styrene (BTEXS). However, there is limited information on the risk and dose-effect of the BTEXS mixture on pulmonary function, particularly the overall effect. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a petrochemical plant in southern China. Spirometry and cumulative exposure dose (CED) of BTEXS were used to measure lung function and exposure levels for 635 workers in 2020, respectively. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV) were tested and interpreted as percentages to predicted values [FVC or FEV% predicted], and FEV to FVC ratio [FEV/FVC (%)]. We found the reduction in FVC% predicted and the risk of lung ventilation dysfunction (LVD) and its two subtypes (mixed and restrictive ventilation dysfunction, MVD, and MVD) were significantly associated with BTEXS individuals. In addition, pulmonary function damage associated with BTEXS was modified by the smoking status and age. Generalized weighted quantile sum (gWQS) regressions were used to estimate the overall dose-effect on lung function damage induced by the BTEXS mixture. Our results show wqs, an index of weighted quartiles for BTEXS, was potentially associated with the reduction in FVC and FEV% predicted with the coefficients [95% confidence intervals (CI)] between -1.136 (-2.202, -0.070) and -1.230 (-2.265, -0.195). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the wqs index of LVD, MVD, and RVD were 1.362 (1.129, 1.594), 1.323 (1.084, 1.562), and 1.394 (1.096, 1.692), respectively. Furthermore, xylene, benzene, and toluene in the BTEXS mixture potentially contribute to the development of lung function impairment. Our novel findings demonstrated the dose-response relationships between pulmonary function impairment and the BTEXS mixture and disclosed the potential key pollutants in the BTEXS mixture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.119894DOI Listing
August 2022

Rhein promotes the proliferation of keratinocytes by targeting oestrogen receptors for skin ulcer treatment.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2022 Aug 5;22(1):209. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Dermatology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200437, China.

Background: The Sheng-ji Hua-yu (SJHY) formula is a quite effective Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) in the treatment of delayed diabetic wounds. Previous research has shown that the SJHY formula has significant anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects, but the precise mechanism remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of rhein, a compound extracted from SJHY formula, in keratinocytes and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Microscale thermophoresis (MST) technology was used to confirm that rhein binds directly to oestrogen receptors (ERs). Rhein was then used to treat keratinocytes in vitro. Cell cycle and proliferation analysis, Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western-blot were conducted.

Results: Rhein increased the proportion of cells in the S phase of the cell cycle and promoted keratinocyte proliferation. ICI 182,780, an ER inhibitor, was also used to treat keratinocytes. The expression of c-myc mRNA and protein induced by rhein was antagonized by ICI 182,780, indicating that this induction is ER dependent. Intervention with ICI 182,780 had no effect on the upregulation of FosB and JunD, indicating that activator protein 1 (AP-1) members (FosB and JunD) are involved in rhein-induced c-myc mRNA and protein expression but does not require the ER.

Conclusion: The present study found that rhein stimulates keratinocyte proliferation by activating the oestrogen signalling pathway via the oestrogen receptor, which induces the expression of c-myc in collaboration with FosB and JunD, thereby accelerating the process of re-epithelialization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-022-03691-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354312PMC
August 2022

Fast Current-Driven Synthesis of ZIF-Derived Catalyst Layers for High-Performance Zn-Air Battery.

Small 2022 Aug 4:e2202660. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Engines, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, P. R. China.

As a core component, the catalyst layer (CL) is widely used in fuel cell, metal-air battery, and other energy conversion devices. Herein, a highly efficient method for CL preparation via fast current-driven synthesis followed by pyrolysis is proposed. Compared with previously reported fabrication procedures of zeolite imidazolate frameworks (ZIF)-based CLs, this method directly deposits the ZIF precursor onto the conductive substrate in a very short time (≤15 min). The self-supporting CL, converted from ZIF membrane by simple single-step pyrolysis, is assembled with the gas diffusion layer to obtain cathode. Electrochemical tests exhibit a small potential gap (0.83 V) between the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, as well as high performance and excellent stability for Zn-air battery (241 mW cm at 390 mA cm ), due to the unique design of a bi-continuous framework (interconnected pores and long carbon nanotubes) and Co-based active sites. This work may provide new directions for the fast fabrication of non-platinum group metal CLs for metal-air batteries or fuel cell applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202202660DOI Listing
August 2022

PCDH7 knockdown potentiates colon cancer cells to chemotherapy via inducing ferroptosis and changes in autophagy through restraining MEK1/2/ERK/c-Fos axis.

Biochem Cell Biol 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Hainan General Hospital, Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China;

Chemotherapy is a commonly utilized treatment strategy for colon cancer, a prevalent malignancy. The study intends to probe the function and mechanism of protocadherin 7 (PCDH7) in colon cancer. Gain- or loss- of functional assays of PCDH7 were performed. MTT and colony formation assay monitored cell proliferation. Transwell measured migration and invasion. qRT-PCR and western blot verified the profiles of PCDH7 and the MEK1/2/ERK/c-FOS pathway. Western blot was implemented to confirm the profiles of PP1α, MLC2, and p-MLC2 for evaluating the impact of PCDH7 on homotypic cells in cell (hocic) structures. Further, an in-vivo nude mouse model was engineered to figure out the function and mechanism of PCDH7 in tumor cell growth. As indicated by the data, PCDH7 knockdown boosted the cells' sensitivity to chemotherapy. PCDH7 overexpression facilitated their proliferation and invasion, altered autophagy, induced ferroptosis, and hocic, and initiated the profile of the MEK1/2/ERK/c-FOS pathway. MEK1/2/ERK inhibition impaired the inhibitory impact of PCDH7 on colon cancer cells' chemotherapy sensitivity and dampened its pro-cancer function in the cells. In-vivo experiments displayed that PCDH7 overexpression stepped up tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis in colon cancer cells. All in all, the research has discovered that PCDH7 knockdown affects autophagy and induces ferroptosis, hence strengthening colon cancer cells' sensitivity to chemotherapy by repressing the MEK1/2/ERK/c-FOS axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/bcb-2021-0513DOI Listing
August 2022

Activation of the sigma-1 receptor exerts cardioprotection in a rodent model of chronic heart failure by stimulation of angiogenesis.

Mol Med 2022 Aug 3;28(1):87. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, 238 Jiefang Road, Wuchang District, Wuhan, 430060, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Background: Angiogenesis plays a critical role on post-infarction heart failure (PIHF), the presence of which facilitates additional blood supply to maintain the survival of residual cardiomyocytes. The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been substantiated to stimulate angiogenesis, with the effect on a model of PIHF remaining unknown.

Aims: This study aims to investigate the effects of S1R on PIHF and the underlying mechanisms involved.

Methods: Rats were implemented left anterior descending artery ligation followed by rearing for 6 weeks to induce a phenotype of heart failure. Daily intraperitoneal injection of S1R agonist or antagonist for 5 weeks was applied from 2nd week after surgery. The effects exerted by S1R were detected by echocardiography, hemodynamic testing, western blot, Sirius red dyeing, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and fluorescence. We also cultured HUVECs to verify the mechanisms in vitro.

Results: Stimulation of S1R significantly ameliorated the cardiac function resulted from PIHF, in addition to the observation of reduced fibrosis in the peri-infarct region and the apoptosis of residual cardiomyocytes, which were associated with augmentation of microvascular density in peri-infarct region through activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway. We also indicated that suppression of JAK2/STAT3 pathway by specific inhibitor in vitro reversed the pro-angiogenic effects of S1R on HUVECs, which further confirmed that angiogenesis, responsible for PIHF amelioration, by S1R stimulation was in a JAK2/STAT3 pathway-dependent manner.

Conclusion: S1R stimulation improved PIHF-induced cardiac dysfunction and ventricular remodeling through promoting angiogenesis by activating the JAK2/STAT3 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10020-022-00517-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9347174PMC
August 2022

Robot versus fluoroscopyassisted vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

World Neurosurg 2022 Jul 31. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Department of Orthopedics, Clinical Medical College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, China. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the clinical results and complications of robot-assisted (RA) versus fluoroscopy-assisted (FA) percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA) in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs).

Methods: A comprehensive search of online databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, web of science, and Core journals of China National Knowledge Infrastructure were performed to identify related studies reporting the clinical results and complications of RA-versus FA-assisted PVA in the treatment of OVCFs. The rate of bone cement leakage was used to assess the complications. After the surgery, the clinical findings were analyzed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. The surgical time, intraoperative fluoroscopy frequency, and X-ray exposure duration were used to evaluate the perioperative results. Forest plots were constructed to investigate the results.

Results: RA-PVA had a significantly lower bone cement leakage rate, shorter fluoroscopy frequency and shorter radiation exposure time of doctors compared with FA-PVA. However, no significant differences were found between RA-PVA and FA-PVA in operative time and radiation exposure time of patients. Furthermore, no statistically differences were found between the two groups in VAS and ODI scores after surgery.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis showed that RA-PVA can reduce bone cement leakage rate, fluoroscopy frequency and doctors' radiation exposure time. With the advancement of RA technology, we anticipate more high-quality randomized controlled trials of RA versus FA-PVA in the future to validate and update the results of this analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2022.07.083DOI Listing
July 2022

Rotenone, an environmental toxin, causes abnormal methylation of the mouse brain organoid's genome and ferroptosis.

Int J Med Sci 2022 4;19(7):1184-1197. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080, China.

More and more reports have pointed out that rotenone, as an insecticide, has high neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity to livestock and mammals. As a highly physiological correlation system of internal organs, quasi-organs have great potential in the fields of drug toxicity and efficacy test, toxicology research, developmental biology and so on. In this study, brain organs (mBOs) derived from mouse neural stem cells were used to investigate the effects of rotenone on the physiological activity and epigenetic modification of mBOs. At the same time, Rotenone could significantly stimulate the increase of the concentration of LPO, lactic acid and hydroxyl radical in mBOs, and inhibit the expression of neuronal marker Tuj1, CHAT, PAX6 and so on. Further analysis showed that Rotenonem could induce mitochondrial damage in mBOs. The results of qPCR and Western blot showed that Rotenone could up-regulate the expressions of ferroptosis promoting protein p53, Cox2 and so on, while inhibit the expressions of negative regulatory protein of ferroptosis GPX4, FTH1, SLC7A11. In addition, the results of RRBS-Seq sequencing showed that the methylation modification at DMR level in Rotenone-treated mBOs group was significantly higher than that in Ctrl group. The results of KEGG analysis showed that compared with Ctrl, the genes with hypermethylation of promoter and Genebody in Rotenone-treated mBOs were mainly located in the Neuro active ligand-receptor interaction signal transduction pathway. In summary, rotenone can significantly lead to abnormal methylation of mouse brain organs, and lead to the loss of normal physiological function of neurons by inducing ferroptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.74569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339416PMC
August 2022

Choroidal metastasis resembling hemangioma on angiogram as initial manifestation of lung adenocarcinoma.

Int J Ophthalmol 2022 18;15(7):1203-1206. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Eye Center of the 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang Province, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2022.07.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9318081PMC
July 2022

Facile preparation of 3D porous agar-based heteroatom-doped carbon aerogels for high-energy density supercapacitors.

RSC Adv 2022 Jul 21;12(32):20975-20982. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University Qingdao 266071 China

The fabrication of heteroatom-doped porous carbon materials with high electrical conductivity and large specific surface area an environmentally friendly route is critical and challenging. Herein, nitrogen and oxygen co-doped agar porous carbon (APC) was developed for supercapacitors a one-step carbonization method with agar as the raw material and ammonia as the activator and nitrogen source. APC outperformed pectin porous carbon, tamarind porous carbon, and the previously reported carbon-based supercapacitors with a high capacitance retention of 72% even from 0.5 A g to 20 A g and excellent cycling stability in 6 M KOH solution (retained after 10 000 cycles) with a rate of over 98.5%. Furthermore, the APC electrode-based symmetric device exhibited an impressive energy density of 20.4 W h kg and an ultra-high power density of 449 W kg in 1 M NaSO electrolyte together with excellent cycling stability (103.2% primary capacitance retentivity after 10 000 cycles). This study offers a novel method for the synthesis of nitrogen heteroatom-doped hierarchical porous carbon materials for performance-enhanced energy storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra03685aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9302333PMC
July 2022

Continuous infusion versus intermittent infusion of vancomycin in critically ill patients undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a prospective interventional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Aug 2;22(1):667. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Department of Pharmacy, The Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou Municipal Hospital, Suzhou, 215002, China.

Background: A prospective interventional study comparing outcomes in critically ill patients receiving intermittent infusion (II) or continuous infusion (CI) of vancomycin during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) target attainment, therapeutic efficacy and safety among critically ill patients who received CI or II of vancomycin in a prospective interventional trial and to explore the correlations of effluent flow rate (EFR) with PK/PD indices.

Methods: This prospective interventional study was conducted in two independent intensive care units (ICUs) from February 2021 to January 2022. Patients in one ICU were assigned to receive CI (intervention group) of vancomycin, whereas patients in the other ICU were assigned to receive II regimen (control group). The primary outcome was to compare the PK/PD target attainment, including target concentration and target area under the curve over 24 h to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC).

Results: Overall target attainment of PK/PD indices was higher with CI compared with II, irrespective of target concentration (78.7% vs. 40.5%; P < 0.05) or AUC/MIC (53.2% vs. 28.6%; P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in clinical success (72.2% vs. 50.0%; P = 0.183) and microbiological success (83.3% vs. 75.0%, P = 0.681) between the patients treated with CI or II of vancomycin. Adverse reactions occurred at similar rates (0.0% vs. 4.4%; P = 0.462), and mortality between the two modalities was also not significant different (21.7% vs. 17.9%; P = 0.728). Correlation analysis showed a weak to moderately inverse correlation of EFR with observed concentration (r = - 0.3921, P = 0.01) and AUC/MIC (r = - 0.3811, P = 0.013) in the II group, whereas the correlation between EFR and observed concentration (r = - 0.5711, P < 0.001) or AUC/MIC (r = - 0.5458, P < 0.001) in the CI group was stronger.

Conclusion: As compared to II, CI of vancomycin in critically ill patients undergoing CVVH was associated with improved attainment of PK/PD indices. Furthermore, the inverse correlation of PK/PD indices with EFR was stronger among patients treated with CI of vancomycin. Trial registration The trial was registered in the Chinese clinical trial registration center (21/01/2021-No. ChiCTR2100042393).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-022-07618-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9344630PMC
August 2022

BET bromodomain inhibition rescues PD-1-mediated T-cell exhaustion in acute myeloid leukemia.

Cell Death Dis 2022 Aug 2;13(8):671. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of Ministry of Education, Institute of Hematology, Jinan University, 510632, Guangzhou, P. R. China.

Sustained expression of programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) is correlated with the exhaustion of T cells, and blockade of the PD-1 pathway is an effective immunotherapeutic strategy for treating various cancers. However, response rates are limited, and many patients do not achieve durable responses. Thus, it is important to seek additional strategies that can improve anticancer immunity. Here, we report that the bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) inhibitor JQ1 inhibits PD-1 expression in Jurkat T cells, primary T cells, and T-cell exhaustion models. Furthermore, JQ1 dramatically impaired the expression of PD-1 and T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-domain-containing-3 (Tim-3) and promoted the secretion of cytokines in T cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In line with that, BET inhibitor-treated CD19-CAR T and CD123-CAR T cells have enhanced anti-leukemia potency and resistant to exhaustion. Mechanistically, BRD4 binds to the NFAT2 and PDCD1 (encoding PD-1) promoters, and NFAT2 binds to the PDCD1 and HAVCR2 (encoding Tim-3) promoters. JQ1-treated T cells showed downregulated NFAT2, PD-1, and Tim-3 expression. In addition, BET inhibitor suppressed programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and cell growth in AML cell lines and in primary AML cells. We also demonstrated that JQ1 treatment led to inhibition of leukemia progression, reduced T-cell PD-1/Tim-3 expression, and prolonged survival in MLL-AF9 AML mouse model and Nalm6 (B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell)-bearing mouse leukemia model. Taken together, BET inhibition improved anti-leukemia immunity by regulating PD-1/PD-L1 expression, and also directly suppressed AML cells, which provides novel insights on the multiple effects of BET inhibition for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-05123-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9346138PMC
August 2022

Structural insights into auxin recognition and efflux by Arabidopsis PIN1.

Nature 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, MOE Key Laboratory for Membraneless Organelles and Cellular Dynamics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, School of Life Sciences, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

Polar auxin transport (PAT) is unique to plants and coordinates their growth and development. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters with remarkable asymmetrical localizations at the plasma membrane drive PAT, however, their structures and transport mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report three inward-facing conformation structures of the major member of the PIN family, PIN1 in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPIN1): (i) in the apo state, (ii) in the natural auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-bound state, and (iii) in complex with the PAT inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). The transmembrane domain of AtPIN1 shares a conserved NhaA-fold. In the substrate-bound structure, IAA is coordinated through both hydrophobic stacking and hydrogen bonding. The inhibitor NPA competes with IAA for the same site of the intracellular pocket with a much higher affinity. These findings facilitate our understanding of the substrate recognition and transport mechanisms of PINs, and set up a framework for future research on the directional auxin movement, one of the most crucial processes underlying plant development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05143-9DOI Listing
August 2022

Highly selective molecular sieving of - over -1,2-dichloroethene isomers.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Aug 1. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Smart Hybrid Materials Laboratory (SHMs), Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

An intrinsically porous trianglimine macrocycle 1 is reported to display energy-efficient and cost-effective adsorptive properties by selectively separating -1,2-dichloroethene (-DCE) from an equimolar - and -DCE mixture with a purity of over 96%. The selectivity is enhanced by host/guest C-H⋯π intermolecular interactions. Moreover, the macrocycle can be reused many times without any decrease in performance, which further supports the sustainability of using molecular sieves in chemical separation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc03574jDOI Listing
August 2022

Meta-Analysis of Oral Anticoagulants and Adverse Outcomes in Atrial Fibrillation Patients After Intracranial Hemorrhage.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 15;9:961000. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Cardiology, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang Medical College, Nanchang, China.

Background: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is excluded in most anticoagulation randomized clinical trials (RCTs), so oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy is still the conventional treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) after ICH. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness and safety outcomes of OAC for these patients.

Methods: We systematically searched the PubMed and Embase databases up to March 2022 for RCTs and observational studies exploring the effect of OAC in patients with AF after ICH. The effectiveness outcomes included stroke or systemic embolism, ischemic stroke, and all-cause death, whereas the safety outcomes were major bleeding and recurrent ICH. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from each study were pooled using a random-effects model.

Results: A total of 14 studies were included. The OAC therapy that was performed reduced the risks of stroke or systemic embolism (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.53-0.81), ischemic stroke (HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.60-0.82), and all-cause death (HR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.70) but had a higher risk of major bleeding (HR = 1.50, 95% CI 0.94-2.40) and showed no difference in recurrent ICH (HR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.53-1.55) compared to the no OAC therapy. With the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy, a lower risk of stroke or systemic embolism (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.98), all-cause death (HR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.84), and recurrent ICH (HR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.54-0.86) was observed against the use of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) therapy.

Conclusion: The OAC therapy (especially VKA) revealed superior effectiveness in patients with AF after ICH, and the superiority of NOAC was also found, but some related evidence was limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.961000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334654PMC
July 2022

Polylactic acid scaffold with directional porous structure for large-segment bone repair.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jul 29;216:810-819. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430200, China; Key Laboratory of Green Processing and Functional New Textile Materials of Ministry of Education, Wuhan Textile University, Wuhan 430200, China. Electronic address:

Biodegradable porous scaffolds with different structure, porosity, and strength play a critical role in the repair and regeneration of defects in bone tissue engineering by changing the proliferation condition for cell. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) scaffold with directional porous structure is designed and fabricated using the method of ice template and phase inversion for speeding up bone repair by promoting the growth and proliferation of bone cells. The morphology, mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, and wicking properties of PLA scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope, universal testing machine, contact angle tester and wicking rate test, respectively. In vitro biocompatibility has been investigated through measuring cell adhesion, proliferation, and viability on PLA scaffold with directional porous structure. Prepared PLA scaffold was implanted into animals to observe the repair mechanism of large-sized bone defects. This study proposes a novel bioporous scaffold design to induce osteocyte growth at the rat calvaria with a directional pore structure, and the scaffold edges were integrated with the calvaria at week 12, effectively promoting the repair and regeneration of defective bone tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.207DOI Listing
July 2022

NBAS, a gene involved in cytotoxic degranulation, is recurrently mutated in pediatric hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

J Hematol Oncol 2022 Jul 28;15(1):101. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Hematology Center, Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, 100045, China.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), particularly primary HLH (pHLH), is a rare, life-threatening disease. Germline genetic deficiency of 12 known HLH genes impairs cytotoxic degranulation in natural killer (NK) cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and contributes to pHLH development. However, no pathogenic mutations in these HLH genes are found in nearly 10% of HLH patients, despite a strong suspicion of pHLH, suggesting that the underlying genetic basis of HLH is still unclear. To discover novel susceptibility genes, we first selected 13 children with ppHLH (presumed primary HLH patients in the absence of detectable known HLH gene variants) and their parents for initial screening. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in one trio and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in twelve trios revealed that two ppHLH patients carried biallelic NBAS variants, a gene that is involved in Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrograde transport upstream of the degranulation pathway. Additionally, two candidate genes, RAB9B and KLC3, showed a direct relationship with known HLH genes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. We analyzed NBAS, RAB9B, KLC3 and known HLH genes in an independent validation cohort of 224 pediatric HLH patients. Only biallelic NBAS variants were identified in three patients who harbored no pathogenic variants in any of the known HLH genes. Functionally, impaired NK-cell cytotoxicity and degranulation were revealed in both NBAS biallelic variant patients and in an NBAS-deficient NK-cell line. Knockdown of NBAS in an NK-cell line (IMC-1) using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) resulted in loss of lytic granule polarization and a decreased number of cytotoxic vesicles near the Golgi apparatus. According to our findings, NBAS is the second most frequently mutated gene (2.11%) in our HLH cohort after PRF1. NBAS deficiency may contribute to the development of HLH via a dysregulated lytic vesicle transport pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-022-01318-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331571PMC
July 2022

Formation mechanism of high-viscosity gelatinous egg white among "Fenghuang Egg": Phenomenon, structure, and substance composition.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jul 25;217:803-813. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Engineering Research Center of Bioprocess, Ministry of Education/Key Laboratory for Agricultural Products Processing of Anhui Province/School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230601, China. Electronic address:

"Fenghuang Egg" is a special egg product incubated for 12 days by fertilized hen eggs. Its egg white contains high-viscosity and excellent thermal gel strength. A comparative study on the differences in gel properties, structure, and substance composition between fresh egg white (FEW) and "Fenghuang egg" gelatinous egg white (GEW) was carried out. Experimental results showed GEW had better apparent viscosity, as well as the hardness, cohesiveness and water holding capacity (WHC) of thermal gel; the content and size of aggregate structure increased significantly in GEW, and a fibrous dense network composed of numerous spherical nanoparticles connected in series was formed after heating. In addition, it also discovered that more water molecules in GEW existed in the form of bound water. A total of 41 proteins changed significantly in FEW and GEW, Mucin 6 might be the main reason for the enhanced viscosity of GEW, and OVA might be the dominant protein differentiating the thermal gel properties between FEW and GEW. This study revealed that the differences in gel properties and structures between FEW and GEW were closely related to the content of highly glycosylated globular proteins, laying a theoretical foundation for the application of high-viscosity egg whites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.089DOI Listing
July 2022

Acetyl-11-Keto-Beta Boswellic Acid (AKBA) Protects Lens Epithelial Cells Against HO-Induced Oxidative Injury and Attenuates Cataract Progression by Activating Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling.

Front Pharmacol 2022 11;13:927871. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye Institute, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Age-related cataract (ARC) is one of the leading blinding eye diseases worldwide. Chronic oxidative stress and the apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) have been suggested to be the mechanism underlying cataract formation. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is a pentacyclic triterpene with antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of AKBA on oxidative-induced HLECs injury and cataract formation. HO was used to simulate HLECs oxidative injury , and NaSeO was applied to establish an cataract model. In our current study, a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to evaluate the effects of HO and AKBA on cell viability . Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured with the ROS assay to verify the antioxidant capacity of AKBA. Apoptotic cells were detected and measured by TUNEL staining and flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR and Western blotting were applied to examine the transcription and expression of apoptosis-related proteins. Furthermore, immunofluorescence staining was performed to locate factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and the protein levels of Nrf2, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined by Western blotting. Finally, we observed the degree of lens opacity and performed hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining to assess the protective effect of AKBA on cataract formation . AKBA increased HLECs viability under HO stimulation, decreased intracellular ROS levels and alleviated the cell apoptosis rate . AKBA significantly decreased the expression of caspase-3 and Bax and increased the content of Bcl-2. The results of immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining proved that the expression and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 were activated with AKBA treatment and . Moreover, computational docking results showed that AKBA could bind specifically to the predicted Keap1/Nrf2 binding sites. After AKBA activation, Nrf2 dissociates from the Nrf2/Keap1 complex, translocates into the nucleus, and subsequently promotes HO-1 expression. In addition, AKBA attenuated lens opacity in selenite-induced cataracts. Overall, these findings indicated that AKBA alleviated oxidative injury and cataract formation by activating the Keap1/Nrf2/HO-1 cascade. Therefore, our current study highlights that AKBA may serve as a promising treatment for ARC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.927871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9310784PMC
July 2022

Ultrasonography for Serial Monitoring and Management of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamic Disorders After Decompressive Craniectomy.

J Craniofac Surg 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University.

Objective: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is widely used to treat intracranial hypertension following severe head injury. However, impairments of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics such as hydrocephalus and subdural effusion are common complications that occur after DC. Therefore, monitoring of intracranial pressure is a staple of neurocritical care post-DC. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of transcranial duplex sonography (TDS) for serial monitoring and management of CSF disorders after DC.

Methods: A total of 100 patients who underwent DC between June 2016 and May 2019 were recruited for the study. Transcranial duplex sonography examinations were performed between 1-day and 1-year post-DC. Transcranial duplex sonography was mainly used for monitoring changes in ventricle size and morphology, and also to monitor intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, intracranial hygromas, and ventricle changes during CSF release procedures.

Results: A total of 456 TDS examinations were performed on patients after DC. Of these, 402 were performed in the neuro-intensive care unit. Two patients had intraventricular hemorrhage and underwent TDS-guided external ventricular drainage. Twenty-nine patients were diagnosed with hydrocephalus. The results of TDS were consistent with those of cranial computed tomography. Three cases of ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 1 case of lumbar peritoneal shunt underwent valve pressure reset according to TDS, to obtain satisfactory ventricle size. Transcranial duplex sonography was used to monitor ventricle changes and control drainage volume during CSF release procedures, including 2 external ventricular drainage, 6 external lumbar drainage, and 10 lumbar punctures. Eighteen patients were detected with single or multiple intracranial effusions, including 16 subdural hygromas, 5 longitudinal fissure hygromas, and 6 brain cysts.

Conclusions: Transcranial duplex sonography can efficiently help monitor changes in ventricle size and morphology and intracranial effusions. Due to its noninvasive nature, suitability for bedside application, real-time, and inexpensiveness, TDS can significantly replace cranial computed tomography and become part of the patient's daily inspection work after DC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000008785DOI Listing
July 2022

[Establishment of a nomogram model for predicting necrotizing enterocolitis in very preterm infants].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2022 Jul;24(7):778-785

Department of Neonatology, Third Hospital of Baogang Group, Baotou 014010, China.

Objectives: To investigate the risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in very preterm infants and establish a nomogram model for predicting the risk of NEC.

Methods: A total of 752 very preterm infants who were hospitalized from January 2015 to December 2021 were enrolled as subjects, among whom 654 were born in 2015-2020 (development set) and 98 were born in 2021 (validation set). According to the presence or absence of NEC, the development set was divided into two groups: NEC (=77) and non-NEC (=577). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the independent risk factors for NEC in very preterm infants. R software was used to plot the nomogram model. The nomogram model was then validated by the data of the validation set. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and the calibration curve were used to evaluate the performance of the nomogram model, and the clinical decision curve was used to assess the clinical practicability of the model.

Results: The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that neonatal asphyxia, sepsis, shock, hypoalbuminemia, severe anemia, and formula feeding were independent risk factors for NEC in very preterm infants (<0.05). The ROC curve of the development set had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.833 (95%: 0.715-0.952), and the ROC curve of the validation set had an AUC of 0.826 (95%: 0.797-0.862), suggesting that the nomogram model had a good discriminatory ability. The calibration curve analysis and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test showed good accuracy and consistency between the predicted value of the model and the actual value.

Conclusions: Neonatal asphyxia, sepsis, shock, hypoalbuminemia, severe anemia, and formula feeding are independent risk factors for NEC in very preterm infant. The nomogram model based on the multivariate logistic regression analysis provides a quantitative, simple, and intuitive tool for early assessment of the development of NEC in very preterm infants in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2202093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9336614PMC
July 2022

Association between Walking Habit and Physical Frailty among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Healthcare (Basel) 2022 Jul 27;10(8). Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Department of Behavior and Health Sciences, Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan.

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether older adults who practice walking have a lower risk of physical frailty than those who do not. The study subjects were 846 older adults and were not certified as needing support or nursing care. The subjects were classified as being physically frail or pre-frail or being robust, according to the revision of the Cardiovascular Health Study criteria. We classified the subjects by questionnaire into a no-exercise group, walking-only group, walking plus other exercise group, and exercise other than walking group. In logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were shown. Compared to the no-exercise group, the OR (95%CI) for physical frailty was 0.85 (0.48-1.49) for the walking-only group, 0.54 (0.36-0.83) for the walking plus other exercise group, and 0.67 (0.47-0.97) for the exercise other than walking group. In the components of physical frailty, the walking plus other exercise group and the exercise other than group had significantly lower ORs for exhaustion. Older adults who only practiced walking as an exercise do not have lower risks of physical frailty and pre-frailty. Older adults who combine walking with other exercises or practice non-walking exercises have lower risks of them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare10081396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332849PMC
July 2022

Vascular Repair by Grafting Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles.

Pharmaceutics 2022 Jul 8;14(7). Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Third School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210028, China.

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have attracted much attention in the past few decades because of their unique magnetic responsiveness. Especially in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, they are mostly involved in non-invasive ways and have achieved good results. The magnetic responsiveness of MNPs is strictly controlled by the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of the synthesized particles. In this review, we summarized the classification of MNPs and their application in vascular repair. MNPs mainly use their unique magnetic properties to participate in vascular repair, including magnetic stimulation, magnetic drive, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic assembly scaffolds, and magnetic targeted drug delivery, which can significantly affect scaffold performance, cell behavior, factor secretion, drug release, etc. Although there are still challenges in the large-scale clinical application of MNPs, its good non-invasive way to participate in vascular repair and the establishment of a continuous detection process is still the future development direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14071433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9320478PMC
July 2022

Comparing Bayesian-Based Reconstruction Strategies in Topology-Based Pathway Enrichment Analysis.

Biomolecules 2022 06 28;12(7). Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Wisdom Lake Academy of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou 215123, China.

The development of high-throughput omics technologies has enabled the quantification of vast amounts of genes and gene products in the whole genome. Pathway enrichment analysis (PEA) provides an intuitive solution for extracting biological insights from massive amounts of data. Topology-based pathway analysis (TPA) represents the latest generation of PEA methods, which exploit pathway topology in addition to lists of differentially expressed genes and their expression profiles. A subset of these TPA methods, such as BPA, BNrich, and PROPS, reconstruct pathway structures by training Bayesian networks (BNs) from canonical biological pathways, providing superior representations that explain causal relationships between genes. However, these methods have never been compared for their differences in the PEA and their different topology reconstruction strategies. In this study, we aim to compare the BN reconstruction strategies of the BPA, BNrich, PROPS, Clipper, and Ensemble methods and their PEA and performance on tumor and non-tumor classification based on gene expression data. Our results indicate that they performed equally well in distinguishing tumor and non-tumor samples (AUC > 0.95) yet with a varying ranking of pathways, which can be attributed to the different BN structures resulting from the different cyclic structure removal strategies. This can be clearly seen from the reconstructed JAK-STAT networks by different strategies. In a nutshell, BNrich, which relies on expert intervention to remove loops and cyclic structures, produces BNs that best fit the biological facts. The plausibility of the Clipper strategy can also be partially explained by intuitive biological rules and theorems. Our results may offer an informed reference for the proper method for a given data analysis task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom12070906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9313337PMC
June 2022
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