Publications by authors named "Xin Chen"

4,837 Publications

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Specific brain gray matter volume changes in pediatric complete spinal cord injury without fracture or dislocation using voxel-based morphometry analysis: Preliminary Results.

J Neurotrauma 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Xuanwu Hospital Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear medicine, Beijing, China.

This study aims to investigate the brain gray matter volume (GMV) alterations of pediatric complete thoracolumbar spinal cord injury without fracture or dislocation (SCIWOFD) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and assess the sensitive neuroimaging biomarkers which may be surrogate targets to enhance brain plasticity. A total of 52 pediatric subjects (age range, 6-12 years), including 25 pediatric SCIWOFD patients and 27 typically developing (TD) children were recruited. Independent two-sample t test was performed to assess between-group differences of brain GMV. Partial correlation analyses were performed to explore the correlations between GMV values and ISNCSCI scores, age at the time of injury, time after initial SCI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compute the sensitivity and specificity of the imaging biomarkers for pediatric SCIWOFD diagnosis. As the results, pediatric SCIWOFD patients showed significantly decreased GMV of bilateral Cerebellum lobule VIII, right middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and putamen (PUT), left pallidum (PAL) and thalamus (THA), and increased GMV of Vermis_III, right Cerebellum lobule VI and SupraMarginal gyrus (SMG). Additionally, GMV of left PAL and right PUT were negatively correlated with the pinprick/light touch sensory scores in pediatric SCIWOFD patients. Finally, when using the GMV values of left PAL and right PUT in combination as the predictor, area under the curve (AUC) reached the highest, of 0.93. These findings provided evidence that the brain undergoes GMV changes following pediatric SCIWOFD, which may suggest important targets for functional remodeling after SCI in children and provide valuable information for the development of novel and effective rehabilitation therapies in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2022.0247DOI Listing
August 2022

High Expression of circ_0001821 Promoted Colorectal Cancer Progression Through miR-600/ISOC1 Axis.

Biochem Genet 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of Radiotherapy, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, No. 256 Youyi West Rd, Xi'an, 710068, Shaanxi, China.

It has been reported that circRNAs play an important regulatory role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the molecular role of circ_0001821 in CRC development is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory role and molecular mechanisms of circ_0001821 in CRC. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot assays were used to detect the expression of circ_0001821, miR-600 and isochorismatase domain containing 1 (ISOC1) in CRC tissues as well as its cell lines. Colony formation assay and EDU assay were used to detect the proliferative capacity of cells. Transwell assay was used to assess cell migration and invasion ability. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell apoptosis. ELISA was used to measure the glycolytic capacity of cells. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA pull-down assay were used to analyze the relationships between circ_0001821, miR-600 and ISOC1. Animal experimentation was used to validate the functional study of circ_0001821 in vivo. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of Ki67 staining analysis was conducted to assess tumor growth. Circ_0001821 and ISOC1 were significantly increased in CRC tissues and its cell lines, and miR-600 was significantly decreased in CRC tissues and its cell lines. Silencing circ_0001821 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and glycolytic capacity, while inducing apoptosis. And it could inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Circ_0001821 could act as a sponge for miR-600 to regulate CRC processes. ISOC1 was identified as a downstream regulator of miR-600, also miR-600 could regulate the expression of ISOC1. In addition, circ_0001821 could regulate ISOC1 expression changes through miR-600. Mechanistically, either miR-600 inhibitor or overexpression of ISOC1 could reverse the effects of knockdown of circ_0001821 on cell biological properties. Circ_0001821 regulated the developmental process of CRC through miR-600/ISOC1 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10528-022-10262-zDOI Listing
August 2022

From Implementation Towards Change Management: A Plea for a Multi-stakeholder View on Innovation Implementation Comment on "What Managers Find Important for Implementation of Innovations in the Healthcare Sector - Practice Through Six Management Perspectives".

Int J Health Policy Manag 2022 Jul 9. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Department of Family Medicine and Population Health (FAMPOP), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

In their 2021 paper, Palm and Persson Fischier focus on the enabling factors that can facilitate innovation implementation, specifically the step of moving from idea generation to implementation in a healthcare context. The authors address the lack of concretisation of theoretical perspectives related to the implementation of innovations and hence propose to work holistically with six management perspectives. Our commentary provides new interdisciplinary angles to the six perspectives, from management and organisation literature to theory of change management. This provides future innovation managers with different viewpoints and inspires creative thinking and reflection. Our commentary also critiques the emphasis on the enablers and hence a constructionist-based approach to change management. We plea that a focus on the 'good, bad, and ugly'-or rather all moods of change-is warranted in order to support holistic and successful change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2022.7202DOI Listing
July 2022

EUS-guided fine needle aspiration provides an open view for duodenal obstruction caused by urothelial carcinoma: a case report.

BMC Gastroenterol 2022 Aug 8;22(1):376. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Division of Gastroenterology, School of Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a good alternative and diagnostic tool for gastrointestinal wall thickening with prior negative endoscopic biopsies.

Case Presentation: Here we reported a case of a 60-years-old woman admitted with atrophic right kidney and hydronephrosis and intermittent postprandial bloating. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and small bowel endoscopy revealed wall thickening and stenosis at the junction of the descending and inferior duodenum. Biopsies from endoscopy showed no specific findings. EUS-FNA of the thickened duodenal wall was performed and histopathological examinations revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma. Immunohistochemically staining was positive for pan-cytokeratin, CK7, CK20, and weakly positive for GATA-3 and P63. These results were highly suggestive of metastatic urothelial cancer.

Conclusions: EUS-FNA played an important role in the diagnosis of unexplained gastrointestinal wall thickening and rare metastases to the gastrointestinal wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-022-02452-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9358900PMC
August 2022

Comparative Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Radical Surgery With or Without Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Propensity Score-Matching Analysis.

Ann Surg Oncol 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430022, Hubei Province, China.

Background: The effectiveness and safety of preventive hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for gastric cancer (GC) remain controversial. This study aimed to describe the safety and efficacy of radical surgery (RS) with or without HIPEC for patients with locally advanced GC (LAGC).

Methods: The study identified 394 patients with LAGC who underwent RS with or without HIPEC in China.

Results: Of the 394 patients, 146 received RS+HIPEC, and 248 received RS alone. The RS-HIPEC procedure improved the relapse-free survival (RFS) of the GC patients (2-year RFS, 62.9 % vs 37.8 %; χ = 4.468; P = 0.035) compared with those who received RS alone. The incidence of postoperative myelosuppression (Z = 4.077; P = 0.043) was higher in the RS+HIPEC group, whereas the incidence of wound complications was lower (Z = 4.077; P = 0.043). In the subgroup analysis, HIPEC improved the OS (2-year OS, 69.9 % vs 40.8 %; χ = 5.537; P =0.019) and RFS (2-year RFS, 65.6 % vs 33.3 %; χ = 7.380, P = 0.007) of the patients with nerve invasion and the RFS of the patients with vascular invasion (2-year RFS, 60.7 % vs 31.6 %; χ = 3.891; P = 0.049). In addition, the prognosis of the patients who underwent HIPEC was better when the tumor diameter was smaller than 5 cm (2-year RFS, 68.6 % vs 37.9 %; χ = 3.957; P = 0.047).

Conclusions: The RS + HIPEC procedure improved the RFS of the patients with LAGC compared with RS alone, especially the patients with nerve or vascular invasion and the patients with tumor smaller than 5 cm. Moreover, it reduced the incidence of wound complications and did not induce more perioperative complications in addition to myelosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-022-12348-9DOI Listing
August 2022

How can we use the endocytosis pathways to design nanoparticle drug-delivery vehicles to target cancer cells over healthy cells?

Chem Soc Rev 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Targeted drug delivery in cancer typically focuses on maximising the endocytosis of drugs into the diseased cells. However, there has been less focus on exploiting the differences in the endocytosis pathways of cancer cells non-cancer cells. An understanding of the endocytosis pathways in both cancer and non-cancer cells allows for the design of nanoparticles to deliver drugs to cancer cells whilst restricting healthy cells from taking up anticancer drugs, thus efficiently killing the cancer cells. Herein we compare the differences in the endocytosis pathways of cancer and healthy cells. Second, we highlight the importance of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (size, shape, stiffness, and surface chemistry) on cellular uptake and how they can be adjusted to selectively target the dominated endocytosis pathway of cancer cells over healthy cells and to deliver anticancer drug to the target cells. The review generates new thought in the design of cancer-selective nanoparticles based on the endocytosis pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cs00707fDOI Listing
August 2022

The mungbean locus encoding MYB90, an R2R3-type MYB protein, regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis.

Front Plant Sci 2022 22;13:895634. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement, Institute of Industrial Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China.

Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments present in several tissues/parts of plants. The pigments provide color and are wildly known for health benefits for human, insect attraction for plant pollination, and stress resistance in plants. Anthocyanin content variations in mungbean [ (L.) Wilczek] were first noticed a long time ago, but the genetic mechanism controlling the anthocyanins in mungbean remains unknown. An F population derived from the cross between purple-hypocotyl (V2709) and green-hypocotyl (Sulv1) mungbeans was used to map the locus controlling purple hypocotyl. The locus was mapped to a 78.9-kb region on chromosome 4. Sequence comparison and gene expression analysis identified an R2R3-MYB gene as the candidate gene for the locus. Haplotype analysis using 124 mungbean accessions suggested that 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exon 3 may lead to an abolished expression of and an absence of anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyl of Sulv1 and KPS2. The overexpression of in mungbean hairy root, tobacco leaf, and resulted in anthocyanin accumulation (purple color). Gene expression analysis demonstrated that regulated anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyl, stem, petiole, and flowers, and the expression was sensitive to light. VrMYB90 protein may upregulate encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase at the late biosynthesis step of anthocyanins in mungbeans. These results suggest that is the dominator in the spatiotemporal regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the biosynthesis mechanism of anthocyanin and a theoretical basis for breeding mungbeans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.895634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9355716PMC
July 2022

Facile Synthesis of Conductive Metal-Organic Frameworks Nanotubes for Ultrahigh-Performance Flexible NO Sensors.

Small Methods 2022 Aug 5:e2200581. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Laboratory of Molecular Materials and Devices, Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, P. R. China.

Cu-benzenehexathiol (Cu-BHT) has attracted significant attention due to its record high electrical conductivity and crystal defects Cu . However, the nonporous structure and small specific surface area of Cu-BHT with two-dimensional kagome lattice invariably limit its practical application in sensing and catalysis. In this work, Cu-BHT nanotubes (Cu-BHT-NTs) are designed and prepared via a facile homogeneous reaction to solve these problems. Compared with the traditional nanorod-like structure, the Cu-BHT-NTs not only have a higher specific surface area but also possess a higher proportion of crystal defects (66.6%). The successfully configured DPPTT/Cu-BHT-NTs heterostructure organic field-effect transistor (OFET)-based sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity as high as 13 610%, a minimum detection limits down to 5 ppb, and exceptional selectivity to nitric oxide (NO) toxic gases. Theoretical analysis systematically shows that Cu sites in the Cu-BHT-NTs increase the number of electrons transferred from the heterostructure to NO molecules, confirming that the high sensitivity and selectivity result from the high binding between Cu-BHT-NTs and NO molecules. Furthermore, a fully flexible device based on the heterojunction OFET sensor is prepared to ensure the convenience of wearing and carrying gas sensors, opening up a new avenue for the next generation of wearable intelligent electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smtd.202200581DOI Listing
August 2022

Mineralized Enzyme-Based Biomaterials with Superior Bioactivities for Bone Regeneration.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Orthopedic, Spinal Pain Research Institute, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072, P. R. China.

The formation and metabolic balance of bone tissue is a controllable process of biomineralization, which is regulated by various cells, biomolecules, and ions. Enzyme molecules play an important role in this process, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is one of the most critical factors. In this study, inspired by the process of bone biomineralization, a biomimetic strategy is achieved for the preparation of mineralized ALP nanoparticles (MALPNs), by taking advantages of the unique reaction between ALP and calcium ions in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. Benefiting from the mild biomineralization reaction, the MALPN system highly maintains the activity of ALP. Furthermore, the in vitro studies show that the MALPN system significantly enhances the proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and upregulates their osteogenic differentiation. When evaluated as synthetic graft materials for bone regeneration, the MALPN-incorporated gelatin methacryloyl graft shows excellent mechanical properties, a sustained release profile of ALP, and high biocompatibility and efficacy in guiding bone regeneration and vascularization for critical-sized rat calvarial defect. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the biomimetic mineralization strategy can be adopted for other proteins such as acid phosphatase, bovine serum albumin, fibrinogen, and gelatin, suggesting its universality for constructing mineralized protein-/enzyme-based bioactive materials for the application of tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c05794DOI Listing
August 2022

Early prediction of treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on longitudinal ultrasound images of HER2-positive breast cancer patients by Siamese multi-task network: A multicentre, retrospective cohort study.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Oct 30;52:101562. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of Radiology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhangshan Er Road, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Background: Early prediction of treatment response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer can facilitate timely adjustment of treatment regimens. We aimed to develop and validate a Siamese multi-task network (SMTN) for predicting pathological complete response (pCR) based on longitudinal ultrasound images at the early stage of NACT.

Methods: In this multicentre, retrospective cohort study, a total of 393 patients with biopsy-proven HER2-positive breast cancer were retrospectively enrolled from three hospitals in china between December 16, 2013 and March 05, 2021, and allocated into a training cohort and two external validation cohorts. Patients receiving full cycles of NACT and with surgical pathological results available were eligible for inclusion. The key exclusion criteria were missing ultrasound images and/or clinicopathological characteristics. The proposed SMTN consists of two subnetworks that could be joined at multiple layers, which allowed for the integration of multi-scale features and extraction of dynamic information from longitudinal ultrasound images before and after the first /second cycles of NACT. We constructed the clinical model as a baseline using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Then the performance of SMTN was evaluated and compared with the clinical model.

Findings: The training cohort, comprising 215 patients, were selected from Yunnan Cancer Hospital. The two independent external validation cohorts, comprising 95 and 83 patients, were selected from Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, and Shanxi Cancer Hospital, respectively. The SMTN yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values of 0.986 (95% CI: 0.977-0.995), 0.902 (95%CI: 0.856-0.948), and 0.957 (95%CI: 0.924-0.990) in the training cohort and two external validation cohorts, respectively, which were significantly higher than that those of the clinical model (AUC: 0.524-0.588, < 0.05). The AUCs values of the SMTN within the anti-HER2 therapy subgroups were 0.833-0.972 in the two external validation cohorts. Moreover, 272 of 279 (97.5%) non-pCR patients (159 of 160 (99.4%), 53 of 54 (98.1%), and 60 of 65 (92.3%) in the training and two external validation cohorts, respectively) were successfully identified by the SMTN, suggesting that they could benefit from regime adjustment at the early-stage of NACT.

Interpretation: The SMTN was able to predict pCR in the early-stage of NACT for HER2-positive breast cancer patients, which could guide clinicians in adjusting treatment regimes.

Funding: Key-Area Research and Development Program of Guangdong Province (No.2021B0101420006); National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.82071892, 82171920); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Artificial Intelligence in Medical Image Analysis and Application (No.2022B1212010011); the National Science Foundation for Young Scientists of China (No.82102019, 82001986); Project Funded by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No.2020M682643); the Outstanding Youth Science Foundation of Yunnan Basic Research Project (202101AW070001); Scientific research fund project of Department of Education of Yunnan Province(2022J0249). Science and technology Projects in Guangzhou (202201020001;202201010513); High-level Hospital Construction Project (DFJH201805, DFJHBF202105).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101562DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343415PMC
October 2022

Long Non-coding RNA UCA1a Promotes Proliferation via PKM2 in Cervical Cancer.

Reprod Sci 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Hospital of Nanjing, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210003, China.

Cervical cancer is a common malignancy that affects women worldwide. The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) urothelial cancer-associated 1a (UCA1a) is reported to be significantly upregulated in cervical cancer. However, the exact role of UCA1a in cervical cancer remains unknown. This study aimed to identify two core promoter regions in UCA1a, which are essential for CEBPA-dependent transcription and FOXL1-, FOXL4-, and FOXL6-dependent activation, respectively. RNA sequencing results showed that overexpression of UCA1a resulted in extensive changes in the gene expression profile of HeLa cells, especially in the signaling pathway that regulates tumorgenesis. Mass spectrometry assay was conducted to show that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) was a UCA1a-interacting protein. The 400 ~ 800 nt long region of UCA1a at the 5' end and the A1B domain of PKM2 were critical for the UCA1a-PKM2 interaction. Functional assays were performed to show that PKM2 was sufficient and necessary for UCA1a-induced proliferation of HeLa cells, which was partly due to the regulating of nuclear translocation and stabilization of PKM2. These findings provide a novel mechanism for UCA1a to regulate Hela cells by ubiquitination degradation of PKM2 and suggest that UCA1a may play a key role in the progression of cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-022-01042-6DOI Listing
August 2022

Testing the link between isoaspartate and Alzheimer's disease etiology.

Alzheimers Dement 2022 Aug 4. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Medical Biophysics and Biochemistry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Isoaspartate (isoAsp) is a damaging amino acid residue formed in proteins as a result of spontaneous deamidation. IsoAsp disrupts protein structures, making them prone to aggregation. Here we strengthened the link between isoAsp and Alzheimer's disease (AD) by novel approaches to isoAsp analysis in human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant blood protein and a major carrier of amyloid beta (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in blood. We discovered a reduced amount of anti-isoAsp antibodies (P < 0.0001), an elevated isoAsp level in HSA (P < 0.001), more HSA aggregates (P < 0.0001), and increased levels of free Aβ (P < 0.01) in AD blood compared to controls. We also found that deamidation significantly reduces HSA capacity to bind with Aβ and p-tau (P < 0.05). These suggest the presence in AD of a bottleneck in clearance of Aβ and p-tau, leading to their increased concentrations in the brain and facilitating their aggregations there.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12735DOI Listing
August 2022

Libman-Sacks Endocarditis and Infective Endocarditis Vegetations Coexisting in a Patient With Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

Circ J 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1253/circj.CJ-22-0326DOI Listing
August 2022

Differential requirement of Hippo cascade during CTNNB1 or AXIN1 mutation driven hepatocarcinogenesis.

Hepatology 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences and Liver Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background & Aims: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations of CTNNB1 and loss-of-function (LOF) mutations of AXIN1 are recurrent genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aim to investigate the functional contribution of Hippo/YAP/TAZ in GOF CTNNB1 or LOF AXIN1 mutant HCCs.

Approach & Results: The requirement of YAP/TAZ in c-Met/β-Catenin and c-Met/sgAxin1 driven HCC was analyzed using conditional Yap, Taz, and Yap;Taz knockout (KO) mice. Mechanisms of AXIN1 in regulating YAP/TAZ were investigated using AXIN1 mutated HCC cells. Hepatocyte-specific inducible TTR-CreER KO system was applied to evaluate the role of Yap;Taz during tumor progression. Cabozantinib and G007-LK combinational treatment were tested in vitro and in vivo. Nuclear YAP/TAZ was strongly induced in c-Met/sgAxin1 mouse HCC cells. Activation of Hippo via overexpression of Lats2 or concomitant deletion of Yap and Taz significantly inhibited c-Met/sgAxin1 driven HCC development, whereas the same approaches had mild effects in c-Met/β-Catenin HCCs. YAP is the major Hippo effector in c-Met/β-Catenin HCCs, and both YAP and TAZ are required for c-Met/sgAxin1 dependent hepatocarcinogenesis. Mechanistically, AXIN1 binds to YAP/TAZ in human HCC cells and regulates YAP/TAZ stability. Genetic deletion of YAP/TAZ suppresses already formed c-Met/sgAxin1 liver tumors, supporting the requirement of YAP/TAZ during tumor progression. Importantly, tankyrase inhibitor G007-LK, which targets Hippo and Wnt pathways, synergizes with cabozantinib, a c-MET inhibitor, leading to tumor regression in the c-Met/sgAxin1 HCC model.

Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that YAP/TAZ are major signaling molecules downstream of LOF AXIN1 mutant HCCs, and targeting YAP/TAZ as an effective treatment against AXIN1 mutant human HCCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.32693DOI Listing
August 2022

PPAR-γ alleviates the inflammatory response in TNF-α-induced fibroblast-like synoviocytes by binding to p53 in rheumatoid arthritis.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Inflammation and Immune Mediated Disease Laboratory of Anhui Province, Anhui Institute of Innovative Drugs, School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by synovial inflammation, synoviocyte expansion and damage to cartilage and bone. We recently reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ inhibited the proliferation and activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), and was downregulated in RA synovial. In this study we investigated the role of PPAR-γ in RA and the underlying mechanisms. Adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) was induced in rats; from D15, AIA rats were orally administered pioglitazone (30 mg·kg·d) or rosiglitazone (4 mg·kg·d) for 14 days. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in wild-type and Ppar-γ mice. We showed that the expression of PPAR-γ was significantly reduced, whereas that of TNF-α was markedly increased in human RA FLS. In CIA mice, knockdown of PPAR-γ expression (Ppar-γ) aggravated the ankle inflammation. Similarly, T0070907 (a PPAR-γ antagonist) or si-PPAR-γ promoted the activation and inflammation of TNF-α-induced FLS in vitro. On the contrary, administration of PPAR-γ agonist pioglitazone or rosiglitazone, or injection of ad-Ppar-γ into the ankle of AIA rat in vivo induced overexpression of PPAR-γ, reduced the paw swelling and inflammation, and downregulated activation and inflammation of FLS in RA. Interesting, injection of ad-Ppar-γ into the ankle also reversed the ankle inflammation in Ppar-γ CIA mice. We conducted RNA-sequencing and KEGG pathway analysis, and revealed that PPAR-γ overexpression was closely related to p53 signaling pathway in TNF-α-induced FLS. Co-IP study confirmed that p53 protein was bound to PPAR-γ in RA FLS. Taken together, PPAR-γ alleviates the inflammatory response of TNF-α-induced FLS by binding p53 in RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-022-00957-9DOI Listing
August 2022

Association between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and dental erosion in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Dent 2022 Jul 30:104247. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Department of General Dentistry, Chenggong Hospital Affiliated to Medical School of Xiamen University (The 73rd Army Hospital of Chinese PLA), PR China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To perform systematic review and quantitative analysis of the literature on the association between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and dental erosion in children.

Methods: Databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional surveys and case-control studies that evaluated the association between GERD and dental erosion in children aged 1-18 years, without limitations on the language or year of publication. Data were pooled in random effects models. Data sources included Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Trip Pro, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicaTrials.gov, Open Grey, Proquest Dissertations and Thesis and Google Scholar from inception to June 9, 2022.

Results: Thirteen studies were included, of which twelve were used for meta-analysis. There were strong associations between GERD and enamel erosion with the subject as unit (odds ratio 4.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.93-10.30; n=6774); dentine erosion with the subject as unit (odds ratio 13.39; 95% CI 4.17-42.94; n=371); enamel erosion with the tooth as unit (odds ratio 3.29; 95% CI 1.36-7.95; n=4637); as well as dentine erosion with the tooth as unit (odds ratio 5.91; 95% CI, 2.35-14.86; n=4637). In cohort studies, GERD was associated with a higher risk of enamel erosion with the subject as a unit (relative risk 1.88, 95% CI 1.22-2.92; n=1411).

Conclusions: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is associated with dental erosion in children. The heterogeneity of GERD definition should be considered when interpreting the present work.

Clinical Significance: There is a positive association between GERD and dental erosion in children. Dentists should emphasise timely detection and management of the underlying factors of dental erosion in GERD. Future studies should define paediatric GERD according to a universal guideline to better enhance patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2022.104247DOI Listing
July 2022

A review on TiO-based materials for photocatalytic CO reduction.

Nanoscale 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

College of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai, China.

Photocatalytic CO reduction technology has a broad potential for dealing with the issues of energy shortage and global warming. As a widely studied material used in the photocatalytic process, titanium dioxide (TiO) has been continuously modified and tailored for more desirable application. Recently, the defective/reduced titanium dioxide (TiO) catalyst has attracted broad attention due to its excellent photocatalytic performance for CO reduction. In this perspective review, we comprehensively present the recent progress in TiO-based materials for photocatalytic CO reduction. In detail, the review starts with the fundamentals of CO photocatalytic reduction. Then, the synthesis of a defective TiO structure is introduced for the regulation of its photocatalytic performance, especially its optical properties and dissociative adsorption properties. In addition, the current application of TiO-based photocatalysts for CO reduction is also highlighted, such as metal-TiO, oxide-TiO and TiO-carbon-based photocatalysts. Finally, the existing challenges and possible scope of photocatalytic CO reduction over TiO-based materials are discussed. We hope that this review can provide an effective reference for the development of more efficient and reasonable photocatalysts based on TiO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2nr02527bDOI Listing
August 2022

HIF signaling: A new propellant in bone regeneration.

Biomater Adv 2022 Jul 18;138:212874. Epub 2022 May 18.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Med-X Center for Materials, Sichuan University, No. 14, Section 3, Renmin Nan Road, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China.

Bone tissue destruction leads to severe pain, physical flaws, and loss of motility. Bone repair using biocompatible and osteo-inductive scaffolds is regarded as a viable and potential therapeutic approach. However, for large-scale bone regeneration, oxygen and nutrient supply have become limiting factors. Further, a considerable need exists for recruited cell activities and blood vessel growth. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathways induced by hypoxia are involved in angiogenesis and osteogenesis. As an important transcription factor, HIF-1 functions by modulating vital genes, such as VEGF, PDK1, and EPO, and is a crucial regulator that influences the final fate of bone regeneration. Collectively, to achieve better osteogenesis results, the in-depth molecular mechanisms that underpin the links between materials, cells, and HIF signaling pathways must be determined. This review aimed to provide an in-depth insight into recent progress in HIF-regulated bone regeneration. Hypoxia and cellular oxygen-sensing mechanisms and their correlations with osteogenesis were determined, and recent studies on hypoxia-inducing and hypoxia-mimicking strategies were briefly described. Finally, the potential applications of HIF signaling in bone regeneration were highlighted. This review provides theoretical support for establishing a novel and viable bone repair strategy in the clinic by harnessing HIF signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioadv.2022.212874DOI Listing
July 2022

Thirty Years of Mungbean Genome Research: Where Do We Stand and What Have We Learned?

Front Plant Sci 2022 15;13:944721. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Institute of Industrial Crops, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China.

Mungbean is a socioeconomically important legume crop in Asia that is currently in high demand by consumers and industries both as dried beans and in plant-based protein foods. Marker-assisted and genomics-assisted breeding are promising approaches to efficiently and rapidly develop new cultivars with improved yield, quality, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although mungbean was at the forefront of research at the dawn of the plant genomics era 30 years ago, the crop is a "slow runner" in genome research due to limited genomic resources, especially DNA markers. Significant progress in mungbean genome research was achieved only within the last 10 years, notably after the release of the VC1973A draft reference genome constructed using next-generation sequencing technology, which enabled fast and efficient DNA marker development, gene mapping, and identification of candidate genes for complex traits. Resistance to biotic stresses has dominated mungbean genome research to date; however, research is on the rise. In this study, we provide an overview of the past progress and current status of mungbean genomics research. We also discuss and evaluate some research results to provide a better understanding of mungbean genomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.944721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9335052PMC
July 2022

CD169 subcapsular sinus macrophage-derived microvesicles are associated with light zone follicular dendritic cells.

Eur J Immunol 2022 Jul 30. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

Shanghai Institute of Immunology, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a specialized type of stromal cells that exclusively reside in B-cell follicles. When inflammation occurs, the FDC network is reorganized to support germinal center (GC) polarization into the light zone (LZ) and dark zone (DZ). Despite the indispensable role of FDCs in supporting humoral responses, the FDC regulatory requirements remain incompletely defined. In this study, we unexpectedly observed an accumulation of CD169 subcapsular sinus macrophage (SSM)-derived microvesicles (MVs) in the B-cell zone, which were tightly associated with the FDC network. Interestingly, a selective deposition of CD169 MVs was detected in both GC LZ FDCs in secondary follicles and on predetermined LZ FDCs in primary follicles. The ablation of CD169 MVs, resulting from SSM depletion, resulted in significantly decreased expression of LZ-related genes in FDCs. In addition, we found that CD169 MVs could colocalize with fluorescently tagged antigen-containing immune complexes (ICs), supporting a possible role of CD169 MVs in transporting antigens to the FDC network. Thus, our data reveal intimate crosstalk between FDCs and SSMs located outside B-cell follicles via SSM-released MVs, providing a novel perspective on the mechanisms underlying the regulation of FDC maturation and polarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.202249879DOI Listing
July 2022

TaGSNE, a WRKY transcription factor overcomes the tradeoff between grain size and grain number and associates with root development in common wheat.

J Exp Bot 2022 Jul 30. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Wheat is one of the staple food crops. Grain yield (GY) improvement is a priority for wheat breeding in the scenario of climate change and population growth. WRKY transcription factors are multifaceted regulators in plant growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli. Currently, WRKY gene TaGSNE (Grain Size and Number Enhancer) has been cloned in common wheat. It has relatively high expressions in leaves and roots, and is induced by multiple abiotic stresses. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in TaGSNE, forming two haplotypes in multiple germplasm collections, i.e., TaGSNE-Hap-1 and TaGSNE-Hap-2. In multiple environments, the later of them was significantly associated with higher thousand grain weight (TGW; 3.0%) and spikelet number per spike (SNPS; 4.1%), as well as deeper roots (10.1%) and higher root dry weight (8.3%) at the mid-grain filling stage, which were confirmed in backcross introgression populations. Furthermore, the rice lines overexpressing TaGSNE had larger panicle, more grains, bigger grain size and higher GY relative to the non-transgenic control. Geographic and temporal distributions revealed that TaGSNE-Hap-2 is positively selected in China and Pakistan, and TaGSNE-Hap-1 in Europe. Our findings demonstrate that TaGSNE overcomes the tradeoff between TGW / grain size and grain number, leading us to conclude that the elite haplotype and functional markers may be utilized in marker assisted selection for high-yield breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erac327DOI Listing
July 2022

Asymmetric Histone Inheritance: Establishment, Recognition, and Execution.

Annu Rev Genet 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Biology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; email:

The discovery of biased histone inheritance in asymmetrically dividing male germline stem cells demonstrates one means to produce two distinct daughter cells with identical genetic material. This inspired further studies in different systems, which revealed that this phenomenon may be a widespread mechanism to introduce cellular diversity. While the extent of asymmetric histone inheritance could vary among systems, this phenomenon is proposed to occur in three steps: first, establishment of histone asymmetry between sister chromatids during DNA replication; second, recognition of sister chromatids carrying asymmetric histone information during mitosis; and third, execution of this asymmetry in the resulting daughter cells. By compiling the current knowledge from diverse eukaryotic systems, this review comprehensively details and compares known chromatin factors, mitotic machinery components, and cell cycle regulators that may contribute to each of these three steps. Also discussed are potential mechanisms that introduce and regulate variable histone inheritance modes and how these different modes may contribute to cell fate decisions in multicellular organisms. Expected final online publication date for the , Volume 56 is November 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-072920-125226DOI Listing
July 2022

Tandemly duplicated genes encoding polygalacturonase inhibitors are associated with bruchid (Callosobruchus chinensis) resistance in moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia).

Plant Sci 2022 Jul 26;323:111402. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaeng Saen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Kamphaeng Saen, Nakhon Pathom 73140, Thailand. Electronic address:

Bruchids are stored-grain insect pests responsible for serious seed loss in legume crops. A previous study using an F population (F2OA) derived from a cross between wild moth-bean (Vigna aconitifolia [Jacq.] Maréchal) accession TN67 (resistant) and cultivated moth-bean accession ICPMO056 (susceptible) revealed that resistance to the azuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.) in TN67 was regulated by a single gene located in the major quantitative trait locus-qVacBrc2.1. In this study, qVacBrc2.1 was finely mapped and candidate genes in this locus were identified using F2OA and another large F population (F2NB) derived from the cross mentioned previously. In contrast to the previous study, segregation analysis in the F2NB population revealed that resistance against this pest was controlled by two genes. Furthermore, the addition of novel markers to qVacBrc2.1 and reanalysis of the QTL in the F2OA population demonstrated that qVacBrc2.1 constituted two linked QTLs-qVacBrc2.1-A and qVacBrc2.1-B. The presence of qVacBrc2.1-B was verified using the population F2NB. Comparative genomics using three Vigna spp. strongly suggested the presence of two tandemly duplicated genes, VacPGIP1 and VacPGIP2, which encoded polygalacturonase inhibitors (polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins) as the candidates for conferring resistance, but only VacPGIP1 could be successfully cloned and sequenced. The alignment of VacPGIP1 coding sequences of TN67 and ICPMO056 revealed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms, three of which altered the amino-acid sequence of the predicted domains of polygalacturonase inhibitors in ICPMO056. Overall, these findings indicate that VacPGIP1 and VacPGIP2 regulated C. chinensis resistance in TN67.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2022.111402DOI Listing
July 2022

[Preparation of an anion stationary phase modified by quaternary ammoniated allyl glycidyl ether].

Se Pu 2022 Aug;40(8):730-735

School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

A polymer-based strong anion stationary phase modified by quaternary ammoniated allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) for ion chromatography (IC) was developed. It was prepared by surface copolymerization between AGE and the pedant double bonds associated with hydrolyzed poly(glycidylmethacrylate-divinylbenzene) (GMA-DVB) substrate, followed by quaternization with ,-methyldiethanolamine (a tertiary amine, MDEA). The synthesis conditions were optimized, including the type of organic tertiary amines (MDEA, ,-dimethylethanolamine, trimethylamine), substrate hydrolysis, the amount of monomer and initiator, reaction temperature and reaction time. The obtained anion stationary phase was characterized by scanning electron microscope and elemental analysis. MDEA was observed to be the best quaternization reagent since the anion exchanger obtained by such reagent showed good separation and suitable retention time towards model inorganic anions. The resulting reason probably lies in higher hydrophilicity of MDEA relative the other two ones. The use of rich epoxy groups of GMA-DVB to introduce the functional groups was commonly used in many previous reports. Here the epoxy groups were firstly hydrolyzed to be diol groups and the pendant double bonds onto the surface of GMA-DVB particles were used to graft AGE. The data achieved indicated that the use of hydrolyzed GMA-DVB substrate would be helpful to reduce anion exchange capacity and unwanted non-ion exchange interaction, in which the rich epoxy groups were converted to hydroxy groups. More important, the obtained anion exchanger after hydrolytic treatment could offer a significantly reduction of retention time (~68%) and a ~1.67-fold higher plate count (take Br as an example). The apparent capacity of the phase was computed to be 264 μmol/g by content of N data and its effective capacity was measured to be 98.5 μmol/column by the breakthrough curve method. Under the optimal chromatographic conditions, the obtained stationary phase showed baseline separation of seven common inorganic anions in less than 13 min using carbonate-bicarbonate mixed eluent, exhibiting high separation efficiency and peak shape, e. g. 49000 plate/m and 38000 plate/m of the theoretical plate counts respectively for chloride and nitrate, and their asymmetric factor were 1.3 and 1.4. These can be comparable or slightly higher than those of commercial columns. The fitted equation of the eluent concentration and the retention factors of model anions was proved that ion exchange model dominates the retention mechanism of the anion stationary phase. This offers a simple way to prepare anion exchanger and to manipulate anion exchange capacity. The utility of the obtained anion exchanger has been demonstrated to the analysis of tap water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2022.03008DOI Listing
August 2022

Cancer Risk in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 12;13:937871. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Traditional Chinese Surgery, Longhua Hospital Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Research data suggest that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis may increase the risk of cancer. However, existing research is inconsistent with this view. Therefore, to investigate the effect of Hashimoto's thyroiditis on the risk of developing cancer, we conducted this study.

Methods: We searched the PubMed and Embase databases from database establishment until March 2022. After rigorous literature screening by two authors, 23 studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified, and the required data were independently extracted.

Results: We retrieved 3591 records, and after the screening, 11 case-control studies and 12 cohort studies were included in the analysis. Data analysis suggested that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis had an increased risk of developing breast cancer, urogenital cancer, digestive organs cancer, hematologic cancer, and a low risk of respiratory cancers.

Conclusions: This systematic review and meta-analysis showed that patients with HT may have a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer, breast cancers, lung cancer, digestive system cancer, urogenital cancers, blood cancers, and prolactinoma people without HT.

Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD 42022320741.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.937871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9318815PMC
July 2022

Effect of magnetite particle size on propionate degradation in the propionate-based anaerobic system.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 25;847:157592. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012, PR China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment and Recycling, Hangzhou 310012, PR China; Instrumental Analysis Center of Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, PR China. Electronic address:

The size effect of magnetite (FeO) on the degradation of propionate (PA) in the PA-based anaerobic system was investigated. The sequential bench-scale experiments were conducted. Results showed that the effects of different sized magnetite particles on PA degradation varied, and reaction cycles also played a role in substrate removal/degradation. With the increase of reaction cycle, nano-magnetite promoted PA degradation and CH production, which caused faster PA degradation rate (0.997 g/L·d) than the control group (CK) without magnetite (0.834 g/L·d), whereas the groups with micron- and millimeter-sized magnetite had slower PA degradation rates (0.746 and 0.636 g/L·d) than CK group. The particle size or surface characteristics of the magnetite may become the main factor determining the PA degradation rate. Furthermore, the analysis of PA conversion and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) distribution showed the C6-dismutation pathway, which converses PA to butyrate, enhanced by the introduction of magnetite. Microbial community analysis showed that PA was degraded mainly by methyl-malonyl-CoA (MMC) pathway. The relative abundance of Syntrophobacter that catalyze MMC pathway in the group with nano-magnetite were much higher after three reaction cycles at 39 %, as compared to micro-magnetite at 28 %, and millimeter-sized magnetite at 27 %, which contributed to faster degradation of PA. Functional enzyme-encoding genes for the four methanogenesis pathways were identified with reference to KEGG database entries. The methanogenesis pathway using acetate was the most abundant pathway in all groups. The observations have important implications for enhancing the PA removal in PA-inhibited anaerobic digester.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157592DOI Listing
July 2022

Microsurgical sealing for symptomatic sacral Tarlov cysts: a series of 265 cases.

J Neurosurg Spine 2022 Jul 1:1-9. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

1Department of Neurosurgery, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing; and.

Objective: Tarlov cysts (TCs) are a common cystic entity in the sacral canal, with a reported prevalence between 1.5% and 13.2%; 10%-20% of patients are symptomatic and need appropriate clinical intervention. However, the choice of treatment remains controversial. The goal of this study was to describe a new microsurgical sealing technique for symptomatic sacral TCs (SSTCs) as well as its long-term outcomes.

Methods: Microsurgical sealing was performed using a short incision, leakage coverage with a piece of autologous fat, and cyst sealing with fibrin glue. Postoperative data were collected at three stages: discharge, 1-year follow-up, and a follow-up of 3 years or more. According to the improvement in neurological deficits and degree of pain relief, outcomes were divided into four levels: excellent, good, unchanged, and deteriorated.

Results: A total of 265 patients with SSTCs were treated with microsurgical sealing from January 2003 to December 2020. The mean follow-up was 44.69 months. The percentages of patients who benefited from the operation (excellent and good) at the three stages were 87.55%, 84.89%, and 80.73%, respectively, while those who received no benefit (unchanged and deteriorated) were 12.45%, 15.11%, and 19.27%, respectively. Of the patients with postoperative MRI, the cysts were reduced in size or disappeared in 209 patients (94.14%). CSF leakage from the wound was observed in 15 patients, and 4 patients experienced an infection at the incision. There were no cases of new-onset nerve injury or aseptic meningitis after the operation.

Conclusions: SSTC patients undergoing microsurgical sealing had persistently high rates of symptom relief and few postoperative complications. Microsurgical sealing is an effective, simple, and low-risk method for treating SSTCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2022.3.SPINE211437DOI Listing
July 2022

Deletion of the Serotonin Receptor 7 Gene Changed the Development and Behavior of the Mosquito, .

Insects 2022 Jul 25;13(8). Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Laboratory of Tropical Veterinary Medicine and Vector Biology, School of Life Sciences, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.

Serotonin (5-HT) plays a vital role in many physiological processes in insects, regulating physiological activities such as growth and movement through multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HTRs), which were potential targets for some new insecticides. However, the specific function of individual 5-HTRs in is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of the 5-HT receptor during development. 5-HTR transcripts were detected at all stages of development by real-time PCR. The results indicated that the gene expression was highest in the limbs ( < 0.01). We also generated 5-HTR mutant mosquitoes using CRISPR-mediated gene editing. The mutants had an abnormal phenotype at the larval stage, including an aberrant head-to-chest ratio and decreased motor activity. The mutant pupae developed abnormally, and most died (56.67%) ( < 0.0001). Using external stimuli to larvae and pupae with abnormal phenotypes, we found the mutant G1 and G2 generations responded to external stimuli in a longer time than the wild-type (WT) mosquitoes, and most of the mutants were 2 to 3 s slower than the WTs to respond to external stimuli ( < 0.01). Due to higher mortality, mutant larvae and pupae had fewer numbers than the WTs. The egg hatching rate of mutant G1 and G2 generations was lower than that of the WTs ( < 0.01). The expression level of 5-HTR in the mutants decreased by about 65% compared with the control group using real-time PCR ( < 0.05). In all, the 5-HT receptor plays an important role in the metamorphosis, development and motor function of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects13080671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332693PMC
July 2022

Study on the Initiation of Interface Crack in Rock Joints.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jul 13;15(14). Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Geomechanics and Embankment Engineering, College of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

The interfacial fracture of rock joints is an important although easily ignored issue in jointed rock engineering. To conduct this study, an interface crack model of rock joints was proposed. By analyzing the ratio of stress intensity factor to fracture toughness, the fracture mode of the interface crack was studied. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, an interface fracture criterion considering T-stress was established. To verify the proposed fracture criterion, laboratory and numerical tests were conducted. Finally, the effect of relative critical size α, internal friction angle and cohesion on the initiation of an interface crack was comprehensively discussed. It is concluded that the proposed fracture criterion can predit the initiation of the interface cracks properly. With an increase in cohesion , mode II fracture toughness also clearly increases. When the absolute value of is small, the effect of is much larger than that of . In addition, with an increase in the absolute value of the mode I stress intensity factor, the of the joint plays a more important role in the initiation of the interface crack.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15144881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9319163PMC
July 2022

PcNRAMP1 Enhances Cadmium Uptake and Accumulation in × .

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 8;23(14). Epub 2022 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Silviculture of the National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.

Poplars are proposed for the phytoremediation of heavy metal (HM) polluted soil. Characterization of genes involved in HM uptake and accumulation in poplars is crucial for improving the phytoremediation efficiency. Here, 1 () encoding a transporter involved in cadmium (Cd) uptake and transport was functionally characterized in × . Eight putative were identified in the poplar genome and most of them were primarily expressed in the roots. The expression of was induced in Cd-exposed roots and it encoded a plasma membrane-localized protein. PcNRAMP1 showed transport activity for Cd when expressed in yeast. The -overexpressed poplars enhanced net Cd influxes by 39-52% in the roots and Cd accumulation by 25-29% in aerial parts compared to the wildtype (WT). However, Cd-induced biomass decreases were similar between the transgenics and WT. Further analysis displayed that the two amino acid residues of PcNRAMP1, i.e., M236 and P405, play pivotal roles in regulating its transport activity for Cd. These results suggest that PcNRAMP1 is a plasma membrane-localized transporter involved in Cd uptake and transporting Cd from the roots to aerial tissues, and that the conserved residues in PcNRAMP1 are essential for its Cd transport activity in poplars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9316961PMC
July 2022
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