Publications by authors named "Xin Guo"

1,058 Publications

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Detection of pseudorabies virus with a real-time recombinase-aided amplification assay.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, People's Republic of China.

Pseudorabies (PR) is an acute infectious disease of pigs caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV), which has caused great economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Reliable and timely diagnose is crucial for the surveillance, control and eradication of PR. Here, a real-time fluorescent recombinase-aided amplification (real-time RAA) assay was established to detect PRV. Primers and probes were designed based on the conserved regions of the PRV gE gene. The assay was specific for the detection of wild-type PRV, showing no cross-reactivity with other important porcine viruses (including PRV gE-deleted vaccine strains). Analytical sensitivity of the assay was three 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID ) of PRV DNA per reaction with 95% reliability, which is comparable to that of a PRV-specific real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. In diagnosis of 206 clinical tissue samples, the diagnose accordance rate between the real-time RAA assay and qPCR assay was 97.57% (201/206). Interestingly, the amplified products of real-time RAA could be visualized under a portable blue light instrument, making it possible for the rapid detection of PRV in resource-limited settings and on-site screening. Therefore, our developed real-time RAA assay is a diagnostic method for the rapid detection of PRV in the field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14241DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of association studies and a systematic review and meta-analysis of VDR polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jul;100(28):e25934

Institute of Evidence-Based Medicine, Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Shanxi, Changzhi city, PR China.

Abstract: Numerous original studies and 4 published meta-analyses have reported the association between the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) BsmI, FokI, ApaI, and TaqI polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. However, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, an updated meta-analysis was performed to further explore these issues.To further explore the association between the VDR BsmI, FokI, ApaI, and TaqI polymorphisms and T2DM risk.PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and Wanfang databases were searched. The following search strategy were used: (VDR OR vitamin D receptor) AND (polymorphism OR variant OR mutation) AND (diabetes OR mellitus OR diabetes mellitus). Pooled crude odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were applied to evaluate the strength of association in 5 genetic models. Statistical heterogeneity, the test of publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were carried out using the STATA software (Version 12.0). To evaluate the credibility of statistically significant associations, we applied the false-positive report probabilities (FPRP) and Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) test.Overall, the VDR BsmI polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased T2DM risk in Asians; the VDR FokI polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased T2DM risk in Asians, African countries, and Asian countries; the VDR ApaI polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased T2DM risk in Caucasians and North American countries.On the VDR ApaI polymorphism, a significantly increased T2DM risk was found in a mixed population. However, when we further performed a sensitivity analysis, FPRP, and BFDP test, less-credible positive results were identified (all FPRP > 0.2 and BFDP > 0.8) in any significant association.In summary, this study strongly indicates that all significant associations were less credible positive results, rather than from true associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284732PMC
July 2021

Identification and Characterization of Robust Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prognostic Subtypes Based on an Integrative Metabolite-Protein Interaction Network.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 11:e2100311. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, 116023, China.

Metabolite-protein interactions (MPIs) play key roles in cancer metabolism. However, our current knowledge about MPIs in cancers remains limited due to the complexity of cancer cells. Herein, the authors construct an integrative MPI network and propose a MPI network based hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) subtyping and mechanism exploration workflow. Based on the expressions of hub proteins on the MPI network, two prognosis-distinctive HCC subtypes are identified. Meanwhile, multiple interdependent features of the poor prognostic subtype are observed, including hypoxia, DNA hypermethylation of metabolic pathways, fatty acid accumulation, immune pathway up-regulation, and exhausted T-cell infiltration. Notably, the immune pathway up-regulation is probably induced by accumulated unsaturated fatty acids which are predicted to interact with multiple immune regulators like SRC and TGFB1. Moreover, based on tumor microenvironment compositions, the poor prognostic subtype is further divided into two sub-populations showing remarkable differences in metabolism. The subtyping shows a strong consistency across multiple HCC cohorts including early-stage HCC. Overall, the authors redefine robust HCC prognosis subtypes and identify potential MPIs linking metabolism to immune regulations, thus promoting understanding and clinical applications about HCC metabolism heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100311DOI Listing
July 2021

Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of cold and darkness-induced pellicle cysts of Scrippsiella trochoidea.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 10;22(1):526. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, School of Life Science, South China Normal University, West 55 of Zhongshan Avenue, 510631, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Dinoflagellates are a group of unicellular organisms that are a major component of aquatic eukaryotes and important contributors to marine primary production. Nevertheless, many dinoflagellates are considered harmful algal bloom (HAB) species due to their detrimental environmental and human health impacts. Cyst formation is widely perceived as an adaptive strategy of cyst-forming dinoflagellates in response to adverse environmental conditions. Dinoflagellate cysts play critical roles in bloom dynamics. However, our insight into the underlying molecular basis of encystment is still limited. To investigate the molecular processes regulating encystment in dinoflagellates, transcriptome and metabolome investigations were performed on cold and darkness-induced pellicle cysts of Scrippsiella trochoidea.

Results: No significant transcriptional response was observed at 2 h; however, massive transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming occurred at 5 h and in pellicle cysts. The gene-to-metabolite network demonstrated that the initial transformation from vegetative cells into pellicle cysts was highly energy demanding through the activation of catabolism, including glycolysis, β-oxidation, TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, to cope with cold-darkness-induced stress. However, after transformation into pellicle cysts, the metabolism was greatly reduced, and various sugars, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids accumulated to prolong survival. The identification of 56 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to signal transduction indicated that S. trochoidea received a cold-darkness signal that activated multiple signal transduction pathways, leading to encystment. The elevated expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in ROS stress suggested that pellicle cysts respond to increased oxidative stress. Several cell cycle-related genes were repressed. Intriguingly, 11 DEGs associated with sexual reproduction suggested that pellicle cysts (or some portion thereof) may be a product of sexual reproduction.

Conclusions: This study provides the first transcriptome and metabolome analyses conducted during the encystment of S. trochoidea, an event that requires complex regulatory mechanisms and impacts on population dynamics. The results reveal comprehensive molecular regulatory processes underlying life cycle regulation in dinoflagellates involving signal transduction, gene expression and metabolite profile, which will improve our ability to understand and monitor dinoflagellate blooms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07840-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8272339PMC
July 2021

Elastic ice microfibers.

Science 2021 Jul;373(6551):187-192

State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Ice is known to be a rigid and brittle crystal that fractures when deformed. We demonstrate that ice grown as single-crystal ice microfibers (IMFs) with diameters ranging from 10 micrometers to less than 800 nanometers is highly elastic. Under cryotemperature, we could reversibly bend the IMFs up to a maximum strain of 10.9%, which approaches the theoretical elastic limit. We also observed a pressure-induced phase transition of ice from Ih to II on the compressive side of sharply bent IMFs. The high optical quality allows for low-loss optical waveguiding and whispering-gallery-mode resonance in our IMFs. The discovery of these flexible ice fibers opens opportunities for exploring ice physics and ice-related technology on micro- and nanometer scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abh3754DOI Listing
July 2021

Ultrasonic structural modification of myofibrillar proteins from Coregonus peled improves emulsification properties.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Aug 3;76:105659. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

School of Food Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang 832003, China. Electronic address:

This study evaluated the effects of high intensity ultrasonication (HIU, 100, 150, 200, and 250 W) and treatment time (0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 min) on the structure and emulsification properties of myofibrillar proteins (MPs) from Coregonus peled. These investigations were conducted using an ultrasonic generator at a frequency of 20 kHz (ultrasonic probe). Analysis of the carbonyl content and total number of sulfhydryl groups showed that HIU significantly improved the oxidative modification of MPs (P < 0.05). SDS-PAGE profiling showed significant degradation of the myosin heavy chain (P < 0.05). In addition, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that HIU altered these treated MP secondary structures, this was due to molecular unfolding and stretching, exposing interior hydrophobic groups. Particle size analysis showed that HIU treatment reduced particle sizes. Solubility, emulsification capacity, and emulsion stability were improved significantly, and each decreased with an increase in treatment time (up to 12 min), indicating aggregation with prolonged sonication. These results indicate that HIU could improve the emulsification properties of MPs from C. peled, demonstrating a promising method for fish protein processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273264PMC
August 2021

Dual-specificity Phosphatase 9 protects against Cardiac Hypertrophy by targeting ASK1.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 27;17(9):2193-2204. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The functions of dual-specificity phosphatase 9 (DUSP9) in hepatic steatosis and metabolic disturbance during nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were discussed in our prior study. However, its roles in the pathophysiology of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy remain to be illustrated. This study attempted to uncover the potential contributions and underpinning mechanisms of DUSP9 in cardiac hypertrophy. Utilizing the gain-and-loss-of-functional approaches of DUSP9 the cardiac phenotypes arising from the pathological, echocardiographic, and molecular analysis were quantified. The results showed increased levels of DUSP9 in hypertrophic mice heart and angiotensin II treated cardiomyocytes. In accordance with the results of cellular hypertrophy in response to angiotensin II, cardiac hypertrophy exaggeration, fibrosis, and malfunction triggered by pressure overload was evident in the case of cardiac-specific conditional knockout of DUSP9. In contrast, transgenic mice hearts with DUSP9 overexpression portrayed restoration of the hypertrophic phenotypes. Further explorations of molecular mechanisms indicated the direct interaction of DUSP9 with ASK1, which further repressed p38 and JNK signaling pathways. Moreover, blocking ASK1 with ASK1-specific inhibitor compensated the pro-hypertrophic effects induced by DUSP9 deficiency in cardiomyocytes. The main findings of this study suggest the potential of DUSP9 in alleviating cardiac hypertrophy at least partially by repressing ASK1, thereby looks promising as a prospective target against cardiac hypertrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.57130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241718PMC
May 2021

HIF-1α Affects the Neural Stem Cell Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells via MFN2-Mediated Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:671704. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Central Laboratory, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays pivotal roles in maintaining pluripotency, and the developmental potential of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). However, the mechanisms underlying HIF-1α regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that HIF-1α knockdown significantly inhibits the pluripotency and self-renewal potential of hiPSCs. We further uncovered that the disruption of HIF-1α promotes the NSC differentiation and development potential and . Mechanistically, HIF-1α knockdown significantly enhances mitofusin2 (MFN2)-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and excessive mitochondrial fusion could also promote the NSC differentiation potential of hiPSCs via activating the β-catenin signaling. Additionally, MFN2 significantly reverses the effects of HIF-1α overexpression on the NSC differentiation potential and β-catenin activity of hiPSCs. Furthermore, Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibition could also reverse the effects of HIF-1α knockdown on the NSC differentiation potential of hiPSCs. This study provided a novel strategy for improving the directed differentiation efficiency of functional NSCs. These findings are important for the development of potential clinical interventions for neurological diseases caused by metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.671704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8256873PMC
June 2021

Correlation between C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Ratio and Disease Activity in Patients with Axial Spondyloarthritis.

Dis Markers 2021 12;2021:6642486. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510317, China.

Background: The C-reactive protein (CRP) to albumin (ALB) ratio (CAR) has emerged as a novel inflammatory biomarker. This study was designed to investigate the role of CAR in the disease activity of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA).

Methods: A total of 241 patients and 61 healthy controls were retrospectively enrolled in this study. AxSpA patients were further divided into the inactive group ( = 176) and active group ( = 65) according to Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) cutoff value of 4. Laboratory data and clinical assessment indices were recorded. Spearman's correlation analysis, receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were performed.

Results: In axSpA patients, CAR was significantly higher than the healthy group ( < 0.001). Similarly, axSpA patients in the active group had higher CAR than the inactive group ( < 0.001). Besides, CAR was positively correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) ( = 0.704, < 0.001), CRP ( = 0.996, < 0.001), BASDAI ( = 0.329, < 0.001), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) ( = 0.330, < 0.001). ROC curve analysis suggested that the area under the curve (AUC) of CAR for axSpA of the active group was 0.701, which was higher than that of CRP and ESR. The optimal cutoff point of CAR for axSpA of the active group was 0.3644, with a sensitivity and specificity of 58.5% and 79.0%. Binary logistic analysis results revealed that CAR was an independent predictive factor for axSpA disease activity (odds ratio = 4.673, 95% CI: 1.423-15.348, = 0.011).

Conclusions: CAR was increased in axSpA and axSpA of the active group. CAR may be a novel and reliable indicator for axSpA disease activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6642486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216814PMC
June 2021

KCNN4-mediated Ca/MET/AKT axis is promising for targeted therapy of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Sir Run Run Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China.

As a member of the potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily, increasing evidence suggests that KCNN4 was associated with malignancies. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms of KCNN4 in PDAC have been little explored. In this work, we demonstrated that the level of KCNN4 in PDAC was abnormally elevated, and the overexpression of KCNN4 was induced by transcription factor AP-1. KCNN4 was closely correlated with unfavorable clinicopathologic characteristics and poor survival. Functionally, we found that overexpression of KCNN4 promoted PDAC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Conversely, the knockdown of KCNN4 attenuated the growth and motility of PDAC cells. In addition to these, knockdown of KCNN4 promoted PDAC cell apoptosis and led to cell cycle arrest in the S phase. In mechanistic investigations, RNA-sequence revealed that the MET-mediated AKT axis was essential for KCNN4, encouraging PDAC cell proliferation and migration. Collectively, these findings reveal a function of KCNN4 in PDAC and suggest it's an attractive therapeutic target and tumor marker. Our studies underscore a better understanding of the biological mechanism of KCNN4 in PDAC and suggest novel strategies for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00688-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Application of omics- and multi-omics-based techniques for natural product target discovery.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 25;141:111833. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Medicine Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Natural products continue to be an unparalleled source of pharmacologically active lead compounds because of their unprecedented structures and unique biological activities. Natural product target discovery is a vital component of natural product-based medicine translation and development and is required to understand and potentially reduce mechanisms that may be associated with off-target side effects and toxicity. Omics-based techniques, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and bioinformatics, have become recognized as effective tools needed to construct innovative strategies to discover natural product targets. Although considerable progress has been made, the successful discovery of natural product targets remains a challenging time-consuming process that has come to increasingly rely on the effective integration of multi-omics-based technologies to create emerging panomics (a.k.a., integrative omics, pan-omics, multiomics)-based strategies. This review summarizes a series of successful studies regarding the application of integrative omics-based methods in natural product target discovery. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed, with a particular focus on the systematic integration of multi-omics strategies. Further, emerging micro-scale single-cell-based techniques are introduced, especially to deal with minute natural product samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111833DOI Listing
June 2021

Isomeric anthracene diimide polymers.

Chem Sci 2021 Jan 13;12(8):2848-2852. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy Zhongshan Road 457 Dalian 116023 China

N-type semiconducting polymers are attractive for organic electronics, but desirable electron-deficient units for synthesizing such polymers are still lacking. As a cousin of rylene diimides such as naphthalene diimide (NDI) and perylene diimide (PDI), anthracene diimide (ADI) is a promising candidate; its polymers, however, have not been achieved yet because of synthetic challenges for its polymerizable monomers. Herein, we present ingenious synthesis of two dibromide ADI monomers with dibromination at differently symmetrical positions of the ADI core, which are further employed to construct ADI polymers. More interestingly, the two obtained ADI polymers possess the same main-chain and alkyl-chain structures but different backbone conformations owing to varied linking positions between repeating units. This feature enables their different optoelectronic properties and film-state packing behavior. The ADI polymers offer first examples of conjugated polymer conformational isomers and are highly promising as a new class of n-type semiconductors for various organic electronics applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc06164fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179385PMC
January 2021

Au nanoparticle-controlled formation of metallic and oxidized Pt nanoparticles on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets for H evolution.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jul;50(27):9529-9539

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Material Physics, Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, and Tianjin Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Materials and Devices, and National Demonstration Center for Experimental Function Materials Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China.

Surface decoration of noble-metal cocatalysts on graphitic phase carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with high efficiency and trace content for water splitting is exciting but difficult to achieve. Herein, we report the anchoring of Au and metallic/oxidized Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on g-C3N4 as cocatalysts via a photoreduction process for enhancing photocatalytic H2 production. Au NPs are preferentially decorated on g-C3N4, which can control the formation of metallic/oxidized Pt complex species. The well dispersed Au and metallic/oxidized Pt NPs improved the light-harvesting and the photo-generated carrier separation of g-C3N4. G-C3N4 sequentially decorated with Au (0.3 wt%) and metallic/oxidized Pt (0.3 wt%) cocatalysts, exhibited the highest and stable H2 evolution rates of 2560 and 139 μmol h-1 g-1 under simulated sunlight and visible light (λ ≥ 420 nm) irradiation, respectively, compared to the samples that are simultaneously and sequentially decorated with the same content of Pt and Au on g-C3N4. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the synergistic effect of Au and metallic/oxidized Pt cocatalysts, i.e., the effective localized surface plasma resonance coupling between Pt and Au NPs, as well as electron-sink function of metallic Pt, which promote the generation and transfer of more carriers from g-C3N4 to the Pt species, in addition to the superior hydrogen evolution capacity of metallic and oxidized Pt. This work maximizes the performance of noble-metal cocatalysts with minimized content and provides the possibility of realizing efficient solar-to-fuel conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00910aDOI Listing
July 2021

Printable Zinc-Ion Hybrid Micro-Capacitors for Flexible Self-Powered Integrated Units.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Nov 5;13(1):19. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, People's Republic of China.

Wearable self-powered systems integrated with energy conversion and storage devices such as solar-charging power units arouse widespread concerns in scientific and industrial realms. However, their applications are hampered by the restrictions of unbefitting size matching between integrated modules, limited tolerance to the variation of input current, reliability, and safety issues. Herein, flexible solar-charging self-powered units based on printed Zn-ion hybrid micro-capacitor as the energy storage module is developed. Unique 3D micro-/nano-architecture of the biomass kelp-carbon combined with multivalent ion (Zn) storage endows the aqueous Zn-ion hybrid capacitor with high specific capacity (196.7 mAh g at 0.1 A g). By employing an in-plane asymmetric printing technique, the fabricated quasi-solid-state Zn-ion hybrid micro-capacitors exhibit high rate, long life and energy density up to 8.2 μWh cm. After integrating the micro-capacitor with organic solar cells, the derived self-powered system presents outstanding energy conversion/storage efficiency (η = 17.8%), solar-charging cyclic stability (95% after 100 cycles), wide current tolerance, and good mechanical flexibility. Such portable, wearable, and green integrated units offer new insights into design of advanced self-powered systems toward the goal of developing highly safe, economic, stable, and long-life smart wearable electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00546-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187672PMC
November 2020

Environmental impacts of functional fillers in polylactide (PLA)-based bottles using life cycle assessment methodology.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 20;788:147852. Epub 2021 May 20.

School of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian 116034, Liaoning, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

The use of functional fillers added to PLA-based products can be beneficial in terms of cost reduction and properties improvement. The existing life cycle assessment of PLA containers mainly focuses on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission of PLA material model without fillers, and overlooked environmental impacts of functional fillers and the significant environmental problem-shifting on other indicators. This paper presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of cooking oil bottles made from PLA, PLA/Fibers and PLA/CaCO considering a wide spectrum impacts, and compares the environmental profile of them based on normalization and weighting analysis. The functional unit was set at 1000 bottles of 900 mL. The system boundary is from cradle to gate, including PLA-based particles production, bottle processing and transportation. The results showed that the contribution of the primary energy demand (PED) index of PLA-based bottles accounted for 159% to 192% of the global warming potential (GWP) index, which may be overlooked in previous studies. Compared to PLA and PLA/Fibers bottles, PLA/CaCO bottles have lower environmental impacts in most categories and the lowest integrated impact index. In terms of PLA/CaCO bottles, PLA particles and electricity contributed the most to energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) results, accounting for 63.09% and 28.26% to the integrated impacts index, respectively. The results imply that the use of fillers in PLA bottles tends to reduce the environmental impacts, especially calcium carbonate can efficiently minimize environmental impacts of PLA-based bottles. And PED, SO and NO indicators ranking above CO should be taken into consideration to avoid the environmental problem-shifting, which can provide valuable reference for the creation of the method of making biodegradable plastic and carbon neutral policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147852DOI Listing
September 2021

Ultrasensitive detection of circulating tumour DNA via deep methylation sequencing aided by machine learning.

Nat Biomed Eng 2021 Jun 15;5(6):586-599. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai, China.

The low abundance of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) in plasma samples makes the analysis of ctDNA biomarkers for the detection or monitoring of early-stage cancers challenging. Here we show that deep methylation sequencing aided by a machine-learning classifier of methylation patterns enables the detection of tumour-derived signals at dilution factors as low as 1 in 10,000. For a total of 308 patients with surgery-resectable lung cancer and 261 age- and sex-matched non-cancer control individuals recruited from two hospitals, the assay detected 52-81% of the patients at disease stages IA to III with a specificity of 96% (95% confidence interval (CI) 93-98%). In a subgroup of 115 individuals, the assay identified, at 100% specificity (95% CI 91-100%), nearly twice as many patients with cancer as those identified by ultradeep mutation sequencing analysis. The low amounts of ctDNA permitted by machine-learning-aided deep methylation sequencing could provide advantages in cancer screening and the assessment of treatment efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41551-021-00746-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Utilizing single-cell RNA sequencing for analyzing the characteristics of PBMC in patients with Kawasaki disease.

BMC Pediatr 2021 06 14;21(1):277. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

The Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Shenzhen Children's Hospital of China Medical University, Shenzhen, 518038, China.

Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the main cause of acquired heart disease in children and can lead to coronary artery lesions. This present study was designed to analyze the characteristics of KD peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) through single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and to explore the potential molecular mechanism of KD.

Methods: PBMC was collected from one healthy child and one KD patient, and was used to single-cell RNA sequencing for cell clusters identification and differently expressed gene (DEG) determination. GO function enrichment analysis of DEG in B cell and T cells were performed to explore the most active biological function in KD immune cells.

Results: Twelve cell clusters can be identified in two samples. Compared with healthy child, naive CD8+ T cell, T helper cell and B cell in KD child were decreased, mainly immune-related T cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cell were increased. Cell activation, lymphocyte activation and regulation of immune system process were 3 GO function shared by all four types of T cells and B cell.

Conclusions: Immune cell disorder appears in the KD patient at single cell level by scRNA-seq.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-021-02754-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201934PMC
June 2021

YB1 regulates miR-205/200b-ZEB1 axis by inhibiting microRNA maturation in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 Jul 10;41(7):576-595. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, Liaoning, 116023, P. R. China.

Background: Y-box binding protein 1 (YB1 or YBX1) plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, whether YB1 affects malignant transformation by modulating non-coding RNAs remains largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between YB1 and microRNAs and reveal the underlying mechanism by which YB1 impacts on tumor malignancy via miRNAs-mediated regulatory network.

Methods: The biological functions of YB1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells were investigated by cell proliferation, wound healing, and transwell invasion assays. The miRNAs dysregulated by YB1 were screened by microarray analysis in HCC cell lines. The regulation of YB1 on miR-205 and miR-200b was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, and pull-down assay. The relationships of YB1, DGCR8, Dicer, TUT4, and TUT1 were identified by pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. The cellular co-localization of YB1, DGCR8, and Dicer were detected by immunofluorescent staining. The in vivo effect of YB1 on tumor metastasis was determined by injecting MHCC97H cells transduced with YB1 shRNA or shControl via the tail vein in nude BALB/c mice. The expression levels of epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers were detected by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry assays.

Results: YB1 promoted HCC cell migration and tumor metastasis by regulating miR-205/200b-ZEB1 axis partially in a Snail-independent manner. YB1 suppressed miR-205 and miR-200b maturation by interacting with the microprocessors DGCR8 and Dicer as well as TUT4 and TUT1 via the conserved cold shock domain. Subsequently, the downregulation of miR-205 and miR-200b enhanced ZEB1 expression, thus leading to increased cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, statistical analyses on gene expression data from HCC and normal liver tissues showed that YB1 expression was positively associated with ZEB1 expression and remarkably correlated with clinical prognosis.

Conclusion: This study reveals a previously undescribed mechanism by which YB1 promotes cancer progression by regulating the miR-205/200b-ZEB1 axis in HCC cells. Furthermore, these results highlight that YB1 may play biological functions via miRNAs-mediated gene regulation, and it can serve as a potential therapeutic target in human cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286141PMC
July 2021

DanceIt: Music-Inspired Dancing Video Synthesis.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 16;30:5559-5572. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Close your eyes and listen to music, one can easily imagine an actor dancing rhythmically along with the music. These dance movements are usually made up of dance movements you have seen before. In this paper, we propose to reproduce such an inherent capability of the human-being within a computer vision system. The proposed system consists of three modules. To explore the relationship between music and dance movements, we propose a cross-modal alignment module that focuses on dancing video clips, accompanied by pre-designed music, to learn a system that can judge the consistency between the visual features of pose sequences and the acoustic features of music. The learned model is then used in the imagination module to select a pose sequence for the given music. Such pose sequence selected from the music, however, is usually discontinuous. To solve this problem, in the spatial-temporal alignment module we develop a spatial alignment algorithm based on the tendency and periodicity of dance movements to predict dance movements between discontinuous fragments. In addition, the selected pose sequence is often misaligned with the music beat. To solve this problem, we further develop a temporal alignment algorithm to align the rhythm of music and dance. Finally, the processed pose sequence is used to synthesize realistic dancing videos in the imagination module. The generated dancing videos match the content and rhythm of the music. Experimental results and subjective evaluations show that the proposed approach can perform the function of generating promising dancing videos by inputting music.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3086082DOI Listing
June 2021

An Update on the Routes for the Delivery of Donepezil.

Mol Pharm 2021 Jul 8;18(7):2482-2494. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, P.R. China.

Dementia is a significant public health problem in the 21st century. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an essential factor in dementia. Currently, the drugs used for the treatment of AD are mainly acetylcholine inhibitors (AChEIs). As an AChEI, donepezil (DP) can improve patients' cognitive ability with low side effects and has been accepted by most patients and doctors. For AD patients, the dosage regimen is also crucial due to aging and diseases. Although there are DP oral tablets on the market, there are still many problems to be solved. At present, more and more research is conducted to optimize the route of administration of DP to improve the self-administration of patients. The research fields of DP administration include oral administration, injection administration, intranasal administration, and transdermal administration. This Review is to present the development of different DP administrations and evaluates the advantages and limitations of those works, hoping to optimize the DP dosage regimen for AD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00290DOI Listing
July 2021

Is Higher Subjective Fear Predictive of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Sample of the Chinese General Public?

Front Psychiatry 2021 20;12:560602. Epub 2021 May 20.

Lab for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Faculty of Psychology and Mental Health, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

COVID-19 has taken a huge toll on medical resources and the economy and will inevitably have an impact on public mental health. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as the most common mental illness after an epidemic, must be seriously addressed. This study aimed to investigate the subjective fear of the Chinese general public during COVID-19 and to explore how it affected the development of PTSD. An online questionnaire survey was conducted among 1,009 people from January 30 to February 14, 2020 (about 1 month after the COVID-19 outbreak). The subjective fear was measured by a self-reported single-choice question. Four items from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were selected to measure the subjects' sleep quality. Their post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were measured by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Pearson correlation, hierarchical multivariate regression analysis, multiple mediator model, and bootstrapping were used in statistical analyses. Different people showed different levels of subjective fear in response to the outbreak. There was a significant positive correlation between subjective fear and the total score of PCL-5 ( = 0.513, < 0.01), meaning that the higher the degree of subjective fear, the more severe the symptoms of post-traumatic stress are. Subjective fear was an important predictor of PTSS, accounting for 24.3% of the variance. The total effect of subjective fear on PCL-5 scores was significant (total effect = 7.426, = 0.405, 95% CI = 6.631-8.221). The total indirect effect of subjective fear on PCL-5 scores through sleep quality was also significant (total indirect effect = 1.945, = 0.258, 95% CI = 1.436-2.470). Subjective fear has an important predictive effect on PTSS. In addition to the direct effect, our findings firstly demonstrate the mediating role of sleep quality in the relationship between subjective fear and PTSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.560602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172614PMC
May 2021

Identification of an intramolecular switch that controls the interaction of the helicase nsp10 with the membrane-associated nsp12 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

J Virol 2021 Jun 2:JVI0051821. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China.

A critical step in replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses is the assembly of replication and transcription complexes (RTC). We have recently mapped the nonstructural protein (nsp) interaction network of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and provided evidence by truncation mutagenesis that the recruitment of viral core replicase enzymes (nsp9 and nsp10) to membrane proteins (nsp2, nsp3, nsp5 and nsp12) is subject to regulation. Here, we went further to discover an intramolecular switch within the helicase nsp10 that controls its interaction with the membrane-associated protein nsp12. Deletion of nsp10 linker region aa.124-133 connecting the domain 1B to 1A led to complete re-localization and co-localization in the cells co-expressing nsp12. Moreover, single amino acid substitutions (e.g., nsp10 E131A and I132A) were sufficient to enable the nsp10-nsp12 interaction. Further proof came from membrane floatation assays that revealed a clear movement of nsp10 mutants, but not WT nsp10, towards the top of sucrose gradients in the presence of nsp12. Interestingly, the same mutations were not able to activate the nsp10-nsp2/3 interaction, suggesting a differential requirement for conformation. Reverse genetics analysis showed that PRRSV mutants carrying the single substitutions were not viable and defective of subgenomic RNA (sg RNA) accumulation. Together, our results provide strong evidence for a regulated interaction between nsp10 and nsp12 and suggest an essential role for an orchestrated RTC assembly in sg RNA synthesis. Assembly of replication and transcription complexes (RTC) is a limiting step for viral RNA synthesis. The PRRSV RTC macromolecular complexes are comprised of mainly viral nonstructural replicase proteins (nsps), but how they come together remains elusive. We previously showed that viral helicase nsp10 interacts nsp12 in a regulated manner by truncation mutagenesis. Here we revealed that the interaction is controlled by single residues within the domain linker region of nsp10. Moreover, the activation mutations leads to defect in viral sg RNA synthesis. Our results provide important insight into the mechanisms of PRRSV RTC assembly and regulation of viral sg RNA synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00518-21DOI Listing
June 2021

High-sensitivity CRP may be a marker of HDL dysfunction and remodeling in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 1;11(1):11444. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Research Institute of Blood Lipids and Atherosclerosis, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, No. 139 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), further increasing the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) as an add-on to statins cannot reduce cardiovascular risk. And it has been reported that HDL functional metric-cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) may be a better predictor of CAD risk than HDL-C. CEC measurement is time-consuming and not applicable in clinical settings. Thus, it is meaningful to explore an easily acquired index for evaluating CEC. Thirty-six CAD patients and sixty-one non-CAD controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All CAD patients had acute coronary syndrome (ACS). CEC was measured using a [H] cholesterol loading Raw 264.7 cell model with apolipoprotein B-depleted plasma (a surrogate for HDL). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to assess HDL components and subclass distribution. CEC was significantly impaired in CAD patients (11.9 ± 2.3%) compared to controls (13.0 ± 2.2%, p = 0.022). In control group, CEC was positively correlated with enzymatically measured HDL-C levels (r = 0.358, p = 0.006) or with NMR-determined HDL-C levels (NMR-HDL-C, r = 0.416, p = 0.001). However, in CAD group, there was no significant correlation between CEC and HDL-C (r = 0.216, p = 0.206) or NMR-HDL-C (r = 0.065, p = 0.708). Instead, we found that the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was inversely associated with CEC (r = - 0.351, p = 0.036). Multiple regression analysis showed that the hsCRP level was associated with CEC after adjusting other cardiovascular risk factors and HDL-C, although the association would not reach significance if adjusting for multiple testing. NMR spectroscopy showed that HDL particles shifted to larger ones in patients with high hsCRP levels, and this phenomenon was accompanied by decreased CEC. In patients with CAD, the level of HDL-C cannot reflect HDL function. The impaired correlation between HDL-C and CEC is possibly due to an inflammation-induced HDL subclass remodeling. These hypothesis-generating data suggest that hsCRP levels, a marker of acute inflammation, may associate with HDL dysfunction in ACS subjects. Due to the design limited to be correlative in nature, not permitting causal inference and a larger, strictly designed study is still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90638-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169928PMC
June 2021

Evolutionary Patterns of Codon Usage in Major Lineages of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in China.

Viruses 2021 May 31;13(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is economically important and characterized by its extensive variation. The codon usage patterns and their influence on viral evolution and host adaptation among different PRRSV strains remain largely unknown. Here, the codon usage of ORF5 genes from lineages 1, 3, 5, and 8, and MLV strains of type 2 PRRSV in China was analyzed. A compositional property analysis of ORF5 genes revealed that nucleotide C is most frequently used at the third position of codons, accompanied by rich GC3s. The effective number of codon (ENC) and codon pair bias (CPB) values indicate that all ORF5 genes have low codon bias and the differences in CPB scores among four lineages are almost not significant. When compared with host codon usage patterns, lineage 1 strains show higher CAI and SiD values, with a high similarity to pig, which might relate to its predominant epidemic propensity in the field. The CAI, RCDI, and SiD values of ORF5 genes from different passages of MLV JXA1R indicate no relation between attenuation and CPB or codon adaptation decrease during serial passage on non-host cells. These findings provide a novel way of understanding the PRRSV's evolution, related to viral survival, host adaptation, and virulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13061044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228872PMC
May 2021

Environmental Efficiency Assessment of Heavy Pollution Industry by Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist Index Analysis: Empirical Evidence from China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 27;18(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Business, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China.

Industrial waste discharged by heavy pollution industry is one of the main causes of global environmental degradation. Research on the environmental efficiency of high-polluting industry is necessary to tackle the problem of global environmental pollution. Using panel data of 19 sub-industries in China's heavy pollution industry from 2001 to 2015, this article employs Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Malmquist index (MI) to measure the environmental efficiency of heavy pollution industry from both the dynamic and static perspectives. The results show that the environmental efficiency of China's heavy pollution industry maintains an upward trend but did not reach the optimal level. The general trend shows a phased trend of increasing first and then decreasing. Besides, there are inter-industry differences in the environmental efficiency across the examined sub-industries. Based on the research findings, this article proposes a set of corresponding countermeasures to solve the global pollution problem, such as reducing energy inputs and minimizing the volumes of the main categories of emissions in high-polluting industry, as well as improving the production management in the group of high environmental efficiency and strengthening technical capabilities in the group of low environmental efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198010PMC
May 2021

Performance Improvement of PVDF-HFP-Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte with the Dopant of Octavinyl-Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 21;14(11). Epub 2021 May 21.

State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Gel polymer electrolytes have the advantages of both a solid electrolyte and a liquid electrolyte. As a transitional product before which a solid electrolyte can be comprehensively used, gel polymer electrolytes are of great research value. They can reduce the risk of spontaneous combustion and explosion caused by leakage during the use of conventional liquid electrolytes. Poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), a material with excellent performance, has been widely utilized in the preparation of gel polymer electrolytes. Here, PVDF-HFP-based gel polymer membranes with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) pores were prepared using a phase inversion method, and Octavinyl-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (OVAPOSS) was doped to improve its temperature resistance as well as its ionic conductivity, to enhance its safety and electrochemical performance. The final prepared polymer membrane had a porosity of 85.06% and still had a certain mechanical strength at 160 °C without any shrinkage. The gel polymer electrolyte prepared with this polymer membrane had an ionic conductivity of 1.62 × 10 S·cm at 30 °C, as well as an electrochemical window of about 5.5 V. The LiCoO-Li button half-cell prepared therefrom had a specific capacity of 141 mAh·g at a rate of 1C. The coulombic efficiency remained above 99% within 100 cycles and the capacity retention rate reached 99.5%, which reveals an excellent cycling stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14112701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196579PMC
May 2021

HCl-Based Hydrothermal Etching Strategy toward Fluoride-Free MXenes.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 31;33(27):e2101015. Epub 2021 May 31.

National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230029, P. R. China.

Due to their ultrathin layered structure and rich elemental variety, MXenes are emerging as a promising electrode candidate in energy generation and storage. MXenes are generally synthesized via hazardous fluoride-containing reagents from robust MAX materials, unfortunately resulting in plenty of inert fluoride functional groups on the surface that noticeably decline their performance. Density functional theory calculations are used to show the etching feasibility of hydrochloric acid (HCl) on various MAX phases. Based on this theoretical guidance, fluoride-free Mo C MXenes with high efficiency about 98% are experimentally demonstrated. The Mo C electrodes produced by this process exhibit high electrochemical performance in supercapacitors and sodium-ion batteries owing to the chosen surface functional groups created via the HCl etch process. This strategy enables the development of fluoride-free MXenes and opens a new window to explore their potential in energy-storage applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202101015DOI Listing
July 2021

MicroRNA-342 Promotes the Malignant-Like Phenotype of Endometrial Stromal Cells via Regulation of Annexin A2.

Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) 2021 15;2021:1328682. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Gynecology, Heilongjiang Provincial Hospital, Harbin, 150036 Heilongjiang, China.

The relevance of miRNA- (miR-) 342 to endometriosis has been highlighted, while its function in regulating the malignant-like phenotype of endometrial stromal cells which demonstrate epigenetic abnormalities that alter expression of transcription factors, remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effects of miR-342 in endometrial stromal cell proliferation by regulating Annexin A2 (ANXA2). We first characterized the levels of miR-342 and ANXA2 in 31 cases of normal endometrium from patients with grade II-III cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or patients with hysterectomy versus ectopic endometrial tissues of 42 patients with endometriosis. miR-342 was upregulated, while ANXA2 was downregulated in ectopic endometrial tissues. Bioinformatics website and dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-342 negatively modulated ANXA2 expression. Following loss- and gain-of-function approaches, CCK-8, Transwell, and flow cytometry demonstrated that overexpression of miR-342 markedly increased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion but inhibited cell apoptotic ratio of endometrial stromal cells, which was reversed by ANXA2 elevation. Further, overexpressed miR-342 activated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, as evidenced by upregulated levels of p-PI3K/PI3K, p-AKT/AKT, and p-mTOR/mTOR. Taken together, miR-342 targets ANXA2 to activate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, thereby promoting the malignant-like phenotype of endometrial stromal cells, highlighting miR-342 inhibition as a promising approach for the treatment of endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1328682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143883PMC
May 2021

Different Effects of Leucine Supplementation and/or Exercise on Systemic Insulin Sensitivity in Mice.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 12;12:651303. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Objective: Obesity-related diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases have increased due to the obesity epidemic. Early intervention for obesity through lifestyle and nutrition plays an important role in preventing obesity-related diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the role of leucine and exercise in adiposity, systemic insulin resistance, and inflammation to provide theoretical and guiding basis for the early prevention and treatment of obesity.

Methods: C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into HFD or LFD-fed mice group. After 9 weeks, glucose tolerance test (GTT) was performed to detect their systemic insulin sensitivity. Starting from week 10, mice were divided into eight groups and treated with moderate exercise or/and 1.5% leucine. At week 13, systemic insulin sensitivity was detected by GTT. At week 14, mice were dissected to analyze adiposity and inflammation.

Results: In LFD mice, exercise significantly increased systemic insulin sensitivity by increasing GLUT4 expression in the muscle and decreasing adiposity through increasing AMPK phosphorylation in adipose tissue. In HFD mice, the simultaneous intervention of exercise and leucine increases systemic insulin sensitivity by reducing liver and adipose tissue inflammation decreasing NF-B p65 phosphorylation, and increasing the expression of adiponectin in adipose tissue.

Conclusion: There are different mechanisms underlying the effects of exercise and leucine on insulin resistance and inflammation in LFD-fed mice or HFD-fed mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.651303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150005PMC
May 2021