Publications by authors named "Xin He"

1,132 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Weight Change and Mortality Risk in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 4;8:681726. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The aim of the study was to determine the associations of weight loss or gain with all-cause mortality risk in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Non-lean patients from the Americas from the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist study were analyzed ( = 1,515). Weight loss and weight gain were defined as a decrease or increase in weight ≥5% between baseline and 1 year. To determine the associations of weight change and mortality risk, we used adjusted Cox proportional hazards models and restricted cubic spline models. The mean age was 71.5 (9.6) years. Weight loss and gain were witnessed in 19.3 and 15.9% patients, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, weight loss was associated with higher risk of mortality (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.06-1.89, = 0.002); weight gain had similar risk of mortality (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.68-1.42, = 0.932) compared with weight stability. There was linear relationship between weight change and mortality risk. The association of weight loss and mortality was different for patients with and without diabetes mellitus (interaction = 0.009). Among patients with HFpEF, weight loss was independently associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality, and weight gain was not associated with better survival. https://clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00094302.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.681726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213199PMC
June 2021

Role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat in rats.

World J Emerg Med 2021 ;12(3):214-220

Pharmacy Department, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310009, China.

Background: This study aims to explore the characteristics of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and its underlying molecular mechanisms in the period of paraquat (PQ)-induced pulmonary fibrosis (PF).

Methods: Picrosirius red staining and collagen volume fraction were utilized to evaluate the pathological changes of PQ-induced PF in rats. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to measure the protein and gene expression of EMT markers, EMT-associated transcription factors, and regulators of EMT-related pathways, respectively.

Results: The collagen deposition in the alveolar septum and increased PF markers were characteristics of pathological changes in PQ-induced PF, reached a peak on day 14 after PQ poisoning, and then decreased on day 21. The protein and gene expression of the fibrosis marker, EMT markers, transcription factors, and regulators of EMT-related signaling pathways significantly increased at different time points after PQ poisoning compared with corresponding controls (<0.05), and most of them reached a peak on day 14, followed by a decrease on day 21. The gene expression of EMT markers was significantly correlated with PF markers, transcription factors, and regulators of EMT-related signaling pathways (<0.05). The mRNA expression of transcription factors was significantly correlated with that of TGF-β1 and Smad2 (<0.05 or <0.01), instead of Wnt2 and β-catenin (>0.05).

Conclusions: EMT process plays a role in the PQ-induced PF, in which most PF and EMT markers have a peak phenomenon, and its underlying molecular mechanisms might be determined by further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2021.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8188288PMC
January 2021

Nurr1 downregulation is caused by CREB inactivation in a Parkinson's disease mouse model.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 11;759:136045. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease and Department of Pharmacology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, No. 74 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Nurr1 (NR4A2), a nuclear receptor essential for the maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, is transcriptionally downregulated in both patients with PD and animal models and has been considered as a promising therapeutic target for neuroprotection in PD. However, the mechanism underlying Nurr1 downregulation during dopaminergic degeneration has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that the pro-survival transcription factor CREB is constitutively bound to the Nurr1 promoter in the mouse SN. CREB inactivation by dephosphorylation at Ser133 occurred in parallel with Nurr1 downregulation in the MPTP mouse model of PD. Forced expression of VP16-CREB, a constitutively active mutant, rescued Nurr1 expression and showed prominent neuroprotection in MPTP-intoxicated mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate that Nurr1 downregulation in the MPTP-induced PD mouse model is caused by CREB inactivation, which may provide a new target for neuroprotective therapy in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136045DOI Listing
June 2021

Local Temperature as a Chemical Reactivity Descriptor.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 10;12(23):5623-5630. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, India.

Using the electron density and its associated quantities in a molecular system to quantify chemical reactivity in density functional theory is of considerable recent interest. Local temperature based on the kinetic energy density is an intrinsic property of a molecular system, which can be employed for this purpose. In this work, we explore such a possibility. To this end, we examine the local behavior of local temperature with a few choices of the kinetic energy density, apply it to determine regioselectivity of nucleophilic and electrophilic compounds, and then investigate its performance in appreciating reactions along the intrinsic reaction pathway for exothermic, endothermic, and thermoneutral transformations. Our results confirm that local temperature can be used as an effective descriptor of molecular reactivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01207DOI Listing
June 2021

Ghrelin alleviates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Jan;17(1):170-177

Department of Neurobiology, School of Life Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

Ghrelin is a neuropeptide that has various physiological functions and has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in a number of neurological disease models. However, the underlying mechanisms of ghrelin in Parkinson's disease remain largely unexplored. The current study aimed to study the effects of ghrelin in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease model and evaluate the potential underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we treated an SH-SY5Y cell model with 6-OHDA, and observed that pretreatment with different concentrations of ghrelin (1, 10, and 100 nM) for 30 minutes relieved the neurotoxic effects of 6-OHDA, as revealed by Cell Counting Kit-8 and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assays. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay results demonstrated that 6-OHDA treatment upregulated α-synuclein and lincRNA-p21 and downregulated TG-interacting factor 1 (TGIF1), which was predicted as a potential transcription regulator of the gene encoding α-synuclein (SNCA). Ghrelin pretreatment was able to reverse the trends caused by 6-OHDA. The Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay results revealed that inhibiting either α-synuclein or lincRNA-p21 expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA) relieved 6-OHDA-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibiting lincRNA-p21 also partially upregulated TGIF1. By retrieving information from a bioinformatics database and performing both double luciferase and RNA immunoprecipitation assays, we found that lincRNA-p21 and TGIF1 were able to form a double-stranded RNA-binding protein Staufen homolog 1 (STAU1) binding site and further activate the STAU1-mediated mRNA decay pathway. In addition, TGIF1 was able to transcriptionally regulate α-synuclein expression by binding to the promoter of SNCA. The Annexin V/PI apoptosis assay results showed that either knockdown of TGIF1 or overexpression of lincRNA-p21 notably abolished the neuroprotective effects of ghrelin against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Collectively, these findings suggest that ghrelin exerts neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity via the lincRNA-p21/TGIF1/α-synuclein pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.314314DOI Listing
January 2022

Fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes during aerobic co-composting of food waste with sewage sludge.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 7;784:146950. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Aerobic composting is widely used on transforming organic solid waste into proliferating products. However, the removal of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the process of co-composting of food waste with sewage sludge has been rarely reported to date. Therefore, we investigated a laboratory-scale composting using food waste and sewage sludge as substrates to study changes in antibiotics and ARGs during composting. Varying dose of antibiotics were added to allow the evaluation of changes in antibiotics, the microbial community and ARGs. The results revealed that composting effectively removed fluoroquinolones and macrolides, while showed poor efficiency in removing sulfonamides. Results from the 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that Firmicutes dominated on D0, while Proteobacteria and Actinomycetes dominated on D28, and a high concentration of antibiotics affected the microbial succession. The quantitative PCR demonstrated that the abundance of sul3, sulA, qnrB, qnrS, and ermB was reduced after 28 days composting, while an increase in the abundance of sul1, sul2, qnrD, ermC, and ermF was induced by high concentrations of antibiotics. Redundancy analysis revealed that total organic matter was the most important factor for the variation in the ARGs abundance. Overall, our findings indicated that the aerobic co-composting of food waste with sewage sludge can effectively remove antibiotics and ARGs. Our study sheds a new idea light on the strategy for the removal of antibiotics and ARGs from organic solid waste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146950DOI Listing
August 2021

Racial Discrimination and Health-Related Quality of Life: An Examination Among Asian American Immigrants.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, 653 E Peltason Drive, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the relationship between everyday and major racial discrimination with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which consists of self-rated health, days of poor physical health, mental health, and activity limitation.

Design: In a cross-sectional analytic sample of 524 foreign-born Asian adults, aged 18 years and older, we conducted multivariable logistic regression and multivariable negative binomial regression to examine associations between discrimination and HRQOL. Furthermore, potential effect modification was tested by gender, ethnicity, and social support.

Results: Associations were found between everyday racial discrimination and days of poor physical health (incidence rate ratio, IRR = 1.05), mental health (IRR = 1.03), and activity limitation (IRR = 1.05). Stronger significant associations were observed between major racial discrimination and days of poor physical health (IRR = 1.21), mental health (IRR = 1.16), and activity limitation (IRR = 1.53), adjusting for all covariates. Racial discrimination was not associated with poor self-rated health. In addition, gender significantly modified the relationship between continuous racial discrimination and activity limitation days with associations of greater magnitude among men, while social support significantly modified the association between categorized major racial discrimination and physically unhealthy days. When stratified, the association was only significant among those with low social support (IRR = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.60, 5.79) as opposed to high social support.

Conclusions: This study supports the association between racial discrimination and worse HRQOL among Asian Americans, which can inform future interventions, especially among men and those with low social support, aimed at improving the quality of life in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-021-01067-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176876PMC
June 2021

Effect of aggressive diuresis in acute heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Aims: Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) had distinct haemodynamic characteristics in the setting of acute heart failure. The aim of our study is to evaluate the differential response to aggressive diuresis in HFrEF and HFpEF.

Methods And Results: Patients in the Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation trial with left ventricular ejection fraction measurement were included (n = 300) and classified into HFrEF [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 40%] (n = 193) and HFpEF (LVEF ≥ 40%) (n = 107). Effect of high-dose vs. low-dose furosemide strategy was compared separately in HFrEF and HFpEF. In HFrEF, high-dose strategy did not increase change in creatinine or cystatin C at 72 h [treatment difference: -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.14 to 0.03 mg/dL; P = 0.23 for creatinine, and treatment difference: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.15 to 0.02 mg/dL; P = 0.15 for cystatin C] compared with low-dose strategy, but there were significantly more net fluid loss, weight loss, and congestion-free patients at 72 h in high-dose group. It was also associated with a significantly lower risk of composite clinical outcome of death, total hospitalizations, and unscheduled visits due to heart failure. In HFpEF, high-dose strategy significantly increased change in creatinine and cystatin C at 72 h (treatment difference: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.02-0.30 mg/dL; P = 0.03 for creatinine, and treatment difference: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.09-0.43 mg/dL; P = 0.003 for cystatin C), but did not significantly affect net fluid loss, weight loss, proportion of congestion-free patients at 72 h, and risk of the composite clinical outcome.

Conclusions: Acute heart failure on the basis of HFrEF and HFpEF responded differently to aggressive diuresis. Future trials should be designed separately for HFrEF and HFpEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13453DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparative and evolutionary analyses reveal conservation and divergence of the notch pathway in lophotrochozoa.

Sci Rep 2021 May 31;11(1):11378. Epub 2021 May 31.

CAS and Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, 266071, China.

Lophotrochozoan species exhibit wide morphological diversity; however, the molecular basis underlying this diversity remains unclear. Here, we explored the evolution of Notch pathway genes across 37 metazoan species via phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary studies with emphasis on the lophotrochozoans. We displayed the components of Notch pathway in metazoans and found that Delta and Hes/Hey-related genes, as well as their functional domains, are duplicated in lophotrochozoans. Comparative transcriptomics analyses allow us to pinpoint sequence divergence of multigene families in the Notch signalling pathway. We identified the duplication mechanism of a mollusc-specific gene, Delta2, and found it displayed complementary expression throughout development. Furthermore, we found the functional diversification not only in expanded genes in the Notch pathway (Delta and Hes/Hey-related genes), but also in evolutionary conservative genes (Notch, Presenilin, and Su(H)). Together, this comprehensive study demonstrates conservation and divergence within the Notch pathway, reveals evolutionary relationships among metazoans, and provides evidence for the occurrence of developmental diversity in lophotrochozoans, as well as a basis for future gene function studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90800-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166818PMC
May 2021

Silencing of KIF18B restricts proliferation and invasion and enhances the chemosensitivity of breast cancer via modulating Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway.

Biofactors 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Ultrasound, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Kinesin family member 18B (KIF18B) is a new tumor-associated protein that contributes to the carcinogenesis of multiple malignancies. However, the detailed relevance of KIF18B in breast cancer has not been fully elucidated. This work aimed was to evaluate a possible relationship between KIF18B and breast cancer progression. Our findings show KIF18B is increased in breast cancer and demonstrate that high KIF18B level predicts a reduced survival rate. Cellular functional studies revealed that knockdown of KIF18B markedly reduces the proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells and enhances their chemosensitivity toward doxorubicin. Further studies showed that KIF18B modulates the level of phospho-Akt, phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and β-catenin. Notably, suppression of Akt abolished KIF18B-overexpression-induced increases in activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. In addition, re-expression of β-catenin reversed KIF18B-silencing-induced cancer-promoting effect. In vivo animal experiments elucidated that knockdown of KIF18B significantly weakened the tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells. Taken together, data of this study illustrate that KIF18B exerts a potential cancer-promoting function in breast cancer via enhancement of Wnt/β-catenin pathway through modulation of the Akt/GSK-3β axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1757DOI Listing
May 2021

Prognostic Implication of Liver Function Tests in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Without Chronic Hepatic Diseases: Insight From TOPCAT Trial.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 12;8:618816. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Liver dysfunction is prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF), but the prognostic significance of liver function tests (LFTs) remains controversial. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) had been introduced for some time, but no previous study had focused on LFTs in HFpEF. Thus, we aim to evaluate the prognostic significance of LFTs in well-defined HFpEF patients. We conveyed a analysis of the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial (TOPCAT). The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular mortality, HF hospitalization, and aborted cardiac arrest, and the secondary outcomes were cardiovascular mortality and HF hospitalization. In Cox proportional hazards models, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were not associated with any of the outcomes. On the contrary, increases in total bilirubin (TBIL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were associated with increased risks of the primary outcome [TBIL: adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.26; ALP: adjusted HR, 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21], cardiovascular mortality (TBIL: adjusted HR, 1.16; 95% CI 1.02-1.31; ALP: adjusted HR, 1.16; 95% CI 1.05-1.28), and HF hospitalization (TBIL: adjusted HR, 1.22; 95% CI 1.12-1.33; ALP: adjusted HR, 1.12; 95% CI 1.03-1.23). Elevated serum cholestasis markers TBIL and ALP were significantly associated with a poor outcome in HFpEF patients without chronic hepatic diseases, while elevated ALT and AST were not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.618816DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153182PMC
May 2021

LncRNA ILF3-AS1 promotes cell migration, invasion and EMT process in hepatocellular carcinoma via the miR-628-5p/MEIS2 axis to activate the Notch pathway.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, No. 36, Sanhao Street, Heping District, Shenyang 110000, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are essential indicators for hepatocellular carcinoma. LncRNAs can exert the same functions as their antisense mRNAs. ILF3 is an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma. ILF3 divergent transcript (ILF3-AS1) is the antisense RNA of ILF3, and has been reported as an oncogene in various cancers.

Aims: To explore the role of lncRNA ILF3-AS1 in malignant phenotypes of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Methods And Results: RT-qPCR analysis revealed that ILF3-AS1 was significantly upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The hepatocellular carcinoma cell viability was suppressed by silenced ILF3-AS1. Transwell and wound healing assays showed that ILF3-AS1 downregulation inhibited cell invasion and migration. The levels of proteins associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and the Notch pathway were detected by western blot analysis. Luciferase reporter, RNA pull down and RIP assays were used to investigate the relationship between ILF3-AS1 and downstream target genes. ILF3-AS1 competed with meis homeobox 2 (MEIS2) for miR-628-5p in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. ILF3-AS1 elevated the levels of key proteins on the Notch pathway. Rescue assays demonstrated that MEIS2 reversed the antitumor effects of silenced ILF3-AS1 on hepatocellular carcinoma. In vivo assays demonstrated that ILF3-AS1 silencing inhibited the hepatocellular carcinoma tumor growth.

Conclusions: ILF3-AS1 promoted hepatocellular carcinoma progression via the Notch pathway and miR-628-5p/MEIS2 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.04.036DOI Listing
May 2021

Nuclear exosome HMGB3 secreted by nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells promotes tumour metastasis by inducing angiogenesis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 28;12(6):554. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Xisi Road 20, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu Province, China.

Distant metastasis accompanied by angiogenesis is the main cause of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)-related death. Nuclear exosomes (nEXOs) are potential tumour biomarkers. High mobility group box 3 (HMGB3), a nuclear protein, is known to be overexpressed in cancers. However, its role in NPC has not been elucidated. Here, we explore for the first time the function of nEXO HMGB3 in tumour angiogenesis involved in NPC metastasis using a series of in vitro experiments with NPC cell lines and clinical specimens and in vivo experiments with tumour xenograft zebrafish angiogenesis model. We found a high expression of HMGB3 in NPC, accompanied by the formation of micronuclei, to be associated with metastasis. Furthermore, the NPC-secreted HMGB3 expression was associated with tumour angiogenesis. Moreover, HMGB3-containing nEXOs, derived from the micronuclei of NPC cells, were ingested by the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and accelerated angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, western blotting and flow cytometry analysis showed that circulating nEXO HMGB3 positively correlated with NPC metastasis. In summary, nEXO HMGB3 can be a significant biomarker of NPC metastasis and provide a novel basis for anti-angiogenesis therapy in clinical metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03845-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163785PMC
May 2021

Aberrant microRNA expression in B lymphocytes from patients with primary warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

Autoimmunity 2021 May 28:1-11. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Hematology, General Hospital Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Objective: To screen and analyze the micro-Ribonucleic Acid (miRNA) expression profile in B lymphocytes from patients with autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) using high-throughput sequencing.

Methods: Twelve patients with warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (wAIHA) and twelve healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. CD19 B lymphocytes were isolated and purified using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). RNA was subsequently extracted from these cells and a small RNA library was created. The miRNA expression profile was analyzed using Beijing Genomics Institute Sequencing 500 (BGISEQ-500), and stem-loop real-time quantitative PCR (stem-loop qRT-PCR) was used to verify the sequencing results. Downstream target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using miRanda and TargetScan online software, and GO functional enrichment and pathway enrichment analyses were performed on these genes.

Results: Compared with HCs, 178 upregulated and 143 downregulated miRNAs were identified in wAIHA patients, and stem-loop qRT-PCR of four randomly selected differentially expressed miRNAs verified the sequencing results. Ninety-five significantly enriched GO terms and eighty-five significantly enriched pathways were identified. Genes targeted by differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be mainly involved in the regulation of signal transduction, metabolic processes, immune reactions, and neoplastic disease development.

Conclusion: The expression of miRNAs in B lymphocytes from patients with primary wAIHA was deregulated, and this phenomenon may be involved in the pathogenesis of wAIHA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08916934.2021.1931842DOI Listing
May 2021

Deeply learned broadband encoding stochastic hyperspectral imaging.

Light Sci Appl 2021 May 25;10(1):108. Epub 2021 May 25.

State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

Many applications requiring both spectral and spatial information at high resolution benefit from spectral imaging. Although different technical methods have been developed and commercially available, computational spectral cameras represent a compact, lightweight, and inexpensive solution. However, the tradeoff between spatial and spectral resolutions, dominated by the limited data volume and environmental noise, limits the potential of these cameras. In this study, we developed a deeply learned broadband encoding stochastic hyperspectral camera. In particular, using advanced artificial intelligence in filter design and spectrum reconstruction, we achieved 7000-11,000 times faster signal processing and ~10 times improvement regarding noise tolerance. These improvements enabled us to precisely and dynamically reconstruct the spectra of the entire field of view, previously unreachable with compact computational spectral cameras.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-021-00545-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149860PMC
May 2021

Preliminary investigation on iodine nutrition in captive giant pandas.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Sep 18;67:126780. Epub 2021 May 18.

Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, 610081, Chengdu, China; Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife, 610081, Chengdu, China; Sichuan Academy of Giant Panda, 610081, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Background/objective: The giant panda belongs to the family Ursidae and, as a species of bear, still retains the simple digestive system of a Carnivoran. However, under the pressure of a specific habitat they had to adapt to a plant mono-diet consisting of bamboo with different species and growth stages around the year. A plant-based diet has relatively low iodine content with risk of iodine deficiency. Furthermore, bamboo contains cyanogenic glycosides releasing cyanide whose detoxification metabolite the thiocyanate acts as antagonist against iodine uptake and storage in the thyroid. To date very little is known about the iodine nutritional status of the giant panda, thus this study was conducted to receive the first information about the iodine nutrition of captive giant panda.

Subjects/methods: Here we investigated the iodine content of bamboo with different plant parts/vegetation stage and species and further compounds of the captive giant panda diet. Next, the urinary iodine (UI) and urinary thiocyanate (UT) levels of infant, sub-adult, adult and geriatric captive giant pandas was measured during the periods when the pandas consume both bamboo leaves- and culm (bamboo leaf-culm stage). Afterwards, the UI of 19 adult giant pandas was measured again for the different iodine intake during bamboo shoot stage. Finally, in this study part also the fecal iodine concentration was analyzed for calculation of total iodine excretion in relation to the iodine intake.

Results: Bamboo leaves had the highest iodine content (453 μg/kg dry matter (DM)), followed by the shoots (84 μg/kg DM, p <  0.05), while bamboo culm had the lowest value (12 μg/kg DM, p <  0.05). During bamboo leaf-culm stage, giant pandas of different age groups had different UI and UT levels (p <  0.05). Furthermore, UI and UT were positively correlated among sub-adult, adult and geriatric giant pandas (p <  0.05). In adult giant pandas during bamboo shoot stage, the iodine excretion in feces was not different from that in urine while their total iodine excretion was less than their iodine intake (p <  0.05). Moreover, during bamboo shoot stage, the UI level of adult giant pandas was much lower than noted during bamboo leaf-culm stage (p <  0.05).

Conclusions: Our results indicate that UI of captive giant pandas was related to their age as well as to the vegetation stage/part of bamboo they consumed reflecting a different periodic iodine supply. Thiocyanate and fecal excretion should be emphasized when considering the iodine nutrition of giant pandas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126780DOI Listing
September 2021

The ORF8 protein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates immune evasion through down-regulating MHC-Ι.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 06;118(23)

Institute of Human Virology, Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control of Ministry of Education, Guangdong Engineering Research Center for Antimicrobial Agent and Immunotechnology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, 510080, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China;

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic and has claimed over 2 million lives worldwide. Although the genetic sequences of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have high homology, the clinical and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 differ significantly from those of SARS. How and whether SARS-CoV-2 evades (cellular) immune surveillance requires further elucidation. In this study, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to major histocompability complex class Ι (MHC-Ι) down-regulation both in vitro and in vivo. The viral protein encoded by open reading frame 8 (ORF8) of SARS-CoV-2, which shares the least homology with SARS-CoV among all viral proteins, directly interacts with MHC-Ι molecules and mediates their down-regulation. In ORF8-expressing cells, MHC-Ι molecules are selectively targeted for lysosomal degradation via autophagy. Thus, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells are much less sensitive to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Because ORF8 protein impairs the antigen presentation system, inhibition of ORF8 could be a strategy to improve immune surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2024202118DOI Listing
June 2021

Perceived Stress and Molecular-BV in the NIH Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Vaginal microbiota provide the first line of defense against urogenital infections primarily through protective actions of Lactobacillus spp. Perceived stress increases susceptibility to infection through several mechanisms, including suppression of immune function. We investigated if stress was associated with deleterious changes to vaginal bacterial composition in a subsample of 572 women in the Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora, sampled from 1999 through 2002. Using Cox proportional-hazard models, both unadjusted and adjusted for sociodemographics and sexual behaviors, participants who exhibited a 5 unit-increase in Cohen's perceived stress scale had greater risk (aHR=1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.74) of developing molecular bacterial vaginosis (BV), a state with low Lactobacillus abundance and diverse anaerobic bacteria. A 5-unit stress increase was also associated with greater risks for transitioning from the L. iners-dominated community state type (26% higher) to molecular-BV (aHR=1.26, 95% CI 1.01-1.56) or maintaining molecular-BV from baseline (aHR=1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.47). Inversely, women with baseline molecular-BV reporting a 5-unit stress increase were less likely to transition to microbiota dominated by L. crispatus, L. gasseri, or L. jensenii (aHR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.99). These findings suggest psychosocial stress is associated with vaginal microbiota composition, inviting a more mechanistic exploration of the relationship between psychosocial stress and molecular-BV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab147DOI Listing
May 2021

Efficient Red Electroluminescence From Phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole-Naphtho[2,3-c][1,2,5]thiadiazole Donor-Acceptor Derivatives.

Chem Asian J 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

State Key Lab of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Department of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Avenue, 130012, Changchun, P. R. China.

Red emission is one of the three primary colors and is indispensable for full color displays. Fluorescent materials that can generate efficient red electroluminescence (EL) are limited and need to be developed. In this work, we report efficient red emitters based on phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole-naphtho[2,3-c][1,2,5]thiadiazole donor-acceptor derivatives. The molecules, abbreviated as PINzP and PINzPCN, exhibited high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) up to unity in doped films. They can also reach a relatively high PLQY of ∼30% in neat films. PINzP and PINzPCN were capable of generating efficient red EL in doped devices with a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 6.96% and 5.92%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100391DOI Listing
May 2021

inhibits family phosphatases and activates MAPK signaling pathway to maintain pluripotency in porcine induced pluripotent stem cells.

Zool Res 2021 May;42(3):377-388

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shaanxi Centre of Stem Cells Engineering and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

LIN28A, an RNA-binding protein, plays an important role in porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the function of in the maintenance of pluripotency in piPSCs remains unclear. Here, we explored the function of in piPSCs based on its overexpression and knockdown. We performed total RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of piPSCs and detected the expression levels of relevant genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining. Results indicated that piPSC proliferation ability decreased following knockdown. Furthermore, when expression in the LIN28A2 group was lower (by 20%) than that in the negative control knockdown group ( NC), the pluripotency of piPSCs disappeared and they differentiated into neuroectoderm cells. Results also showed that overexpression inhibited the expression of (dual-specificity phosphatases) family phosphatases and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Thus, appears to activate the MAPK signaling pathway to maintain the pluripotency and proliferation ability of piPSCs. Our study provides a new resource for exploring the functions of in piPSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175949PMC
May 2021

A unified resource and configurable model of the synapse proteome and its role in disease.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9967. Epub 2021 May 11.

The School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Genes encoding synaptic proteins are highly associated with neuronal disorders many of which show clinical co-morbidity. We integrated 58 published synaptic proteomic datasets that describe over 8000 proteins and combined them with direct protein-protein interactions and functional metadata to build a network resource that reveals the shared and unique protein components that underpin multiple disorders. All the data are provided in a flexible and accessible format to encourage custom use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88945-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113277PMC
May 2021

Altered fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation in women with premenstrual syndrome via acupuncture at Sanyinjiao (SP6).

Ann Gen Psychiatry 2021 May 8;20(1):29. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiology, The People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi, China.

Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a prevalent gynecological disease and is significantly associated with abnormal neural activity. Acupuncture is an effective treatment on PMS in clinical practice. However, few studies have been performed to investigate whether acupuncture might modulate the abnormal neural activity in patients with PMS. Thereby, the aim of the study was to assess alterations of the brain activity induced by acupuncture stimulation in PMS patients.

Methods: Twenty PMS patients were enrolled in this study. All patients received a 6-min resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan before and after electro-acupuncturing stimulation (EAS) at Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupoint in the late luteal phase of menstrual. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) method was applied to examine the EAS-related brain changes in PMS patients.

Results: Compared with pre-EAS at SP6, increased fALFF value in several brain regions induced by SP6, including brainstem, right thalamus, bilateral insula, right paracentral lobule, bilateral cerebellum, meanwhile, decreased fALFF in the left cuneus, right precuneus, left inferior temporal cortex.

Conclusions: Our findings provide imaging evidence to support that SP6-related acupuncture stimulation may modulate the neural activity in patients with PMS. This study may partly interpret the neural mechanisms of acupuncture at SP6 which is used to treat PMS patients in clinical.

Trial Registration: The study was registered on http://www.chictr.org.cn . The Clinical Trial Registration Number is ChiCTR-OPC-15005918, registry in 29/01/2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12991-021-00349-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106846PMC
May 2021

Correction to: The peptide mimicking small extracellular ring domain of CD82 inhibits tumor cell migration in vitro and metastasis in vivo.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Jul;147(7):1935

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03649-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Electrospun cobalt Prussian blue analogue-derived nanofibers for oxygen reduction reaction and lithium-ion batteries.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Oct 21;599:280-290. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Applied Physics and Materials, Wuyi University, Jiangmen, China; Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, China. Electronic address:

Electrospinning is an effective technique to fabricate one-dimensional materials. In this study, cobalt-embedded carbon nanofibers ([email protected]) are obtained via carbonization of electrospun cobalt Prussian blue analogue (Co-Co PBA) under nitrogen atmosphere. The [email protected] have metallic cobalt surrounded by graphitic carbon shells and possess high specific surface area, rich porosity, high graphitic degree, and rational nitrogen doping. The structure merits endow them with excellent electrocatalytic performances for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR): an onset potential of 0.867 V vs. RHE and 0.784 V vs. RHE at j =  - 3 mA cm with a four-electron transfer process. Through a further mild oxidation process, we obtain CoO nanoparticles-embedded nitrogen-doped carbon ([email protected]) with spindle-like morphology. When working as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), [email protected] show high specific capacity, good stability, and excellent rate capability. The [email protected] anode delivers a discharge specific capacity of 1404 mA h g after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g and about 500 mA h g after 500 cycles at 2000 mA g. The diffusion- and capacitive-controlled processes both contribute to the charge storage of the [email protected] electrode. This study provides a new strategy to fabricate the excellent electrocatalysts for ORR and anode materials for LIBs via facile electrospinning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.04.102DOI Listing
October 2021

Provincial Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Gasoline and Plug-in Electric Vehicles in China: Comparison from the Consumption-Based Electricity Perspective.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 4;55(10):6944-6956. Epub 2021 May 4.

Aramco Services Company, Aramco Research Center-Detroit, Novi, Michigan 48377, United States.

China has implemented strong incentives to promote the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In this study, we compare the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities of PEVs with those of gasoline vehicles at the provincial level in the year 2017 by considering the heterogeneity in the consumption-based electricity mix and climate impacts on vehicle fuel economy. Results show a high variation of provincial WTW GHG emission intensities for battery electric vehicles (BEVs, 22-293 g COeq/km) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs, 82-298 g COeq/km) in contrast to gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs, 227-245 g COeq/km) and gasoline hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, 141-164 g COeq/km). Due to the GHG-intensive coal-based electricity and cold weather, WTW GHG emission intensities of BEVs and PHEVs are higher than those of gasoline ICEVs in seven and ten northern provinces in China, respectively. WTW GHG emission intensities of gasoline HEVs, on the other hand, are lower in 18 and 26 provinces than those of BEVs and PHEVs, respectively. The analysis suggests that province-specific PEV and electric grid development policies should be considered for GHG emission reductions of on-road transportation in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08217DOI Listing
May 2021

Observational cohort study of the effect of a single lubricant exposure during transvaginal ultrasound on cell-shedding from the vaginal epithelium.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(5):e0250153. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

The outer layers of the vaginal epithelium (VE) are important because they accumulate glycogen which, under optimal conditions, Lactobacillus spp. consume to grow and acidify the vaginal microenvironment with lactic acid. We hypothesized that exposure to lubricant, for example in the conduct of a transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS), may contribute to the shedding of mature epithelial cells, exposing immature cells. Cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) was sampled at four time points by menstrual cup (Softdisc™) from 50 women referred for TVUS, during which a controlled volume of lubricant was applied to the TVUS wand. Samples were collected (1) immediately before TVUS and (2) 6-12 hours, (3) within one week, and (4) two weeks after TVUS. Clinical vaginal lubricants are similar to commercial lubricants, and often have a high osmolality or pH, and contain bactericides such as methylparaben and propylparaben. The number and maturity of epithelial cells in each CVF sample were measured by quantitative and differential fluorimetry (maturity index, MI). Comparisons of cell-counts and maturity were made by paired Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Among women with a high pre-TVUS MI (> 3), there was a decrease in median cell-count and mean MI in the sample collected 6-12 hours after TVUS (p<0.001, n = 26 and p < 0.001, n = 26, respectively). For these women, cell-count and MI remained lower in the sample collected within the subsequent week (p<0.001, n = 29 and p<0.01, n = 29, respectively), and MI remained lower in the sample collected within two weeks of TVUS (p<0.01, n = 25), compared to the pre-TVUS sample. Among participants with a low pre-TVUS MI (< 3), cell-count was higher in the sample collected within two weeks of TVUS compared to the pre-TVUS sample (p = 0.03, n = 15), but no significant changes in MI were observed. Results were similar when restricted to reproductive-age women. This preliminary data indicates hypertonic vaginal lubricants may increase vaginal epithelial cell shedding.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250153PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092793PMC
May 2021

Improving the Solubility, Dissolution, and Bioavailability of Metronidazole via Cocrystallization with Ethyl Gallate.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 14;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Pharmaceutical Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Metronidazole (MTZ) is an antibacterial drug widely used for the treatment of protozoan and anaerobic infections in humans and animals. However, its low bioavailability necessitates the frequent administration of a high dose to attain an effective plasma concentration profile for therapy. To reduce the dose of MTZ, we have prepared a new cocrystal between MTZ and ethyl gallate (EG). The solid-state properties of MTZ-EG were characterized using complimentary techniques, including thermal, spectroscopic, microscopic, and X-ray crystallographic methods. The MTZ-EG cocrystal exhibits a higher solubility and faster dissolution than MTZ. The bioavailability of MTZ in rats was increased by 36% when MTZ-EG was used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13040546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070254PMC
April 2021

Lignans from and their antioxidant activity.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Apr 28:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

College of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, People's Republic of China.

A new aryltetralin lignan, bupleroid A (), along with ten known analogues (-) were isolated from The structures of these isolates were determined by 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, and ECD data analysis. In addition, the DPPH radical scavenging capacities of all compounds were evaluated. Compound exhibited good DPPH radical scavenging activity at a concentration of 50 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1917570DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of antipsychotic drugs and potassium channel modulators on spectral properties of local field potentials in mouse hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Jun 24;191:108572. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded intracranially display a range of location-specific oscillatory spectra which have been related to cognitive processes. Although the mechanisms producing LFPs are not completely understood, it is likely that voltage-gated ion channels which produce action potentials and patterned discharges play a significant role. It is also known that antipsychotic drugs (APDs) affect LFP spectra and a direct inhibitory effect on voltage-gated potassium channels has been reported. Additionally, voltage-gated potassium channels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, a disorder for which APDs are primary therapies. In this study we sought to: i) better characterise the effects of two APDs on LFPs spectra and connectivity measures and ii) examine the effects of potassium channel modulators on LFPs and potential overlap of effects with APDs. Intracranial electrodes were implanted in hippocampus (HIP) and pre-frontal cortex (PFC) of C57BL/6J mice; power spectra, coherence and phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling were measured. Drugs tested were APDs haloperidol and clozapine as well as voltage-gated potassium channel modulators (KVMs) 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), tetraethylammonium, retigabine and E-4031. Both APDs and KVMs significantly reduced gamma power except 4-AP, which conversely increased gamma power. Clozapine and retigabine additionally reduced gamma coherence between HIP and PFC, while 4-AP demonstrated the opposite effect. Phase-amplitude coupling between theta and gamma oscillations in HIP was significantly reduced by the administration of haloperidol and retigabine. These results provide previously undescribed effects of APDs on LFP properties and demonstrate novel modulation of LFP characteristics by KVMs that intriguingly overlap with the APD effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108572DOI Listing
June 2021

Interface Engineering Ti C MXene/Silicon Self-Powered Photodetectors with High Responsivity and Detectivity for Weak Light Applications.

Small 2021 Jun 23;17(23):e2100439. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, P. R. China.

Interfacial engineering and heterostructures designing are two efficient routes to improve photoelectric characteristics of a photodetector. Herein, a Ti C MXene/Si heterojunction photodetector with ultrahigh specific detectivity (2.03 × 10 Jones) and remarkable responsivity (402 mA W ) at zero external bias without decline as with increasing the light power is reported. This is achieved by chemically regrown interfacial SiO layer and the control of Ti C MXene thickness to suppress the dark noise current and improve the photoresponse. The photodetector demonstrates a high light on/off ratio of over 10 , an outstanding peak external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 60.3%, while it maintains an ultralow dark current at 0 V bias. Moreover, the device holds high performance with EQE of over 55% even after encapsulated with silicone, trying to resolve the air stability issue of Ti C MXene. Such a photodetector with high detectivity, high responsivity, and self-powered capability is particularly applicable to detect weak light signal, which presents high potential for imaging, communication and sensing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202100439DOI Listing
June 2021