Publications by authors named "Xiaoyu Yang"

423 Publications

Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway on Polarity Formation of Utricle Hair Cells.

Neural Plast 2021 22;2021:9950533. Epub 2021 May 22.

NHC Key Laboratory of Hearing Medicine (Fudan University), Shanghai 200031, China.

As part of the inner ear, the vestibular system is responsible for sense of balance, which consists of three semicircular canals, the utricle, and the saccule. Increasing evidence has indicated that the noncanonical Wnt/PCP signaling pathway plays a significant role in the development of the polarity of the inner ear. However, the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the polarity of the vestibule is still not completely clear. In this study, we found that canonical Wnt pathway-related genes are expressed in the early stage of development of the utricle and change dynamically. We conditionally knocked out -catenin, a canonical Wnt signaling core protein, and found that the cilia orientation of hair cells was disordered with reduced number of hair cells in the utricle. Moreover, regulating the canonical Wnt pathway (Licl and IWP2) in vitro also affected hair cell polarity and indicated that Axin2 may be important in this process. In conclusion, our results not only confirm that the regulation of canonical Wnt signaling affects the number of hair cells in the utricle but also provide evidence for its role in polarity development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9950533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166501PMC
May 2021

Correction to: The clinical significance of CTC enrichment by GPC3-IML and its genetic analysis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jun 12;19(1):176. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department I of Biliary Tract, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, No. 225, Changhai Rd, Shanghai, 200438, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00889-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Mixed biochar obtained by the co-pyrolysis of shrimp shell with corn straw: Co-pyrolysis characteristics and its adsorption capability.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 5;282:131116. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

College of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266042, PR China. Electronic address:

The co-pyrolysis characteristics of shrimp shell (SS) with corn straw (CS) were investigated by comprehensive characterization to reveal the synergistic effects and further discuss the adsorption capability. TGA results showed that pyrolysis behavior and reactivity were improved with the increase of heating rate and doping ratio of CS. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and distributed activation energy model (DAEM) indicated that co-pyrolysis can effectively reduce energy consumption and promote the decomposition of CaCO. TG-FTIR and Py-GC/MS analysis indicated that the release of CH, CO, CO and NH at the doping ratio of 25% CS (75SS+25CS) was higher than that at other doping ratios, and the relative proportions of N-heterocyclics and oxygenates were lower, which was conducive to the development of pore structure for mixed biochar and effectively alleviated the pollution during co-pyrolysis process. The structure of mixed biochar was improved, confirmed by the characterizations of BET, SEM, FTIR and XRD. The mixed biochar prepared at 800 °C (75SS+25CS) exhibited optimal porosity, aromatization and the most thorough CaCO decomposition. Batch adsorption experiment showed that the removal rate of 50 mg/L Cu(II) by 75SS+25CS was close to 100% under the dosage of 1 g/L and pH = 3-6. The adsorption process was well described by Langmuir, pseudo-second-order and Webber-Morris model, illustrating diffusion monolayer chemisorption was the main adsorption mechanism of Cu(II) on 75SS+25CS. The maximum adsorption capacity of 75SS+25CS for Cu(II) was 79.77 mg/g at 35 °C. In short, this study provided a reference in optimizing the preparation process and improving the adsorption performance of mixed biochar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131116DOI Listing
June 2021

Living fabrication of functional semi-interpenetrating polymeric materials.

Nat Commun 2021 06 8;12(1):3422. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Cell-mediated living fabrication has great promise for generating materials with versatile, programmable functions. Here, we demonstrate the engineering of living materials consisting of semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (sIPN). The fabrication process is driven by the engineered bacteria encapsulated in a polymeric microcapsule, which serves as the initial scaffold. The bacteria grow and undergo programmed lysis in a density-dependent manner, releasing protein monomers decorated with reactive tags. Those protein monomers polymerize with each other to form the second polymeric component that is interlaced with the initial crosslinked polymeric scaffold. The formation of sIPN serves the dual purposes of enhancing the mechanical property of the living materials and anchoring effector proteins for diverse applications. The material is resilient to perturbations because of the continual assembly of the protein mesh from the monomers released by the engineered bacteria. We demonstrate the adoption of the platform to protect gut microbiota in animals from antibiotic-mediated perturbations. Our work lays the foundation for programming functional living materials for diverse applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23812-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187375PMC
June 2021

Sequential activation of uterine epithelial IGF1R by stromal IGF1 and embryonic IGF2 directs normal uterine preparation for embryo implantation.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Reproductive Health Research, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Embryo implantation in both humans and rodents is initiated by the attachment of a blastocyst to the uterine epithelium. For blastocyst attachment, the uterine epithelium needs to transform at both the structural and molecular levels first, and then initiate the interaction with trophectoderm. Any perturbation during this process will result in implantation failure or long-term adverse pregnancy outcomes. Endocrine steroid hormones, which function through nuclear receptors, combine with the local molecules produced by the uteri or embryo to facilitate implantation. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling has been reported to play a vital role during pregnancy. However, its physiological function during implantation remains elusive. This study revealed that mice with conditional deletion of Igf1r gene in uteri suffered from subfertility, mainly due to the disturbed uterine receptivity and abnormal embryo implantation. Mechanistically, we uncovered that in response to the nidatory estrogen on day 4 of pregnancy, the epithelial IGF1R, stimulated by the stromal cell-produced IGF1, facilitated epithelial STAT3 activation to modulate the epithelial depolarity. Furthermore, embryonic derived IGF2 could activate both the epithelial ERK1/2 and STAT3 signaling through IGF1R, which was critical for the transcription of Cox2 and normal attachment reaction. In brief, our data revealed that epithelial IGF1R was sequentially activated by the uterine stromal IGF1 and embryonic IGF2 to guarantee normal epithelium differentiation during the implantation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmcb/mjab034DOI Listing
June 2021

Novel Diabetic Foot Wound Dressing Based on Multifunctional Hydrogels with Extensive Temperature-Tolerant, Durable, Adhesive, and Intrinsic Antibacterial Properties.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P. R. China.

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are hard-healing chronic wounds and susceptible to bacterial infection. Conventional hydrogel dressings easily lose water at high temperature or freeze at low temperature, making them unsuitable for long-term use or in extreme environments. Herein, a temperature-tolerant (-20 to 60 °C) antibacterial hydrogel dressing is fabricated by the assembly of polyacrylamide, gelatin, and ε-polylysine. Owing to the water/glycerin (Gly) binary solvent system, the resultant hydrogel (G-PAGL) displayed good heat resistance and antifreezing properties. Within the wide temperature range (-20 to 60 °C), all the desirable features of the hydrogel, including superstretchability (>1400%), enduring water retention, adhesiveness, and persistent antibacterial property, are quite stable. Remarkably, the hydrogel wound dressing displayed lasting and broad antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Satisfactorily, the double-network (DN) G-PAGL hydrogel dressing could effectively promote the healing of DFUs by accelerating collagen deposition, promoting angiogenesis, and inhibiting bacterial breed. As far as we know, this is the first time that the extensive temperature-tolerant DN hydrogel with antibacterial ability is developed to use as DFU wound dressing. The G-PAGL hydrogel provides more choices for DFU wound dressings that could be used in extreme environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05514DOI Listing
June 2021

USP8 is a Novel Therapeutic Target in Melanoma Through Regulating Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Levels.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 24;13:4181-4189. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Oncology, Xiangyang No.1 People's Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Xiangyang, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The hyperactivation of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated pathways plays an important role in melanoma progression and resistance to therapy. The ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) is a deubiquitinating enzyme and its inhibition induces degradation of RTKs. This work explored the expression and role of USP8 in melanoma.

Methods: ELISA and qPCR were performed to assess USP8 expression in melanoma tissues and cells, as well as their normal counterparts. Cellular proliferation, migration and apoptosis assays were performed to determine USP8 functions in three melanoma cell lines. Western blot was performed to analyze RTK signaling in melanoma cells after USP8 inhibition.

Results: mRNA and protein level of USP8 were higher in melanoma cells than normal melanocytes. Higher USP8 expression was also found in tumors in the majority of melanoma patients. USP8 expression was not associated with clinicopathological features, such as age, disease stage, histology, ulceration and BRAF status. Functional analysis demonstrated that USP8 overexpression promoted melanoma cell activities and alleviated the inhibitory effects of therapeutic drugs. In contrast, USP8 knockdown suppressed melanoma cell growth, survival and migration, and augmented the inhibitory effects of therapeutic drugs. Mechanism studies revealed that USP8 inhibition remarkably reduced the expression level of multiple oncogenic RTKs, including c-Met, Kit, EGFR and GPCR. Consistently, RTK-mediated downstream pathways were disrupted in USP8-depleted cells, leading to the increased level of pro-apoptotic proteins and decreased level of anti-apoptotic proteins.

Conclusion: Inhibition of USP8 activity is a novel sensitizing strategy to overcome therapy resistance in melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S300195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163583PMC
May 2021

Permanent Deformation and Stiffness Degradation of Open Hole Glass/PA6 UD Thermoplastic Composite in Tension and Compression.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 18;14(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Technologiepark Zwijnaarde 46, 9052 Zwijnaarde, Belgium.

UD glass/PA6 coupons with an open hole are subjected to tensile and compressive loading. Three layups: [0/90], [+45/-45] and [+45/0/-45/90] with a shape based on ASTM D5766 were tested. Both monotonic loading as well as loading-unloading-reloading tests were executed. The strain field on the sample surface was measured with digital image correlation. This allowed identifying the distribution of the strain field during loading, permanent deformation and the evolution of the sample elastic modulus. This information is not frequently measured. Yet, it is vital for the development and validation of advanced failure models. The results indicate that the thermoplastic matrix allows large plastic deformation under tensile loading for the specimens with layup [+45/-45]. In addition, the specimen elastic modulus reduces by about 70%. The other layups show minor permanent deformation, while the elastic modulus reduces by up to 15%. Furthermore, the quasi-isotropic laminate shows a significant post-failure load-bearing capacity under compression loading. The results are complemented with post-mortem damage and fracture observations using optical microscopy and ultrasound inspection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14102646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158360PMC
May 2021

Neural Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Regulate Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Through miR-9-Hes1 Axis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:601600. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for Translational Neurodegeneration and Regenerative Therapy, Tenth People's Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Exosomes, a key element of the central nervous system microenvironment, mediate intercellular communication via horizontally transferring bioactive molecules. Emerging evidence has implicated exosomes in the regulation of neurogenesis. Recently, we compared the neurogenic potential of exosomes released from primary mouse embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) and astrocyte-reprogrammed NSCs, and observed diverse neurogenic potential of those two exosome populations . However, the roles of NSC-derived exosomes on NSC differentiation and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that NSC-derived exosomes facilitate the differentiation of NSCs and the maturation of both neuronal and glial cells in defined conditions. We then identified miR-9, a pro-neural miRNA, as the most abundantly expressed miRNA in NSC-derived exosomes. The silencing of miR-9 in exosomes abrogates the positive effects of NSC-derived exosomes on the differentiation of NSCs. We further identified as miR-9 downstream target, as the transfection of Hes1 siRNA restored the differentiation promoting potential of NSC-derived exosomes after knocking down exosomal miR-9. Thus, our data indicate that NSC-derived exosomes facilitate the differentiation of NSCs via transferring miR-9, which sheds light on the development of cell-free therapeutic strategies for treating neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.601600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155619PMC
May 2021

Metabolomics study of fibroblasts damaged by UVB and BaP.

Sci Rep 2021 May 27;11(1):11176. Epub 2021 May 27.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Research and Development, College of Chemistry and Meterials Engineering, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, 100048, China.

We have recently shown that both UVB and BaP can induce the production of ROS, apoptosis and even cancer. However, the differences in the metabolic profiles of skin damaged by UVB, BaP or UVB combined with BaP have not been studied. Therefore, we examined the metabolic changes in the human foreskin fibroblast injured by UVB or BaP or the combination of the two, using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). 24 metabolites were altered in the UVB damage group, 25 in the BaP damage group, and 33 in the UVB combined with BaP group. These alterations indicated that the metabolic mechanisms of HFF-1 cells treated with UVB or BaP are related to multiple main metabolites including glycerophosphocholine (PC), lactosylceramide (LacCer), guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA), glutathione(GSH), and lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) and the main mechanisms involved glycerophospholipid and glutathione metabolism. Thus, our report provided useful insight into the underlying mechanisms of UVB and BaP damage to skin cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90186-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160258PMC
May 2021

Correction to: PTEN Expression in Human Granulosa Cells Is Associated with Ovarian Responses and Clinical Outcomes in IVF.

Reprod Sci 2021 Jul;28(7):1922

Fuzhou Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated to Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-021-00568-5DOI Listing
July 2021

3D DenseNet Deep Learning Based Preoperative Computed Tomography for Detecting Myasthenia Gravis in Patients With Thymoma.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:631964. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institution of Precision Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is the most common paraneoplastic syndromes of thymoma and closely related to thymus abnormalities. Timely detecting of the risk of MG would benefit clinical management and treatment decision for patients with thymoma. Herein, we developed a 3D DenseNet deep learning (DL) model based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) as a non-invasive method to detect MG in thymoma patients.

Methods: A large cohort of 230 thymoma patients in a hospital affiliated with a medical school were enrolled. 182 thymoma patients (81 with MG, 101 without MG) were used for training and model building. 48 cases from another hospital were used for external validation. A 3D-DenseNet-DL model and five radiomic models were performed to detect MG in thymoma patients. A comprehensive analysis by integrating machine learning and semantic CT image features, named 3D-DenseNet-DL-based multi-model, was also performed to establish a more effective prediction model.

Findings: By elaborately comparing the prediction efficacy, the 3D-DenseNet-DL effectively identified MG patients and was superior to other five radiomic models, with a mean area under ROC curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.734, 0.724, 0.787, and 0.672, respectively. The effectiveness of the 3D-DenseNet-DL-based multi-model was further improved as evidenced by the following metrics: AUC 0.766, accuracy 0.790, sensitivity 0.739, and specificity 0.801. External verification results confirmed the feasibility of this DL-based multi-model with metrics: AUC 0.730, accuracy 0.732, sensitivity 0.700, and specificity 0.690, respectively.

Interpretation: Our 3D-DenseNet-DL model can effectively detect MG in patients with thymoma based on preoperative CT imaging. This model may serve as a supplement to the conventional diagnostic criteria for identifying thymoma associated MG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.631964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132943PMC
May 2021

Enhanced wound repair ability of arginine-chitosan nanocomposite membrane through the antimicrobial peptides-loaded polydopamine-modified graphene oxide.

J Biol Eng 2021 May 22;15(1):17. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China.

Skin wound healing is a complicated and lengthy process, which is influenced by multiple factors and need a suitable cellular micro-environment. For skin wound, wound dressings remain a cornerstone of dermatologic therapy at present. The dressing material can create an effective protective environment for the wound, and the interactions between the dressing and the wound has a great impact on the wound healing efficiency. An ideal wound dressing materials should have good biocompatibility, moisturizing property, antibacterial property and mechanical strength, and can effectively prevent wound infection and promote wound healing. In this study, in order to design wound dressing materials endowed with excellent antibacterial and tissue repair properties, we attempted to load antimicrobial peptides onto dopmine-modified graphene oxide ([email protected]) using lysozyme (ly) as a model drug. Then, functionalized GO was used to the surface modification of arginine-modified chitosan (CS-Arg) membrane. To evaluate the potential of the prepared nanocomposite membrane in wound dressing application, the surface morphology, hydrophilic, mechanical properties, antimicrobial activity, and cytocompatibility of the resulting nanocomposite membrane were analyzed. The results revealed that prepared nanocomposite membrane exhibited excellent hydrophilic, mechanical strength and antimicrobial activity, which can effectively promote cell growth and adhesion. In particular, using [email protected] as drug carrier can effectively maintain the activity of antimicrobial peptides, and can maximize the antibacterial properties of the nanocomposite membrane. Finally, we used rat full-thickness wound models to observe wound healing, and the surface interactions between the prepared nanocomposite membrane and the wound. The results indicated that nanocomposite membrane can obviously accelerated wound closure, and the wounds showed reduced inflammation, improved angiogenesis and accelerated re-epithelialization. Therefore, incorporation of antimicrobial peptides-functionalize graphene oxide ([email protected]) into CS-Arg membrane was a viable strategy for fabricating excellent wound dressing. Together, this study not only prepared a wound dressing with excellent tissue repair ability, but also provided a novel idea for the development of graphene oxide-based antibacterial dressing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13036-021-00268-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141257PMC
May 2021

Distance-Dependent Plasmon-Enhanced Fluorescence of Submonolayer Rhodamine 6G by Gold Nanoparticles.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 May 22;16(1):90. Epub 2021 May 22.

State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200241, People's Republic of China.

We investigate the fluorescence from submonolayer rhodamine 6G molecules near gold nanoparticles (NPs) at a well-controlled poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) interval thickness from 1.5 to 21 nm. The plasmonic resonance peaks of gold NPs are tuned from 530 to 580 nm by the PMMA spacer of different thicknesses. Then, due to the plasmonic resonant excitation enhancement, the emission intensity of rhodamine 6G molecules at 562 nm is found to be enhanced and shows a decline as the PMMA spacer thickness increases. The variation of spectral intensity simulated by finite-difference time-domain method is consistent with the experimental results. Moreover, the lifetime results show the combined effects to rhodamine 6G fluorescence, which include the quenching effect, the barrier effect of PMMA as spacer layer and the attenuation effect of PMMA films.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03546-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141076PMC
May 2021

Adiposity Measurements and Metabolic Syndrome Are Linked Through Circulating Neuregulin 4 and Adipsin Levels in Obese Adults.

Front Physiol 2021 4;12:667330. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Adiposity and adipokines are associated with metabolic disorders, but little is known regarding that whether adiposity measurements link metabolic syndrome (MetS) through circulating neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) and adipsin levels.

Materials And Methods: A total of 1212 subjects with a waist circumference greater than 90 cm for men or 80 cm for women were enrolled from a Chinese community. Circulating Nrg4 and adipsin levels were measured using commercial kits. Mediation analyses of circulating Nrg4 and adipsin were performed in the study using linear and logistic regression.

Results: Subjects with MetS had higher waist circumference, visceral fat level, and circulating adipsin level, and lower levels of circulating Nrg4 and muscle mass to visceral fat (MVF) ratio (all < 0.05). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for confounding variables, per standard deviation (SD) increase in waist circumference and visceral fat level were significantly associated with increased odds of MetS [OR (95% CI), 1.42 (1.22-1.64); 2.20 (1.62-2.99); respectively]; and per SD reduction in MVF ratio was significantly associated with reduced odds of MetS [OR (95% CI), 0.65 (0.55-0.77)]. In the mediation analyses, both circulating Nrg4 and adipsin levels mediated the association between waist circumference (8.31% and 18.35%, respectively), visceral fat level (7.50% and 9.98%, respectively), and MVF ratio (5.80% and 9.86%, respectively) and MetS after adjustments.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that adiposity measurements and MetS are linked through circulating Nrg4 and adipsin levels in obese adults, suggesting that circulating Nrg4 and adipsin levels might be potential predictors for management of MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.667330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129583PMC
May 2021

Kinetic Resolution of 2,2-Disubstituted Dihydroquinolines through Chiral Phosphoric Acid-Catalyzed C6-Selective Asymmetric Halogenations.

Org Lett 2021 Jun 17;23(11):4104-4108. Epub 2021 May 17.

School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China.

A novel kinetic resolution of 2,2-disubstituted dihydroquinolines was achieved by regioselective asymmetric halogenations enabled by chiral phosphoric acid catalysis. A series of dihydroquinolines bearing 2,2-disubstitutions were well-tolerated in these reactions, generating both the recovered dihydroquinolines and C-6-brominated products with high enantioselectivities, with -factors up to 149. In addition, this kinetic resolution protocol is also applicable for 2,2-disubstituted tetrahydroquinoline and asymmetric iodonation reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00978DOI Listing
June 2021

Rubber dam isolation for restorative treatment in dental patients.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 05 17;5:CD009858. Epub 2021 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: The effective control of moisture and microbes is necessary for the success of restoration procedures. The rubber dam, as an isolation method, has been widely used in dental restorative treatments. The effects of rubber dam usage on the longevity and quality of dental restorations still require evidence-based discussion. This review compares the effects of rubber dam with other isolation methods in dental restorative treatments. This is an update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2016.

Objectives: To assess the effects of rubber dam isolation compared with other types of isolation used for direct and indirect restorative treatments in dental patients.

Search Methods: Cochrane Oral Health's Information specialist searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (searched 13 January 2021), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2020, Issue 12) in the Cochrane Library (searched 13 January 2021), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 13 January 2021), Embase Ovid (1980 to 13 January 2021), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 13 January 2021), and SciELO BIREME Virtual Health Library (1998 to 13 January 2021). We also searched Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM, in Chinese) (1978 to 13 January 2021), VIP database (in Chinese) (1989 to 13 January 2021), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, in Chinese) (1994 to 13 January 2021). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey, and Sciencepaper Online (in Chinese) for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (including split-mouth trials) over one month in length assessing the effects of rubber dam compared with alternative isolation methods for dental restorative treatments.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Disagreement was resolved by discussion. We strictly followed Cochrane's statistical guidelines and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE.

Main Results: We included six studies conducted worldwide between 2010 and 2015 involving a total of 1342 participants (of which 233 participants were lost to follow-up). All the included studies were at high risk of bias. Five studies compared rubber dam with traditional cotton rolls isolation. One study was excluded from the analysis due to inconsistencies in the presented data. Of the four remaining trials, three reported survival rates of the restorations with a minimum follow-up of six months. Pooled results from two studies involving 192 participants indicated that the use of rubber dam isolation may increase the survival rates of direct composite restorations of non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs) at six months (odds ratio (OR) 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 4.99; low-certainty evidence). However, the use of rubber dam in NCCLs composite restorations may have little to no effect on the survival rates of the restorations compared to cotton rolls at 12 months (OR 1.38, 95% CI 0.45 to 4.28; 1 study, 30 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and at 18 months (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.45 to 2.25; 1 study, 30 participants; very low-certainty evidence) but the evidence is very uncertain. At 24 months, the use of rubber dam may decrease the risk of failure of the restorations in children undergoing proximal atraumatic restorative treatment in primary molars but the evidence is very uncertain (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97; 1 study, 559 participants; very low-certainty evidence). None of the included studies mentioned adverse effects or reported the direct cost of the treatment.

Authors' Conclusions: This review found some low-certainty evidence that the use of rubber dam in dental direct restorative treatments may lead to a lower failure rate of the restorations compared with cotton roll usage after six months. At other time points, the evidence is very uncertain. Further high-quality research evaluating the effects of rubber dam usage on different types of restorative treatments is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009858.pub3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127531PMC
May 2021

Endophilin A1 drives acute structural plasticity of dendritic spines in response to Ca2+/calmodulin.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jun 14;220(6). Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in excitatory neurons triggers a large transient increase in the volume of dendritic spines followed by decays to sustained size expansion, a process termed structural LTP (sLTP) that contributes to the cellular basis of learning and memory. Although mechanisms regulating the early and sustained phases of sLTP have been studied intensively, how the acute spine enlargement immediately after LTP stimulation is achieved remains elusive. Here, we report that endophilin A1 orchestrates membrane dynamics with actin polymerization to initiate spine enlargement in NMDAR-mediated LTP. Upon LTP induction, Ca2+/calmodulin enhances binding of endophilin A1 to both membrane and p140Cap, a cytoskeletal regulator. Consequently, endophilin A1 rapidly localizes to the plasma membrane and recruits p140Cap to promote local actin polymerization, leading to spine head expansion. Moreover, its molecular functions in activity-induced rapid spine growth are required for LTP and long-term memory. Thus, endophilin A1 serves as a calmodulin effector to drive acute structural plasticity necessary for learning and memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202007172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129810PMC
June 2021

Pathogenic variants of ATG4D in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia identified using whole-exome sequencing.

Clin Genet 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Reproductive Medicine Centre, Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, China.

Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is the most severe form of male infertility, and it is primarily associated with genetic defects. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 236 patients with NOA and identified a homozygous pathogenic variant of autophagy-related 4D cysteine peptidase (ATG4D) in two siblings from a consanguineous family and compound heterozygous pathogenic variants of ATG4D in two sporadic cases. The expression of LC3B, a regulator of autophagic activity, was significantly decreased, and the apoptosis rate of spermatogenic cells in testicular tissues was increased. Transfection of GC-2spd cells with a ATG4D mutant plasmid (Flag-Atg4d ) significantly decreased the expression level of Lc3b and increased the rate of apoptosis. Moreover, a pathogenic variant in X-linked ATG4A and compound heterozygous pathogenic variants of ATG4B were identified in one patient each. All novel variants were segregated by disease phenotype and were predicted to be pathogenic. Our findings revealed that autophagy-related cysteine peptidase family genes may play crucial roles in human spermatogenesis and identified ATG4D as a novel candidate gene for male infertility due to NOA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13995DOI Listing
May 2021

The effect of ankyloglossia and tongue-tie division on speech articulation: A systematic review.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Aim: Ankyloglossia is a common congenital malformation characterized by a short, thick, or tight tongue frenulum, and its effect on speech articulation remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate (a) the association between ankyloglossia and speech disorders, and (b) the effectiveness of surgical interventions on the articulation of patients with ankyloglossia.

Material And Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted. Randomized control trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, and case series with over five cases were included.

Result: Of the 16 included studies, except for one cross-sectional study, all studies were small in sample size. The evidence quality was generally low, with an average of 3.88 in a 7-point system. Three studies investigated the occurrence of speech disorders in the ankyloglossia population and obtained different results. Fifteen studies assessed the effectiveness of surgery, among which eight self-control studies observed significant postoperative improvement, whereas three of four cohort studies with untreated controls reported no significant differences. Three RCTs compared surgical techniques and one pointed out the advantage of frenuloplasty over frenulotomy.

Conclusion: There was no clear connection between ankyloglossia and speech disorders. More widely accepted uniform grading systems and well-designed clinical studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12802DOI Listing
May 2021

Dielectric screening in perovskite photovoltaics.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 30;12(1):2479. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Frontiers Science Center for Nano-optoelectronics & Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Peking University, Beijing, China.

The performance of perovskite photovoltaics is fundamentally impeded by the presence of undesirable defects that contribute to non-radiative losses within the devices. Although mitigating these losses has been extensively reported by numerous passivation strategies, a detailed understanding of loss origins within the devices remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the defect capturing probability estimated by the capture cross-section is decreased by varying the dielectric response, producing the dielectric screening effect in the perovskite. The resulting perovskites also show reduced surface recombination and a weaker electron-phonon coupling. All of these boost the power conversion efficiency to 22.3% for an inverted perovskite photovoltaic device with a high open-circuit voltage of 1.25 V and a low voltage deficit of 0.37 V (a bandgap ~1.62 eV). Our results provide not only an in-depth understanding of the carrier capture processes in perovskites, but also a promising pathway for realizing highly efficient devices via dielectric regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22783-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087789PMC
April 2021

Long non-coding RNA AFAP1-AS1 facilitates ovarian cancer progression by regulating the miR-107/PDK4 axis.

J Ovarian Res 2021 Apr 29;14(1):60. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Chongqing Health Center for Women and Children, Chongqing, 401147, China.

Background: Abnormally expressed in various tumors, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) feature prominently in tumor development, yet little is still known regarding the functional roles of lncRNA AFAP1 antisense RNA 1 (AFAP1-AS1) in ovarian cancer (OC).

Methods: The relative expression levels of lncRNA AFAP1-AS1, microRNA (miR)-107 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4) mRNA were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. PDK4, PCNA and cyclin D1 expression levels were determined using Western blot analysis. Bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase gene reporter assay were conducted for identifying and validating the binding sequences between AFAP1-AS1 and miR-107, as well as between miR-107 and PDK4. Cell counting kit-8 assay was employed for detecting cell proliferation. Cell migration and invasion abilities were examined using Transwell assays.

Results: The present study revealed that AFAP1-AS1 expression was elevated in OC cells and tissues. AFAP1-AS1 expression and FIGO stage were positively correlated. AFAP1-AS1 knockdown repressed OC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. AFAP1-AS1 functioned as a sponge of miR-107, and miR-107 reversed the effects of AFAP1-AS1 on OC cells. It was validated that miR-107 was able to bind to PDK4, and AFAP1-AS1 regulated PDK4 expression by competitively binding with miR-107. Additionally, miR-107 modulated OC cell proliferation, migration and invasion via targeting PDK4.

Conclusions: LncRNA AFAP1-AS1 serves as a tumor driver in the pathogenesis of OC via the miR-107/PDK4 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13048-021-00808-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086133PMC
April 2021

A Nanosensor Based on a Metal-Insulator-Metal Bus Waveguide with a Stub Coupled with a Racetrack Ring Resonator.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

School of Electronical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Hangzhou 310058, China.

A nanostructure comprising the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) bus waveguide with a stub coupled with a racetrack ring resonator is designed. The spectral characteristics of the proposed structure are analyzed via the finite element method (FEM). The results show that there is a sharp Fano resonance profile and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like effect, which are excited by a coupling between the MIM bus waveguide with a stub and the racetrack ring resonator. The normalized H field is affected by the displacement of the ring from the stub greatly. The influence of the geometric parameters of the sensor design on the sensing performance is discussed. The sensitivity of the proposed structure can reach 1774 nm/RIU with a figure of merit of 61. The proposed structure has potential in nanophotonic sensing applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12050495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145901PMC
April 2021

Perovskite Solar Cells for Space Applications: Progress and Challenges.

Adv Mater 2021 May 16;33(21):e2006545. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Frontiers Science Center for Flexible Electronics (FSCFE), Xi'an Institute of Flexible Electronics (IFE) & Xi'an Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering (IBME), Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710072, China.

Metal halide perovskites have aroused burgeoning interest in the field of photovoltaics owing to their versatile optoelectronic properties. The outstanding power conversion efficiency, high specific power (i.e., power to weight ratio), compatibility with flexible substrates, and excellent radiation resistance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) enable them to be a promising candidate for next-generation space photovoltaic technology. Nevertheless, compared with other practical space photovoltaics, such as silicon and III-V multi-junction compound solar cells, the research on PSCs for space applications is just in the infancy stage. Therefore, there are considerable interests in further strengthening relevant research from the perspective of both mechanism and technology. Consequently, the approaches used for and the consequences of PSCs for space applications are reviewed. This review provides an overview of recent progress in PSCs for space applications in terms of performance evolution and mechanism exploration of perovskite films and devices under space extreme environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202006545DOI Listing
May 2021

L-phenylalanine attenuates high salt-induced hypertension in Dahl SS rats through activation of GCH1-BH4.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0250126. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Amino acid metabolism plays an important role in controlling blood pressure by regulating the production of NO and ROS. The present study examined amino acid levels in the serum of Dahl SS rats and SS.13BN rats fed a low or high salt diet. We observed that 8 of 27 amino acids responded to a high salt diet in SS rats. Thus, we hypothesized that a defect in amino acids may contribute to the development of salt-induced hypertension. L-phenylalanine was used to treat SS rats with a low or high salt diet. The results demonstrated that L-phenylalanine supplementation significantly enhanced the serum nitrite levels and attenuated the high salt-induced hypertension in SS rats. Low levels of BH4 and nitrite and the impaired vascular response to acetylcholine were rescued by L-phenylalanine supplementation. Moreover, increased GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) mRNA, levels of BH4 and nitrite, and reduced superoxide production were observed in the kidneys of hypertensive SS rats with L-phenylalanine. The antihypertensive effects of L-phenylalanine might be mediated by enhancing BH4 biosynthesis and decreasing superoxide production from NO synthase, thereby protecting vascular and kidney function with reduced ROS and elevated NO levels. The present study demonstrated that L-phenylalanine supplementation restored vascular function, suggesting L-phenylalanine represented a potential target to attenuate high salt-sensitive hypertension through GCH1-BH4.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250126PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049246PMC
April 2021

In vivo genome editing in mouse restores dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient muscle fibers.

Genome Med 2021 Apr 12;13(1):57. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

CAS Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510530, China.

Background: Mutations in the DMD gene encoding dystrophin-a critical structural element in muscle cells-cause Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is the most common fatal genetic disease. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-mediated gene editing is a promising strategy for permanently curing DMD.

Methods: In this study, we developed a novel strategy for reframing DMD mutations via CRISPR-mediated large-scale excision of exons 46-54. We compared this approach with other DMD rescue strategies by using DMD patient-derived primary muscle-derived stem cells (DMD-MDSCs). Furthermore, a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) DMD mouse model was established by transplanting DMD-MDSCs into immunodeficient mice. CRISPR gene editing components were intramuscularly delivered into the mouse model by adeno-associated virus vectors.

Results: Results demonstrated that the large-scale excision of mutant DMD exons showed high efficiency in restoring dystrophin protein expression. We also confirmed that CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1(Cas12a)-mediated genome editing could correct DMD mutation with the same efficiency as CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9). In addition, more than 10% human DMD muscle fibers expressed dystrophin in the PDX DMD mouse model after treated by the large-scale excision strategies. The restored dystrophin in vivo was functional as demonstrated by the expression of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex member β-dystroglycan.

Conclusions: We demonstrated that the clinically relevant CRISPR/Cas9 could restore dystrophin in human muscle cells in vivo in the PDX DMD mouse model. This study demonstrated an approach for the application of gene therapy to other genetic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00876-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042958PMC
April 2021

MIRLET7BHG promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression by activating hepatic stellate cells through exosomal SMO to trigger Hedgehog pathway.

Cell Death Dis 2021 03 26;12(4):326. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Oncology, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230022, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), commonly caused by liver fibrosis, is a global challenge with high morbidity. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) contributes to hepatic fibrosis. Exosomes are small vesicles that play a significant role in cell-to-cell communication. Smoothened (SMO) is the key signal transducer for Hedgehog pathway. This study was designed to study the function and underlying mechanism of SMO in HSC activation. Functional assays including 5-Ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine, colony formation, wound healing, transwell, and sphere formation assays disclosed the function of SMO. Western blot analysis of exosome biomarkers, immunofluorescence staining assay, electron microscope, and flow cytometry revealed the existence of exosomes. Bioinformatics analyses and mechanistic assays uncovered the interplays between RNAs. Nude mice xenograft model was established to evaluate HCC tumor growth. We uncovered that SMO was an oncogene in HCC cells and was low-expressed in quiescent HSCs. Then, SMO was upregulated in HSCs cultured with HCC cells-conditioned medium. Next, it was revealed that HCC cells-derived exosomes activated HSCs by transmitting SMO to HSCs. Subsequently, we recognized that microRNA let-7b host gene (MIRLET7BHG) served as the competing endogenous RNA against miR-330-5p to upregulate SMO. In turn, SMO induced hedgehog pathway to promote GLI family zinc finger 1 (Gli1), leading to transcriptional activation of MIRLET7BHG in activated HSCs. In summary, this study demonstrated that Gli1-induced MIRLET7BHG facilitated HCC by activating HSCs through exosomal SMO to stimulate hedgehog pathway, providing a new road for HCC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03494-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997896PMC
March 2021

Determination of sugar content in Lingwu jujube by NIR-hyperspectral imaging.

J Food Sci 2021 Apr 26;86(4):1201-1214. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Food and Wine, Ningxia University, Yinchuan, China.

Near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) with a spectral range of 900 to 1700 nm was for the first time used to predict the changes of sugar content in Lingwu jujube during storage. Monte Carlo method was adopted to detect outliers, and multiple scattering correction (MSC), standard normal variate transformation (SNV), and Baseline were used to optimize modeling. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), interval variable iterative space shrinkage approach (iVISSA), and interval random frog (IRF) were used to select optimal wavelengths. In addition, partial least square regression (PLSR) and support vector machine (SVM) modeling based on optimal wavelengths were compared. The results showed that 30, 30, and 24 wavelengths were selected by CARS; 106, 87, and 112 feature wavelengths were selected by iVISSA; and 96, 71, and 83 optimal wavelengths were selected by IRF for sucrose, fructose, and glucose, respectively. The CARS-PLSR models provided the best results for fructose and glucose, and iVISSA-SVM model was better for sucrose. The results indicated that NIR-HSI model may be used as a rapid and nondestructive method for the determination of sugar content in jujubes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15674DOI Listing
April 2021

The C. elegans homolog of human panic-disorder risk gene TMEM132D orchestrates neuronal morphogenesis through the WAVE-regulatory complex.

Mol Brain 2021 03 16;14(1):54. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Cardiovascular Research Institute and Department of Physiology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

TMEM132D is a human gene identified with multiple risk alleles for panic disorders, anxiety and major depressive disorders. Defining a conserved family of transmembrane proteins, TMEM132D and its homologs are still of unknown molecular functions. By generating loss-of-function mutants of the sole TMEM132 ortholog in C. elegans, we identify abnormal morphologic phenotypes in the dopaminergic PDE neurons. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we find that NAP1 directly interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of human TMEM132D, and mutations in C. elegans tmem-132 that disrupt interaction with NAP1 cause similar morphologic defects in the PDE neurons. NAP1 is a component of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) that controls F-actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Decreasing activity of WRC rescues the PDE defects in tmem-132 mutants, whereas gain-of-function of TMEM132D in mammalian cells inhibits WRC, leading to decreased abundance of select WRC components, impaired actin nucleation and cell motility. We propose that metazoan TMEM132 family proteins play evolutionarily conserved roles in regulating NAP1 protein homologs to restrict inappropriate WRC activity, cytoskeletal and morphologic changes in the cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-021-00767-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962252PMC
March 2021