Publications by authors named "Xiaoyun Liu"

358 Publications

Study the interaction between juglone and calf thymus DNA by spectroscopic and molecular docking techniques.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 May 25;261:119998. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Bioengineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Changchun University of Science and Technology, NO.7186 Weixing Road, Changchun City, Jilin Province 085238, PR China.

Juglone (Jug) is one of the main active substances of Cortex Juglandis Mandshuricae in a folk anti-cancer prescription. Previously, there were few studies on its interaction with DNA and mechanism of action. The present paper studied, the mechanism of action between Jug and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) by fluorescence spectroscopy, together with ethidium bromide (EB) fluorescence probe, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, salt effect and ctDNA melting point (T) experiment, resonance scattering spectroscopy and molecular docking under the simulated human physiological conditions. The experimental findings indicated that Jug quiescently quenched the fluorescence of EB-ctDNA system, characteristic absorption peak intensity of ctDNA presented a decolorization effect after the interaction of ctDNA and Jug, the interaction with ctDNA enhanced of Jug resonance scattering peak and generated new resonance scattering peak, the salt exerted less effect on the interaction between Jug and ctDNA molecules, and the interaction with Jug increased the T value of ctDNA by 5.0 °C The binding constant (K) between Jug and ctDNA was 2.12 × 10 L/mol (310 K) and the number of binding sites (n) was about 1. The interaction between Jug and ctDNA was an entropically driven spontaneous and endothermic process. The results of molecular docking further showed that the naphthoquinone plane was embedded in the region between the two TA bases in the ctDNA groove, and the 5'-hydroxyl and 4-naphthoquinone groups extended to the outside of the ctDNA double helix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119998DOI Listing
May 2021

Reply.

J Hypertens 2021 Jul;39(7):1467-1469

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002874DOI Listing
July 2021

UV spectroscopy and HPLC combined with chemometrics for rapid discrimination and quantification of Curcumae Rhizoma from three botanical origins.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Aug 21;202:114145. Epub 2021 May 21.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing, 102488, China. Electronic address:

Curcumae Rhizoma (Ezhu in Chinese) is a multi-origin herbal medicine with excellent clinical efficacy. For fast discrimination and quantification analysis of Ezhu from three botanical origins (Curcuma kwangsiensis, Curcuma phaeocaulis, and Curcuma wenyujin), ultra-violet (UV) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with chemometric tools were employed in this study. Firstly, the analysis method for the simultaneous determination of eleven compounds in Ezhu was developed by HPLC, and the UV spectra of thirty-eight batches of Ezhu were acquired. Then, principal component analysis (PCA), an unsupervised pattern recognition method, was applied on the HPLC and UV spectral data. PCA did not show a clear separation between C. phaeocaulis and C. wenyujin samples with HPLC data. By contrast, the supervised techniques, decision tree (DT) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), achieved the complete discrimination for the three species of Ezhu with 100 % correct classification rate (CCR), showing excellent performance. Based on UV spectral data, PCA presented good performance for discriminating the three species of Ezhu. LDA, support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbors (KNN) models provided 96.3 % CCR for the calibration set and 100 % CCR for the validation set. Moreover, the partial least squares (PLS) and back propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) quantitative models established on UV spectral data were satisfactory in predicting the contents of zederone, curdione and 3,5-dihydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptane. The residual predictive deviation (RPD) for zederone, curdione and 3,5-dihydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptane of PLS models were 3.169, 1.502 and 1.735, and that of BP-ANN models were 3.467, 2.481 and 2.370, respectively. The present work proposed a rapid and reliable method for the discrimination of Ezhu from three botanical origins and the prediction of zederone, curdione and 3,5-dihydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-heptane contents in Ezhu, which will help a lot in the quality control of Ezhu and other multi-origin herbal medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114145DOI Listing
August 2021

High performance liquid chromatography fingerprint and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics for the species authentication of Curcumae Rhizoma.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Aug 21;202:114144. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Fangshan District, Beijing, 102488, China; Beijing Key Laboratory for Quality Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing, 102488, China. Electronic address:

Curcumae Rhizoma (Ezhu), a multi-origin Chinese medicine, originates from the dry rhizomes of C. kwangsiensis, C. phaeocaulis and C. wenyujin. The three species have great variation in chemical components and therapeutic effects. To improve safety and effectiveness in clinical use, a strategy integrating chromatographic analysis and chemometrics for the species authentication of Ezhu was proposed. Firstly, systematic analysis of chemical compositions in Ezhu was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). HPLC fingerprints showed that seventeen peaks in common for C. kwangsiensis and eleven peaks in common for C. wenyujin both presented a good similarity (> 0.9, only several samples < 0.8). Eleven common peaks in C. phaeocaulis and the similarity values of most samples were higher than 0.700. Additionally, there were ten common peaks in all Ezhu samples and they had relatively poor similarity with the correlation coefficients ranging from 0.364 to 0.881. For HS-GC-MS, thirty-six volatile components were identified in the three species of Ezhu, mainly monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Subsequently, chemometrics including unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA), supervised linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), back propagation neural network (BP-NN) and orthogonal partial least squares-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to extract useful information from chromatographic profiles. Based on HPLC fingerprint data, PCA could hardly differentiate Ezhu with the three species, and LDA, KNN and BP-NN models provided more than 85 % correct identification. With HS-GC-MS data, PCA could only distinguish C. wenyujin from the other two species, and LDA, KNN, BP-NN and OPLS-DA models achieved excellent classification with 100 % accuracy. Finally, five volatile components (eucalyptol, humulene, β-elemene, (+)-2-bornanone and linalool) with variable importance for the projection (VIP) values higher than 1 in the OPLS-DA model were selected as potential chemical markers for the species authentication of Ezhu. And the constructed OPLS-DA model using these markers obtained 100 % accuracy. Consequently, a rapid, precise and feasible strategy was established for the discrimination and quality control of Ezhu with different species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114144DOI Listing
August 2021

Structure, Biological Activities and Metabolism of Flavonoid Glucuronides.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Key Laboratory of Hui Ethnic Medicine Modernization, Ministry of Education, Ningxia 750004, China.

Background: Flavonoid glucuronides are a kind of natural products which present a flavone linked directly with one or several glucuronides through O-glycoside bond. They had become of interest in natural product research in the past decades for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacteria activities. In particular, the compound breviscapine has a notable effect on cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Several other compounds even have antitumor activity.

Methods: Through searching the database and reading a large number of documents, we summarized the related findings of flavonoid glucuronides.

Results: We summarized 211 naturally occurring flavonoid glucuronides in 119 references with their chemical structures, biological activities, and metabolism. A total of 220 references from 1953 to 2020 were cited in this paper according to literature databases such as CNKI, Weipu, Wanfang data, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, NCBI, PubMed, EmBase, etc..

Conclusion: Flavonoid glucuronides are a class of compounds with various chemical structures and a diverse range of biological activities. And they are thought to be potential candidates for drug discovery, but the specific study on their mechanisms is still limited until now. We hope this article can provide references for natural product researchers and draw more attention to flavonoid glucuronides' biological activities and mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557521666210521221352DOI Listing
May 2021

Pyk2/MCU Pathway as a New Target for Reversing Atherosclerosis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 6;9:651579. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Multiple mechanisms including vascular endothelial cell damage have a critical role in the formation and development of atherosclerosis (AS), but the specific molecular mechanisms are not exactly clarified. This study aims to determine the possible roles of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2)/mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) pathway in AS mouse model and HO-induced endothelial cell damage model and explore its possible mechanisms. The AS mouse model was established using apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE) mice that were fed with a high-fat diet. It was very interesting to find that Pyk2/MCU expression was significantly increased in the artery wall of atherosclerotic mice and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) attacked by hydrogen peroxide (HO). In addition, down-regulation of Pyk2 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) protected HUVECs from HO insult. Furthermore, treatment with rosuvastatin on AS mouse model and HO-induced HUVEC injury model showed a protective effect against AS by inhibiting the Pyk2/MCU pathway, which maintained calcium balance, prevented the mitochondrial damage and reactive oxygen species production, and eventually inhibited cell apoptosis. Our results provide important insight into the initiation of the Pyk2/MCU pathway involved in AS-related endothelial cell damage, which may be a new promising target for atherosclerosis intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.651579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134689PMC
May 2021

Measuring and evaluating progress towards Universal Health Coverage in China.

J Glob Health 2021 May 1;11:08005. Epub 2021 May 1.

China Centre for Health Development Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: This paper aims to develop a Chinese version of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) indices and to measure China's progress towards UHC.

Methods: Nineteen indicators were selected based on expert consultations to construct indices of accessibility and affordability to measure UHC. Data were drawn from health statistics yearbooks, nationally representative surveys, and health system reform surveillance. The index of accessibility includes absolute accessibility (to essential health services), relative accessibility (to hospital care) and people's subjective perceptions. The index of affordability includes absolute affordability (the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure, CHE), relative affordability (the composition of health expenditure), and people's subjective perceptions.

Results: The indices of accessibility and affordability both showed steady increases over the 17 years considered. Absolute accessibility had the most significant improvement (from 23.6 in 2002 to 73.8 in 2018), while the index of relative accessibility decreased from 81.4 in 2002 to 67.3 in 2018. The index of absolute affordability decreased significantly from 46.6 in 2002 to 30.5 in 2010 and then exhibited an increasing trend afterwards, reaching 52.1 in 2018. The index of relative affordability continuously increased during the observation period, from 35.3 to 75.4.

Conclusions: China has made great progress in increasing the accessibility and affordability of health services since the health system reforms in 2009. However, integrating primary health care and hospital care and containing escalating medical expenditure to further reduce patients' financial burdens are key challenges for strengthening the Chinese health system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.11.08005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088770PMC
May 2021

Electrophysiological Evaluation in Identifying Unique Sleep Features Among Anti-LGI1 Encephalitis Patients During Active and Recovery Phase.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 3;13:527-536. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan City, Shandong Province, 250021, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the electrophysiological features of sleep disturbances in patients with anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 (anti-LGI1) encephalitis in both active and recovery stages.

Methods: Retrospectively filed video electroencephalogram (VEEG) and polysomnography (PSG) data in 24 patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis were analyzed in comparison with that in 20 individuals without sleep disorders as control group.

Results: Sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time involving REM and NREM sleep were significantly decreased in patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis during the active stage compared to that during the recovery stage and in the control group. Imbalanced sleep structure was found, demonstrated by elevated N1, decreased N3 and REM components, as well as abnormal N2 structure characterized with significantly lower spindle duration and density during the active stage. These findings were independent of the presence of nocturnal episodic events or sleep hyperkinetic movements (HMs). HMs were present in 11/23 patients throughout NREM and REM sleep (nonspecific in sleep stages) during the active stage. During the recovery stage, SE and sleep structures were dramatically improved, including the percentage of N3 and REM sleep, spindle duration and density. Ten of 11 patients with HMs were followed up. HMs were totally remitted in 3 patients and still persistent in 1, while evolved into REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in 4 with comorbid periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) in 3/4, and only PLMS in 2.

Conclusion: Sleep disturbances were remarkable and intrinsic features in active anti-LGI1 encephalitis, marked by overall disruptions of both NREM and REM sleep, as well as the presence of HMs, which tend to evolve into RBD or PLMS during the recovery stage. Long-term follow-up with PSG is needed, especially for those patients with severe sleep disturbances during the active phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S299467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104977PMC
May 2021

A Bibliometric Analysis of the One Hundred Most Cited Studies in Psychosomatic Research.

Psychother Psychosom 2021 May 6:1-6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Psychosomatics and Psychiatry, ZhongDa Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516185DOI Listing
May 2021

Formation of Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals during Thermochemical Processes and their Correlations with Unintentional Persistent Organic Pollutants.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 6;55(10):6529-6541. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Attention is increasingly being paid to environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs), which are organic pollutants with the activities of free radicals and stabilities of organic pollutants. EPFRs readily form during thermal processes through the decomposition of organic precursors such as phenols, halogenated phenols, and quinone-type molecules, which are also important precursors of toxic unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UPOPs). We have found that EPFRs are important intermediates for UPOP formation during thermal-related processes. However, interest in EPFRs is currently mostly focused on the toxicities and formation mechanisms of EPFRs themselves. Little information is available on the important roles EPFRs play in toxic UPOP formation during thermal processes. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in EPFR formation and transformation into UPOPs during thermal processes. The review is focused on typical EPFRs, including cyclopentadiene, phenoxy, and semiquinone radicals. The reaction temperature, metal species present, and oxygen concentration strongly affect EPFR and UPOP formation during thermal-related processes. Gaps in current knowledge and future directions for research into EPFR and UPOP formation, transformation, and control are presented. Understanding the relationships between EPFRs and UPOPs will allow synergistic control strategies to be developed for thermal-related industrial sources of EPFRs and UPOPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08762DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of NEUROG3 polymorphism rs144643855 on regional spontaneous brain activity in major depressive disorder.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 18;409:113310. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Psychosomatics and Psychiatry, ZhongDa Hospital, School of Medical, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; The Key Laboratory of Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Southeast University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Our previous study identified a significant association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the neurogenin3 (NEUROG3) gene and post-stroke depression (PSD) in Chinese populations. The present work explores whether polymorphism rs144643855 affects regional brain activity and clinical phenotypes in major depressive disorder (MDD).

Method: A total of 182 participants were included: 116 MDD patients and 66 normal controls. All participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scanning at baseline. Spontaneous brain activity was assessed using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). The Hamilton Depression Scale-24 (HAMD-24) and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) were used to assess participants at baseline. Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to explore the interaction between diagnostic groups and NEUROG3 rs144643855 on regional brain activity. We performed correlation analysis to further test the association between these interactive brain regions and clinical manifestations of MDD.

Results: Genotype and disease significantly interacted in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG-L), right superior frontal gyrus (SFG-R), and left paracentral lobule (PCL-L) (P < 0.05). ALFF values of the IFG-L were found to be significantly associated with anhedonia in MDD patients.

Conclusion: These findings suggest a potential relationship between rs144643855 variations and altered frontal brain activity in MDD. NEUROG3 may play an important role in the neuropathophysiology of MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113310DOI Listing
July 2021

3D bioprinted neural tissue constructs for spinal cord injury repair.

Biomaterials 2021 05 25;272:120771. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of Nano-Bio Interface, Division of Nanobiomedicine, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, 215123, China; School of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China. Electronic address:

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has emerged as a promising approach to fabricate living neural constructs with anatomically accurate complex geometries and spatial distributions of neural stem cells (NSCs) for spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. The NSC-laden 3D bioprinting, however, still faces some big challenges, such as cumbersome printing process, poor cell viability, and minimal cell-material interaction. To address these issues, we have fabricated NSC-laden scaffolds by 3D bioprinting and explore for the first time their application for in vivo SCI repair. In our strategy, we have developed a novel biocompatible bioink consisting of functional chitosan, hyaluronic acid derivatives, and matrigel. This bioink shows fast gelation (within 20 s) and spontaneous covalent crosslinking capability, facilitating convenient one-step bioprinting of spinal cord-like constructs. Thus-fabricated scaffolds maintain high NSC viability (about 95%), and offer a benign microenvironment that facilitates cell-material interactions and neuronal differentiation for optimal formation of neural network. The in vivo experiment has further demonstrated that the bioprinted scaffolds promoted the axon regeneration and decreased glial scar deposition, leading to significant locomotor recovery of the SCI model rats, which may represent a general and versatile strategy for precise engineering of central nervous system and other neural organs/tissues for regenerative medicine application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.120771DOI Listing
May 2021

Associations of unprocessed and processed meat intake with mortality and cardiovascular disease in 21 countries [Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) Study]: a prospective cohort study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

McMaster University, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Dietary guidelines recommend limiting red meat intake because it is a major source of medium- and long-chain SFAs and is presumed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Evidence of an association between unprocessed red meat intake and CVD is inconsistent.

Objective: The study aimed to assess the association of unprocessed red meat, poultry, and processed meat intake with mortality and major CVD.

Methods: The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) Study is a cohort of 134,297 individuals enrolled from 21 low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Food intake was recorded using country-specific validated FFQs. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major CVD. HRs were estimated using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts.

Results: In the PURE study, during 9.5 y of follow-up, we recorded 7789 deaths and 6976 CVD events. Higher unprocessed red meat intake (≥250 g/wk vs. <50 g/wk) was not significantly associated with total mortality (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.02; P-trend = 0.14) or major CVD (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11; P-trend = 0.72). Similarly, no association was observed between poultry intake and health outcomes. Higher intake of processed meat (≥150 g/wk vs. 0 g/wk) was associated with higher risk of total mortality (HR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.10; P-trend = 0.009) and major CVD (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.98; P-trend = 0.004).

Conclusions: In a large multinational prospective study, we did not find significant associations between unprocessed red meat and poultry intake and mortality or major CVD. Conversely, a higher intake of processed meat was associated with a higher risk of mortality and major CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa448DOI Listing
March 2021

CircNT5E promotes the proliferation and migration of bladder cancer via sponging miR-502-5p.

J Cancer 2021 1;12(8):2430-2439. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Urology and Andrology Department, Shengli OilFiled Central Hospital, Dongying, 257034, Shandong, China.

Accumulating evidence suggest that circRNA RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in tumor formation and development. circNT5E has been shown to be an oncogenic gene in several types of cancer, and the high expression of circNT5E lead to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the precise role of circNT5E in bladder cancer (Bca) has not been characterized. In this study, we observed that circNT5E expression was augmented in Bca tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, and its expression level was positively associated with larger tumor size and lower survival rate. Further experiments showed that suppression of circNT5E restrained the growth and metastasis of Bca cells . circNT5E was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm and it captured miR-502-5p to increase HOXC8 mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, decreased miR-502-5p obviously reversed the circNT5E silencing-mediated inhibition of Bca cell growth and migration. Thus, this study suggested that circNT5E may act as a pro-oncogene in the development and progression of Bca and it may become a useful tumor biomarker and promising therapeutic target for Bca treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.53385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7974885PMC
March 2021

Photoinduced formation of persistent free radicals, hydrogen radicals, and hydroxyl radicals from catechol on atmospheric particulate matter.

iScience 2021 Mar 16;24(3):102193. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Catechol is speculated to be a potential precursor of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in the atmosphere. EPFRs absorbed on PM have attracted public attention because their toxicity is similar to cigarette smoke. In this study, we found that catechol could produce EPFRs, which were oxygen-centered phenoxy and semiquinone radicals. These free radical species had half-lives of up to 382 days. CaO, CuO, and FeO markedly promoted EPFR formation from catechol. The valence states of Cu and Fe changed during the photochemical reactions of catechol but no valence state changed for Ca. Alkaline nature of CaO is possibly the key for promoting the free radical formations through acid-base reactions with catechol. In addition to hydroxyl free radicals, hydrogen free radicals and superoxide anions formed from the photochemical reactions of catechol were first discovered. This is of concern because of the adverse effects of these free radicals on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920856PMC
March 2021

Enhanced and long-term CT imaging tracking of transplanted stem cells labeled with temperature-responsive gold nanoparticles.

J Mater Chem B 2021 03 12;9(12):2854-2865. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively employed for computed tomography (CT) imaging in cell labeling and tracking because of their strong X-ray attenuation coefficient and excellent biocompatibility. However, the design and synthesis of stimuli-responsive AuNPs to modulate their endocytosis and exocytosis for optimal cell labeling and tracking are promising but challenging. Herein, we report an innovative labeling strategy based on temperature-responsive AuNPs (TRAuNPs) with high cell labeling efficiency and extended intracellular retention duration. We have manifested that the TRAuNP labeling imposes a negligible adverse effect on the function of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Further experiment with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) model mice has demonstrated the feasibility of TRAuNP labeling for long time CT imaging tracking of transplanted hMSCs. What's more, the survival of transplanted hMSCs could also be monitored simultaneously using bioluminescence imaging after the expression of luciferase reporter genes. Therefore, we believe that this dual-modal labeling and tracking strategy enables visualization of the transplanted hMSCs in vivo, which may provide an important insight into the role of stem cells in the IPF therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb02997aDOI Listing
March 2021

l-Arginine Alleviates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Damage in Ovine Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Regulating Apoptosis, Mitochondrial Function, and Autophagy.

J Nutr 2021 Apr;151(4):1038-1046

Laboratory of Metabolic Manipulation of Herbivorous Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Background: Previous studies demonstrated that dietary l-arginine (Arg) alters the equilibrium between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and biological defenses to resist oxidant-induced toxicity. Whether supplying Arg can protect ovine intestinal epithelial cells (OIECs) from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage is unclear.

Objectives: The current study aimed to examine the effect of Arg on mitophagy, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis induced by H2O2 in OIECs.

Methods: The OIECs were incubated in Arg-free DMEM supplemented with 100 μM Arg (CON) or 350 μM Arg (ARG) alone or with 150 μM H2O2 (CON + H2O2, ARG + H2O2) for 24 h. Cellular apoptosis, mitochondrial function, autophagy, and the related categories of genes and proteins were determined. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using the general linear model procedures of SAS (SAS Institute) for a 2 × 2 factorial design.

Results: Relative to the CON and ARG groups, H2O2 administration resulted in 44.9% and 26.5% lower (P < 0.05) cell viability but 34.7% and 61.8% greater (P < 0.05) ROS concentration in OIECs, respectively. Compared with the CON and CON + H2O2 groups, Arg supplementation led to 40.7% and 28.8% lower (P < 0.05) ROS concentration but 14.9%-49.0% and 29.3%-64.1% greater (P < 0.05) mitochondrial membrane potential, relative mitochondrial DNA content, and complex (I-IV) activity in OIECs, respectively. Compared with the CON and CON + H2O2 groups, Arg supplementation led to 33.9%-53.1% and 22.4%-49.1% lower (P < 0.05) mRNA abundance of proapoptotic genes, respectively. Relative to the CON and CON + H2O2 groups, Arg supplementation resulted in 33.0%-59.2% and 14.6%-37.7% lower (P < 0.05) abundance of proapoptotic, mitophagy, and cytoplasmic cytochrome c protein, respectively.

Conclusions: Supply of Arg protects OIECs against H2O2-induced damage partly by improving mitochondrial function and alleviating cellular apoptosis and autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa428DOI Listing
April 2021

Fast discrimination and quantification analysis of Curcumae Radix from four botanical origins using NIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics tools.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jun 26;254:119626. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Fangshan District, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Curcumae Radix (Yujin) is a multi-origin herbal medicine with excellent clinical efficacy. For fast discrimination and quantification analysis of Yujin from four botanical origins (Guiyujin, Huangyujin, Lvyujin and Wenyujin), near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics tools was employed in this study. Based on NIR data, principal component analysis (PCA) could only realize the separation between Guiyujin and Wenyujin samples, and the partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), support vector machine (SVM) and k-nearest neighbors (KNN) models achieved the complete discrimination of the four species of Yujin with 100% accuracy. Moreover, the method for the simultaneous determination of six bioactive compounds in Yujin was developed by HPLC. Germacrone, curdione and curcumenol could be found in all samples, and curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin were only observed in Huangyujin samples. Then, the support vector machine regression (SVMR) model for the prediction of germacrone content was successfully constructed. And the coefficients of determination were 0.88 and 0.89 for calibration and validation sets, respectively. The present work proposes a quick, economic and reliable method for the discrimination of Yujin from four botanical origins and the prediction of germacrone content, which will contribute to its quality control researches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119626DOI Listing
June 2021

SDG711 Is Involved in Rice Seed Development through Regulation of Starch Metabolism Gene Expression in Coordination with Other Histone Modifications.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Mar 5;14(1):25. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Regional Plant Genetics & Germplasm Enhancement (CTGU) /Biotechnology Research Center, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, 443002, China.

SDG711 is a histone H3K27me2/3 transmethylase in rice, a homolog of CLF in Arabidopsis, and plays key roles in regulating flowering time and panicle development. In this work, we investigated the role of SDG711 in rice seed development. Overexpression and downregulation of SDG711 lead to a decrease and increase in the expression level of genes related to starch accumulation, resulting in smaller seeds or even seed abortion. ChIP assay showed that SDG711-mediated H3K27me3 changed significantly in genes related to endosperm development, and SDG711 can directly bind to the gene body region of several starch synthesis genes and amylase genes. In addition, H3K4me3 and H3K9ac modifications also cooperate with H3K27me3 to regulate the development of the endosperm. Our results suggest that the crosstalk between SDG711-mediated H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, and H3K9ac are involved in starch accumulation to control normal seed development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-021-00467-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936014PMC
March 2021

Effect of selenium on thyroid autoimmunity and regulatory T cells in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A prospective randomized-controlled trial.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in human. Recent studies of Se supplementation on the effect of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) have been reported, but the exact benefit is unclear as well as the underlying immunologic mechanism. We aimed to evaluate the clinical effect of Se supplement in patients with HT, and explore the potential mechanism against thyroid autoimmunity. A prospective, randomized-controlled study was performed in patients with HT assigned to two groups. Se-treated group (n = 43) received selenious yeast tablet (SYT) for 6 months, whereas no treatment in control group (n = 47). The primary outcome is the change of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) or thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb). Second, thyroid function, urinary iodine, Se, Glutathione peroxidase3 (GPx3), and Selenoprotein P1 (SePP1) levels were measured during the SYT treatment. Meanwhile, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their subsets activated Tregs (aTregs), resting Tregs, and secreting Tregs, as well as Helios and PD-1 expression on these cells were also detected. The results showed that SYT treatment significantly decreased TPOAb, TGAb, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, accompanied with the increased Se, GPx3, and SePP1, compared with the control group. Subgroup analysis revealed that subclinical HT may benefit more from this treatment in the decrease of TSH levels by interaction test. Moreover, the percentage of aTregs, Helios/Tregs, and Helios/aTregs were significantly higher in the Se-treated group than control. In conclusion, Se supplementation may have a beneficial effect on thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid function by increasing the antioxidant activity and upregulating the activated Treg cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12993DOI Listing
March 2021

Ginkgolic acid and anacardic acid are specific covalent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 cysteine proteases.

Cell Biosci 2021 Feb 28;11(1):45. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

College of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, 250355, China.

Background: In the urgent campaign to develop therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2, natural products have been an important source of new lead compounds.

Results: We herein identified two natural products, ginkgolic acid and anacardic acid, as inhibitors using a high-throughput screen targeting the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PL). Moreover, our study demonstrated that the two hit compounds are dual inhibitors targeting the SARS-CoV-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL) in addition to PL. A mechanism of action study using enzyme kinetics further characterized the two compounds as irreversible inhibitors against both 3CL and PL. Significantly, both identified compounds inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro at nontoxic concentrations.

Conclusions: Our finding provides two novel natural products as promising SARS-CoV-2 antivirals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-021-00564-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914117PMC
February 2021

Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality.

N Engl J Med 2021 04 24;384(14):1312-1322. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

From the Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Medicine, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto (D.J.A.J.), and Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital Toronto (D.J.A.J., K.S.), Toronto, the Population Health Research Institute (M.D., S.I.B., K.T., S.Y.) and Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (A.M., S.I.B.), McMaster University, and McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences (S.R.), Hamilton, ON, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Laval, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Quebec, QC (P.P.), the Division of Cardiac Prevention and Rehabilitation, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa (A.P.), and the Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON (K. Yeates) - all in Canada; the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai (V.M.), and St. John's Research Institute, St. John's National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore (S.S.) - both in India; the International Research Center, Hospital Alemão Oswaldo Cruz, São Paulo (A.A.); Estudios Clínicos Latino América, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina (R.D.); the Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden (A.R.); Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile (F.L.); the Masira Research Institute, Medical School, Universidad de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia (P.L.-J.); the Medical Research and Biometrics Center, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (W.L., X.L.); the Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey (A.O.); the Institute for Community and Public Health, Birzeit University, Birzeit, Palestine (R.K.); Advocate Research Institute, Advocate Health Care, Downers Grove, IL (R.K.); Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran (N.M.); the Department of Cardiac Sciences, King Fahad Cardiac Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (K.F.A.); the Department of Physiology, University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences, Harare (J.C.); Hatta Hospital, Dubai Medical College, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (A.H.Y.); the Department of Community Health Sciences and Medicine, Aga Khan University, Pakistan (R.I.); Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh, and UCSI University, Selangor (K. Yusoff), and the Department of Community Health, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur (N.I.) - both in Malaysia; the Department of Social Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland (K.Z.); and the School of Life Sciences, Independent University, Dhaka, Bangladesh (R.Y.).

Background: Most data regarding the association between the glycemic index and cardiovascular disease come from high-income Western populations, with little information from non-Western countries with low or middle incomes. To fill this gap, data are needed from a large, geographically diverse population.

Methods: This analysis includes 137,851 participants between the ages of 35 and 70 years living on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.5 years. We used country-specific food-frequency questionnaires to determine dietary intake and estimated the glycemic index and glycemic load on the basis of the consumption of seven categories of carbohydrate foods. We calculated hazard ratios using multivariable Cox frailty models. The primary outcome was a composite of a major cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) or death from any cause.

Results: In the study population, 8780 deaths and 8252 major cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up period. After performing extensive adjustments comparing the lowest and highest glycemic-index quintiles, we found that a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of a major cardiovascular event or death, both among participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.82) and among those without such disease (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.34). Among the components of the primary outcome, a high glycemic index was also associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. The results with respect to glycemic load were similar to the findings regarding the glycemic index among the participants with cardiovascular disease at baseline, but the association was not significant among those without preexisting cardiovascular disease.

Conclusions: In this study, a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2007123DOI Listing
April 2021

Fruit, vegetable, and legume intake and the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: A prospective study.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Although fruits and vegetable consumption has been shown to be associated with lower risks of mortality, cancers, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are limited data from China on the shape of the association. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between levels of fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with the risk of major CVD, CVD mortality, cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality.

Methods: In the baseline survey, participants attended 1 of 115 (45 urban and 70 rural) communities from 12 provinces to complete a standardized questionnaire, and undergo a physical examination between 2005 and 2009, and were followed up till 2017 (for the current analysis). Diet was assessed through in-person interviews by using validated food-frequency questionnaires. The clinical outcomes were adjudicated centrally by trained physicians using standardized definitions. Cox frailty models were used to explore the associations between fruit, vegetable, and legume consumption with the risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality.

Results: A total of 41 243 participants were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. The average combined average daily intake of fruit, vegetable, and legume was 2.97 [standard deviation (SD) 1.22] servings per day. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years [interquartile range (IQR) 6.7-9.9 years], we recorded 1893 major CVDs, 794 cancer events, and 1324 deaths, with 411 CVD deaths and 429 cancer deaths. In the models adjusted for age, sex, and center (random effect), a higher total intake of fruit, vegetable, and legume was inversely associated with CVD mortality, cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality. After adjusting for additional covariates, the associations were evidently attenuated and only the association with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] trend 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.98, p trend = 0.021) remained significant, with a non-significant trend for major CVD (HR trend 1.02, 95% CI 0.97-1.08, p trend = 0.449), CVD mortality (HR trend 0.94, 95% CI 0.84-1.06, p trend = 0.301), cancer incidence (HR trend 0.97, 95% CI 0.89-1.06, p trend = 0.540), or cancer mortality (HR trend 0.92, 95% CI 0.82-1.04, p trend = 0.174). Compared with the reference group, the risk of all-cause mortality was the lowest for four to five servings of total daily intake of fruit, vegetable, and legume (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.97), and did not show a further decrease for the higher intake group. Separately, fruit intake was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR trend 0.92, 95% CI 0.86-0.99, p trend = 0.020) and legume intake was associated with a lower risk of major CVD (HR trend 0.95, 95% CI 0.90-0.99, p trend = 0.028) and all-cause mortality (HR trend 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99, p trend = 0.020) in the fully adjusted models.

Conclusions: This prospective study suggests that Chinese people with daily consumption of four to five servings (equivalent to 500-625 g/day) of fruit, vegetable, and legume demonstrated the lowest mortality, which conveys an encouraging message to the public that lifestyle modification to increase fruit, vegetable, and legume intakes may have greater beneficial effects on reducing all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.01.016DOI Listing
January 2021

Formation of environmentally persistent free radicals from thermochemical reactions of catechol.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 2;772:145313. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; College of Resource and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; School of Environment, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, UCAS, Hangzhou 310000, China. Electronic address:

In many anthropogenic activities, catechol as a widespread organic chemical could be released and also environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) can be unintentionally formed. However, the underlying links between EPFRs and the role of catechol as an important precursor are not well understood. In this study, EPFR formation from catechol during heating was monitored online by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was found that catechol can produce significant amounts of EPFRs via thermochemical reactions. The EPFR species formed from catechol on metal oxides were oxygen-centered phenoxy and semiquinone radicals. Their half-lives were evaluated to be in the range of 113-909 h. The promotional effects of CaO and CuO on EPFR formation from catechol were stronger than that of FeO. The promotional abilities and underlying mechanisms of various metal oxides in EPFR formation were clarified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Significant EPFR formation was observed during the cooling stage of a heating reaction system when CaO was used as the reaction medium. The obtained knowledge on the formation of EPFRs from catechol and the key factors involved will enable better control of the formation of EPFRs from anthropogenic activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145313DOI Listing
June 2021

Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Main Histone Modifications in Sorghum Decipher Regulatory Mechanisms Involved by mRNA and Long Noncoding RNA Genes.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Feb 8;69(7):2337-2347. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China.

Post-translational modifications of histones play an important chromatic role of a transcript activity in eukaryotes. Even though mRNA and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes share similar biogenetic processes, these transcript classes may differ in many ways. However, knowledge about the crosstalk between histone methylations and the two types of sorghum genes is still ambiguous. In the present study, we reveal the genome-wide distribution of six histone modifications, namely, di- and trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me2 and H3K4me3), H3K27 (H3K27me2 and H3K27me3), and H3K36 (H3K36me2 and H3K36me3) in sorghum and analyze their functional relationships. Unlike other histone methylation, the codecoration of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 is negatively associated with the production of lincRNAs in the context of active expression of mRNA genes. Our data demonstrated that H3K4me3 may act as a complementary component to H3K36me3 in the transcriptional regulatory process. Moreover, we observe that both H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 are involved in the negative-going regulation of plant lincRNA and mRNA genes. Our data provide a genome-wide landscape of histone methylation in sorghum, decrypt its reciprocity, and shed light on its transcriptional regulation roles in mRNA and lncRNA genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07035DOI Listing
February 2021

Associations of cereal grains intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality across 21 countries in Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology study: prospective cohort study.

BMJ 2021 02 3;372:m4948. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

School of Life Sciences, Independent University, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objective: To evaluate the association between intakes of refined grains, whole grains, and white rice with cardiovascular disease, total mortality, blood lipids, and blood pressure in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: PURE study in 21 countries.

Participants: 148 858 participants with median follow-up of 9.5 years.

Exposures: Country specific validated food frequency questionnaires were used to assess intakes of refined grains, whole grains, and white rice.

Main Outcome Measure: Composite of mortality or major cardiovascular events (defined as death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). Hazard ratios were estimated for associations of grain intakes with mortality, major cardiovascular events, and their composite by using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering by centre.

Results: Analyses were based on 137 130 participants after exclusion of those with baseline cardiovascular disease. During follow-up, 9.2% (n=12 668) of these participants had a composite outcome event. The highest category of intake of refined grains (≥350 g/day or about 7 servings/day) was associated with higher risk of total mortality (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.46; P for trend=0.004), major cardiovascular disease events (1.33, 1.16 to 1.52; P for trend<0.001), and their composite (1.28, 1.15 to 1.42; P for trend<0.001) compared with the lowest category of intake (<50 g/day). Higher intakes of refined grains were associated with higher systolic blood pressure. No significant associations were found between intakes of whole grains or white rice and health outcomes.

Conclusion: High intake of refined grains was associated with higher risk of mortality and major cardiovascular disease events. Globally, lower consumption of refined grains should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856570PMC
February 2021

[Concentration changes of ten metal and metalloid elements in atmospheric PM_(2. 5) in two districts of Lanzhou City from 2015 to 2018].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Jan;50(1):79-85

Gansu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Lanzhou 730020, China.

Objective: To detect the concentrations of ten metals and metalloid elements in the atmospheric PM_(2. 5) in Chengguan district and Xigu district of Lanzhou City from 2015 to 2018, and analyze the pollutant concentration and its change trend.

Methods: From 2015 to 2018, 662 samples of PM_(2. 5) were collected from Chengguan district and Xigu district of Lanzhou City. The concentrations of 10 kinds of metals and metalloid elements such as lead(Pb), arsenic(As), mercury(Hg), cadmium(Cd), chromium(Cr), antimony(Sb), manganese(Mn), nickel(Ni), selenium(Se), beryllium(Be) were detected, and the change trends of different monitoring points, years, seasons and months were analyzed.

Results: There was a significant difference in lead content between Chengguan District and Xigu District(χ~2=4. 80, P<0. 05), the median of Pb content in Chengguan and Xigu District was 45. 30 and 37. 20 ng/m~3, which was higher than that in Xigu District; the difference of Mn content in the two districts was statistically significant(χ~2=21. 28, P<0. 05), the median in two District was 32. 04 and 23. 37 ng/m~3, which was higher than that in Xigu District; the median of Be content in the two districts was statistically significant(χ~2=11. 57, P<0. 05), and the median of Be content in two districts was 0. 05 and 0. 07 ng/m~3, Xigu Distric was higher than Chengguan, there was no significant difference in other seven elements(P>0. 05). From 2015 to 2018, the element content of PM_(2. 5) in Chengguan District decreased by 47. 66% compared with 2015; Xigu District in 2018 decreased by 43. 79% compared with 2015; the higher element Pb, Mn and As in Chengguan District decreased by 52. 93%, 47. 00% and 49. 37% compared with 2015; in Xigu District, the content in 2018 decreased by 46. 87%, 47. 49% and 41. 98%compared with 2015, the contents of the remaining seven elements decreased in 2018 compared with those in 2015. There was no statistical significance(P>0. 05) in different seasons except for the difference of Ni content(P<0. 05), and the content of other elements showed a significant seasonal change: winter>spring>autumn> summer. The trend of monthly concentration change in the two regions was basically the same, the concentrations of Sb, As, Pb, Mn, Cd, Ni, Se, Hg and Cr were higher in November and February of next year. In Chengguan District and Xigu District, Ni content was higher in July and August, respectively;and Hg in Xigu District was higher in June, and Be was higher in less months, especially in February, October and December.

Conclusion: From 2015 to 2018, the levels of 10 metals and metalloids element pollutants in PM_(2. 5) samples from Chengguan District and Xigu District of Lanzhou City showed a decreasing trend year by year, and had obvious seasonal changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.01.014DOI Listing
January 2021

Accessible chromatin regions and their functional interrelations with gene transcription and epigenetic modifications in sorghum genome.

Plant Commun 2021 Jan 31;2(1):100140. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China.

Accessible chromatin regions (ACRs) provide physical scaffolds to recruit transcriptional co-regulators and displace their nearby nucleosomes in multiple plant species. Characterization of ACRs and investigation of their biological effects in has lagged behind. Regulation of gene expression relies on the transcriptional co-regulators that are recruited to ACRs to affect epigenomic modifications of surrounding nucleosomes. In this study, we employed transposase-accessible chromatin sequencing to identify ACRs and decipher how the presence of ACRs affects gene expression and epigenetic signatures in the genome. As a result, 21 077 ACRs, which are mapped to 22.9% of genes and 2.7% of repeats, were identified. The profiling of ACRs on gene structures reveals a narrow and sharp peak around the transcription start site, with relatively weak and broad signals covering the entire gene body and an explicit but wide peak from the transcription termination site to its downstream regions. We discovered that the correlations between gene expression levels and profiled ACR densities are dependent on the positions of ACRs. The occurrence of genic ACRs cumulatively enhances the transcriptional activity of intergenic ACR-associated genes. In addition, an intricate crosstalk among ACRs, gene expression, and epigenetic marks has been unveiled by integrating multiple-omics analyses of whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, 6mA immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing, RNA sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, and DNase I hypersensitive sites sequencing datasets. Our study provides a genome-wide landscape of ACRs in sorghum, decrypts their interrelations with various epigenetic marks, and sheds new light on their roles in transcriptional regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xplc.2020.100140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816095PMC
January 2021

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for SARS-CoV-2 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Retrospective Study From Hubei, China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 12;7:611460. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The data on long-term outcomes of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in China are merely available. A retrospective study included 73 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with ECMO in 21 intensive care units in Hubei, China. Data on demographic information, clinical features, laboratory tests, ECMO durations, complications, and living status were collected. The 73 ECMO-treated patients had a median age of 62 (range 33-78) years and 42 (63.6%) were males. Before ECMO initiation, patients had severe respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation with a median PO/FiO of 71.9 [interquartile range (IQR), 58.6-87.0] mmHg and a median PCO of 62 [IQR, 43-84] mmHg on arterial blood analyses. The median duration from symptom onset to invasive mechanical ventilation, and to ECMO initiation was19 [IQR, 15-25] days, and 23 [IQR, 19-31] days. Before and after ECMO initiation, the proportions of patients receiving prone position ventilation were 58.9 and 69.9%, respectively. The median duration of ECMO support was 18.5 [IQR 12-30] days. During the treatments with ECMO, major hemorrhages occurred in 31 (42.5%) patients, and oxygenators were replaced in 21 (28.8%) patients. Since ECMO initiation, the 30-day mortality and 60-day mortality were 63.0 and 80.8%, respectively. In Hubei, China, the ECMO-treated patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 were of a broad age range and with severe hypoxemia. The durations of ECMO support, accompanied with increased complications, were relatively long. The long-term mortality in these patients was considerably high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.611460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835137PMC
January 2021

Stem Cell Factor in Combination With Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Protects the Brain From Capillary Thrombosis-Induced Ischemic Neuron Loss in a Mouse Model of CADASIL.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 12;8:627733. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarct and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a Notch3 mutation-induced cerebral small vessel disease, leading to recurrent ischemic stroke and vascular dementia. There is currently no treatment that can stop or delay CADASIL progression. We have demonstrated the efficacy of treatment with combined stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) in reducing cerebral small vessel thrombosis in a TgNotch3R90C mouse model of CADASIL. However, it remains unknown whether SCF+G-CSF treatment protects neurons from microvascular thrombosis-induced ischemic damage. Using bone marrow transplantation to track thrombosis, we observed that capillary thrombosis was widely distributed in the cortex, striatum and hippocampus of 22-month-old TgNotch3R90C mice. However, the capillary thrombosis mainly occurred in the cortex. Neuron loss was seen in the area next to the thrombotic capillaries, and severe neuron loss was found in the areas adjacent to the thrombotic capillaries with bifurcations. SCF+G-CSF repeated treatment significantly attenuated neuron loss in the areas next to the thrombotic capillaries in the cortex of the 22-month-old TgNotch3R90C mice. Neuron loss caused by capillary thrombosis in the cerebral cortex may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. SCF+G-CSF treatment ameliorates the capillary thrombosis-induced ischemic neuron loss in TgNotch3R90C mice. This study provides new insight into the understanding of CADASIL progression and therapeutic potential of SCF+G-CSF in neuroprotection under microvascular ischemia in CADASIL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.627733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835527PMC
January 2021