Publications by authors named "Xin Cui"

290 Publications

Quantification of Liver Fat Content with Ultrasound: A WFUMB Position Paper.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department Allgemeine Innere Medizin (DAIM), Kliniken Hirslanden Beau Site, Salem und Permancence, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

New ultrasound methods that can be used to quantitatively assess liver fat content have recently been developed. These quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods are based on the analysis of radiofrequency echoes detected by the transducer, allowing calculation of parameters for quantifying the fat in the liver. In this position paper, after a section dedicated to the importance of quantifying liver steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and another section dedicated to the assessment of liver fat with magnetic resonance, the current clinical studies performed using QUS are summarized. These new methods include spectral-based techniques and techniques based on envelope statistics. The spectral-based techniques that have been used in clinical studies are those estimating the attenuation coefficient and those estimating the backscatter coefficient. Clinical studies that have used tools based on the envelope statistics of the backscattered ultrasound are those performed by using the acoustic structure quantification or other parameters derived from it, such as the normalized local variance, and that performed by estimating the speed of sound. Experts' opinions are reported.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2021.06.002DOI Listing
July 2021

miR-30a-5p suppresses lung squamous cell carcinoma via ATG5 - mediated autophagy.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 07 12;13(13):17462-17472. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Lung Cancer Research Center, Yunnan Institute of Oncology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Yunnan Cancer Hospital, Kunming Yunnan 650118, PR China.

Propose: Autophagy plays a complicated role in cancer progression. This study aims at assessing the function of ATG5-induced autophagy in progression of lung squamous cell carcinoma and its upstream mechanism.

Method: TCGA database of lung squamous cell carcinoma was analyzed to explore the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs and relative prognosis. RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to evaluate autophagy relative gene expression level in human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell Lines. Autophagy flux was observed using transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. Meanwhile, binding relationship of potential target miRNA and mRNAs were also confirmed using Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. Lung metastatic model was established to evaluated the effect of targeting protein and miRNA.

Result: High level expression of ATG5 was detected in LUSC patients. Relative experiments confirmed that ATG5 silencing could decrease the autophagy flux in LUSC. In addition, our research revealed that there is a binding sites between hsa-mir-30a-5p and 3'-UTR of ATG5. Mimic miR-30a-5p suppresses ATG5-mediated autophagy in lung squamous cell carcinoma cells. The experiments confirmed that miR-30a-5p could attenuate lung squamous cell carcinoma progression through the autophagy pathway.

Conclusion: Accordingly, the and study in our research have demonstrated that miR-30a-5p inhibits lung squamous cell carcinoma progression via ATG5-mediated autophagy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203235DOI Listing
July 2021

Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of -substituted tetrahydroquinoxalines regioselective Heyns rearrangement and stereoselective transfer hydrogenation in one pot.

Chem Sci 2021 Feb 19;12(13):4789-4793. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Natural Products Research Center, Chengdu Institution of Biology, Chinese Academy of Science Chengdu Sichuan 610041 China

-Substituted tetrahydroquinoxalines (37 examples) were step-economically obtained in good yield (<97%) and ee (<99%) with readily available substrates. The reaction proceeds through an interesting regioselective Heyns rearrangement/enantioselective transfer hydrogenation in one pot. The substrate scope and the reaction mechanism were systematically investigated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc06264bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179646PMC
February 2021

Botulinum toxin A improves neurogenic bladder fibrosis by suppressing transforming growth factor β1 expression in rats.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 May;10(5):2000-2007

Department of Urology, Xuanwu Hospital Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Beijing, China.

Background: Intradetrusor botulinum toxin A injection is recommended for the treatment of refractory detrusor overactivity (DO) in patients with neurogenic bladder, however, whether it could inhibit neurogenic bladder fibrosis is uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the effect of botulinum toxin A on neurogenic bladder fibrosis and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: Forty eight Female Wistar rats were evenly randomized into 4 groups: Sham, T10 transection, Early and Late groups. The last three groups were subjected to T10 spinal cord transection, while the Sham group was treated with sham surgery. 0.9% saline was injected into the detrusor in the Sham and T10 transection groups simultaneously with the surgery, while 2 U/rat botulinum toxin A was injected into the detrusor simultaneously with the surgery in the Early group and 4 weeks following the surgery in the Late group. Body/bladder weight, cystometric parameters, bladder Hematoxylin-eosin staining were used to evaluate the bladder fibrosis. Western blot and quantitative Real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expression of bladder transforming growth factor β1.

Results: Compared with the T10 transection group, the bladder/body weight was decreased significantly in the Early and Late groups (P<0.05), along with the significant inhibition of non-voiding contraction (NVC) frequency and amplitude (P<0.05), and the significant increase of bladder volume (P<0.05). The detrusor connective tissue percentage (P<0.05) and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (P<0.05) also decreased significantly in the Early and Late groups. Those changes were more obviously in the Early group than in the Late group.

Conclusions: Intradetrusor botulinum toxin A injection reduced bladder fibrosis in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI), which was more obviously in the Early group than in the Late group. The mechanisms might be mediated by suppression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-62DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185670PMC
May 2021

A poplar B-box protein PtrBBX23 modulates the accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins in response to high light.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Forest Symbiology, Asian Research Center for Bioresource and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Flavonoids, which modulate plant resistance to various stresses, can be induced by high light. B-box (BBX) transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of flavonoids biosynthesis, but limited information is available on the association of BBX proteins with high light. We present a detailed overview of 45 Populus trichocarpa BBX TFs. Phylogenetic relationships, gene structure, tissue-specific expression patterns and expression profiles were determined under 10 stress or phytohormone treatments to screen candidate BBX proteins associated with the flavonoid pathway. Sixteen candidate genes were identified, of which five were expressed predominantly in young leaves and roots, and BBX23 showed the most distinct response to high light. Overexpression of BBX23 in poplar activated expression of MYB TFs and structural genes in the flavonoid pathway, thereby promoting the accumulation of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. CRISPR/Cas9-generated knockout of BBX23 resulted in the opposite trend. Furthermore, the phenotype induced by BBX23 overexpression was enhanced under exposure to high light. BBX23 was capable of binding directly to the promoters of proanthocyanidin- and anthocyanin-specific genes, and its interaction with HY5 enhanced activation activity. We identified novel regulators of flavonoid biosynthesis in poplar, thereby enhancing our general understanding of the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.14127DOI Listing
June 2021

The concept of broad exposure facilitates uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic mediastinal lymph nodes dissection.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 May 21;16(1):138. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, No. 519 Kunzhou Road, Xishan District, Kunming City, Yunnan Province, China.

Background: Systematic lymph node dissection is an important part of radical resection for lung cancer. Insufficient incision of the mediastinal pleura results in a tapered or tunnel-like operation surface, which increases the difficulty of uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic mediastinal lymph node dissection. The objective of this study was to report our concept of broad exposure and investigate the efficacy and safety of this concept in uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic mediastinal lymph nodes dissection.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of the 204 non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for anatomical lobectomy and systematic lymph node dissection following the concept of broad exposure. SPSS 23.0 software was used for statistical analysis.

Results: All operations were completed under uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery following the concept of broad exposure. The median surgery time was 102 (range, 76-285) minutes and the median blood loss was 50 (range, 20-900) milliliters. The median chest tube duration time was 2 (range, 1-6) days, the median postoperative hospital duration time was 5 (range, 4-10) days. The median number of dissected lymph node stations and dissected lymph nodes were 8 (range,6-9) and 15(range,12-19), respectively. The median number of dissected mediastinal lymph nodes stations and dissected mediastinal lymph nodes were 5(range,3-6) and 11(range,10-15), respectively. The up-staging rate of N staging was 6.86%. The postoperative complication rate was 10.29% and there was no perioperative death.

Conclusions: According to our results, it's effective and safe to perform uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic mediastinal lymph nodes dissection following the concept of broad exposure. This new concept not only emphasizes sufficient exposure, but also focuses on protection of important tissues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-021-01519-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140417PMC
May 2021

How to perform shear wave elastography. Part I.

Med Ultrason 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department Allgemeine Innere Medizin (DAIM), Kliniken Hirslanden Beau Site, Salem und Permancence, Bern, Switzerland.

We recently introduced a series of papers describing how to do certain techniques. This article is the first part of a review of shear wave elastography (SWE). It reports the principles and interpretation of the technique and describes how to optimize it. Normal values, pitfalls and artefacts for the examination of liver, breast. thyroid and salivary gland with shear wave elastography are presented. The manuscript provides specific tips for applying SWE as part of a diagnostic US examination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11152/mu-3217DOI Listing
May 2021

Metalloradical activation of carbonyl azides for enantioselective radical aziridination.

Chem 2021 Apr 29;7(4):1120-1134. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Chemistry, Merkert Chemistry Center, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA.

Organic azides have been increasingly employed as nitrogen sources for catalytic olefine aziridination due to their ease of preparation and generation of benign N as the only byproduct. Among common organic azides, carbonyl azides have not been previously demonstrated as effective nitrogen sources for intermolecular olefin aziridination despite the synthetic utilities of N-carbonyl aziridines. As a new application of metalloradical catalysis, we have developed a catalytic system that can effectively employ the carbonyl azide TrocN for highly asymmetric aziridination of alkenes at room temperature. The resulting enantioenriched -Trocaziridines have been shown as valuable chiral synthons for stereoselective synthesis of other chiral aziridines and various chiral amines. The Co(II)-based metalloradical system, which proceeds with distinctive stepwise radical mechanism, may provide a general method for asymmetric synthesis of chiral aziridines from alkenes with organic azides.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chempr.2021.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049175PMC
April 2021

Maternal and neonatal health care worker well-being and patient safety climate amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Perinatol 2021 05 16;41(5):961-969. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Perinatal Epidemiology and Health Outcomes Research Unit, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Objective: To assess maternal and neonatal healthcare workers (HCWs) perspectives on well-being and patient safety amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

Study Design: Anonymous survey of HCW well-being, burnout, and patient safety over the prior conducted in June 2020. Results were analyzed by job position and burnout status.

Result: We analyzed 288 fully completed surveys. In total, 66% of respondents reported symptoms of burnout and 73% felt burnout among their co-workers had significantly increased. Workplace strategies to address HCW well-being were judged by 34% as sufficient. HCWs who were "burned out" reported significantly worse well-being and patient safety attributes. Compared to physicians, nurses reported higher rates of unprofessional behavior (37% vs. 14%, p = 0.027) and difficulty focusing on work (59% vs. 36%, p = 0.013).

Conclusion: Three months into the COVID-19 pandemic, HCW well-being was substantially compromised, with negative ramifications for patient safety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-021-01014-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962434PMC
May 2021

Regioselective, Diastereoselective, and Enantioselective One-Pot Tandem Reaction Based on an in Situ Formed Reductant: Preparation of 2,3-Disubstituted 1,5-Benzodiazepine.

J Org Chem 2021 04 16;86(7):5110-5119. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Natural Products Research Center, Chengdu Institution of Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041, China.

The 1,5-benzodiazepines are important skeletons frequently contained in medicinal chemistry. Herein, we described an unexpected tandem cyclization/transfer hydrogenation reaction for obtaining chiral 2,3-disubstituted 1,5-benzodiazepines. The enolizable aryl aldehydes were chosen as substrates to react with symmetric and unsymmetric -phenylenediamines. The unforeseen tandem reaction occurred among many possible latent side reactions under chiral phosphoric acid catalysis and affords the corresponding products in moderate yields and regioselectivities, good diastereoselectivities, and enantiomeric ratio (up to 99:1).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c03064DOI Listing
April 2021

Kinetic spectroscopic quantification using two-step chromogenic and fluorogenic reactions: From theoretical modeling to experimental quantification of biomarkers in practical samples.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Apr 5;1153:338293. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Chemistry, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, United States. Electronic address:

Kinetic chromogenic (CG) and fluorogenic (FG) quantification deduces analyte concentration based on the reaction rate between the CG/FG probe and its targeted molecule. Little progress has been made in the past half century in either the theory or the applications of the kinetic spectroscopic quantification methods. Current kinetic CG/FG quantification is limited only to a subset of CG/FG reactions that can be approximated as the single-step process, and more problematically, to research samples with no matrix interferences. Reported herein is a kinetic quantification model established for multistep CG/FG reactions and a proof-of-concept demonstration of direct kinetic FG quantification of biomarkers in practical samples. The kinetic spectral intensity of the CG/FG reactions with two rate-limiting steps comprises three temporal regions: an accelerating period where rate of signal change is increasingly rapid, a linear region where the rate of signal change is approximately constant, and a deceleration region where the rate of signal increase becomes progressively small. Kinetic quantification is performed through simple linear-curve-fitting of the kinetic signal in its linear time-course region. The theoretical model is validated with the dual CG/FG 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) reaction. Proof-of-concept kinetic spectroscopic quantification of analytes in practical samples is demonstrated with the FG quantification of MDA in canned chicken. The only sample preparation is bench-top centrifugation followed by two sequential syringe filtrations. The total kinetic FG assay time is less than 10 min, more than 10 times more efficient than the current equilibrium-based MDA assay. The theoretical model and the measurement design strategies offered by this work should help transform the current kinetic spectroscopic quantification from a niche research tool to an indispensable technique for time-sensitive applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338293DOI Listing
April 2021

A superhydrophobic coating harvesting mechanical robustness, passive anti-icing and active de-icing performances.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 27;590:301-310. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, PR China.

Hypothesis: Ice accretion is a challenging issue for various residential activities and industrial facilities. However, most of the current anti/de-icing coatings fail to maintain their properties when subject to frequent mechanical wear, and their limited functionality (either anti-icing or de-icing individually) cannot meet the requirement of all-weather utilization.

Experiments: Herein, a multifunctional superhydrophobic coating is prepared by compositing ferroferric oxide nanoparticles (FeO NPs) with fluorinated epoxy resin via an inverse infiltration process. The surface composition, morphology and wettability are systematically characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), laser scanning microscopy and contact angle tensiometer. The anti-icing and de-icing performances are evaluated by investigating the freezing delay and photothermal effect, respectively.

Findings: This coating shows outstanding water repellency (water contact angle up to 161.0°, sliding angle down to 1.4°) and can maintain superhydrophobicity within 400 cycles of tape peeling, 260 cycles of sandpaper abrasion or 25 cycles of sand impact. Besides, because the hydrophobic nano/micro hierarchical structures tremendously retard the heat transfer, the freezing process of water droplet on this coating can be apparently delayed by up to 35 min as compared to the uncoated substrate. Moreover, owing to the photothermal effect of the FeO NPs, the coating's surface temperature can be rapidly increased above 0 °C under infrared irradiation, which facilitates the ice melting on cold surfaces. Our work offers a versatile approach to address the icing problems in diverse weather conditions, which exhibits great prospects in various engineering applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.01.054DOI Listing
May 2021

Metabolomics analysis of maternal serum exposed to high air pollution during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring.

Environ Res 2021 05 4;196:110823. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA; Department of Community Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA; Department of Neurology, Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Previously, numerous epidemiologic studies reported an association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and exposure to air pollution during pregnancy. However, there have been no metabolomics studies investigating the impact of pregnancy pollution exposure to ASD risk in offspring.

Objectives: To identify differences in maternal metabolism that may reflect a biological response to exposure to high air pollution in pregnancies of offspring who later did or did not develop ASD.

Methods: We obtained stored mid-pregnancy serum from 214 mothers who lived in California's Central Valley and experienced the highest levels of air pollution during early pregnancy. We estimated each woman's average traffic-related air pollution exposure (carbon monoxide, nitric oxides, and particulate matter <2.5 μm) during the first trimester using the California Line Source Dispersion Model, version 4 (CALINE4). By utilizing liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified the metabolic profiles of maternal serum for 116 mothers with offspring who later developed ASD and 98 control mothers. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was employed to select metabolic features associated with air pollution exposure or autism risk in offspring. We also conducted extensive pathway enrichment analysis to elucidate potential ASD-related changes in the metabolome of pregnant women.

Results: We extracted 4022 and 4945 metabolic features from maternal serum samples in hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) chromatography (positive ion mode) and C18 (negative ion mode) columns, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, we identified 167 and 222 discriminative features (HILIC and C18, respectively). Pathway enrichment analysis to discriminate metabolic features associated with ASD risk indicated various metabolic pathway perturbations linked to the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and mitochondrial function, including carnitine shuttle, amino acid metabolism, bile acid metabolism, and vitamin A metabolism.

Conclusion: Using high resolution metabolomics, we identified several metabolic pathways disturbed in mothers with ASD offspring among women experiencing high exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy that were associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings provide us with a better understanding of metabolic disturbances involved in the development of ASD under adverse environmental conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110823DOI Listing
May 2021

Sequence-specific and multiplex detection of COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2) using proofreading enzyme-mediated probe cleavage coupled with isothermal amplification.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Apr 28;178:113041. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Natural Products Research Center, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu, 610041, PR China. Electronic address:

The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been challenging human health worldwide. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been promptly applied to the detection of SARS-CoV-2 owing to its high amplification efficacy and less requirement of the thermal cycler. However, the vast majority of these LAMP-based assays depend on the non-specific detection of LAMP products, which can not discern the undesirable amplificons, likely to yield unreliable results. Herein, a sequence-specific LAMP assay was reported to detect SARS-CoV-2 using proofreading enzyme-mediated probe cleavage (named Proofman), which could realize real-time and visual detection without uncapping. This assay, introducing a proofreading enzyme and the fluorogenic probe to reverse-transcription LAMP (RT-Proofman-LAMP), can specifically detect the SARS-CoV-2 RNA with a detection limit of 100 copies. In addition to the real-time analysis, the assay is capable of endpoint visualization under a transilluminator within 50 min, providing a convenient reporting manner under the setting of point-of-care testing (POCT). In combination with different fluorophores, the one-pot multiplex assay was successfully achieved to detect multiple targets of SARS-CoV-2 and inner control simultaneously. In summary, the development of RT-Proofman-LAMP offers a versatile and highly-specific method for fast field screening and laboratory testing of SARS-CoV-2, making it a promising platform in COVID-19 diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842130PMC
April 2021

The bonding variation of γ-TiAl during deformation.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Feb;23(6):3905-3914

Department of Nanomechanics, School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aramakiaoba, Aoba-ku Sendai, 980-8579, Japan.

To improve the ductility of γ-TiAl, the complicated interaction of Ti-Al chemical bonds, Al-Al covalent bonds, and Ti metallic bonds in the process of deformation should be evaluated. The electronic structure variation of γ-TiAl during deformation is investigated using first-principles calculation with the local energy schemes. The relative influence of these bonds on atomic stability is for the first time qualitatively evaluated by the combination of local energy schemes and Electron Localization Function (ELF) analysis. The discrepant influence pattern of some alloy elements on ductility is discussed based on the bonding analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp06395aDOI Listing
February 2021

Intrinsic spin-valley-coupled Dirac state in Janus functionalized β-BiAs monolayer.

Nanoscale Horiz 2021 Mar 2;6(3):283-289. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021, China.

Recently, a new class of 2D Dirac materials, spin-valley-coupled Dirac semimetals (svc-DSMs), was proposed in strained SbAsX monolayers (MLs) and transition metal dichalcogenide-supported graphene. Owing to the superb properties, including Dirac spin-valley Hall effect and dissipationless transport, svc-DSMs provide an ideal platform for exploring the integration of Dirac physics, spintronics and valleytronics. However, the predicted candidate materials are all extrinsic, requiring tensile strain or proximity effect. Using first-principles calculations, herein we identify that strain-free BrBiAsCl ML is an intrinsic svc-DSM that is located at the boundary between 2D trivial insulators and topological insulators owing to the balance between spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and the built-in polarized vertical electric field. Under inversion asymmetry, the strong SOC in BrBiAsCl ML induces giant spin-splittings in both the uppermost valence band and the lowermost conduction band, rendering a nearly closed bulk gap and the formation of a spin-valley-dependent Dirac cone. Remarkably, such an svc-DSM state can be well preserved in BrBiAsCl ML when supported on a proper substrate, which is indispensable for the application of svc-DSMs in devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nh00466aDOI Listing
March 2021

Nanomechanical Insights into Versatile Polydopamine Wet Adhesive Interacting with Liquid-Infused and Solid Slippery Surfaces.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 1;13(5):6941-6950. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9, Canada.

Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) can be readily deposited on almost all kinds of substrates and possesses versatile wet adhesion. Meanwhile, slippery surfaces have attracted much attention for their self-cleaning capabilities. It remains unclear how the versatile PDA adhesive would interact with slippery surfaces. In this work, both liquid-infused poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) (LI-PTFE) and solid slippery surfaces (i.e., self-assembly of small thiol-terminated organosilane, polysiloxane covalently attached to substrates) were fabricated to investigate their capability to prevent PDA deposition. It was found that PDA particles could be easily deposited on a PTFE membrane and the two types of solid slippery surfaces, which resulted in the alternation of their surface wettability and slippery behavior of water droplets. Adhesion was detected between a PDA-coated silica colloidal probe and the PTFE membrane or solid slippery surfaces through quantitative force measurements using an atomic force microscope (AFM), mainly due to van der Waals (vdW) and hydrophobic interactions, which led to the PDA deposition phenomenon. In contrast, LI-PTFE with a thin liquid lubricant film could effectively prevent PDA deposition, with negligible changes in surface morphology, wettability, and slippery characteristics. Although PDA particles could be loosely attached to the lubricant/water interface for LI-PTFE based on the capillary adhesion measured by AFM, they could be readily removed by gentle rinsing with water, as demonstrated by the ultralow friction over LI-PTFE as compared to PTFE using lateral force microscopy (LFM). Our results indicate that LI-PTFE possesses excellent antifouling and self-cleaning properties even when interacting with the versatile PDA wet adhesives. This work provides new insights into the deposition of PDA on slippery surfaces and their interaction mechanism at the nanoscale, with useful implications for the design and development of novel slippery surfaces.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22073DOI Listing
February 2021

Research on the association of plasma TGF-β1 level and blood lymphocyte/monocyte ratio with pathological grade, clinical stage and prognosis of prostate cancer.

J BUON 2020 Sep-Oct;25(5):2418-2423

Department of Urology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To explore the association of the plasma transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) level and blood lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) with the pathological grade, clinical stage and prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa).

Methods: A total of 86 PCa patients treated in our hospital were enrolled. The changes in the expression of TGF-β1 were observed in patients with different clinical stages, different Gleason scores and different ages, and with or without bone metastasis. The correlation between blood LMR and clinicopathological features of PCa patients was detected. Moreover, the univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for clinicopathological factors and progression-free survival (PFS) after treatment, respectively.

Results: In terms of the clinical stage II, III and IV, the number of patients with high TGF-β1 expression was significantly larger than that with low TGF-β1 expression (p<0.05). Among those with Gleason score of 2-4 points, 5-6 points and 7-10 points, the number of patients with high TGF-β1 expression was significantly larger than that with low TGF-β1 expression (p<0.05). Among those aged ≥70 years old and <70 years old, there were more patients with high TGF-β1 expression than those with low TGF-β1 expression, but without significant differences (p>0.05). There were also more patients with high TGF-β1 expression than those with low TGF-β1 expression regardless of the presence or absence of bone metastasis, showing obvious differences (p<0.05). Besides, the association of LMR with depth of tumor infiltration, stage, grade, size and Gleason score was explored, and the results showed that LMR was negatively correlated with the above indexes (p<0.05). The univariate analysis was performed for 6 indexes, and the patients were divided into progression group (n=52) and non-progression group (n=34) based on the presence or absence of cancer progression after treatment. Obvious differences were found in the comparison of Gleason score, lymph node metastasis, TGF-β1 level and clinical stage between the two groups (p<0.05). It was found in the multivariate analysis that TGF-β1, Gleason score, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis were influencing factors for PFS after treatment (p<0.05).

Conclusions: The TGF-β1 level is positively correlated with the severity, clinical stage and pathological grade of PCa. LMR is negatively correlated with the depth of tumor infiltration, stage and grade. Clinical stage, TGF-β1, lymph node metastasis and Gleason score are influencing factors for PFS of PCa patients after treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
December 2020

Shared Neural Substrates Underlying Reading and Visual Matching: A Longitudinal Investigation.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 22;14:567541. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

The role of visual skills in reading acquisition has long been debated and whether there is shared neurobiological basis between visual skills and reading is not clear. This study investigated the relationship between Visual Matching and reading and their shared neuroanatomical basis. Two hundred and ninety-three typically developing Mandarin-speaking children were followed in a longitudinal study from ages 4 to 11 years old. A subsample of 79 children was further followed up at 14 years old when the MRI data were collected. Results showed that the development of Visual Matching from ages 6 to 8 predicted reading accuracy at age 11. In addition, both the development of Visual Matching and reading accuracy were associated with cortical surface area of a cluster located in fusiform gyrus. These findings suggested that the mapping from visual codes to phonological codes is important in learning to read and that left fusiform gyrus provided neural basis for such mapping. Implications of these findings in light of a new approach toward the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying reading development are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.567541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642616PMC
October 2020

The Application of Three-Dimensional Technology Combined With Image Navigation in Nasal Skull Base Surgery.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Nov/Dec;31(8):2304-2309

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

Three-dimensional (3D) technology including 3D reconstruction and 3D printing technology, has been widely used in clinical treatment, especially in surgical planning, and image navigation technology, which can make surgical procedures more accurate, now is also increasingly favored by surgeons. But the combination of those 2 technologies was rarely reported. Thus, this study will preliminarily investigate the feasibility and the effect of the combination of 2 technologies in endonasal skull base surgery. Eight patients were involved in this study (from October 2016 to July 2017 at The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University), 5 cases of nasal skull base tumors and 3 cases of foreign body perforation. All operations were done under the assistance of 3D technology and image guidance system. Surgical discussion with patient, preoperative planning and clinical teaching were investigated between 2D images and 3D models by voting. For all cases, 3D reconstruction model and 3D printed model were deemed to be more helpful than CT/MRI images in surgical discussion with the patient; surgical simulation on 3D model in preoperative planning was largely deemed to be helpful and very helpful; and in clinical teaching, 3D models combined with image guidance system were deemed to be more helpful in understanding the disease than using 2D images. Besides, all patients recovered well after surgery, no recurrence and complications were found in the follow-up. The combination of 3D technology and electromagnetic image guidance system could improve surgical efficiency and the quality of clinical teaching.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006913DOI Listing
April 2021

Economic burden of readmission due to postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak in Chinese patients.

J Comp Eff Res 2020 11 28;9(16):1105-1115. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Health Economics Research Institute, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, PR China.

This real-world data study investigated the economic burden and associated factors of readmissions for cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSFL) post-cranial, transsphenoidal, or spinal index surgeries. Costs of CSFL readmissions and index hospitalizations during 2014-2018 were collected. Readmission cost was measured as absolute cost and as percentage of index hospitalization cost. Factors associated with readmission cost were explored using generalized linear models. Readmission cost averaged US$2407-6106, 35-94% of index hospitalization cost. Pharmacy costs were the leading contributor. Generalized linear models showed transsphenoidal index surgery and surgical treatment for CSFL were associated with higher readmission costs. CSFL readmissions are a significant economic burden in China. Factors associated with higher readmission cost should be monitored.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/cer-2020-0067DOI Listing
November 2020

Mechanical Forces Regulate Asymmetric Vascular Cell Alignment.

Biophys J 2020 11 28;119(9):1771-1780. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, New York; Department of Biomedical Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, New York. Electronic address:

Mechanical forces between cells and their microenvironment critically regulate the asymmetric morphogenesis and physiological functions in vascular systems. Here, we investigated the asymmetric cell alignment and cellular forces simultaneously in micropatterned endothelial cell ring-shaped sheets and studied how the traction and intercellular forces are involved in the asymmetric vascular morphogenesis. Tuning the traction and intercellular forces using different topographic geometries of symmetric and asymmetric ring-shaped patterns regulated the vascular asymmetric morphogenesis in vitro. Moreover, pharmacologically suppressing the cell traction force and intercellular force disturbed the force-dependent asymmetric cell alignment. We further studied this phenomenon by modeling the vascular sheets with a mechanical force-propelled active particle model and confirmed that mechanical forces synergistically drive the asymmetric endothelial cell alignments in different tissue geometries. Further study using mouse diabetic aortic endothelial cells indicated that diseased endothelial cells exhibited abnormal cell alignments, traction, and intercellular forces, indicating the importance of mechanical forces in physiological vascular morphogenesis and functions. Overall, we have established a controllable micromechanical platform to study the force-dependent vascular asymmetric morphogenesis and thus provide a direct link between single-cell mechanical processes and collective behaviors in a multicellular environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2020.09.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677134PMC
November 2020

Mechanism of TREM2/DAP12 complex affecting β-amyloid plaque deposition in Alzheimer's disease modeled mice through mediating inflammatory response.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jan 11;166:21-28. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Experimental Center, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, PR China. Electronic address:

To investigate the mechanism of TREM2/DAP12 complex in mediating inflammatory responses that affect β-amyloid plaque deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) modeled mice. We measured escape latency and platform crossing time using the Morris water maze image automatic acquisition and software analysis system in TREM2 and DAP12 microglia knockout AD model mouse. We monitored the deposition of Aβ plaques in the mouse hippocampus using Congo red staining and measured levels. of inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α by ELISA. Newborn mice with TREM2 knockout were selected for primary microglia isolation and culture, and Aged oligomer Aβ1-42 was added to the microglial culture medium to simulate the AD environment in vivo. Co-immunoprecipitation assay was used to detect the interaction between DAP12 and TREM2, and measured the inflammatory response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice with TREM2 and DAP12 knockdown through adeno-associated virus in BV2 microglia. The escape latency of the AD model mice with TREM2 and DAP12 knockout was higher and the number of crossing platforms lower than in the control group, whereas Aβ deposition and levels of inflammatory factors were higher. In TREM2 knockout microglial cultured with Aβ1-42, levels of IL-6 and TNF-α increased. Immunoprecipation pull-down assays showed that TREM2 binds to the membrane receptor DAP12 to form a complex. Knockout of TREM2 or DAP12 can inhibit LPS-induced microglial inflammatory responses. The TREM2/DAP12 complex inhibits the microglial inflammatory response through the JNK signaling pathway, thereby reducing the deposition of Aβ plaques and attenuation the behavioral manifestation in a mouse AD model.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2020.10.006DOI Listing
January 2021

[Progress in Survival Prognosis of Segmentectomy for 
Early-stage Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi 2020 Sep;23(9):830-836

Department of Thoracic Surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650105, China.

Surgery is currently the most appropriate treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Increasing unilateral or bilateral multiple primary lung cancer being found, segmentectomy has attracted wide attention for its unique advantages in the treatment for such tumors. Ground glass opacity dominant early-stage NSCLC is associated with a good prognosis and can be cured by segmentectomy, however, the treatment of solid-dominant NSCLC remains controversial owing to the invasive nature. With the in-depth study on the lymph node metastasis pathway, radiological characteristics and molecular biology of NSCLC, a large part of solid nodules with certain characteristics can also be cured by segmentectomy. This paper reviews the research status and progress about the indication of segmentectomy.
.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3779/j.issn.1009-3419.2020.102.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519961PMC
September 2020

MicroRNA expression profile in the spinal cord injured rat neurogenic bladder by next-generation sequencing.

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Aug;9(4):1585-1602

Department of Urology, Xuanwu Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: An increasing amount of evidence has indicated that microRNAs (miRs) are involved in most biological conditions, including the neurogenic bladder (NB). However, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated these miR expressions in spinal cord-injured (SCI) rat NB. The goal of the study was to explore the miR expression profile in the SCI rat NB by next-generation sequencing (NGS).

Methods: Female Wistar rats underwent spinal cord transection at T9-10 and were randomly divided into the SCI-1, SCI-2 and SCI-3 groups (n=5 for each group) whose bladder tissues were collected 1, 2, and 4 weeks after transection, respectively. The normal rats were used as the normal control (NC) group. MiRs microarray assays were used to detect the differentially expressed miRs between the groups by NGS, which was then verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Those significantly differently expressed miRs were analyzed with Gene Ontology categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes bioinformatical analyses.

Results: Compared with the NC group, 96, 28 and 51 miRs were downregulated in the rats' bladder in the SCI-1, SCI-2, and SCI-3 groups, respectively, and 133, 49, and 76 miRs were upregulated respectively. Specifically, miR-21-5p was the most significantly upregulated miR in all SCI groups. Also, 121 miRs (SCI-1 SCI-2), 98 miRs (SCI-1 SCI-3), and 26 miRs (SCI-2 SCI-3) were of significantly different expression. Furthermore, a large set of genes implicated in essential signaling pathways were targeted by these miRs, including PI3K-Akt, MAPK, Rap1, and cGMP-PKG signaling pathways, along with the tight junction and metabolic pathways.

Conclusions: This is the first demonstration of differentially expressed miRs, which may potentially serve as new molecular targets in the SCI rat NB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475673PMC
August 2020

Dissecting the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments in Glioblastoma-on-a-Chip for optimized PD-1 immunotherapy.

Elife 2020 09 10;9. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, United States.

Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) checkpoint immunotherapy efficacy remains unpredictable in glioblastoma (GBM) patients due to the genetic heterogeneity and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments. Here, we report a microfluidics-based, patient-specific 'GBM-on-a-Chip' microphysiological system to dissect the heterogeneity of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments and optimize anti-PD-1 immunotherapy for different GBM subtypes. Our clinical and experimental analyses demonstrated that molecularly distinct GBM subtypes have distinct epigenetic and immune signatures that may lead to different immunosuppressive mechanisms. The real-time analysis in GBM-on-a-Chip showed that mesenchymal GBM niche attracted low number of allogeneic CD154+CD8+ T-cells but abundant CD163+ tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and expressed elevated PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints and TGF-β1, IL-10, and CSF-1 cytokines compared to proneural GBM. To enhance PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab efficacy, we co-administered a CSF-1R inhibitor BLZ945 to ablate CD163+ M2-TAMs and strengthened CD154+CD8+ T-cell functionality and GBM apoptosis on-chip. Our ex vivo patient-specific GBM-on-a-Chip provides an avenue for a personalized screening of immunotherapies for GBM patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.52253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556869PMC
September 2020

How to perform EUS-guided tattooing?

Endosc Ultrasound 2020 Sep-Oct;9(5):291-297

Department Allgemeine Innere Medizin, Kliniken Hirslanden, Beau Site, Salem und Permanence, Bern, Switzerland.

Recently, we introduced a series of papers describing on how to perform certain techniques and controversies in EUS. In the first paper, "What should be known before performing EUS examinations, Part I," the authors discussed clinical information and whether other imaging modalities should be needed before embarking in EUS examination. In Part II, some technical controversies on how EUS is performed are discussed from different points of view by providing the relevant available evidence. Herewith, we describe on how to perform EUS-guided fine needle tattooing (FNT) in daily practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss pros and cons for several issues including historical remarks, injecting material, technical approach, and how to perform EUS-FNT including argues in favor and against.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/eus.eus_44_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811726PMC
September 2020

Maternal Prenatal Smoking and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring: A California Statewide Cohort and Sibling Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 05;190(5):728-737

We examined associations between maternal smoking and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children in a statewide population-based cohort and sibling-comparison design using California birth records (n = 2,015,104) with information on maternal smoking, demographic factors, and pregnancy (2007-2010). ASD cases (n = 11,722) were identified through California Department of Developmental Services records with diagnoses based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-TR. We estimated odds ratios for ASD with and without intellectual disability in the full cohort using logistic regression and in a sibling comparison using conditional logistic regression. In the full cohort, the adjusted odds ratio for ASD and maternal smoking 3 months before/during pregnancy compared with nonsmoking was 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.26), and it was similar in cases with (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.49) and without intellectual disability (odds ratio = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.27). Heavy prenatal smoking (≥20 cigarettes/day in any trimester) was related to an odds ratio of 1.55 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.98). In the sibling comparison, the odds ratio for heavy smoking was similarly elevated but the confidence interval was wide. Our findings are consistent with an increased risk for ASD in offspring of mothers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day during pregnancy; associations with lighter smoking were weaker.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096427PMC
May 2021

An ultra-stretchable glycerol-ionic hybrid hydrogel with reversible gelid adhesion.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jan 6;582(Pt A):187-200. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Center for Advanced Jet Engineering Technologies (CaJET), Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture of Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Mechanical Engineering Education, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250061, China.

Functional hydrogels have attracted enormous interest as wet adhesives for biomedical research and engineering applications. However, reversible hydrogel adhesives that can be used for gelid conditions were rarely reported. In this work, we have developed a freezing-tolerant (freezing temperature < -50 °C), ultra-stretchable (stretch strain > 30000% at 25 °C) glycerol-ionic hydrogel via the ultraviolet curing of acrylamide monomer and hyper-branched polyethylenimine polymer in CaCl-water-glycerol solution. The fabricated hydrogel exhibited reversible gelid adhesion, rapid self-healing (recover in 3 s) and weight-retaining (>2 weeks) properties. The hydrogel allows two iron substrates to adhere together at -40 °C with the lap-shear adhesion strength as high as ~1 MPa. Such strong adhesion measured was reversible, specifically achieving ~100% of initial adhesion strength at 25 °C and ~36% at -40 °C. Additionally, decreasing the testing temperature significantly improved the tensile strength but decreased the fracture strain of the hydrogel. Interestingly, lap-shear adhesion tests suggested that the gelid adhesion strength was enhanced by 130 times as the testing temperature decreased from 25 °C to -40 °C, which was mainly attributed to the enhanced mechanical strength of the bulk hydrogel as well as the increased surface interaction at gel-substrate interfaces. More importantly, the adhesion failure gradually changed from cohesive failure to adhesive failure as the temperature decreased. This work provides new practical and fundamental insights into developing multifunctional freezing-tolerant hydrogel adhesive for gelid conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.08.008DOI Listing
January 2021