Publications by authors named "Xijie Yin"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nitrate sources and transformations along a mountain-to-plain gradient in the Taizi River basin in Northeast China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, 361000, China.

Fifty-seven riverine samples in three typical regions, namely, upper mountainous (zone 1), middle hilly (zone 2), and lower plain (zone 3) regions, were collected in May (low flow) and August (high flow) of 2016, and chemical parameters and isotopes were analyzed to enrich the knowledge of riverine nitrate sources and transformations in the Taizi River basin. Results showed that NO concentrations in zone 3 were the highest, followed by zones 2 and 1. NO/Cl molar ratios and nitrate dual isotopes indicated that NO was mainly from chemical fertilizer (CF) in zones 1 (57.0%) and 2 (43.1%) according to a Bayesian mixing model (SIAR) and mixed sources of CF, nitrification of soil organic nitrogen (SON), and manure and sewage (M&S) in zone 3 (92.8%), during the high-flow season. NO was mainly from CF and SON in zones 1 (76.7%) and 2 (74.0%), during the low-flow season. NOsources were different in the three rivers of zone 3 mainly due to various urban inputs. Contributions of CF, SON, and M&S increased by 13%, 8.3%, and 7.5% in zones 1, 2, and 3, respectively, from the low-flow to the high-flow season. NO in the Taizi River was mainly influenced by nitrification in soils, while no significant denitrification was found in the three zones. Measures for reducing NO inputs to rivers should be considered by improving effectively utilizing rate of chemical fertilizer and inhibit nitrification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14762-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Accessing the position-specific O/O ratios of lignin monomeric units from higher plants with highly selective hydrogenolysis followed by GC/Py/IRMS analysis.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 22;1171:338667. Epub 2021 May 22.

Isotopomics in Chemical Biology (ICB) & Key Laboratory of Chemical Additives for China National Light Industry, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Weiyang, University Park, Xi'an, 710021, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory, Zhuhai, 51900, China; International Center for Isotope Effects Research (ICIER), Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

The O/O of lignin at bulk, molecular and positional levels can be used to extract valuable information about climate, plant growth environment, plant physiology, and plant metabolism. Access to the individual oxygen isotope compositions (δO) in the lignin monomeric units is, however, challenging as depolymerization of lignin to release the monomeric units may cause isotope fractionation. We have developed a novel method to measure the δO of the three oxygens (O-3, O-4 and O-5) attached to the aromatic ring of the monomeric units (bearing no oxygen in their side chains) releasable by highly selective WC/AC (tungsten carbide supported by activated carbon)-catalyzed hydrogenolysis of lignin. O-4 is obtained by measuring the δO of H-type monomeric unit, while O-3 and O-5 can be calculated following isotope mass balance between H, G and S-type monomeric units measurable simultaneously with GC/Py/IRMS (gas chromatography-pyrolysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry). The measurement precisions are better than 1.15 mUr and 4.15 mUr at molecular and positional levels, respectively. It was shown that there were a δO > δO > δO isotopic order in the herbaceous plant lignin and an (inclusive) opposite order in woody plant lignin. Such differences in isotopic order is likely to be caused by the fact that both L-tyrosine, which carries an O-enriched leaf water signal, and L-phenylalanine, which carries mainly a molecular O isotopic signal, serve as the precursors for lignin biosynthesis in herbaceous plants while only the latter serves as precursor for lignin biosynthesis in woody plants. We have highlighted the potential application of such molecular and positional levels isotopic signals in plant physiological, metabolic, lignin biosynthetic and climate studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338667DOI Listing
August 2021

Typhoon Fung-wong (2008) induced heavy metals secondary pollution in Quanzhou Bay, southeast of China.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Mar 27;164:112047. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Laboratory for Ocean & Coast Geology, Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, China.

The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, and Al in suspended particles were measured, and temperature, salinity, flow velocity and direction during a tidal cycle were observed before and after Typhoon Fung-wong at six stations in Quanzhou Bay, respectively. The comparison results show that, after the typhoon, the salinity in Quanzhou Bay decreased, whereas the concentrations of heavy metals increased by a factor of between 2 and 10, and the high heavy metal concentration corresponded to the low value of ratio between heavy metals and Al (HMs/Al), suggesting that these increased heavy metals were mainly from natural sources. Instantaneous unit width flux calculations for heavy metals at different stations indicate that sediments are an important source of heavy metals in suspended particles under the influence of typhoon, which has significantly contribution to understanding the impact of typhoons on the heavy metal pollution in the coastal area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112047DOI Listing
March 2021

Novel GC/Py/GC/IRMS-Based Method for Isotope Measurements of Nitrate and Nitrite. I: Converting Nitrate to Benzyl Nitrate for δO Analysis.

Anal Chem 2020 09 25;92(18):12216-12225. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Isotopomics in Chemical Biology & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Additives for Industry, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Weiyang University Park, Xi'an 710021, China.

The O/O (and N/N) ratio of natural nitrate (NO) and nitrite (NO) can be used to extract valuable information about their source and fate as environmental contaminants, their metabolism as macronutrients in plants and animals, and their behavior in the N biogeochemical cycle. We developed an accurate, precise, sensitive (minimum sample size: 0.2 μg NO-equivalent), and reliable (minimal oxygen exchange, loss, or gain) method to selectively isolate and purify nitrate and nitrite from natural water, soil, air, and plant materials by strong anion exchange (SAX) for low- to normal-salinity samples or strong cation exchange (SCX) for high-salinity samples, followed by quantitative conversion to their respective benzyl esters, which can be separated and individually analyzed for δO (and potentially δN) by gas chromatography (GC)/pyrolysis/GC/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The method compares favorably with the currently popular bacterial denitrification and chemical reduction methods, in terms of sensitivity and reliability, and has the potential to simultaneously measure δN and δO of nitrate and nitrite from natural samples of various origins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c01403DOI Listing
September 2020

Leaf transition from heterotrophy to autotrophy is recorded in the intraleaf C, H and O isotope patterns of leaf organic matter.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2020 Oct;34(19):e8840

Isotopomics in Chemical Biology & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Additives for Industry, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Weiyang University Park, Xi'an, 710021, China.

Rationale: Quantitatively relating C/ C, H/ H and O/ O ratios of plant α-cellulose and H/ H of n-alkanes to environmental conditions and metabolic status should ideally be based on the leaf, the plant organ most sensitive to environmental change. The fact that leaf organic matter is composed of isotopically different heterotrophic and autotrophic components means that it is imperative that one be able to disentangle the relative heterotrophic and autotrophic contributions to leaf organic matter.

Methods: We tackled this issue by two-dimensional sampling of leaf water and α-cellulose, and specific n-alkanes from greenhouse-grown immature and mature and field-grown mature banana leaves, taking advantage of their large areas and thick waxy layers. Leaf water, α-cellulose and n-alkane isotope ratios were then characterized using elemental analysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) or gas chromatography IRMS. A three-member (heterotrophy, autotrophy and photoheterotrophy) conceptual linear mixing model was then proposed for disentangling the relative contributions of the three trophic modes.

Results: We discovered distinct spatial leaf water, α-cellulose and n-alkane isotope ratio patterns that varied with leaf developmental stages. We inferred from the conceptual model that, averaged over the leaf blade, only 20% of α-cellulose in banana leaf is autotrophically laid down in both greenhouse-grown and field-grown banana leaves, while approximately 60% and 100% of n-alkanes are produced autotrophically in greenhouse-grown and field-grown banana leaves, respectively. There exist distinct lateral (edge to midrib) gradients in autotrophic contributions of α-cellulose and n-alkanes.

Conclusions: Efforts to establish quantitative isotope-environment relationships should take into account the fact that the evaporative leaf water O and H enrichment signal recorded in autotrophically laid down α-cellulose is significantly diluted by the heterotrophically formed α-cellulose. The δ H value of field-grown mature banana leaf n-alkanes is much more sensitive than α-cellulose as a recorder of the growth environment. Quantitative isotope-environment relationship based on greenhouse-grown n-alkane δ H values may not be reliable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8840DOI Listing
October 2020

Novel Position-Specific O/O Measurement of Carbohydrates. II. The Complete Intramolecular O/O Profile of the Glucose Unit in a Starch of C4 Origin.

Anal Chem 2020 06 15;92(11):7462-7470. Epub 2020 May 15.

Isotopomics in Chemical Biology & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Additives for Industry, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi'an, China, 710021.

Information about plant photosynthetic carbon assimilation, physiology, and biochemistry is locked in the O/O ratios of the individual positions of higher plants carbohydrates but is under-utilized, because of the difficulty of making these determinations. We report the extension of the wet chemistry approach we used to access the O/O ratio of O-3 of glucose with a novel GC/Pyrolysis/IRMS-based method, to determine the O/O ratios of O-4, O-5, and O-6. The O atoms (OH groups) at positions 1, 2, 5, and 6 of glucose were protected by acetonation (converting to 1,2;5,6-di--isopropylidene-glucofuranose, DAGF). The DAGF was then converted to 6-bromo-6-deoxy-1,2;3,5-di--isopropylidene-glucofuranose (6-bromoDAGF) with the simultaneous removal of O-6 with -bromosuccinimide and triphenylphosphine. The DAGF was also methylated at O-3 with CHI under the catalysis of NaH to 3-methylDAGF, which was then deacetonated to 1,2--isopropylidene-3--methyl-glucofuranose (3-methylMAGF). O-5 and O-6 were then removed as a whole from 3-methylMAGF by I oxidization under the catalysis of PhP and imidazole. Isotope mass balance was then applied to calculate the O/O of O-5 and O-6 as a whole and O-6, respectively. Sampling at different stages of substrate conversion to product and applying a Rayleigh-type fractionation model were employed, when quantitative conversion of substrate was unachievable to calculate the δO of the converted substrate. Quantitative conversion of glucose with phenylhydrazine to phenylglucosazone also allowed for the calculation of δO by applying isotope mass balance between the two. A C4 starch-derived glucose intramolecular δO profile is now determined: O-3 is relatively enriched (by 12.16 mUr), O-4 is relatively depleted (by 20.40-31.11 mUr), and O-2 is marginally enriched (by 2.40 mUr) against the molecular average.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.9b05314DOI Listing
June 2020

The effect of processing medium on the H/ H of carbon-bound hydrogen in α-cellulose extracted from higher plants.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2020 May;34(10):e8641

Isotopomics in Chemical Biology & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Additives for Industry, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Weiyang University Park, Xi'an, 710021, China.

Rationale: Although the H/ H ratio of the carbon-bound hydrogens (C-Hs) in α-cellulose extracted from higher plants has long been used successfully for climate, environmental and metabolic studies, the assumption that bleaching with acidified NaClO to remove lignin before pure α-cellulose can be obtained does not alter the H/ H ratio of α-cellulose C-Hs has nonetheless not been tested.

Methods: For reliable application of the H/ H ratio of α-cellulose C-H, we processed plant materials representing different phytochemistries and photosynthetic carbon assimilation modes in isotopically contrasting bleaching media (with an isotopic difference of 273 mUr). All the isotope ratios were measured by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS).

Results: Our results show that H from the bleaching medium does appear in the final pure α-cellulose product, although the isotopic alteration to the C-H in α-cellulose due to the incorporation of processing H from the medium is small if isotopically "natural" water is used to prepare the processing medium. However, under prolonged bleaching such an isotope effect can be significant, implying that standardizing the bleaching process is necessary for reliable H/ H measurement.

Conclusions: The currently adopted method for removing lignin for α-cellulose extraction from higher plant materials with acidified NaClO bleaching is considered acceptable in terms of preserving the isotopic fidelity if isotopically "natural" water is used to prepare the bleaching solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8641DOI Listing
May 2020

Evolution of sedimentary organic matter in a small river estuary after the typhoon process: A case study of Quanzhou Bay.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Oct 4;686:290-300. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Department of Earth Science, Utah Valley University, Orem, UT 84058, USA.

Extreme weather events occur frequently under global warming scenarios and have an important impact on the global carbon cycle. Compared to large rivers, small rivers are more sensitive to extreme weather events (such as typhoons). This paper reports the results of a study carried out in the Quanzhou Bay to explore the evolution of small river estuarine sedimentary organic matter after typhoon process using measurements of the grain-size, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and δC of surface sediment samples collected 2-3 days and a month, respectively, after typhoon Matmo landing in 2014. The results show that the contents of TOC and TN in the sediments, which gradually decrease from the estuary to the outer sea of Quanzhou Bay, decreased approximately 13% and 16%, respectively, a month later compared with 2-3 days after typhoon landing. The significant decrease occurred in the Jinjiang River estuary and along the South Channel of Quanzhou Bay, while the North Channel and Luoyangjiang River estuary retained high levels of TOC and TN. The results of δC values and TOC/TN ratios show that the organic matter in the sediment of the Quanzhou Bay was a mixture derived from C terrestrial plants and marine algae. The terrestrial organic matter was mainly deposited in the Jinjiang River estuary 2-3 days after typhoon landing and then spread along the tidal channel to the outer sea a month later. It indicates that the hydrodynamic forces stirred sedimentary organic matters that were input and settled during typhoon, and transported later along the North and South Channel to the outer sea. Some of those organic matters were accumulated in the North Channel during the transport process. The results provide significant meaning for the carbon cycle and material flux study on the coastal and margin seas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.452DOI Listing
October 2019

Nonlinear effects of increasing nitrogen deposition on rice growth and heavy metal uptake in a red soil ecosystem of southeastern China.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jun 20;670:1060-1067. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, PR China.

With the population growth, urbanization and industrialization, China has become a hotspot of atmospheric deposition nitrogen (ADN), which is a threat to ecosystem and food safety. However, the impacts of increased ADN on rice growth and grain metal content are little studied. Based on previous long-term ADN studies, greenhouse experiment was conducted with four simulated ADN rates of 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg N ha yr (CK, N, N and N as δN, respectively) to assess rice growth and metal uptake in a red soil ecosystem of southeast China during 2016-2017. Results showed that simulated ADN could promote rice growth and increase yields by 15.68-24.41% (except N) and accumulations of cadmium (Cd) or copper (Cu) in organs. However, there was no linear relationship between ADN rate and rice growth or Cd or Cu uptake. The N-ADN was mainly accumulated in roots (21.31-67.86%) and grains (25.26-49.35%), while Cd and Cu were primarily accumulated in roots (78.86-93.44% and 90.00-96.24%, respectively). N-ADN and Cd accumulations in roots were significantly different between the two growing seasons (p < 0.05), implying the accumulative effects of ADN. Data also indicated the synergetic effect between accumulations of N-ADN and soil Cd and Cu. This study demonstrated that increasing ADN could potentially enhance Cd or Cu uptake in rice grain and threaten rice grain safety. However, related nonlinear mechanism is still needed to be discussed between increasing ADN and rice response in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.245DOI Listing
June 2019

Improvements in the preparation of phosphate for oxygen isotope analysis from soils and sediments.

PLoS One 2018 20;13(9):e0204203. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, China.

In contrast to the successful preparation of phosphate for oxygen isotope analysis from water samples, there are still a series of problems for similar analyses from soils and sediments. Here, we improved and optimized the methods of silver phosphate preparation for oxygen isotope analysis from soils and sediments. During our preparations, organic matter was removed by sodium hypochlorite and XAD-2 resin, while the impurities of elemental silver and its oxide were removed by rapid microprecipitation and ammonium phospho-molybdate and magnesium ammonium phosphate. The total organic carbon and total nitrogen in the prepared silver phosphates from soils and sediments were 0.226±0.033% and 0.030±0.0059% (n = 7), 0.217±0.053% and 0.034±0.0120% (n = 9), respectively, indicating a high removal efficiency of organic matter. We confirmed that adding citric acid during rapid microprecipitation would introduce the impurity of elemental silver, which could be removed by ammonia recrystallization. The pH range of solutions for rapid microprecipitation was optimized at 7.0‒7.5. Results of X-ray Diffraction and stable oxygen isotope analyses showed that the improved method could obtain high pure silver phosphate from soil and sediment samples without oxygen isotope fractionation. This improved procedure provides a foundation for biogeochemical studies on phosphorus in soil and lacustrine environments by using phosphate oxygen isotopes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204203PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6147477PMC
March 2019

Novel Position-Specific O/O Measurement of Carbohydrates. I. O-3 of Glucose and Confirmation of O/O Heterogeneity at Natural Abundance Levels in Glucose from Starch in a C Plant.

Anal Chem 2018 09 17;90(17):10293-10301. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Isotopomics in Chemical Biology & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Additives for Industry, School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering , Shaanxi University of Science & Technology , Xi'an 710021 , China.

The O/O ratio at both molecular and positional levels in the carbohydrates of higher plants is a reliable proxy for the plant growth environment, and a potential indicator of the plant photosynthetic carbon assimilation mode, and its physiological, biochemical and metabolic status. The lack of exploitable nuclear resonance in O and O and the extremely low O abundance make the NMR-based PSIA (position-specific isotopic analysis) a significant challenge. In this Article, an alternative three-step wet chemistry based method for accessing the O/O of glucose O-3 is presented. The O atoms (OH groups) at positions 1, 2, 5, and 6 were first protected by acetonation (converting glucose to 1,2;5,6-di- O-isopropylidene-glucofuranose). The protected glucose was then esterified at O-3 by thionoformylation. Subsequent Barton-McCombie deoxygenation quantitatively removed the O-3 from the protected sugar. Mass balance was then applied to calculate the O/O of O-3 using the isotopic values of the protected sugar before and after the deoxygenation step. The method is innovative in that (i) isolation and purification of individual compounds for O by EA/Pyrolysis/IRMS analysis is unnecessary as the reaction mixture can be analyzed on a GC/Pyrolysis/IRMS; (ii) sample quantity is dramatically reduced; and (iii) the approach to access the O-3 isotopic signal can be easily expanded to other positions within glucose and other sugars. It was shown that O-3 is enriched by 12 mUr relative to the molecular average (O-2-O-6) for a glucose of C photosynthetic origin. We highlighted the potential applications of the intramolecular O isotopic heterogeneity of glucose this method revealed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b02022DOI Listing
September 2018

Geochemical analysis of sediments from a semi-enclosed bay (Dongshan Bay, southeast China) to determine the anthropogenic impact and source.

Chemosphere 2017 May 17;174:764-773. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

Laboratory of Ocean and Coast Geology, Third Institute of Oceanography State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen, 361005, China.

The geochemical compositions of sediments in the Dongshan Bay, a semi-enclosed bay on the southeast coast of China, were obtained to identify pollutant sources and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts over the last 100 years. The results indicated that the metal flux had been increasing since the 1980s. Enrichment factor values (Pb, Zn and Cu) suggested only slight enrichment. The proportion of anthropogenic Pb changed from 9% to 15% during 2000-2014. Coal combustion might be an important contamination source in the Dongshan Bay. The historical variation in the metal flux reflected the economic development and urbanization in the Zhangjiang drainage area in the past 30 years. According to the Landsat satellite remote sensing data, the urbanization area expanded approximately three times from 1995 to 2010. The δC values (-21‰ to -23‰) of the organic matter (OM) in the sediments indicated that the OM was primarily sourced from aquatic, terrigenous and marsh C plants. Nitrogen was mainly derived from aquatic plants and terrigenous erosion before the 1980s. However, the total organic carbon (TOC) contents, total nitrogen (TN) contents and δN had been increasing since the 1980s, which suggested that the sources of nitrogen were soil erosion, fertilizer and sewage. In addition, the TOC and TN fluxes in the Dongshan Bay had significantly increased since the 1980s, which reflected the use of N fertilizer. However, the TOC and TN fluxes significantly decreased in the past decade because environmental awareness increased and environmental protection policies were implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.081DOI Listing
May 2017

Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows.

Sci Rep 2017 02 10;7:42406. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, China.

Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δC analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δC value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep42406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5301194PMC
February 2017

Geochemical record of high emperor penguin populations during the Little Ice Age at Amanda Bay, Antarctica.

Sci Total Environ 2016 Sep 31;565:1185-1191. Epub 2016 May 31.

Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, China.

Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are sensitive to the Antarctic climate change because they breed on the fast sea ice. Studies of paleohistory for the emperor penguin are rare, due to the lack of archives on land. In this study, we obtained an emperor penguin ornithogenic sediment profile (PI) and performed geochronological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses on the sediments and feather remains. Two radiocarbon dates of penguin feathers in PI indicate that emperor penguins colonized Amanda Bay as early as CE 1540. By using the bio-elements (P, Se, Hg, Zn and Cd) in sediments and stable isotope values (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) in feathers, we inferred relative population size and dietary change of emperor penguins during the period of CE 1540-2008, respectively. An increase in population size with depleted N isotope ratios for emperor penguins on N island at Amanda Bay during the Little Ice Age (CE 1540-1866) was observed, suggesting that cold climate affected the penguin's breeding habitat, prey availability and thus their population and dietary composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.05.166DOI Listing
September 2016

Storm deposition layer on the Fujian coast generated by Typhoon Saola (2012).

Sci Rep 2015 Oct 8;5:14904. Epub 2015 Oct 8.

Laboratory of Marine Isotopic Technology and Environmental Risk Assessment, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, China.

Typhoons have a significant effect on the marine depositional environment and depositional process. In this paper, we used the high-resolution Chirp sonar sub-bottom profiler and radioisotope detection techniques to examine the storm-deposited layer formed in the seawater near the path of Typhoon Saola along the coast of Fujian, China. The thickness of the typhoon-deposited layer acquired using these two methods was 10-25 cm. The thickness, sediment grain size, and δ(13)C values of the deposited sedimentary layer indicated that it was mainly matter from the re-suspension and redistribution of seafloor sediments. The particle sizes of the sediments in the storm-deposited layer became coarser, indicating that the fine-grade compositions spread over a wider range out of the coastal zone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4597203PMC
October 2015

Measuring oxygen yields of a thermal conversion/elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometer for organic and inorganic materials through injection of CO.

J Mass Spectrom 2014 Dec;49(12):1298-305

Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian, 361005, China.

The thermal conversion/elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (TC/EA-IRMS) is widely used to measure the δ(18) O value of various substances. A premise for accurate δ(18) O measurement is that the oxygen in the sample can be converted into carbon monoxide (CO) quantitatively or at least proportionally. Therefore, a precise method to determine the oxygen yield of TC/EA-IRMS measurements is needed. Most studies have used the CO peak area obtained from a known amount of a solid reference material (for example, benzoic acid) to calibrate the oxygen yield of the sample. Although it was assumed that the oxygen yield of the solid reference material is 100%, no direct evidence has been provided. As CO is the analyte gas for δ(18) O measurement by IRMS, in this study, we use a six-port valve to inject CO gas into the TC/EA. The CO is carried to the IRMS by the He carrier gas and the CO peak area is measured by the IRMS. The CO peak area thus obtained from a known amount of the injected CO is used to calibrate the oxygen yield of the sample. The oxygen yields of commonly used organic and inorganic reference materials such as benzoic acid (C6 H5 COOH), silver phosphate (Ag3 PO4 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) and silicon dioxide (SiO2 ) are investigated at different reactor temperatures and sample sizes. We obtained excellent linear correlation between the peak area for the injected CO and its oxygen atom amount. C6 H5 COOH has the highest oxygen yield, followed by Ag3 PO4 , CaCO3 and SiO2 . The oxygen yields of TC/EA-IRMS are less than 100% for both organic and inorganic substances, but the yields are relatively stable at the specified reactor temperature and for a given quantity of sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jms.3463DOI Listing
December 2014

Nesterenkonia alkaliphila sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, halotolerant actinobacteria isolated from the western Pacific Ocean.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015 Feb 11;65(Pt 2):516-521. Epub 2014 Nov 11.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Development and Utilization of Marine Biological Resources, Xiamen 361005, PR China.

A Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, motile and non-spore-forming actinobacteria, designated strain F10(T), was isolated from a deep-sea sediment of the western Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic and phenotypic properties of the organism supported that it belonged to the genus Nesterenkonia. Strain F10(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.8 % with Nesterenkonia aethiopica DSM 17733(T), followed by Nesterenkonia xinjiangensis YIM 70097(T) (96.7 %) and Nesterenkonia alba CAAS 252(T) (96.6 %). The organism grew at 4-50 °C, at pH 7.0-12.0 and in the presence of 0-12 % (w/v) NaCl, with optimal growth occurring at 40 °C, at pH 9.0 and in the presence of 1 % (w/v) NaCl. The peptidoglycan type was A4(alpha), l-Lys-Gly-l-Glu. The polar lipid profile of strain F10(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two unknown glycolipids and two unknown lipids. The isolate contained MK-9 (92 %) and MK-8 (5.8 %) as the major components of the menaquinone system, and anteiso-C17 : 0 (50.9 %) and anteiso-C15 : 0 (29.8 %) as the predominant fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain F10(T) was 66.2 mol%. Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain F10(T) represents a novel species of the genus Nesterenkonia for which the name Nesterenkonia alkaliphila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F10(T) ( = LMG 28112(T) = CGMCC 1.12781(T) = JCM 19766(T) = MCCC 1A09946(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.065623-0DOI Listing
February 2015

Virgibacillus oceani sp. nov. isolated from ocean sediment.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015 Jan 9;65(Pt 1):159-164. Epub 2014 Oct 9.

Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, PR China.

A Gram-stain-positive, moderately halophilic, motile, strictly aerobic, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, strain MY11(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Western Pacific. This isolate grew in the presence of 0.5-18% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 6.0-10.0 and 15-45 °C; optimum growth was observed with 3.5% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 8.0-9.0 and 35-37 °C. Strain MY11(T) had menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the predominant respiratory quinone and anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0 as major fatty acids. Major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain MY11(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus, exhibiting sequence similarities of 95.3-97.6% to the type strains of recognized Virgibacillus species. Strain MY11(T) could be differentiated from recognized species of the genus Virgibacillus based on phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic differences, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization data. On the basis of the data presented, strain MY11(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus oceani sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MY11(T) ( =LMG 28105(T) =CGMCC 1.12754(T) =MCCC 1A09973(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.068213-0DOI Listing
January 2015

Paracoccus pacificus sp. nov., isolated from the Western Pacific Ocean.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2014 Oct 3;106(4):725-31. Epub 2014 Aug 3.

Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, 361005, People's Republic of China,

A Gram-stain negative, short rod-shaped, non-motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, aerobic bacterium, designated F14(T), was isolated from the Western Pacific Ocean. Phylogenetic and phenotypic properties of the organism supported that it belongs to the genus Paracoccus. The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequences similarity between strain F14(T) and other type strains of recognized members of the genus Paracoccus were 93.6-96.5%. Growth of strain F14(T) was observed at 4-40 °C (optimum, 28-30 °C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-7% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1-2%). The major cellular fatty acid was summed feature 8 (C(18:1)ω6c and/or C(18:1)ω7c). The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The polar lipid pattern indicated the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and three unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 61.4 mol%. On the basis of polyphasic characterization, strain F14(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Paracoccus pacificus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F14(T) (=CGMCC 1.12755(T)=LMG 28106(T)=MCCC 1A09947(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-014-0242-0DOI Listing
October 2014

The source of natural and anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments of the Minjiang River Estuary (SE China): implications for historical pollution.

Sci Total Environ 2014 Sep 1;493:729-36. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Open Laboratory of Ocean and Coast Environmental Geology, Third Institute of Oceanography State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005, China.

Two sedimentary cores in the Minjiang River estuary (SE China) are documented for grain size, clay minerals, heavy metals, magnetic parameters and Pb isotopes to investigate the source and historical variation of heavy metals. The MJK9 core was collected outside of the Minjiang River estuary, and the core is composed of mixed sediments, of which ~70% from the Yangtze River and 30% from the Minjiang River. It is thus difficult to be used for tracing the human activity along the Minjiang River. In contrast, the sediments of MJK16 core which was collected in a nearshore area are primarily from the Minjiang River. The enrichment factors of the sediments were <1.5, indicating minor pollution. The results indicate that the sediments of the MJK16 core have Cu and Pb concentrations increasing since 1980, associated with the increase of magnetic mineral concentration and (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(208)Pb of the sediments. We compared the Pb isotopic compositions between our results and those for the deposit mining in the Minjiang River basin, and aerosols and coal dust in south China, and considered that Pb in the sediments of the MJK16 core was derived primarily from weathered rocks as well as industrial emission (e.g. coal combustion). The sediments have anthropogenic Pb concentrations ranging from 6% in 1950 to 23.7% in 2010, consistent with the impact of rapid urban and industrial development in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.046DOI Listing
September 2014

Stratified communities of methanogens in the jiulong river estuarine sediments, southern china.

Indian J Microbiol 2013 Dec 28;53(4):432-7. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, 361005 People's Republic of China.

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and produced mainly by methanogens. Few studies have specifically dealt so far with methanogens in estuarine environments. In this study, diversity and distribution of methanogens were investigated by clone library and T-RFLP analysis in a Jiulong River estuarine sediment core which contained clear sulfate-methane-transition zone. The majority of obtained sequences in clone libraries and T-RF peaks from T-RFLP analysis were assigned mainly to Methanosaeta, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales/ANME. The fragments of Methanosarcinales/ANME were most dominant group (mean 51 %) and composed largely of ANME-2a. In addition, Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobiales accounted for 21 and 28 % of all fragments. Therefore, the presence of Methanomicrobiales, Methanosaeta and ANME-2a was indicative of acetoclastic methanogenesis, hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, and anaerobic methane oxidation in Jiulong River estuarine sediments. This study provided the important knowledge towards understanding methane cycling association of representative of methanogens involved in estuarine environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-013-0397-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3779298PMC
December 2013

Stratified communities of active archaea in shallow sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, Southern China.

Curr Microbiol 2013 Jul 13;67(1):41-50. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Research Institute of Engineering and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China.

Marine subsurface sediments represent a novel archaeal biosphere with unknown physiology. To get to know the composition and ecological roles of the archaeal communities within the sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, Southern China, the diversity and vertical distribution of active archaea in a sediment core were characterized by 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis of clone libraries derived from RNA. In this study, the archaeal diversity above, within, and beneath the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in the Pearl River Estuary sediment core was described. The majority of the clones obtained from the metabolically active fraction of the archaeal community were most closely related to miscellaneous crenarchaeotal group and terrestrial miscellaneous euryarchaeotal group. Notably, although the Pearl River Estuary sediment belong to high methane and high organic carbon environment, sequences affiliated with methanotrophic and methanogenic archaea were detected as minor group in 16S rRNA clone libraries. No obvious evidence suggested that these unknown archaeal phylotypes related directly to anaerobic oxidation of methane in SMTZ. This is the first phylogenetic analysis of the metabolically active fraction of the archaeal community in the coastal sediment environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-013-0320-yDOI Listing
July 2013

Stratified active archaeal communities in the sediments of Jiulong River estuary, China.

Front Microbiol 2012 30;3:311. Epub 2012 Aug 30.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Science and Biotechnology Shanghai, P.R. China.

Here the composition of total and active archaeal communities in a sediment core of Jiulong River estuary at Fujian Province, Southern China was reported. Profiles of CH(4) and SO(2-) (4) concentrations from the sediment core indicated the existence of a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in which sulfate reduction-coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) occurs. Accordingly, three sediment layers (16-18.5 cm, 71-73.5 cm, and 161-163.5 cm) from the 1.2 m sediment core were sectioned and named top, middle and bottom, respectively. Total DNA and RNA of each layer were extracted and used for clone libraries and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes, the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR products of 16S rRNA and methyl CoM reductase alpha subunit (mcrA) genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that archaeal communities of the three layers were dominated by the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) whose ecological functions were still unknown. The MCG could be further divided into seven subgroups, named MCG-A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. MCG-A and MCG-G were the most active groups in the estuarine sediments. Known anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANMEs) were only found as minor components in these estuarine archaeal communities. This study, together with the studies of deep subsurface sediments, would be a very good start point to target and compare the specific active archaeal groups and their roles in the dark, deep subsurface sediment environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430981PMC
October 2012
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