Publications by authors named "Xiaoyun Jiang"

58 Publications

A Single-Center, Cross-Sectional Study of Children with Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome in Southern China.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2021 Mar;1(2):101-108

Department of Pediatrics, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, China.

Introduction: We conducted a cross-sectional study on children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) in a single center in Southern China.

Methods: A total of 166 SRNS cases in the Paediatric Nephrology Center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University from September 1, 2006, to August 31, 2016 were retrospectively analysed. The inclusion criteria were: 1) age ≤ 14 years, 2) diagnosed with SRNS, and 3) without purpura nephritis, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, lupus nephritis, or another secondary nephritis. Incidences of primary/ late steroid-resistance and curative effects were analysed.

Results: The median follow-up time was 4.64 (2.64 to 8.11) years. There were 67 cases of complete remission (CR) (40.36%), 46 cases of partial remission (PR) (27.71%), 31 cases of no remission (NR) (18.67%), 18 cases of end-stage renal disease (ESRD, 10.84%, including 7 cases of kidney transplantation), and 4 cases of death due to hematoma and severe infection after renal biopsy; renal failure after progression to ESRD; sepsis during glucocorticoid (GC) + Cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment; and multiple organ failure at the onset of disease, respectively. For the 8 cases with gene mutation, unnecessary drug treatment should be reduced due to their low responsiveness to immunosuppressive treatment. Female, patients with hematuria, primary steroid-resistance (PSR) type and histopathologic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) were more likely to have higher ESRD rate. Subgroup analysis of ESRD suggested that female patients and patients with PSR type were more likely to develop ESRD. Cox-regression analysis showed that female (HR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.18 to 7.86; P < .05), without hematuria (HR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.91; P < .05), and LSR type (HR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.74; P < .05) were significantly associated with ESRD. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis also showed the same trends.

Conclusion: Of the 166 SRNS cases, 68.07% of patients achieved CR or PR, 18.67% of cases had NR, 10.84% of cases developed ESRD, and 2.41% of patients died during follow-up. Female gender, hematuria, and PSR type were positively associated with ESRD.
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March 2021

c-Jun Amino Terminal Kinase Signaling Promotes Aristolochic Acid-Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

Front Physiol 2021 12;12:599114. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Nephrology, Monash Health and Monash University Centre for Inflammatory Diseases, Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Aristolochic acid (AA) is a toxin that induces DNA damage in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney and is the cause of Balkan Nephropathy and Chinese Herb Nephropathy. In cultured tubular epithelial cells, AA induces a pro-fibrotic response the c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. This study investigated the role of JNK signaling with a JNK inhibitor (CC-930) in mouse models of acute high dose AA-induced kidney injury (day 3) and renal fibrosis induced by chronic low dose AA exposure (day 22). CC-930 treatment inhibited JNK signaling and protected from acute AA-induced renal function impairment and severe tubular cell damage on day 3, with reduced macrophage infiltration and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules. In the chronic model, CC-930 treatment inhibited JNK signaling but did not affect AA-induced renal function impairment, tubular cell damage including the DNA damage response and induction of senescence, or renal fibrosis; despite a reduction in the macrophage pro-inflammatory response. In conclusion, JNK signaling contributes to acute high dose AA-induced tubular cell damage, presumably an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism, but is not involved in tubular atrophy and senescence that promote chronic kidney disease caused by ongoing DNA damage in chronic low dose AA exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.599114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907440PMC
February 2021

Inhibitory Activity on the Formation of Reactive Carbonyl Species in Edible Oil by Synthetic Polyphenol Antioxidants.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jan 17. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Spice and Beverage Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Wanning, Hainan 571533, People's Republic of China.

Food lipids play an important role in food quality, and their attributes contribute to texture, flavor, and nutrition. However, high-temperature processing leads to lipid peroxidation, degradation, and the formation of reactive carbonyl species (RCS), such as acrolein (ACR), glyoxal (GO), and methylglyoxal (MGO). We investigated the changes in the peroxidation value (POV), Rancimat induction time, formation and total amount of RCS, and inhibitory effects of synthetic polyphenol antioxidants on ACR/GO/MGO in plant oils during heating processing through an accelerated oxidation test using Rancimat. With increasing temperature and heating time, the amounts of ACR, GO, and MGO in oil increased and the level of ACR was about several times higher than that of GO and MGO. We also found that some amounts of ACR, GO, and MGO were produced at the initial stage before reaching the peak value of POV, even before oil oxidative rancidity, and the common antioxidant butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA)/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) could not remove them once they were generated. This is first time to purify PG-ACR-MGO and elucidate the structure based on analysis of their high resolution mass spectrometry and H, C, and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. We further found that PG rather than BHT and BHA efficiently trapped ACR, OG, and MGO to form adducts in oil and roasted beef burgers with corn oil. Additionally, after incubation at 80 °C, the trapping order of PG was as follows: ACR, MGO, and GO, and the adduct of PG-ACR was formed within 1 min; after 10 min, PG-MGO was generated; and three adducts formed at 15 min. However, PG could not trap ACR, GO, or MGO to form adducts at room temperature. This study provided novel knowledge to advance our understanding of the ability of synthetic polyphenol antioxidants to scavenge RCS simultaneously, such as ACR, MGO, and GO. Our findings demonstrated that PG, as an inhibitor of RCS, is suitable for medium- and high-temperature food processing but not for normal-temperature storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07248DOI Listing
January 2021

Analysis of 10 Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome Cases With Complications of Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis.

Front Pediatr 2020 23;8:607776. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Pediatrics, The Children Kidney Center, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

To analyze the clinical characteristics of nephrotic syndrome (NS) with complications of cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) in children. Clinical, radiographic, laboratory, and treatment data obtained from 10 confirmed cases of NS with complications of CSVT were analyzed. All patients were followed up for at least 18 months. CSVT was diagnosed by cerebral computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with or without magnetic resonance venography (MRV) of the cerebral vessels. Among 10 cases reported, 4 were steroid-sensitive NS with frequent relapse, 5 were steroid-resistant (three of them had renal biopsies showing two minimal change disease and one IgA nephropathy), and 1 was steroid-sensitive with one relapse. Common clinical manifestations were headache or ophthalmodynia complicated by vomiting, dizziness, convulsion, and coma. Neuropathologic signs were positive in some cases. Papilledema appeared in only one case with winding of vein. Cerebrospinal fluid was examined in three cases with elevated pressure but normal cytological and biochemical results. D dimer and fibrinogen levels were elevated while prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were shortened. Five out of seven cases who had performed cranial CT were suspicious for cerebral thrombosis. Nine cases had cranial MRI with abnormal signs in seven cases. All of the cases received MRV, confirming the diagnosis of CVST. Clinical manifestations of NS with CSVT are not specific but varied. Therefore, CSVT should be considered once nervous manifestations present. MRV is a better method in the diagnosis of CSVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.607776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786383PMC
December 2020

Case Report: Denys-Drash Syndrome With Causative Variant Presenting as Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

Front Pediatr 2020 18;8:605889. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The variant is confirmed to be pathogenic for Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), a rare disorder characterized by early-onset nephrotic syndrome and renal failure, pseudo-hermaphroditism, and a high risk of Wilms' tumor. Several cases of DDS presenting with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) have been reported. Here we report the case of a 2-year-old child who was diagnosed with missense variant, associated with DDS and initial presentation of aHUS. Complement factor H autoantibodies were negative. Complement regulatory system-related gene variants were not found, but a heterozygous c.754G>A missense variant in exon 9 of gene was detected, resulting in a p. Asp252Asn substitution, by next-generation sequencing. The patient was a female morphologically but proved to be a genetic male because of karyotype 46, XY with normally developed female external genitalia. Bilateral nephrectomy and renal transplantation were performed 1 year later, and there was no recurrence of aHUS at 10 months after transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.605889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775732PMC
December 2020

Multi-centre study of the clinical features and gene variant spectrum of Gitelman syndrome in Chinese children.

Clin Genet 2021 Apr 2;99(4):558-564. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Nephrology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Based on the Chinese Children Genetic Kidney Disease Database (CCGKDD), we established a pediatric Gitelman syndrome (GS) cohort to explore the phenotype and genotype characteristics. Thirty-two patients with SLC12A3 gene variants were collected. Five cases (16%) were homozygous, 16 (50%) were compound heterozygous, 10 (31%) carried only a single variant, and the other one harbored two de novo variants beyond classification. p.(T60M) was found in eight patients. The average diagnosis age was 7.79 ± 3.54 years. A total of 31% of the patients were asymptomatic. Muscle weakness was the most common symptom, accounting for 50%. Earlier age of onset (4.06 ± 1.17 yr vs. 8.10 ± 3.46 yr vs. 8.61 ± 3.56 yr, p< 0.05) and lower urinary calcium-creatinine ratio (p = 0.024) were found in the homozygous group than those in the heterozygous and compound heterozygous group. Patients with p.(T60M) variant had an earlier age of onset (4.01 ± 2.83 yr vs. 6.92 ± 3.07 yr, p = 0.025) and lower urinary calcium-creatinine ratio (p = 0.056). Thus, more than 30% of GS children have no clinical symptoms. Homozygous variant and the p.(T60M) variant may be associated with earlier onset and lower urinary calcium excretion in Chinese pediatric GS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13913DOI Listing
April 2021

Correcting intra-volume distortion for AO-OCT using 3D correlation based registration.

Opt Express 2020 Dec;28(25):38390-38409

Adaptive optics (AO) based ophthalmic imagers, such as scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), are used to evaluate the structure and function of the retina with high contrast and resolution. Fixational eye movements during a raster-scanned image acquisition lead to intra-frame and intra-volume distortion, resulting in an inaccurate reproduction of the underlying retinal structure. For three-dimensional (3D) AO-OCT, segmentation-based and 3D correlation based registration methods have been applied to correct eye motion and achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio registered volume. This involves first selecting a reference volume, either manually or automatically, and registering the image/volume stream against the reference using correlation methods. However, even within the chosen reference volume, involuntary eye motion persists and affects the accuracy with which the 3D retinal structure is finally rendered. In this article, we introduced reference volume distortion correction for AO-OCT using 3D correlation based registration and demonstrate a significant improvement in registration performance via a few metrics. Conceptually, the general paradigm follows that developed previously for intra-frame distortion correction for 2D raster-scanned images, as in an AOSLO, but extended here across all three spatial dimensions via 3D correlation analyses. We performed a frequency analysis of eye motion traces before and after intra-volume correction and revealed how periodic artifacts in eye motion estimates are effectively reduced upon correction. Further, we quantified how the intra-volume distortions and periodic artifacts in the eye motion traces, in general, decrease with increasing AO-OCT acquisition speed. Overall, 3D correlation based registration with intra-volume correction significantly improved the visualization of retinal structure and estimation of fixational eye movements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.410374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7771894PMC
December 2020

Trapping of Acrolein by Curcumin and the Synergistic Inhibition Effect of Curcumin Combined with Quercetin.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jan 29;69(1):294-301. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, 2 Xuelin Road, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China.

Acrolein (ACR) is a toxic unsaturated aldehyde that is formed during different steps of thermal food processing. Here, we explored the kinetics of curcumin and ACR and elucidated the pathway of curcumin trapping ACR by preparing a mono-adduct of ACR (CMA-1) conjugated with curcumin. The synergistic scavenging effect and mechanism of curcumin combined with quercetin on ACR was analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Comparing the uses of curcumin and quercetin both individually and in combination, we found that quercetin in combination resulted in more curcumin being transformed into CMA-2, while curcumin in combination made the amount of di-ACR conjugated to quercetin (QDA) increase. We also added combined curcumin and quercetin into grilled chicken wings to demonstrate that curcumin and quercetin could scavenge ACR by forming their own ACR adducts and antioxidant activity during the process. Our results have noted a new strategy, in which some combinations of dietary polyphenols might contribute to the removal of toxic ACR produced during thermal food processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06692DOI Listing
January 2021

Phenotype and genotype spectra of a Chinese cohort with nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy.

J Med Genet 2020 Dec 15. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Nephrology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Background: Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) account for the majority of cases of monogenetically caused end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children. Exploring the correlation between the phenotype and genotype of NPHP-RC is helpful for early diagnosis and management. We investigated the phenotype and genotype spectra of NPHP-RC in a Chinese multicentre cohort.

Methods: Crosss-ectional and longitudinal data of 60 patients from 57 families with pathogenic NPHP-RC gene mutations distributed in 22 regions of China were collected into a unified, anonymous database. The mean observation time of this cohort was 3.5±3.1 years.

Results: Mutations in and were the most common genetic defects. Overall, 45% of patients presented with isolated nephronophthisis (NPH), and 55% exhibited the extrarenal phenotype, which frequently involved the liver (41.7%, n=25), central nervous system (26.7%, n=16), eyes (26.7%, n=16) and skeletal system (11.7%, n=7). Accidental detection of elevated serum creatinine and non-specific symptoms caused by chronic kidney disease occurred in 65% of patients. Patients carrying mutations mainly presented with isolated NPH (90%, 18/20) and progressed to ESRD at a mean age of 12.9±0.5 years. The mean age of ESRD onset in the non- group was lower than that in the group (6.2±1.4 years, p<0.001), especially for patients carrying mutations (3.1±1.2 years), showing a heterogeneous phenotype characterised by Bardet-Biedl syndrome (12.5%, n=5), Joubert syndrome (7.5%, n=3), COACH syndrome (2.5%, n=1), Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (2.5%, n=1), short-rib thoracic dysplasia (2.5%, n=1) and unclassified symptoms (32.5%, n=13).

Conclusions: The Chinese Children Genetic Kidney Disease Database registry characterised the spectrum of the phenotype and genotype of NPHP-RC in the Chinese population. and were the most common pathogenic genes. Rapid progression to ESRD and liver involvement were noted in patients with mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107184DOI Listing
December 2020

Trapping Acrolein by Theophylline/Caffeine and Their Metabolites from Green Tea and Coffee in Mice and Humans.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Dec 30;68(49):14471-14479. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, 2# Xuelin Road, Nanjing 210023, P.R. China.

Acrolein (ACR) is found exogenously as a widespread environmental pollutant and endogenously, where it is thought to be involved as a pathogenic factor in the progression of many pathological conditions. Eliminating ACR by dietary-active substances has been found to be one potential strategy to prevent ACR-associated chronic diseases. This study first compared the scavenging ACR efficacy of four purine alkaloids, theophylline (TP), paraxanthine (PXT), theobromine (TB), and caffeine (CAF), and then, TP, CAF, and their metabolites were investigated for their ability to trap ACR . Our results indicated that TP, which possesses an -NH moiety at the N-7 position, exhibits the best ACR-trapping capacity , while CAF has a slight ability to trap ACR due to the substitutions by -CH at the N-1, N-3, and N-7 positions. After oral administration of TP or CAF, the ACR adducts of TP and the metabolites of TP or CAF (e.g., mono- and di-ACR-TP, mono-ACR-1,3-DMU, and mono-ACR-1-MU) were detected in urinary samples obtained from both TP- and CAF-treated mouse groups by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The quantification studies demonstrated that TP and its metabolites significantly trapped ACR in a dose-dependent manner . Furthermore, we also detected those ACR adducts of TP and TP/CAF's metabolites in human urine after four cups of green tea (2 g tea leaf/cup) or two cups of coffee (4 g coffee/cup) were consumed per day. Those results indicated that dietary TP or CAF has the potential capacity to scavenge ACR
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c05483DOI Listing
December 2020

Weighted gene coexpression network reveals downregulation of genes in bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Feb 24;56(2):392-399. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious lung disease observed in premature infants, known to cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Its prognosis is influenced by a complex network of genetic interactions. In this study, we determined the potential key factors in the pathogenesis of this condition.

Methods: We constructed scale-free gene coexpression network using weighted gene coexpression network analysis. The analysis was carried out on the GSE8586 dataset, which contains the expression profiles of umbilical cord tissue homogenates from 20 neonates with BPD and 34 unaffected controls.

Results: Our analysis identified one significantly downregulated coexpression module related to the BPD phenotype. It was significantly enriched in genes related to human T-cell leukemia virus infection and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. In this module, the expression of the following four hub genes in infants with BPD was significantly decreased: Fos proto-oncogene (FOS), BTG antiproliferation factor 2 (BTG2), Jun proto-oncogene (JUN), and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1). The downregulation of these hub genes was verified in clinical samples derived from blood and umbilical cord tissue.

Conclusion: The decreased expression of FOS, BTG2, JUN, and EGR1 is associated with BPD and, therefore, could be used as biomarkers to diagnose early BPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25141DOI Listing
February 2021

High-speed adaptive optics line-scan OCT for cellular-resolution optoretinography.

Biomed Opt Express 2020 Sep 26;11(9):5274-5296. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Optoretinography-the non-invasive, optical imaging of light-induced functional activity in the retina-stands to provide a critical biomarker for testing the safety and efficacy of new therapies as well as their rapid translation to the clinic. Optical phase change in response to light, as readily accessible in phase-resolved OCT, offers a path towards all-optical imaging of retinal function. However, typical human eye motion adversely affects phase stability. In addition, recording fast light-induced retinal events necessitates high-speed acquisition. Here, we introduce a high-speed line-scan spectral domain OCT with adaptive optics (AO), aimed at volumetric imaging and phase-resolved acquisition of retinal responses to light. By virtue of parallel acquisition of an entire retinal cross-section (B-scan) in a single high-speed camera frame, depth-resolved tomograms at speeds up to 16 kHz were achieved with high sensitivity and phase stability. To optimize spectral and spatial resolution, an anamorphic detection paradigm was introduced, enabling improved light collection efficiency and signal roll-off compared to traditional methods. The benefits in speed, resolution and sensitivity were exemplified in imaging nanometer-millisecond scale light-induced optical path length changes in cone photoreceptor outer segments. With 660 nm stimuli, individual cone responses readily segregated into three clusters, corresponding to long, middle, and short-wavelength cones. Recording such optoretinograms on spatial scales ranging from individual cones, to 100 µm-wide retinal patches offers a robust and sensitive biomarker for cone function in health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.399034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510866PMC
September 2020

Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of low-dose rasburicase in critically ill children with haematological malignancies.

Int J Clin Pharm 2020 Dec 24;42(6):1440-1446. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun-yat, Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Background The recommended dose of rasburicase is quite expensive, thus limiting its use. Whether a lower dose of rasburicase would be equally effective for critically ill children, who often have more complicated situations and a higher risk of hospital death, is still unknown. Objective To explore the safety and efficacy of low-dose rasburicase in critically ill children with haematological malignancies who are at high risk of tumour lysis syndrome. Setting A single-centre retrospective cohort study. Method Children with haematological malignancies who had a history of rasburicase exposure during an intensive care unit stay were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups according to the initial dosage of rasburicase: the standard-dose group (> 0.1 mg/kg/day) and the low-dose group (≤ 0.1 mg/kg/day). The adverse events and short-term prognosis of the two groups were compared. Results Thirty-seven children were selected, 22 in the standard-dose group and 15 in the low-dose group. The most common tumour type was Burkitt's lymphoma (81%), followed by acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (11%). All patients were at high risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and 73% of them had 3 or more tumour lysis syndrome risk factors. The uric acid levels of 90% of patients with hyperuricaemia returned to the normal range within 12 h (100% in the standard-dose group and 75% in the low-dose group, P = 0.083). Eighty-four percent of patients presented serious complications, including tumour lysis syndrome (73%), acute kidney injury (59%), renal replacement treatment (24%), respiratory failure (24%), disseminated intravascular coagulation (16%) and heart failure (11%). There was no significant difference in the incidence of serious complications between the two groups. The overall 7-day and 28-day survival rates after intensive care unit admission were 86% and 84%, respectively. The average length of stay in the intensive care unit was 9.92 ± 5.13 days. Neither the short-term mortality nor the length of stay in the intensive care unit were significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion Low-dose rasburicase is effective and may be an acceptable choice for critically ill children with haematological malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-01144-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603475PMC
December 2020

Differential expression of peptides serves as an indicator of IgA nephropathy in pediatric patients.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Nov 9;20(5):67. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, P.R. China.

Peptide profiles change significantly with aging and peptide biomarkers discovered in adult patients may not be suitable for the evaluation of pediatric patients. The present study was designed to explore alterations in the serum peptidome profile of pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). A total of 17 children diagnosed with IgAN were recruited as the experimental group, 11 sex-matched healthy children were recruited as a healthy control group and 18 sex-matched children with other glomerular diseases were recruited as a disease control group. Serum peptides of each subject were enriched and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and the subsequently identified IgAN-specific peptides were evaluated using Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. Subsequently, the function of the IgAN-specific peptides was predicted via sequence comparison with other known functional bioactive peptides. A total of 123 peptides with a fold change >2 (P<0.05) and 48 peptides with a fold change >5 (P<0.05) were identified to be differentially expressed between the pediatric IgAN group and the two other groups. Consequently, two putative peptides that may have bioactive effects in the pathogenesis of IgAN in pediatric patients were identified. The serum peptidome profile of pediatric patients with IgAN was significantly different from the disease control group and the healthy control group. These differentially expressed peptides may serve as biomarkers for the minimally invasive diagnosis of pediatric patients with IgAN. Additionally, the potential bioactive peptides specifically expressed in pediatric IgAN patients that were identified in this study may lay a foundation for exploring new therapies for IgAN, such as the creation of novel peptide drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.9195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490786PMC
November 2020

Acrolein-Trapping Mechanism of Theophylline in Green Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa: Speedy and Successful.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Sep 25;68(36):9718-9724. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Normal University, 2# Xuelin Road, Nanjing 210023, P. R. China.

Increasing evidence has identified the unsaturated aldehyde acrolein (ACR) as the potential factor that causes deoxyribonucleic acid cross-linking and the development of chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which theophylline (TP) scavenges ACR for the first time. TP efficiently scavenged ACR through forming adducts, which was demonstrated in a system in which TP was incubated with ACR at different ratios for different times for liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Then, the mono- and di-ACR-TP adducts were purified, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. We found that the ACR residue on mono-ACR-TP further trapped one more ACR and formed di-ACR-TP adducts. Furthermore, mono- and di-ACR-TP had similar time-dependent ACR-scavenging activity to TP. Finally, we demonstrated that green tea, coffee, and cocoa inhibited ACR by trapping ACR to form mono- and di-ACR-TP adducts during the incubation of green tea, coffee, and cocoa with ACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03895DOI Listing
September 2020

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection involving gastrointestinal tract mimicking inflammatory bowel disease.

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 Aug 5;20(1):257. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a rare disease, which is difficult to be differentiated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To cause the attention, we present twelve cases of CAEBV in immunocompetent patients with gastrointestinal tract involvement.

Methods: Twelve patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of CAEBV were enrolled in this retrospective study. The control group was consisted of twenty-four IBD patients with EBV-DNA value increased in peripheral blood. The clinicopathologic and endoscopic characteristics were reviewed and analyzed.

Results: The major clinical presentations of CAEBV patients were intermittent fever (100%), hepatomegaly/splenomegaly (58%), lymphadenopathy (50%), diarrhea (50%) and hematochezia (50%). Compared with IBD patients, the incidence of intermittent fever and increased level of ferritin were significantly higher among CAEBV patients. The median values for EBV detected in peripheral blood were significantly higher in CAEBV group (1.42*10^6 copies/μg) than in IBD group (3.2*10^3 copies/μg, p<0.05). The main endoscopic findings of CAEBV included multifocal or isolated, irregular, multiform ulcers and diffuse inflammation, lacking of typical cobblestone appearance. Ten patients died within 5 years of disease onset. The average survival time is 21 months.

Conclusions: Symptoms such as intermittent fever, increased level of ferritin and atypical endoscopic findings could be a sign for CAEBV. Early detections of EBV-DNA in serum and EBV-encoded small nuclear RNA (EBER) by in situ hybridization in intestinal tissue are essential for differential diagnosis between CAEBV and IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01395-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410156PMC
August 2020

Early diagnosis and successful treatment of cytomegalovirus peritonitis in children with primary nephrotic syndrome: case series and literature review.

Ren Fail 2020 Nov;42(1):776-784

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major pathogen in immunocompromised population and CMV infections in immunocompromised patients cause substantial morbidity and mortality. The common clinical manifestations of CMV infection are pneumonia, hepatitis, colitis and so on, while CMV peritonitis without gut perforation is rare. Reviewing the literature, CMV peritonitis in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) had not been reported. Only four cases of CMV peritonitis without gut perforation were reported in adults with other diseases. Two cases were diagnosed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of ascites while the other two cases by histopathological examination of peritoneal tissue. We report four cases of primary nephrotic syndrome complicated with CMV peritonitis. Four cases all diagnosed by RT-PCR of ascites (659-455 000 copies/mL). We mainly discusses the diagnosis and treatment of CMV peritonitis without gut perforation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2020.1800491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472508PMC
November 2020

IPDN-China promotes the development of pediatric dialysis in China.

Pediatr Nephrol 2020 11 11;35(11):2163-2171. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Division of Nephrology, Henan Children's Hospital, Henan, China.

Background: In mainland China, dialysis for children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was not introduced until the 1980s. To describe the development of pediatric dialysis in different regions of China, a national pediatric dialysis network, namely, International Pediatric Dialysis Network-China (IPDN-China) ( www.pedpd.org.cn ), was launched in 2012.

Methods: Original and updated information from the renal centers registered with the IPDN-China was collected between 2012 and 2016 from two sources, namely, the registry and the survey, and demographic features were analyzed.

Results: Due to promotion by the IPDN-China, the number of registered renal centers increased from 12 to 39 between 2012 and 2016, with a significant increase in the coverage of the Chinese administrative divisions (from 26.5 to 67.6%) (p < 0.01); and the coverage of the pediatric (0~14 years old) population increased to nearly 90% in 2016. The distribution of renal centers indicated that East China had the highest average number of registered centers per million population (pmp) 0~14-year-old age group. Seventeen relatively large dialysis centers were distributed across 14 divisions. Various modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT) were available in most centers. The IPDN-China has promoted collaborations between dieticians, psychologists, and social workers on dialysis teams to provide better service to children with ESRD and their families. The proportion of centers with all three types of paramedic support (i.e., dieticians, psychologists, and social workers) as well as the proportion of centers with a partial paramedic team significantly increased between 2012 (25.0%) and 2016 (69.2%) (p < 0.05). In terms of the point prevalent cases of patients (aged < 18 years), data from the survey of 39 registered centers revealed that the number of children with ESRD who were on RRT was 578 (49% received a kidney transplant) at the end of 2016, which was more than that reported in previous surveys. Data from the registry showed that 349 dialysis patients had been enrolled as of the end of 2016. The median age at RRT start was 9.5 years, and the leading cause of ESRD was congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT).

Conclusions: The IPDN-China has helped to promote the development of pediatric dialysis for ESRD in China by improving the organization of care for dialysis patients and increasing the availability and the quality of RRT for patients who need it. To improve knowledge about the epidemiology and outcomes of pediatric RRT around the country, a sustained effort needs to be made by the IPDN-China to increase the enrollment of dialysis patients and increase the number of registered centers in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04630-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Design of high-performance plasmonic nanosensors by particle swarm optimization algorithm combined with machine learning.

Nanotechnology 2020 Sep 22;31(37):375202. Epub 2020 May 22.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, People's Republic of China.

Metallic plasmonic nanosensors that are ultra-sensitive, label-free, and operate in real time hold great promise in the field of chemical and biological research. Conventionally, the design of these nanostructures has strongly relied on time-consuming electromagnetic simulations that iteratively solve Maxwell's equations to scan multi-dimensional parameter space until the desired sensing performance is attained. Here, we propose an algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), which in combination with a machine learning (ML) model, is used to design plasmonic sensors. The ML model is trained with the geometric structure and sensing performance of the plasmonic sensor to accurately capture the geometry-sensing performance relationships, and the well-trained ML model is then applied to the PSO algorithm to obtain the plasmonic structure with the desired sensing performance. Using the trained ML model to predict the sensing performance instead of using complex electromagnetic calculation methods allows the PSO algorithm to optimize the solutions fours orders of magnitude faster. Implementation of this composite algorithm enabled us to quickly and accurately realize a nanoridge plasmonic sensor with sensitivity as high as 142,500 nm/RIU. We expect this efficient and accurate approach to pave the way for the design of nanophotonic devices in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab95b8DOI Listing
September 2020

Effect of cone spectral topography on chromatic detection sensitivity.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2020 Apr;37(4):A244-A254

The spatial and spectral topography of the cone mosaic set the limits for detection and discrimination of chromatic sinewave gratings. Here, we sought to compare the spatial characteristics of mechanisms mediating hue perception against those mediating chromatic detection in individuals with known spectral topography and with optical aberrations removed with adaptive optics. Chromatic detection sensitivity in general exceeded previous measurements and decreased monotonically for increasingly skewed cone spectral compositions. The spatial grain of hue perception was significantly coarser than chromatic detection, consistent with separate neural mechanisms for color vision operating at different spatial scales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.382384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231539PMC
April 2020

Mechanistic studies of inhibition on acrolein by myricetin.

Food Chem 2020 Apr 11;323:126788. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Spice and Beverage Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Wanning, Hainan 571533, China. Electronic address:

Acrolein (ACR) is an unsaturated aldehyde with high activity and toxicity and is produced in vivo and in food. This study investigated the impact of B-ring structure on the trapping of ACR by flavonols and the trapping mechanism and efficacy of ACR by myricetin. Galangin, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin, which possess the same A- and C-ring but different numbers of -OH groups on the B-ring, were selected for this study. Our results suggested that increasing the number of -OH groups on the B-ring can enhance the ACR trapping efficacy of flavonol and myrectin was identified as the most active flavonol. The adducts of myricetin with ACR under different ratios and incubation times were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. We also purified and identified the major mono- and di-ACR-myricetin adducts. Furthermore, myricetin could dose-dependently inhibit the formation of ACR in cookies through the formation of mono- and di-ACR adducts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126788DOI Listing
April 2020

A near-ideal solar selective absorber with strong broadband optical absorption from UV to NIR.

Nanotechnology 2020 Jul 14;31(31):315202. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, People's Republic of China.

A near-ideal solar absorber, which is composed of a metal nanowire array and a planar multilayer system, is proposed and investigated. Both numerical and analytical results show that the proposed nanostructure can achieve over 90% optical absorption throughout the wavelength range of 300-1909 nm due to the coupled effect of multiple resonance modes, and can maintain a good absorption stability over a wide incident angle regardless of the polarization states. Meanwhile, for practical applications, the total photothermal conversion efficiency can reach 95.57% at operating temperature of 373.15 K, which is particularly useful in solar energy harvesting. The absorption performance is also strongly dependent on the diameter and height of nanowire as well as the thicknesses of dielectric layers, enabling the further improvement of both the operating bandwidth and absorption efficiency. Moreover, by adjusting the period of the multilayer or nanowire materials, the selective absorption properties of this nanostructure can be flexibly controlled to satisfy more spectral requirements. These features make the presented designs hold promise for a series of solar-dependent optical applications, such as photothermal energy generation and thermal emitters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab88eeDOI Listing
July 2020

Ultrabroadband light absorption based on photonic topological transitions in hyperbolic metamaterials.

Opt Express 2020 Jan;28(1):705-714

Photonic topological transitions (PTTs) in metamaterials open up a novel approach to design a variety of high-performance optical devices and provide a flexible platform for manipulating light-matter interactions at nanoscale. Here, we present a wideband spectral-selective solar absorber based on multilayered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM). Absorptivity of higher than 90% at normal incidence is supported over a wide wavelength range from 300 to 2215 nm, due to the topological change in the isofrequency surface (IFS). The operating bandwidth can be flexibly tailored by adjusting the thicknesses of the metal and dielectric layers. Moreover, the near-ideal absorption performance can be retained well at a wide angular range regardless of the incident light polarization. These features make the proposed design hold great promise for practical applications in energy harvesting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.382139DOI Listing
January 2020

Lupus Nephritis With Mild Asymptomatic Hypercalcemia in Children: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Front Pediatr 2019 6;7:507. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Lupus nephritis (LN) in Children is caused by Kidney involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a chronic, multi-systemic, paroxysmal autoimmune disease with a wide spectrum of autoantibodies. Hypercalcemia is a common manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism and other malignant tumors. LN or SLE with hypercalcemia is rare. We report a case of LN with hypercalcemia and review the literature. It suggests that the pathogenesis of SLE complicated with hypercalcemia complicates the response of drug therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6908478PMC
December 2019

Black phosphorus-based anisotropic absorption structure in the mid-infrared.

Opt Express 2019 Sep;27(20):27618-27627

Black phosphorus (BP), an emerging two-dimensional (2D) material with intriguing optical properties, forms a promising building block in optical and photonic devices. In this work, we propose a simple structure composed of a monolayer BP sandwiched by polymer and dielectric materials with low index contrast, and numerically demonstrate the perfect absorption mechanism via the critical coupling of guided resonances in the mid-infrared. Due to the inherent in-plane anisotropic feature of BP, the proposed structure exhibits highly polarization-dependent absorption characteristics, i.e., the optical absorption of the structure reaches 99.9% for TM polarization and only 3.2% for TE polarization at the same wavelength. Furthermore, the absorption peak and resonance wavelength can be flexibly tuned by adjusting the electron doping of BP, the geometrical parameters of the structure and the incident angles of light. Finally, the perfect absorption is also realized with the multilayer BP by simply adjusting the geometrical parameters. With high efficiency absorption, the remarkable anisotropy, flexible tunability, and easy-to-fabricate advantages, the proposed structure shows promising prospects in the design of polarization-selective and tunable high-performance devices in the mid-infrared, such as polarizers, modulators and photodetectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.027618DOI Listing
September 2019

Parameter identification for fractional fractal diffusion model based on experimental data.

Chaos 2019 Aug;29(8):083134

School of Safety Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, People's Republic of China.

This paper studies the techniques of parameter estimation and their application in determining parameters of the fractional fractal diffusion model. On account of the basic structural characteristics of the porous coal matrix, the fractional fractal diffusion model is established to express the gas transport mechanism in the heterogeneous coal matrix. A L1 finite difference method in the temporal direction while spectral collocation method in the spatial direction is proposed to solve the model numerically. Then, by means of the gas adsorption and desorption experiments in coal samples, attempts have been made by the BFGS method, nonlinear conjugate gradient method, and Bayesian method to compare and contrast to obtain the physical parameters of the model. Furthermore, advantages and limitations of different estimation methods are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5111832DOI Listing
August 2019

Combined Blockade of Smad3 and JNK Pathways Ameliorates Progressive Fibrosis in Folic Acid Nephropathy.

Front Pharmacol 2019 9;10:880. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Key Laboratory of Nephrology, National Health Commission and Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, China.

Acute kidney injury leading to chronic kidney disease through tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a major challenge in nephropathy. Several signaling pathways promote interstitial fibrosis; however, effective suppression of fibrosis may require blockade of more than one pathway. This study investigated whether blockade of Smad3 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling gives added suppression of interstitial fibrosis in folic acid nephropathy. A single high dose of folic acid (FA) causes acute tubular damage in C57BL/6J mice followed by interstitial fibrosis and chronic renal impairment. Co-activations of Smad3 and JNK signaling occur in both tubular epithelial cells and myofibroblasts in areas of tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis in both murine FA-induced nephropathy and human IgA nephropathy. Groups of mice were treated with a Smad3 inhibitor (SIS3), a JNK inhibitor (SP600125), or a combination from day 6 after FA administration until being killed on day 28. Each drug efficiently inhibited its specific target (Smad3 phosphorylation or c-Jun phosphorylation) without affecting the other pathway. Given alone, each drug partially reduced renal fibrosis, whereas the combination therapy gave an additive and profound protection from renal fibrosis and improved renal function. Inhibition of Smad3 and/or JNK signaling activities prevented down-regulation of PGC-1α in tubular epithelial cells and up-regulation of PGC-1α in myofibroblasts during FA-induced renal fibrosis and inflammation. The expression of PGC-1α was upregulated in NRK52E cells while downregulated in NRK49F cells, suggesting that Smad3 signaling may regulate expression of PGC-1α in renal tubular epithelial cells and fibroblasts in distinct fashion. and cell culture studies also indicate that Smad3 and JNK signaling cooperate to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and cell damage in tubular epithelial cells direct actions on the transcription of PGC-1α. These pathways also act cooperatively to promote renal fibroblast proliferation in tempo-spatial fashion. In conclusion, we have identified a potential combination therapy for progressive renal fibrosis which operates, in part, through modifying mitochondrial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695473PMC
August 2019

Measuring and compensating for ocular longitudinal chromatic aberration.

Optica 2019 Aug 1;6(8):981-990. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.

It is well known that the eye's optics and media introduce monochromatic and chromatic aberration unique to each individual. Once monochromatic aberrations are removed with adaptive optics (AO), longitudinal chromatic aberrations (LCA) define the fidelity for multi-wavelength, high-resolution vision testing and retinal imaging. AO vision simulation systems and AO scanning laser ophthalmoscopes (AOSLOs) typically use the average population LCA to compensate for focus offsets between different wavelengths precluding fine, individualized control. The eye's LCA has been characterized extensively using either subjective (visual perception) or objective (imaging) methods. Classically, these have faced inconsistencies due to extraneous factors related to depth of focus, monochromatic aberration, and wavelength-dependent light interactions with retinal tissue. Here, we introduce a filter-based Badal LCA compensator that offers the flexibility to tune LCA for each individual eye and demonstrate its feasibility for vision testing and imaging using multiple wavelengths simultaneously. Incorporating the LCA compensator in an AOSLO allowed the first objective measurements of LCA based on confocal, multi-wavelength foveal cone images and its comparison to measures obtained subjectively. The objective LCA thus obtained was consistent with subjective estimates in the same individuals and hence resolves the prior discrepancies between them. Overall, the described approach will benefit applications in retinal imaging and vision testing where the focus of multiple wavelengths needs to be controlled independently and simultaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/optica.6.000981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894623PMC
August 2019

Genetic spectrum of renal disease for 1001 Chinese children based on a multicenter registration system.

Clin Genet 2019 11 25;96(5):402-410. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Nephrology, The Children's Hospital of Guiyang City, Guiyang, China.

To explore the approaches and diagnostic yield of genetic testing for renal disease in children, we describe the genotype and phenotype of the national cohort of children with renal disease from 13 different regions of China recruited from 2014 to 2018 by building up the multicenter registration system (Chinese Children Genetic Kidney Disease Database, CCGKDD). Genetic diagnosis was confirmed in 42.1% of our cohort of 1001 pediatric patients with clinical suspicion of a genetic renal disease. Of the 106 distinct monogenetic disorders detected, 15 accounted for 60.7% of genetic diagnoses. The diagnostic yield was 29.1% in steroid resistant nephritic syndrome (SRNS), 61.4% in cystic renal disease, 17.0% in congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), 62.3% in renal tubular disease/renal calcinosis, and 23.9% for chronic kidney disease (CKD) 3 to 5 stage with unknown origin. Genetic approaches of target gene sequence (TGS), singleton whole-exome sequencing (WES) and trio-WES were performed with diagnostic rates of 44.8%, 36.2%, and 42.6%, respectively. The early use of trio-WES could improve the diagnostic rate especially in renal tubular disease and calcinosis. We report the genetic spectrum of Chinese children with renal disease. Establishment of the CCGKDD will improve the genetic work on renal disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13606DOI Listing
November 2019

Tunable optical angular selectivity in hyperbolic metamaterial via photonic topological transitions.

Opt Express 2019 Jun;27(13):18970-18979

An ultra-narrow angular optical transparency window based on photonic topological transition (PTT) is theoretically and numerically investigated in a low-loss hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) platform, which consists of aligned metallic nanowires embedded indielectric host matrices. Our results indicate that, near the transition point of PTT, the designed system exhibits high-efficiency optical angular selectivity close to normal incidence by tailoring the topology of metamaterial's equi-frequency surface (EFS). Moreover, the operating wavelength (λ) is flexibly tunable by selecting appropriate material and geometrical parameters, which provides significant guidance for the later experimental design. Our method is further applied to super-resolution imaging, with a resolution of at least λ/4 and over a significant distances (>12λ). The HMM-supported angularly selective system could find promising applications for high-efficiency light manipulation and lensless on-chip imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.018970DOI Listing
June 2019