Publications by authors named "Xin Li"

8,204 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bioequivalence and Pharmacokinetic Study of 2 Edoxaban Tablets in Healthy Chinese Subjects.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Nanjing Clinical Tech Laboratories Inc., Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

The aim was to investigate the bioequivalence of 2 orally administered edoxaban 60-mg tablets and the food effects on the pharmacokinetics of edoxaban. Sixty-four healthy Chinese subjects participated in this open-label, randomized, 2-sequence, 4-period, crossover study. All subjects randomly received 60-mg generic (test) or branded (reference) edoxaban tablet in each period. Plasma edoxaban concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetic parameters maximum concentration (C ) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were compared to assess bioequivalence. The geometric least-squares mean ratios for C , AUC from time 0 to the last measurable time point (AUC ), and AUC from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUC ) were 97.0%, 95.4%, and 96.1%, respectively, in the fasting test, and 98.6%, 100.0%, and 99.8%, respectively, in the fed test. Food increased exposure and prolonged the time to maximum concentration of edoxaban. Both formulations displayed comparable safety profiles, with no serious adverse events reported. The 2 products of edoxaban tablets are bioequivalent and safe in healthy Chinese volunteers. Food may have a modest effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of edoxaban.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.1156DOI Listing
August 2022

Genomic analyses of Pamir argali, Tibetan sheep, and their hybrids provide insights into chromosome evolution, phenotypic variation, and germplasm innovation.

Genome Res 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

China Agricultural University;

Understanding the genetic mechanisms of phenotypic variation in hybrids between domestic animals and their wild relatives may aid germplasm innovation. Here, we report the high-quality genome assemblies and high-throughput sequencing of 425 ovine animals, including the Pamir argali (O. ammon polii, 2n = 56), Tibetan sheep (O. aries, 2n = 54), and their hybrids (2n = 55). We detected genomic synteny between Chromosome 2 of sheep and two acrocentric chromosomes of argali. We revealed consistent satellite repeats around the chromosome breakpoints, which could have resulted in chromosome fusion. We observed many more hybrids with karyotype 2n = 54 than with 2n = 55, which could be explained by the selfish centromeres, the possibly decreased rate of normal/balanced sperm and the increased incidence of early pregnancy loss in the aneuploid ewes or rams. We identified genes and variants associated with important morphological and production traits (e.g., body weight, cannon circumference, hip height, and tail length) that exhibit significant variations. We revealed a strong selective signature at the mutation (c.334C>A, p. G112 W) in and confirmed its association with tail length among sheep populations of wide geographic and genetic origins. We produced an intercross population of 110 F2 offspring with varied number of vertebrae and validated the causal mutation by whole-genome association analysis. We verified its function using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. Our results provide insights into chromosomal speciation and phenotypic evolution and a foundation of genetic variants for the breeding of sheep and other animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.276769.122DOI Listing
August 2022

SDF‑1α/CXCR4 signaling promotes capillary tube formation of human retinal vascular endothelial cells by activating ERK1/2 and PI3K pathways .

Mol Med Rep 2022 Oct 10;26(4). Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, P.R. China.

The purpose of this study is to address the effect and mechanism of stromal cell‑derived factor‑1 (SDF‑1)α/chemokine (C‑X‑C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) signaling on capillary tube formation of human retinal vascular endothelial cells (HRECs). The expression of CXCR4 in HRECs was quantified by reverse transcription (RT‑PCR) and western blotting. The effects of SDF‑1α/CXCR4 signaling in capillary tube formation and migration of HRECs was examined using three‑dimensional Matrigel assay and wound scratching assay respectively . Cell proliferation of HRECs was examined using cell counting kit (CCK)‑8 assay in the presence of different concentrations of SDF‑1α protein. The effect of SDF‑1α/CXCR4 signaling in HREC expression of VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), IL‑8 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)‑1 was examined using RT‑PCR and western blotting. RT‑PCR and western blot analysis revealed CXCR4 was expressed in HRECs. The number of intact capillary tubes formed by HRECs in the presence of SDF‑1α was markedly more compared with a PBS treated control group. However, it was reduced with treatment with an CXCR4 antagonist. Wound scratching assay showed a significant increase in the number of migrated HRECs under SDF‑1α stimulation and the number was reduced with treatment with an CXCR4 antagonist. RT‑PCR and western blotting showed that SDF‑1α significantly promoted VEGF, bFGF, IL‑8 and ICAM‑1 expression in HRECs. The proliferation of HRECs in the presence of SDF‑1α was promoted in a dosage‑dependent manner. SDF‑1α/CXCR4 signaling can increase HREC capillary tube formation through promoting HREC migration, proliferation and expression of VEGF, bFGF, IL‑8 and ICAM‑1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2022.12821DOI Listing
October 2022

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Neuropathic Pain and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Neural Plast 2022 30;2022:2036736. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Rehabilitation, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China.

Neuropathic pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms are common complications reported by the traumatic brain injury (TBI) population. Although a growing body of research has indicated the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the management of neurological and psychiatric disorders, little evidence has been presented to support the effects of rTMS on neuropathic pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with TBI in all age groups. In addition, a better understanding of the potential factors that might influence the therapeutic effect of rTMS is necessary. The objective of this preregistered systematic review and meta-analysis was to quantify the effects of rTMS on physical and psychological symptoms in individuals with TBI. We systematically searched six databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of rTMS in TBI patients reporting pain and neuropsychiatric outcomes published until March 20, 2022. The mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was estimated separately for outcomes to understand the mean effect size. Twelve RCTs with 276 TBI patients were ultimately selected from 1605 records for systematic review, and 11 of the studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, five of the included studies showed a low risk of bias. The effects of rTMS on neuropathic pain were statistically significant (MD = -1.00, 95% CI -1.76 to -0.25, = 0.009), with high heterogeneity ( = 76%). A significant advantage of 1 Hz rTMS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in improving depression (MD = -6.52, 95% CI -11.58 to -1.46, = 0.01) was shown, and a significant improvement was noted in the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire-13 (RPQ-13) scores of mild TBI patients after rTMS (MD = -5.87, 95% CI -10.63 to -1.11, = 0.02). However, no significance was found in cognition measurement. No major adverse events related to rTMS were reported. Moderate evidence suggests that rTMS can effectively and safely improve neuropathic pain, while its effectiveness on depression, postconcussion symptoms, and cognition is limited. More trials with a larger number of participants are needed to draw firm conclusions. This trial is registered with PROSPERO (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021242364.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2036736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9357260PMC
August 2022

Changes in postmortem metabolites profile of atypical and typical DFD beef.

Meat Sci 2022 Jul 22;193:108922. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-products Quality & Safety in Harvest, Storage, Transportation, Management and Control, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

This study explored the changes in postmortem metabolites of atypical and typical DFD beef using UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. The longissimus thoracis muscles were categorized into normal, atypical DFD and typical DFD groups. The L, a, b, glycogen and lactic acid contents were lower (P < 0.05) in typical DFD than normal beef. A total of 240 compounds were significantly different among groups. Levels of glycerol-3-phosphate, d-ribose-5-phosphate, d-glucose-6-phosphate, d-fructose-6-phosphate, alpha-d-glucose-1-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate were higher in atypical DFD than those in the normal and typical DFD beef and the contents of 9 amino acids were elevated in typical DFD. KEGG analysis showed that metabolomic changes were primarily related with ATP-binding cassette transporters, metabolism of purine, central carbon, glycine, serine and threonine, biosynthesis of aminoacyl-tRNA, digestion and absorption of proteins, metabolism of amino sugar and nucleotide sugar, pyrimidine, bile secretion and galactose. In conclusion, development of atypical and typical DFD meat results in differences at level of postmortem metabolite concentrations of different metabolic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2022.108922DOI Listing
July 2022

Revealing the interfacial properties of halide ions for efficient and stable flexible perovskite solar cells.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2022 Jul 30;628(Pt A):696-704. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

The severe non-radiative recombination loss caused by SnO/perovskite interface defects greatly hinders the further improvement of the performance and stability of flexible perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Herein, a series of halides KM (M = F, Cl, Br, I) were inserted as interface layers to modulate the SnO/perovskite interface. Both experimental and theoretical calculation demonstrated that F exhibited stronger interface coupling effect between the SnO and perovskite than other halide ions (Cl, Br, I). The F had unique effects in effectively depressing SnO/perovskite interface defects ascribed to the simultaneous formation of SnF bonds and hydrogen bonds, resulting in reduced non-radiative recombination and improved interfacial contact. In consequence, the champion KF-modified flexible and rigid PSCs delivered outstanding PCE of 18.16 % and 21.36 %, accompanied by the enhanced V of 1.14 V and 1.16 V, respectively. Meanwhile, the stability of flexible PSCs was significantly ameliorated after KF modification, and about 84 % of the original efficiency could be retained even after 3000 bending cycles. This work provides a facile and efficient strategy for interface modulation to achieve high-performance and stable flexible PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2022.07.175DOI Listing
July 2022

Phosphorylation and acetylation of glycolytic enzymes cooperatively regulate their activity and lamb meat quality.

Food Chem 2022 Jul 19;397:133739. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

This study examined cooperative regulation of phosphorylation and acetylation of glycolytic enzymes on their activity and lamb meat quality. Muscle samples were divided into two groups (fast and slow) according to their glycolysis rate as defined by pH decline rate from 1 h to 1 d postmortem. In slow glycolysis rate group, the activity of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) was lower and meat sample showed lower a*, higher shear force and cooking loss. The acetylation and phosphorylation of HK were positively correlated with HK activity. The acetylation and phosphorylation of PFK were correlated with shear force and negatively associated with PFK activity. The acetylation and phosphorylation of PK were significantly correlated with each other but showed insignificant correlations with PK activity. Briefly, the phosphorylation and acetylation of HK, PFK and PK coregulate glycolysis through different crosstalk patterns on their activity and this might affect meat quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.133739DOI Listing
July 2022

Fluorescence quenching properties of Au-Ag-Pt tri-metallic nanorod: The application in specific detection of alpha-fetoprotein.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 Aug 4;282:121714. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China. Electronic address:

In this paper, the fluorescence quenching characteristics of Au-Ag-Pt core-shell nanorods have been studied.Due to nonradiative energy transformation, the fluorescence emission intensity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) could be greatly quenched.It has been found that the quenching effect of Au-Ag-Pt core-shell nanorods could be optimized by adjusting the concentration of chloroplatinic acid.Based on the fluorescence quenching properties of Au-Ag-Pt core-shell nanorods, Au-Ag-Pt trimetal fluorescence quenching nanoprobe has been prepared, and the specificity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection has also been realized.In order to guarantee the sensing specificity, the surface modification including carboxyl replacement, carboxyl activation and antibody connection have been performed on Au-Ag-Pt core-shell nanorods.By using the principle of specific combination of antigen and antibody, the specific detection of AFP has been realized with a lower detection limit of 4.0 pg/mL, and the linear detection range spans a scope from 0.03 to 0.5 ng/mL.Interference experiments and the actual samples detection results show that the Au-Ag-Pt trimetal core-shell nanorod probes have good anti-interference and repeatability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2022.121714DOI Listing
August 2022

Experience of physical activity in patients with COPD: A systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis.

Geriatr Nurs 2022 Aug 5;47:211-219. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

College of Nursing,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan 610075, China.

Objective: To systematically evaluate and integrate the qualitative research on physical activity (PA) experience of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Methods: Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, CINAHL and other databases were searched, and the qualitative research on PA experience of patients with COPD was collected. The systematic review was conducted in line with Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for systematic reviews of qualitative evidence.

Results: 12 studies were included and 3 themes were summarized, included: COPD patients experience more barriers while participating in physical activities than facilitators; COPD patients experience more positive effects post-physical activities than negative effects; Guaranteeing safety, goal setting, and establishing a professional support group improve compliance in COPD patients.

Conclusion: Health care professionals should help patients overcome the obstacles of PA, pay attention to the PA experience of patients, adopt diversified PA methods, improve PA participation and compliance, and make patients develop good PA habits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2022.07.013DOI Listing
August 2022

Patterns of internal nitrogen and phosphorus loadings in a cascade reservoir with a large water level gradient: Effects of reservoir operation and water depth.

J Environ Manage 2022 Aug 5;320:115884. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, PR China. Electronic address:

Internal nutrient loadings pose a high risk of being an additional N and P source, exacerbating eutrophication and deteriorating water quality. In this study, we selected the Daheiting Reservoir (DHTR) in North China, with a pronounced water level gradient, to investigate internal N and P loadings, estimate N and P fluxes across the sediment‒water interface based on the pore water profiles, and reveal the potential effects of water discharge from an upstream reservoir and high-intensity cage aquaculture on the risks of internal N and P release. The results indicated that DHTR presented with severe internal nutrient loadings, and the N and P fluxes showed significant spatiotemporal variations. NH-N and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) fluxes were higher in deep areas (averages of 26.14 and 9.9 mgmd, respectively) than in shallow areas near inflows (averages of 5.0 and 1.24 mgmd, respectively). Unexpectedly, the estimated NH-N and SRP fluxes were the lowest in summer (averages of 3.94 and 0.33 mgmd, respectively), which may have been influenced by seasonal thermal stratification and copious discharge from the hypolimnion of the upstream reservoir (Panjiakou Reservoir). Comparison of annual internal and external N and P loadings revealed that water discharge from the upstream Panjiakou Reservoir was the dominant source of N and P to the reservoir, contributing up to 83.6% of N input and 55.4% of P input. The internal P loading also contributed to water eutrophication to a great extent, accounting for 34.7% of the total P input. Our results highlight the impact of upstream reservoir discharge operation on downstream reservoir water quality and the importance of controlling the internal nutrient loading in cascade reservoirs, and further provide theoretical and practical foundations for the development of policies and strategies to conserve reservoir ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.115884DOI Listing
August 2022

Exploring antibiotic resistance genes, mobile gene elements, and virulence gene factors in an urban freshwater samples using metagenomic analysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, 0000, Hong Kong.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antimicrobial resistance elements (AMR) are novel environmental contaminants that pose a significant risk to human health globally. Freshwater contains a variety of microorganisms that might affect human health; its quality must be assessed before use. However, the dynamics of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and ARG propagation in freshwater have rarely been studied in Singapore. Therefore, this study used metagenomics to compare diversity, virulence factor composition, and ARG and MGE co-occurrence with bacterial communities in paired (n = 8) environmental freshwater samples. KneadData, FMAP, and Kraken2 were used for bioinformatics analysis and R (v4.1.1) for statistical analysis. Sequence reads with a total of 9043 species were taxonomically classified into 66 phyla, 130 classes, 261 orders, 584 families, and 2477 genera. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes were found the Phyla in all samples. Analysis of QIIME output by PICRUSt and ß-diversity showed unique clusters and functional microbial community structures. A total of 2961 ARGs were found that conferred resistance to multidrug, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, elfamycins, and more. The classified ARG mechanism revealed significant distribution of virulence factors in bacterial cells. Transposes and transposon were highly correlated to ARG gene transfer. Co-occurrence network analysis showed several MGEs appear to use the same ARGs (intI and rho) and were dominant in all samples. Furthermore, ARGs are also highly correlated with bacteria like Campylobacter and Escherichia. This study enhances the understanding of antibiotic risk assessment and provides a new perspective on bacterial assembly contamination and the functional prevalence of ARGs and MGEs with antibiotic resistance bacteria. Moreover, it raises public awareness because these contaminants put people's lives at risk of acquiring bacterial infections. In addition, it can also help propose hybrid water treatment approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22197-4DOI Listing
August 2022

Exploring the Correlation between Changes in Gut Microbial Community Diversity and Depression in Human Populations.

Biomed Res Int 2022 29;2022:6334868. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The First Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Depression, also known as depressive disorder, is a group of psychosomatic affective disorders characterized by persistent and significantly depressed mood, delayed thinking, and cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between changes in gut microbial community diversity and depression to provide data on new strategies for the prevention and treatment of depression. In this study, we separated participants into a group of depressed patients and a healthy comparison group. We analyzed the gut microbial community structure of depressed patients and healthy comparisons using second-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S RNA gene. There were significant differences in the gut microflora structure between patients with depression and healthy individuals. The gut flora alpha diversity index was significantly reduced in patients with depression compared to that in the healthy population. At the species level, the relative abundance of and was significantly lower in the depressed group than that in the control group. The development of depression may be associated with a decrease in beneficial gut bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6334868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355758PMC
August 2022

Trends in accessibility of negotiated targeted anti-cancer medicines in Nanjing, China: An interrupted time series analysis.

Front Public Health 2022 22;10:942638. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

School of Health Policy and Management, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: In order to establish a long-term strategy for bearing the costs of anti-cancer drugs, the state had organized five rounds of national-level pricing negotiations and introduced the National Health Insurance Coverage (NHIC) policy since 2016. In addition, the National Healthcare Security Administration (NHSA) introduced the volume-based purchasing (VBP) pilot program to Nanjing in September 2019. Taking non-small cell lung cancer as an example, the aim of the study was to verify whether national pricing negotiations, the NHIC policy and the VBP pilot program had a positive impact on the accessibility of three targeted anti-cancer drugs.

Methods: Based on the hospital procurement data, interrupted time series (ITS) design was used to analyze the effect of the health policy on the accessibility and affordability of gefitinib, bevacizumab and recombinant human endostatin from January 2013 to December 2020 in Nanjing, China.

Results: The DDDs of the three drugs increased significantly after the policy implementation ( < 0.001, < 0.001, = 0.008). The trend of DDDc showed a significant decrease ( < 0.001, < 0.001, < 0.001). The mean availability of these drugs before the national pricing negotiation was <30% in the surveyed hospitals, and increased significantly to 60.33% after 2020 ( < 0.001, = 0.001, < 0.001). The affordability of these drugs has also increased every year after the implementation of the insurance coverage policy. The financial burden is higher for the rural patients compared with the urban patients, although the gap is narrowing.

Conclusion: The accessibility of targeted anti-cancer drugs has increased significantly after the implementation of centralized prices, the NHIC policy and the VBP pilot program, and has shown sustained long-term growth. Multi-pronged supplementary measures and policy approaches by multiple stakeholders will facilitate equitable access to effective and affordable anti-cancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.942638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353396PMC
August 2022

Force Transmission Analysis and Optimization of Bowden Cable on Body in a Flexible Exoskeleton.

Appl Bionics Biomech 2022 28;2022:5552166. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

School of Mechatronics Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

The Bowden cable is a significant force transmission equipment for a flexible exoskeleton. However, the previous researches of Bowden cable had emphasized on the data from experimenting test board, instead of on human body, which produced the inaccurate assisting analysis of the flexible exoskeleton. In this paper, a flexible exoskeleton for assisting knee extension was proposed, which provided an on-body condition. Then, the friction force and its influencing factors between the wire rope and sheath of the Bowden cable from the motor to the anchor of knee have been analyzed. The segment models of force transmission with the concern of three kinds of friction modes were established, and the relationship between various lengths and bending angles of Bowden cable was fitted to the equations of curve. Furthermore, the association rule between the force transmission and the lengths of Bowden cable was obtained, based on which, the optimal force transmission efficiency was 78.68% when the length value of the Bowden cable was 475 mm. A flexible exoskeleton prototype was assembled; then, the experiments with force transmission and metabolic cost have been developed. The results showed that the force transmission efficiency had strong association with the lengths of Bowden cable, instead of the transmission velocities. Furthermore, this knee assistance exoskeleton reduced the net metabolic cost of the testees during walking. These experiments results corroborated the force transmission modeling and simulation of the Bowden cable on body we proposed in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5552166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9352506PMC
July 2022

Evaluation of Hybrid VMAT Advantages and Robustness Considering Setup Errors Using Surface Guided Dose Accumulation for Internal Lymph Mammary Nodes Irradiation of Postmastectomy Radiotherapy.

Front Oncol 2022 22;12:907181. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Objectives: Setup error is a key factor affecting postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) and irradiation of the internal mammary lymph nodes is the most investigated aspect for PMRT patients. In this study, we evaluated the robustness, radiobiological, and dosimetric benefits of the hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (H-VMAT) planning technique based on the setup error in dose accumulation using a surface-guided system for radiation therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively selected 32 patients treated by a radiation oncologist and evaluated the clinical target volume (CTV), including internal lymph node irradiation (IMNIs), and considered the planning target volume (PTV) margin to be 5 mm. Three different planning techniques were evaluated: tangential-VMAT (T-VMAT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and H-VMAT. The interfraction and intrafraction setup errors were analyzed in each field and the accumulated dose was evaluated as the patients underwent daily surface-guided monitoring. These parameters were included while evaluating CTV coverage, the dose required for the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left ventricle (LV), the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the heart and lungs, and the second cancer complication probability (SCCP) for contralateral breast (CB).

Results: When the setup error was accounted for dose accumulation, T-VMAT (95.51%) and H-VMAT (95.48%) had a higher CTV coverage than IMRT (91.25%). In the NTCP for the heart, H-VMAT (0.04%) was higher than T-VMAT (0.01%) and lower than IMRT (0.2%). However, the SCCP (1.05%) of CB using H-VMAT was lower than that using T-VMAT (2%) as well as delivery efficiency. And T-VMAT (3.72) and IMRT (10.5).had higher plan complexity than H-VMAT (3.71).

Conclusions: In this study, based on the dose accumulation of setup error for patients with left-sided PMRT with IMNI, we found that the H-VMAT technique was superior for achieving an optimum balance between target coverage, OAR dose, complication probability, plan robustness, and complexity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.907181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354548PMC
July 2022

A creatinine-based model for predicting recurrent bleeding after modified percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization in patients with cirrhosis.

J Interv Med 2022 May 26;5(2):95-102. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China.

Background: Patients who survive initial esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EVB) are at an increased risk of recurrent bleeding and death; however, a reliable predictive model is lacking. We aimed to develop a model for rebleeding prediction in patients with EVB after modified percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization (PTVE) with cyanoacrylate.

Methods: A total of 122 patients with EVB who underwent PTVE from January 2015 to November 2020 were enrolled. Multivariate logistic analyses were conducted to determine independent risk factors for nomogram construction. The discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility of the nomogram were compared with the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score (MELD) and the Child-Pugh model. Risk stratification was performed according to the nomogram.

Results: Rebleeding within 3 months of PTVE occurred in 32 patients (26.2%). Independent rebleeding indicators included prior history of endoscopic therapy, Child-Pugh score, partial splenic embolization, and creatinine level. The nomogram incorporating these four predictors achieved excellent calibration and discriminatory abilities, with a concordance index of 0.85, which was confirmed to be 0.83 through bootstrapping validation. The nomogram demonstrated superior discrimination and clinical applicability than the MELD and Child-Pugh models. As shown in the Kaplan-Meier curves, high-risk patients had a high probability of rebleeding (P ​< ​0.001).

Conclusions: The creatinine-based nomogram had a superior ability to predict rebleeding after PTVE in patients with EVB. Risk stratification may help identify high-risk patients and lead to the earlier implementation of aggressive treatments and formulation of intensive follow-up plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jimed.2022.03.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9348999PMC
May 2022

Single Pixel Imaging Key for Holographic Encryption Based on Spatial Multiplexing Metasurface.

Small 2022 Aug 7:e2203197. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

Beijing Engineering Research Center of Mixed Reality and Advanced Display, School of Optics and Photonics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Compared with the traditional holographic technology, metasurface holography is a promising technology due to the large field angle and high spatial resolution. Thanks to the precise control of phase, amplitude, polarization and so on, metasurface holography provides a flexible platform for light modulation, optical encryption and so on. Besides, the process of image reconstruction by single pixel imaging is similar to a form of encoding and decoding, which is realized by calculating the correlation between a series of modulation patterns and their corresponding intensity signals. In this work, an optical encryption scheme is proposed based on spatial multiplexing metasurface, which depends on the combination of holographic technology and single pixel imaging technology. In the encryption scheme, the image transmitted by single pixel imaging based on metasurface is used as the addressing key of holography. Besides, illuminating different positions of the metasurface can generate different holographic reconstructed images, and there is 50% information overlapped between adjacent sub-holograms. This work makes use of the spatial multiplexing property of metasurface, which can complete different functions, paving the way for the application in the field of optical imaging encryption and information security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202203197DOI Listing
August 2022

Omics analyses indicate sdhC/D act as hubs of early response of E. coli to antibiotics.

Arch Microbiol 2022 Aug 7;204(9):544. Epub 2022 Aug 7.

College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, 471023, China.

In recent years, the phenomenon of microbial resistance has become increasingly serious. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the bactericidal process of antibiotics has attracted great interest, but little research has been done on the generation of ROS in the early stage of antibiotic action. We confirmed the rapid production of ROS by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enrichment analysis indicated that the oxidative phosphorylation pathway is the key pathway of ROS production. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network results indicate that sdhC/D are key genes in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. The overexpression of sdhC/D resulted in a lower survival rate than the control strain after antibiotic treatments, which might be due to excess ROS induced by sdhC/D overexpression. The production of superoxide anion in the overexpress strain was significantly higher than that in the control strain, which further verified the importance of sdhC/D in the ROS release of bacteria. Current results showed that bacteria produce large amounts of ROS in the early stage of gentamicin and ampicillin action, and the regulation patterns of genes in the key pathway were consistent. sdhC/D are key genes in the early ROS release process of bacteria. Our study provides a basis for the search of ROS-related enhancers of antimicrobial action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-022-03156-6DOI Listing
August 2022

sp. nov. and sp. nov., from soil in China.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2022 Aug;72(8)

Institute of Fungus Resources, Department of Ecology, College of Life Sciences, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, Guizhou, PR China.

is a genus of well-known keratinophilic fungi found in various terrestrial habitats. During a survey of keratinolytic fungi in China, a total of 12 isolates of species, representing eight taxa, were obtained from the soil. Two of these isolates were described as new species based on their morphological characteristics and molecular analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region and the rRNA gene of the nuclear large subunit. Descriptions and illustrations of these two novel species, which are named sp. nov. and sp. nov., are provided herein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.005468DOI Listing
August 2022

Iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications: an updated patent review (2015-2021).

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2022 Aug 9:1-14. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Natural Product Synthesis and Drug Research, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) hold the edges of great magnetic properties and fine nanoparticle characteristics, making them an attractive therapeutic agent. In the past seven years, more in-depth investigations were devoted to the intrinsic structure, magnetic properties, and biological effects of IONPs, expanding the range of their therapeutic application scenes.

Areas Covered: This review focuses on the development of IONPs for biomedical applications from the angle of the patent literature reported during the period 2015-2021.

Expert Opinion: While the magnetic properties of IONPs have been extensively explored, the precise control of IONP behavior through external magnetic fields remains a challenge. Further digging into the biological effects of IONPs will facilitate the development of IONP-based immune therapies. Long-term reliable safety evaluations are of necessity and significance to promote the process of clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13543776.2022.2109413DOI Listing
August 2022

[Design and Application of Ultrasound Audit Workstation System].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2022 Jul;46(4):395-398

West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041.

According to the problems exist in the original ultrasound system, the study elaborates the design and application of the ultrasound audit workstation system, including the workflow, trace information recording, information management, audit data interaction, application effects, et al. This study points out that the system can optimize the ultrasound process, help to improve the quality and efficiency of ultrasound report audit as well as improve the efficiency of patients' ultrasound examination and medical treatment experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2022.04.009DOI Listing
July 2022

Chinese contribution to , , , and from 2011 to 2020: a 10-year bibliometric study.

Ann Transl Med 2022 May;10(9):505

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Background: (), , (), and () are collectively known as "the Top Four Medical Journals (TFMJ)" in China. Through the analysis of Chinese scholars' publications in the TFMJ in the recent 10 years, this study aimed to clarify the current situation of high-quality medical research conducted by Chinese scholars and institutions.

Methods: Data were retrieved and downloaded manually from PubMed (2011-2020). Information on the publication year, journal, author, affiliation, and citation, etc. were extracted and analyzed using R software.

Results: A total of 761 articles were involved in the final analysis. The number of articles published by Chinese scholars in the TFMJ was 135/29,942 (0.45%) in , 124/14,033 (0.88%) in , 314/16,117 (1.94%) in , and 188/15,242 (1.23%) in (P<0.001). Besides, the letter was the main research type, which was up to 44.54%, and the original research only accounted for 17.47%. The most popular subspecialty and subject were infectious diseases and COVID-19, respectively. The most productive researcher was Chen Wang, and Bin Cao was the most cited Chinese scholar. The most productive institute was Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College. The most cited study was "Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China".

Conclusions: The presence of Chinese scholars in the TFMJ has grown, but there is still much room to improve. A Matthew effect in China's high-level scientific research was demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-6793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9347039PMC
May 2022

Identification of molecular initiating events and key events leading to endocrine disrupting effects of PFOA: Integrated molecular dynamic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses.

Chemosphere 2022 Aug 1;307(Pt 2):135881. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, 471023, China. Electronic address:

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) can rapidly activate signaling pathways independent of nuclear hormone receptors through membrane receptor regulation, which leads to endocrine disrupting effects. In the present work, the molecular initiating event (MIE) and the key events (KEs) which cause the endocrine disrupting effects of PFOA have been explored and determined based on molecular dynamics simulation (MD), fluorescence analysis, transcriptomics, and proteomics. MD modeling and fluorescence analysis proved that, on binding to the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER), PFOA could induce a conformational change in the receptor, turning it into an active state. The results also indicated that the binding to GPER was the MIE that led to the adverse outcome (AO) of PFOA. In addition, the downstream signal transduction pathways of GPER, as regulated by PFOA, were further investigated through genomics and proteomics to identify the KEs leading to thr endocrine disrupting effects. Two pathways (Endocrine resistance, ERP and Estrogen signaling pathway, ESP) containing GPER were regulated by different concentration of PFOA and identified as the KEs. The knowledge of MIE, KEs, and AO of PFOA is necessary to understand the links between PFOA and the possible pathways that lead to its negative effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135881DOI Listing
August 2022

Association Between the Fatigue and Sleep Quality of Kidney Transplant Recipients: The Mediating Role of Rumination.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Department of Transplantation, Second Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Abstract: Sleep disorders persist in renal transplant patients. Previous studies have showed that fatigue and rumination are an important determinant of sleep quality. However, very few studies have explored the mediating role of rumination in the relationship between fatigue and sleep quality in kidney transplant recipients. A descriptive cross-sectional research design was implemented, and 192 kidney transplant patients completed the short questionnaire about their recent experiences of fatigue, rumination, and sleep quality. The prevalence of sleep disorders among kidney transplant recipients was 19.3%. With rumination as a partial mediator, fatigue indirectly affected the patients' sleep quality. This indirect effect was 0.10 (95% confidence interval, 0.154-0.419). Our results indicate that the incidence of sleep disorders after renal transplantation was high, and the more tired kidney transplant recipients become, the more likely they are to ruminate, which leads to a decline in sleep quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000001564DOI Listing
August 2022

[Role of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase in delaying smooth muscle cell senescence and protecting abdominal aortic aneurysm].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2022 Jun;34(6):646-650

School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China.

Objective: To investigate the protective effect of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) on abdominal aortic aneurysm by delaying the senescence of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC).

Methods: The primary VSMC cells from normal and patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm were cultured by tissue adherence method. Cells were divided into normal human-derived VSMC group (Ctrl-VSMC group), abdominal aortic aneurysm patient-derived VSMC group (AAA-VSMC group), and angiotensin II (Ang II) in vitro abdominal aortic aneurysm model group (Ang II-VSMC group, 100 nmol/L Ang II treated normal human-derived VSMC for 48 hours), Ang II + P7C3 group and AAA + P7C3 group after NAMPT agonist P7C3 intervention (adding 5 μmol/L P7C3 on the basis of Ang II-VSMC group and AAA-VSMC group, respectively). Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify VSMC; cell proliferation-associated antigen Ki67 staining was used to detect cell proliferation; senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining was used to detect cell senescence in each group; Western blotting was used to detect the protein expression levels of senescence-related proteins p21, p16 and NAMPT in each group.

Results: Compared with the Ctrl-VSMC group, the positive rate of SA-β-gal staining and the expression levels of senescence-related proteins p21 and p16 in the AAA-VSMC group and Ang II-VSMC group were significantly increased [SA-β-gal staining positive rate: (74.1±4.4)%, (68.6±5.5)% vs. (36.8±10.3)%, p21/GAPDH: 0.61±0.07, 0.51±0.03 vs. 0.31±0.03, p16/GAPDH: 0.77±0.03, 0.72±0.06 vs. 0.33±0.26, all P < 0.01]. However, the expression of NAMPT was significantly decreased (NAMPT/GAPDH: 0.88±0.07, 0.79±0.14 vs. 1.29±0.02, both P < 0.01). Compared with the Ang II-VSMC group, the positive rate of SA-β-gal staining and the expressions levels of senescence-related proteins p21 and p16 in the Ang II + P7C3 group were significantly lower [SA-β-gal staining positive rate: (49.1±3.2)% vs. (68.6±5.5)%, p21/GAPDH: 0.35±0.06 vs. 0.51±0.03, p16/GAPDH: 0.47±0.08 vs. 0.72±0.06, all P < 0.05], while the expression of NAMPT was significantly increased (NAMPT/GAPDH: 1.15±0.06 vs. 0.79±0.14, P < 0.01). Compared with the AAA-VSMC group, the positive rate of SA-β-gal staining and the expression levels of senescence-related proteins p21 and p16 in the AAA+P7C3 group were significantly lower [SA-β-gal staining positive rate: (54.1±6.0)% vs. (74.1±4.4)%, p21/GAPDH: 0.38±0.02 vs. 0.61±0.07, p16/GAPDH: 0.50±0.13 vs. 0.77±0.03, all P < 0.05], but the expression of NAMPT was significantly increased (NAMPT/GAPDH: 1.25±0.28 vs. 0.88±0.07, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: NAMPT agonist P7C3 can delay the senescence of VSMC and play a protective role in abdominal aortic aneurysm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20220218-00153DOI Listing
June 2022

Pain-Related Factors and Their Impact on Quality of Life in Chinese Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Front Neurosci 2022 13;16:897598. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Rehabilitation Medicine in Sichuan Province, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objectives: Pain is considered a common symptom in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the results of studies on pain in ALS are limited and inconsistent. The aim of our study was to comprehensively evaluate the potential factors of pain and effects on quality of life (QoL) in patients with ALS from China.

Participants And Methods: Patients were eligible if they fulfilled the criteria of probable and definitive ALS according to the revised El Escorial criteria. Pain was assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Disease severity, sleep quality, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL) were evaluated in ALS patients by the ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-R) and ALS severity scale (ALSSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire (MQOL). Then, the clinical characteristics of ALS patients with pain were compared with those without pain. Last, associated factors of pain, as well as impact on QoL in Chinese ALS patients, were assessed.

Results: A total of 86 ALS patients were included. ALS patients with pain tended to have higher FSS scores and poorer QoL. The FSS score and ALSSS [lower extremity (LE) + upper extremity (UE)] were associated with pain in ALS patients. The ALS Functional Rating Scale-revised (ALSFRS-R), Pain Severity Index (PSI), HARS and HDRS scores were significantly associated with both the physical and psychological domains of QoL.

Conclusion: Our study was the first to comprehensively evaluate factors associated with pain in Chinese ALS patients, finding that fatigue can be a risk factor for pain and ALSSS (LE + UE) score was related with pain intensity. Additionally, we identified the adverse effects of ALSSS (LE + UE), HARS and HDRS scores on QoL in Chinese ALS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.897598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9340542PMC
July 2022

The circRNA-miRNA/RBP regulatory network in myocardial infarction.

Front Pharmacol 2022 18;13:941123. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Institute for Translational Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious heart disease that causes high mortality rate worldwide. Noncoding RNAs are widely involved in the pathogenesis of MI. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are recently validated to be crucial modulators of MI. CircRNAs are circularized RNAs with covalently closed loops, which make them stable under various conditions. CircRNAs can function by different mechanisms, such as serving as sponges of microRNAs (miRNAs) and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), regulating mRNA transcription, and encoding peptides. Among these mechanisms, sponging miRNAs/RBPs is the main pathway. In this paper, we systematically review the current knowledge on the properties and action modes of circRNAs, elaborate on the roles of the circRNA-miRNA/RBP network in MI, and explore the value of circRNAs in MI diagnosis and clinical therapies. CircRNAs are widely involved in MI. CircRNAs have many advantages, such as stability, specificity, and wide distribution, which imply that circRNAs have a great potential to act as biomarkers for MI diagnosis and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.941123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9340152PMC
July 2022

Accumulation and regulation of anthocyanins in white and purple Tibetan Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.) revealed by combined de novo transcriptomics and metabolomics.

BMC Plant Biol 2022 Aug 4;22(1):391. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Qinghai University, Xining, 810016, China.

Background: Colored barley, which may have associated human health benefits, is more desirable than the standard white variety, but the metabolites and molecular mechanisms underlying seedcoat coloration remain unclear.

Results: Here, the development of Tibetan hulless barley was monitored, and 18 biological samples at 3 seedcoat color developmental stages were analyzed by transcriptomic and metabolic assays in Nierumuzha (purple) and Kunlun10 (white). A total of 41 anthocyanin compounds and 4186 DEGs were identified. Then we constructed the proanthocyanin-anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway of Tibetan hulless barley, including 19 genes encoding structural enzymes in 12 classes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, F3'H, DFR, ANS, ANR, GT, and ACT). 11 DEGs other than ANR were significantly upregulated in Nierumuzha as compared to Kunlun10, leading to high levels of 15 anthocyanin compounds in this variety (more than 25 times greater than the contents in Kunlun10). ANR was significantly upregulated in Kunlun10 as compared to Nierumuzha, resulting in higher contents of three anthocyanins compounds (more than 5 times greater than the contents in Nierumuzha). In addition, 22 TFs, including MYBs, bHLHs, NACs, bZips, and WD40s, were significantly positively or negatively correlated with the expression patterns of the structural genes. Moreover, comparisons of homologous gene sequences between the two varieties identified 61 putative SNPs in 13 of 19 structural genes. A nonsense mutation was identified in the coding sequence of the ANS gene in Kunlun10. This mutation might encode a nonfunctional protein, further reducing anthocyanin accumulation in Kunlun10. Then we identified 3 modules were highly specific to the Nierumuzha (purple) using WGCNA. Moreover, 12 DEGs appeared both in the putative proanthocyanin-anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway and the protein co-expression network were obtained and verified.

Conclusion: Our study constructed the proanthocyanin-anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway of Tibetan hulless barley. A series of compounds, structural genes and TFs responsible for the differences between purple and white hulless barley were obtained in this pathway. Our study improves the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of anthocyanin accumulation and biosynthesis in barley seeds. It provides new targets for the genetic improvement of anthocyanin content and a framework for improving the nutritional quality of barley.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-022-03699-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9351122PMC
August 2022

Brown-fat-mediated tumour suppression by cold-altered global metabolism.

Nature 2022 Aug 3;608(7922):421-428. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.

Glucose uptake is essential for cancer glycolysis and is involved in non-shivering thermogenesis of adipose tissues. Most cancers use glycolysis to harness energy for their infinite growth, invasion and metastasis. Activation of thermogenic metabolism in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by cold and drugs instigates blood glucose uptake in adipocytes. However, the functional effects of the global metabolic changes associated with BAT activation on tumour growth are unclear. Here we show that exposure of tumour-bearing mice to cold conditions markedly inhibits the growth of various types of solid tumours, including clinically untreatable cancers such as pancreatic cancers. Mechanistically, cold-induced BAT activation substantially decreases blood glucose and impedes the glycolysis-based metabolism in cancer cells. The removal of BAT and feeding on a high-glucose diet under cold exposure restore tumour growth, and genetic deletion of Ucp1-the key mediator for BAT-thermogenesis-ablates the cold-triggered anticancer effect. In a pilot human study, mild cold exposure activates a substantial amount of BAT in both healthy humans and a patient with cancer with mitigated glucose uptake in the tumour tissue. These findings provide a previously undescribed concept and paradigm for cancer therapy that uses a simple and effective approach. We anticipate that cold exposure and activation of BAT through any other approach, such as drugs and devices either alone or in combination with other anticancer therapeutics, will provide a general approach for the effective treatment of various cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05030-3DOI Listing
August 2022

Discovery of potential active ingredients of Er-Zhi-Wan, a famous traditional Chinese formulation, in model rat serum for treating osteoporosis with kidney-yin deficiency by UPLC-Q/TOF-MS and molecular docking.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2022 Jul 28;1208:123397. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine & Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization & National and Local Collaborative Engineering Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization and Formulae Innovative Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210023, China. Electronic address:

Er-Zhi-Wan (EZW), a classical traditional Chinese formulation, has attracted more and more attention. This study was carried out to analyze the constituents of EZW absorbed into blood and find out the potential active ingredients for treating osteoporosis (OP) with kidney-yin deficiency (KYD). The rat model of OP with KYD was achieved by ovariectomies and using the mixture of thyroxine and reserpine. Then ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) combined with statistical analysis was used to analyze the constituents of EZW absorbed into blood and differential components between the normal and OP with KYD rats. Finally, the components identified in OP with KYD rats were docked with targets of OP with KYD found in online databases. The results of molecular docking were adopted to find the potential active ingredients and further verified in vitro experiment. A total of 21 prototype compounds and 69 metabolites were identified in serum. Among them, 63 components in model rats and 50 components in normal rats were summarized, respectively. Most of the identified metabolites in serum of model rats were produced by hydrolysis, oxidation or glucuronidation, while in serum of normal rats were produced by hydrolysis, oxidation and methylation. According to the results of molecular docking, specnuezhenide, salidroside, tyrosol, echinacoside and verbascoside could be classified as potential active ingredients. The activity of salidroside and a metabolite was verified by pharmacodynamics analysis. In summary, UPLC-Q/TOF-MS system was combined with molecular docking to search the potential active ingredients from model rats of OP with KYD, which provided a new idea for the research on the pharmacodynamic material basis of other traditional medicine. Moreover, the result of this study lays the foundation for further study regarding the mechanism of EZW in treating OP with KYD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2022.123397DOI Listing
July 2022
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