Publications by authors named "Xiaoyu Sun"

191 Publications

A Novel Prognostic Signature of Immune-Related Long Noncoding RNA Pairs for Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells and Drug Susceptibility in Breast Cancer.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Department of Breast Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Prognostic signatures of specific immune-related long noncoding RNAs (irlncRNAs) have been elucidated with the development of immunotherapy for breast cancer, but the heterogeneity of gene expression in different patients still limits their effectiveness. We constructed a new prognostic signature based on the relative expression of differentially expressed irlncRNA (DEirlncRNA) pairs and analyzed its clinical application in 1069 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas-Breast Cancer (TCGA-BRCA) containing 745 White patients, 180 Black and African American patients, 58 Asian patients, 181 stage I patients, 606 stage II patients, 240 stage III patients, and 20 stage IV patients. Data from TCGA-BRCA and ImmPort were used to screen DEirlncRNAs, and the DEirlncRNA pairs were established by cyclical single comparison of each DEirlncRNA. After the data optimization, we constructed a signature containing 24 DEirlncRNA pairs. Risk groups of this signature were defined using the cutoff value from the 10-year survival receiver operating characteristic curve, and Kaplan-Meier analysis verified its prognostic effectiveness. Furthermore, we confirmed this signature as an independent prognostic factor and confirmed its close association with traditional clinicopathological factors. Moreover, this risk signature was closely related to tumor-infiltrating immune cells and drug susceptibility. In short, we successfully constructed a risk signature of DEirlncRNA pairs, which might provide new insights for breast cancer precision therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2021.0489DOI Listing
November 2021

Influence of doctors' perception on the diagnostic status of chronic kidney disease: results from 976 409 individuals with electronic health records in China.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Nov 8;14(11):2428-2436. Epub 2021 May 8.

National Institute of Health Data Science at Peking University, Beijing, PR China.

Background: The diagnostic status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its underlying reasons provide evidence that can improve CKD management. However, the situation in developing countries remains under-investigated.

Methods: Adults with electronic health records (EHRs; 2008-19) in Yinzhou, China were included. The gold standard for CKD was defined as having persistently reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria/proteinuria, haematuria or a history of CKD. CKD stages (G1-G5) were defined by eGFR. Clinical diagnosis of CKD in the real world setting was evaluated using International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes related to primary cause or stages of CKD. The specialty of doctors who administered the serum creatinine (SCr) tests and who made the primary-cause/CKD-staging diagnoses was analysed. The accuracy of CKD-staging codes was assessed.

Results: Altogether, 85 519 CKD patients were identified from 976 409 individuals with EHRs. Of them, 10 287 (12.0%) having persistent urinary abnormalities or labelled with CKD-related ICD codes did not receive SCr tests within 12 months before or after the urine tests. Among 75 147 patients who received SCr tests, 46 150 (61.4%) missed any CKD-related codes, 6857 (35.7%) were merely labelled with primary-cause codes, and only 2140 (2.9%) were labelled with CKD-staging codes. The majority of CKD patients (51.6-91.1%) received SCr tests from non-nephrologists, whereas CKD-staging diagnoses were mainly from nephrologists (52.3-64.8%). Only 3 of 42 general hospitals had nephrologists. The CKD-staging codes had high specificity (>99.0%) but low sensitivity (G3-G4: <10.0%).

Conclusions: Under-perception of CKD among doctors, rather than unsatisfactory health-seeking behaviour or low detection rates, was the main cause of under-diagnosis of CKD in China. Intensification of CKD education among doctors with different specialties might bring about immediate effective improvement in the diagnosis and awareness of CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfab089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8573015PMC
November 2021

ALKBH5 facilitates hypoxia-induced paraspeckle assembly and IL8 secretion to generate an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

Cancer Res 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Cell Biology, Tianjin Medical University

The dynamic changes of RNA N6-methyl-adenosine (m6A) during cancer progression contribute to quick adaption to microenvironmental changes. Here, we profiled the cancer cell m6A dynamics in the hypoxic tumor niche and its pathological consequences in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The m6A demethylase ALKBH5 was induced in GBM models under hypoxic conditions and was associated with a hypoxic gene signature in GBM patient samples. Depletion or inactivation of ALKBH5 in GBM cells significantly suppressed hypoxia-induced tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) recruitment and immunosuppression in allograft tumors. Expression and secretion of CXCL8/IL8 was significantly suppressed in ALKBH5-deficient tumors. However, ALKBH5 did not regulate CXCL8 m6A directly. Instead, hypoxia-induced ALKBH5 erased m6A deposition from the lncRNA NEAT1, stabilizing the transcript and facilitating NEAT1-mediated paraspeckle assembly, which led to relocation of the transcriptional repressor SFPQ from the CXCL8 promoter to paraspeckles and, ultimately, upregulation of CXCL8/IL8 expression. Accordingly, ectopic expression of CXCL8 in ALKBH5-deficient GBM cells partially restored TAM recruitment and tumor progression. Together, this study links hypoxia-induced epitranscriptomic changes to the emergence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment facilitating tumor evasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-1456DOI Listing
October 2021

Inhibition of progesterone receptor membrane component-1 exacerbates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic cerebral damage in male mice.

Exp Neurol 2021 Oct 12;347:113893. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China; Institute of Neurological Diseases, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the expression of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (pgrmc1) in the brains of male and female mice, and the effect of inhibiting pgrmc1 on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) cerebral injury in male mice. A mouse model of neonatal HI brain injury was established, and AG205, a specific antagonist of pgrmc1, was injected into the left lateral cerebral ventricle 1 h before HI. Histological staining, behavior testing, Western blots, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were employed to evaluate pgrmc1 expression, brain damage, neurological function, and molecular mechanisms. Results demonstrated that the mRNA and protein levels of pgrmc1 increased significantly in the cortex and hippocampus 72 h after HI without sex differences. The inhibition of pgrmc1 exacerbated the neonatal brain damage in the acute stage of HI in male mice as seen in the increase in brain water content, infarction area, and neuronal death. Inhibition of pgrmc1 also aggravated the neurological dysfunction and anxiety induced by HI brain injury. In addition, inhibition of pgrmc1 activated the NF-kB signaling and NF-κB-mediated cytokines, and inhibited BDNF/PI3K/AKT pathway in the brains of the newborn HI mice. The results indicated that pgrmc1 inhibition exacerbated the brain damage in newborn male mice subjected to HI by activating IκBα/NFκB signaling and inhibiting BDNF/PI3K/Akt pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113893DOI Listing
October 2021

Comprehensive mapping of binding hot spots of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific neutralizing antibodies for tracking immune escape variants.

Genome Med 2021 10 14;13(1):164. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Background: The receptor-binding domain (RBD) variants of SARS-CoV-2 could impair antibody-mediated neutralization of the virus by host immunity; thus, prospective surveillance of antibody escape mutants and understanding the evolution of RBD are urgently needed.

Methods: Using the single B cell cloning technology, we isolated and characterized 93 RBD-specific antibodies from the memory B cells of four COVID-19 convalescent individuals in the early stage of the pandemic. Then, global RBD alanine scanning with a panel of 19 selected neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), including several broadly reactive NAbs, was performed. Furthermore, we assessed the impact of single natural mutation or co-mutations of concern at key positions of RBD on the neutralization escape and ACE2 binding function by recombinant proteins and pseudoviruses.

Results: Thirty-three amino acid positions within four independent antigenic sites (1 to 4) of RBD were identified as valuable indicators of antigenic changes in the RBD. The comprehensive escape mutation map not only confirms the widely circulating strains carrying important immune escape RBD mutations such as K417N, E484K, and L452R, but also facilitates the discovery of new immune escape-enabling mutations such as F486L, N450K, F490S, and R346S. Of note, these escape mutations could not affect the ACE2 binding affinity of RBD, among which L452R even enhanced binding. Furthermore, we showed that RBD co-mutations K417N, E484K, and N501Y present in B.1.351 appear more resistant to NAbs and human convalescent plasma from the early stage of the pandemic, possibly due to an additive effect. Conversely, double mutations E484Q and L452R present in B.1.617.1 variant show partial antibody evasion with no evidence for an additive effect.

Conclusions: Our study provides a global view of the determinants for neutralizing antibody recognition, antigenic conservation, and RBD conformation. The in-depth escape maps may have value for prospective surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 immune escape variants. Special attention should be paid to the accumulation of co-mutations at distinct major antigenic sites. Finally, the new broadly reactive NAbs described here represent new potential opportunities for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00985-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515915PMC
October 2021

Hydroxytyrosol prevents periodontitis-induced bone loss by regulating mitochondrial function and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling of bone cells.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 11 2;176:298-311. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Institute of Stomatology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China; Department of Prosthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction promotes the alveolar bone loss during the development of periodontitis. Mitochondria are the principal source of ROS. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural phenolic compound present in olive oil, is well known for its antioxidant and mitochondrial-protective prosperities. Nonetheless, the impact of HT on periodontitis and its related mechanisms underlying bone cell behavior remains unknown. Osteoclasts differentiated from RAW264.7 model and oxidative stress (OS) induced pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell injury model were treated with and without HT. Cell viability, apoptosis, differentiation, mitochondrial function along with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were investigated. Meanwhile, the effect and related mechanisms of HT on bone loss in mice with periodontitis were also detected. HT inhibited osteoclast differentiation and prevented OS induced pre-osteoblast cells injury via regulating mitochondrial function as well as ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Moreover, HT attenuated the alveolar bone loss, increased bone forming activity, inhibited the osteoclasts differentiation and decreased the level of OS in mice with periodontitis. Our findings, for the first time, revealed a novel function of HT in bone remodeling of periodontitis, and highlighted its therapeutical potential for the prevention/treatment of periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.09.027DOI Listing
November 2021

LncRNA TPTEP1 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer cells by targeting miR-761/LATS2 axis.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(8):8653-8669. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University and College of Basic Medical Sciences Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

Objective: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is highly metastatic that can lead to high fatality rate. This study aimed at investigating the possible role of LncRNA TPTEP1 (TPTEP1) in NSCLC progression.

Methods: Cell proliferation was determined by MTT and colony formation assays. Transwell and scratch assays were adopted to assess cellular metastasis. RT-qPCR and western blot were used to detect TPTEP1 expression transcriptionally and translationally, respectively. The dual luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation assay were used to identify the specific target relationships.

Results: Compared with the normal adjacent tissues, the expressions of TPTEP1 and LATS2 were significantly down-regulated in the NSCLC tissues, while the expression of miR-761 was significantly increased. Overexpression of TPTEP1 exhibited substantial antitumor effects on NSCLC, including inhibition of cell proliferation and metastasis, which was achieved by targeting miR-761 and subsequently attenuated the expression of LATS2. LATS2 was identified as a direct target of miR-761. Overexpression of miR-761 could significantly block the inhibitory effects of TPTEP1 on NSCLC, which clearly indicated that miR-761 played an oncogenic role in promoting proliferation and metastasis, while its downstream factor, LATS2, exerted opposite effects.

Conclusion: The study showed that TPTEP1 played an inhibitory role in cancer progression of NSCLC cells by regulating miR-761/LATS2 cascade, thereby highlighting the potential therapeutic significance of TPTEP1/miR-761/LATS2 axis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430104PMC
August 2021

Prior Informed Regularization of Recursively Updated Latent-Variables-Based Models with Missing Observations.

Control Eng Pract 2021 Nov 11;116. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616 USA.

Many data-driven modeling techniques identify locally valid, linear representations of time-varying or nonlinear systems, and thus the model parameters must be adaptively updated as the operating conditions of the system vary, though the model identification typically does not consider prior knowledge. In this work, we propose a new regularized partial least squares (rPLS) algorithm that incorporates prior knowledge in the model identification and can handle missing data in the independent covariates. This latent variable (LV) based modeling technique consists of three steps. First, a LV-based model is developed on the historical time series data. In the second step, the missing observations in the new incomplete data sample are estimated. Finally, the future values of the outputs are predicted as a linear combination of estimated scores and loadings. The model is recursively updated as new data are obtained from the system. The performance of the proposed rPLS and rPLS with exogenous inputs (rPLSX) algorithms are evaluated by modeling variations in glucose concentration (GC) of people with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in response to meals and physical activities for prediction windows up to one hour, or 12 sampling instances, into the future. The proposed rPLS family of GC prediction models are evaluated with both in-silico and clinical experiment data and compared with the performance of recursive time series and kernel-based models. The root mean squared error (RMSE) with simulated subjects in the multivariable T1D simulator where physical activity effects are incorporated in GC variations are 2.52 and 5.81 mg/dL for 30 and 60 mins ahead predictions (respectively) when information for all meals and physical activities are used, increasing to 2.70 and 6.54 mg/dL (respectively) when meals and activities occurred, but the information is with-held from the modeling algorithms. The RMSE is 10.45 and 14.48 mg/dL for clinical study with prediction horizons of 30 and 60 mins, respectively. The low RMSE values demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed rPLS approach compared to the conventional recursive modeling algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conengprac.2021.104933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8443145PMC
November 2021

The / Quorum Sensing System Effects on Pathogenicity in .

Front Microbiol 2021 12;12:679241. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pathogenobiology, The Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Chinese Ministry of Education, College of Basic Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

is a Gram-negative pathogen that has emerged as one of the most troublesome pathogens for healthcare institutions globally. Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) is a process of cell-to-cell communication that relies on the production, secretion, and detection of autoinducer (AI) signals to share information about cell density and regulate gene expression accordingly. The molecular and genetic bases of virulence remains poorly understood. Therefore, the contribution of the / QS system to growth characteristics, morphology, biofilm formation, resistance, motility, and virulence of was studied in detail. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis indicated that genes involved in various aspects of energy production and conversion; valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation; and lipid transport and metabolism are associated with bacterial pathogenicity. Our work provides a new insight into the / QS system effects on pathogenicity in . We propose that targeting the acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase enzyme could provide an effective strategy for attenuating virulence. On the contrary, interdicting the AI synthase receptor elicits unpredictable consequences, which may lead to enhanced bacterial virulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.679241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312687PMC
July 2021

Unraveling the Interaction of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Droplets via Molecular Simulations and Surface Force Measurements.

J Phys Chem B 2021 07 7;125(27):7556-7567. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada.

Water-in-oil emulsions widely exist in various chemical and petroleum engineering processes, and their stabilization and destabilization behaviors have attracted much attention. In this work, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were conducted on the water-in-oil emulsion droplets with the presence of surface-active components, including a polycyclic aromatic compound (VO-79) and two nonionic surfactants: the PEOPPOPEO triblock copolymer and Brij-93. At the surface of water droplets, films were formed by the adsorbate molecules that redistributed during the approaching of the droplets. The redistribution of PEOPPOPEO was more pronounced than that of Brij-93 and VO-79, which contributed to lower repulsion during coalescence. The interaction forces during droplet coalescence were also measured using atomic force microscopy. Jump-in phenomenon and coalescence were observed for systems with VO-79, Brij-93, and a low concentration of Pluronic P123. The critical force before jump-in was lowest for the low concentration of Pluronic P123, consistent with the MD results. Adhesion was measured when separating water droplets with a high concentration of Pluronic P123. By correlating theoretical simulations and experimental force measurements, this work improves the fundamental understanding on the interaction behaviors of water droplets in an oil medium in the presence of interface-active species and provides atomic-level insights into the stabilization and destabilization mechanisms of water-in-oil emulsion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.1c04227DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of novel TPI/HDPE/CNTs ternary hybrid shape memory nanocomposites.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 15;32(40). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

College of Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, People's Republic of China.

In order to make up for the defects of trans-1,4-polyisoprene (TPI) shape memory polymer, TPI/high density polyethylene (HDPE) hybrid shape memory matrix was prepared from the perspective of matrix composition. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with excellent mechanical properties were introduced into the hybrid shape memory matrix. Due to the difference of the inherent properties and geometry of nano-fillers, the change of the content of nano-fillers directly affects the bonding state within the composites. Therefore, it is very important to choose the appropriate content. In order to give full play to the potential of thermodynamics of nano-filler, the TPI/HDPE/CNTs ternary hybrid shape memory nanocomposites were prepared by mechanical melt blending technology combined with dynamic vulcanization and hot-pressing forming technology. The addition of CNTs promotes the formation of the crystal structure of TPI and HDPE, and facilitates the energy transfer between different interface, which greatly improves the thermal conductivity and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites at the same time. The effect of the changes of filler content on the thermodynamic properties of the composite materials were revealed by series of tests. The results show that the CNTs act as nucleating agents in the crystallization region of TPI and HDPE. However, the excessive addition of CNTs can inhibit the formation of HDPE crystal structure. Meanwhile, the crystallinity of nanocomposites is also an important factor affecting its thermal conductivity. The specimens with the CNTs content of 0.5 wt% have excellent tensile resistance and cyclic recovery ability, and it can improve the shape recovery properties. Therefore, the nanocomposite with the CNTs content of 0.5 wt% has the best thermodynamic and shape memory properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac1018DOI Listing
July 2021

Crosstalk between reactive oxygen species and Dynamin-related protein 1 in periodontitis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 08 27;172:19-32. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute of Stomatology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China; Department of Prosthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have great impacts on the development of periodontitis. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) mediated mitochondrial fission is the main reason and the result of excessive ROS generation. However, whether Drp1 and crosstalk between ROS and Drp1 contribute to the process of periodontitis remains elusive. We herein investigated the role and functional significance of crosstalk between ROS and Drp1 in periodontitis. Firstly, human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) were treated with hydrogen peroxide (HO) and ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or Drp1 inhibitor mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi-1). Cell viability, apoptosis, osteogenic differentiation, expression of Drp1, and mitochondrial function were investigated. Secondly, mice with periodontitis were treated with NAC or Mdivi-1. Finally, gingival tissues were collected from periodontitis patients and healthy individuals to evaluate ROS and Drp1 levels. HO induced cellular injury and inflammation, excessive ROS production, mitochondrial abnormalities, and increased expression of p-Drp1 and Drp1 in hPDLCs, which could be reversed by NAC and Mdivi-1. Moreover, both NAC and Mdivi-1 ameliorated tissue damage and inflammation, and decreased expression of p-Drp1 and Drp1 in mice with periodontitis. More importantly, patients with periodontitis presented significantly higher levels of ROS-induced oxidative damage and p-Drp1 than that in healthy individuals and correlated with clinical parameters. In summary, ROS-Drp1 crosstalk greatly promotes the development of periodontitis. Pharmacological blockade of this crosstalk might be a novel therapeutic strategy for periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2021.05.031DOI Listing
August 2021

Highly Efficient Adsorption of Bilirubin by Ti C T MXene.

Chem Asian J 2021 Jul 7;16(14):1949-1955. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, Mathematical and Physical Science, University of Technology Sydney, City Campus, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia.

We discovered that the 2D Ti C T MXene sheet displays an ultra-high removal capability for bilirubin (BR). In particular, MXene shows 47.6 times higher removal efficiency over traditional activated carbon absorbents. The effect of MXene on the removal rate of BR in BR solution containing different concentrations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied. The adsorption capacity of BSA for BR at high concentration of 5 g L was about 85% of the best adsorption capacity. The MXene before and after adsorption was characterized by SEM, FT-IR and XPS. Furthermore, MXene beads were prepared, and the hemoperfusion simulation experiment was carried out. The results show that the adsorption capacity of MXene for bilirubin can reach 1192.9 mg g . This study suggests that MXene may be promising in the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100332DOI Listing
July 2021

Contractility, focal adhesion orientation, and stress fiber orientation drive cancer cell polarity and migration along wavy ECM substrates.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 06;118(22)

Cell and Developmental Biology Center, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892;

Contact guidance is a powerful topographical cue that induces persistent directional cell migration. Healthy tissue stroma is characterized by a meshwork of wavy extracellular matrix (ECM) fiber bundles, whereas metastasis-prone stroma exhibit less wavy, more linear fibers. The latter topography correlates with poor prognosis, whereas more wavy bundles correlate with benign tumors. We designed nanotopographic ECM-coated substrates that mimic collagen fibril waveforms seen in tumors and healthy tissues to determine how these nanotopographies may regulate cancer cell polarization and migration machineries. Cell polarization and directional migration were inhibited by fibril-like wave substrates above a threshold amplitude. Although polarity signals and actin nucleation factors were required for polarization and migration on low-amplitude wave substrates, they did not localize to cell leading edges. Instead, these factors localized to wave peaks, creating multiple "cryptic leading edges" within cells. On high-amplitude wave substrates, retrograde flow from large cryptic leading edges depolarized stress fibers and focal adhesions and inhibited cell migration. On low-amplitude wave substrates, actomyosin contractility overrode the small cryptic leading edges and drove stress fiber and focal adhesion orientation along the wave axis to mediate directional migration. Cancer cells of different intrinsic contractility depolarized at different wave amplitudes, and cell polarization response to wavy substrates could be tuned by manipulating contractility. We propose that ECM fibril waveforms with sufficiently high amplitude around tumors may serve as "cell polarization barriers," decreasing directional migration of tumor cells, which could be overcome by up-regulation of tumor cell contractility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021135118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179222PMC
June 2021

Association of oral microbiota profile with sugar-sweetened beverages consumption in school-aged children.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 17:1-11. Epub 2021 May 17.

Stomatologic Hospital & College, Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases Research of Anhui Province, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Evidence that common beverage consumption is associated with oral ecosystem. However, little is known about the effect of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on composition and functional potential of childhood oral microbiota. We aim to examine associations between SSBs consumption with oral microbiota diversity and function among school-aged children. Oral microbiota in buccal swab samples was collected from 180 children (11.3 ± 0.6 years) from an ongoing child growth and development cohort established in 2016, using 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Higher SSBs consumption (≥1 serving/day) was associated with lower oral microbiota richness and diversity. Children with higher SSBs consumption showed decreased abundance of genus and ( < 0.05). However, more SSBs intake selectively increases the dominance of aciduric bacteria ( and , which can lead to dental caries and other oral problems. Furthermore, PICRUSt analysis illustrated that oral microbiota was more conducive to the pathway activated of protein export ( = 0.020), D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism ( = 0.013), and pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis ( = 0.004), indicating vigorous microbial metabolism in oral bacterial community in higher SSBs intake groups. Overall, our finding suggests that higher SSBs consumption may disturb oral microecology and reduce diversity of microbiota during childhood, stimulating an increase in cariogenic genera, which contributes to increased susceptibility of SSBs-related oral diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2021.1913102DOI Listing
May 2021

Ultraefficiently Calming Cytokine Storm Using TiCT MXene.

Small Methods 2021 Jan 18:2001108. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Faculty of Science University of Technology Sydney Sydney NSW 2007 Australia.

During the global outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, "cytokine storm" conditions are regarded as the fatal step resulting in most mortality. Hemoperfusion is widely used to remove cytokines from the blood of severely ill patients to prevent uncontrolled inflammation induced by a cytokine storm. This article discoveres, for the first time, that 2D TiCT MXene sheet demonstrates an ultrahigh removal capability for typical cytokine interleukin-6. In particular, MXene shows a 13.4 times higher removal efficiency over traditional activated carbon absorbents. Molecular-level investigations reveal that MXene exhibits a strong chemisorption mechanism for immobilizing cytokine interleukin-6 molecules, which is different from activated carbon absorbents. MXene sheet also demonstrates excellent blood compatibility without any deleterious side influence on the composition of human blood. This work can open a new avenue to use MXene sheets as an ultraefficient hemoperfusion absorbent to eliminate the cytokine storm syndrome in treatment of severe COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smtd.202001108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995020PMC
January 2021

Microstructure and Properties of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Segmented Polyurethane Antifouling Coatings after Immersion in Seawater.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 14;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026, China.

Polyurethane has a microphase separation structure, while polyethylene glycol (PEG) can form a hydrated layer to resist protein adsorption. In this paper, PEG was introduced to polyurethane to improve the antifouling properties of the polyurethane, providing a new method and idea for the preparation of new antifouling polyurethane materials. The mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, swelling degree, microphase separation and antifouling performance of the coatings were evaluated. The response characteristics of the polyurethane coatings in a seawater environment were studied, and the performance changes of coatings in seawater were tested. The results showed that the crystallized PEG soft segments increased, promoting microphase separation. The stress at 100% and the elasticity modulus of the polyurethane material also markedly increased, in addition to increases in the swelling degree in seawater, the water contact angle decreased. A total of 25% of PEG incorporated into a soft segment can markedly improve the antibacterial properties of the coatings, but adding more PEG has little significant effect. After immersion in seawater, the coatings became softer and more elastic. This is because water molecules formed hydrogen bonding with the amino NH, which resulted in a weakening effect being exerted on the carbonyl C=O hydrogen bonding and ether oxygen group crystallization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918847PMC
February 2021

Quantifying Intensities of Transcription Factor-DNA Binding by Learning From an Ensemble of Protein Binding Microarrays.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 07 27;25(7):2811-2819. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The control of the coordinated expression of genes is primarily regulated by the interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their DNA binding sites, which are an integral part of transcriptional regulatory networks. There are many computational tools focused on determining TF binding or unbinding to a DNA sequence. However, other tools focused on further determining the relative preference of such binding are needed. Here, we propose a regression model with deep learning, called SemanticBI, to predict intensities of TF-DNA binding. SemanticBI is a convolutional neural network (CNN)-recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture model that was trained on an ensemble of protein binding microarray data sets that covered multiple TFs. Using this approach, SemanticBI exhibited superior accuracy in predicting binding intensities compared to other popular methods. Moreover, SemanticBI uncovered vectorized sequence-oriented features using its CNN-RNN architecture, which is an abstract representation of the original DNA sequences. Additionally, the use of SemanticBI raises the question of whether motifs are necessary for computational models of TF binding. The online SemanticBI service can be accessed at http://qianglab.scst.suda.edu.cn/semantic/.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3058518DOI Listing
July 2021

A Method of Mining Truck Loading Volume Detection Based on Deep Learning and Image Recognition.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 18;21(2). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China.

Detection of the loading volume of mining trucks is an important task in open pit mining. Aiming at the addressing the current problems of low accuracy and high cost of the detection of the loading volume of mining trucks, this paper proposes a mining truck loading volume detection model based on deep learning and image recognition. The training and test data of the model consists of 6000 sets of images taken in a laboratory environment. After image preprocessing, the VGG16 network model is used to pre classify the ore images. The classification results are displayed and the possibility of each category is determined. Then, the loading volume of mining trucks is calculated by using the classification results and the least squares algorithm. By using the labeled image data of five kinds of mining truck loading volume, the arbitrary loading volume detection of mining trucks is realized, which effectively solves the problem of a lack of labeled data types caused by the difficulty in obtaining mine data. Root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) are used to evaluate the fitting effect of the model. The experimental results show that the model has high prediction accuracy. The average absolute error is 17.85 cm3. In addition, this paper uses 400 real mining truck images of open-pit mines to verify the model and the average absolute error is 2.53 m3. The experimental results show that the model has good generality and can be applied well to the actual production of open-pit mines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21020635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831092PMC
January 2021

Up-regulation of miR-204 inhibits proliferation, invasion and apoptosis of gallbladder cancer cells by targeting Notch2.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 01 13;13(2):2941-2958. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Pathology, Zibo Central Hospital, Zibo 255000, Shandong Province, China.

Gallbladder carcinoma (GC) is an extremely malignant gastrointestinal tumor, but relevant mechanisms are still under investigation. MicroRNA (miR) is differentially expressed in a variety of tumors. Here we explored miR-204 in patients with GC and related mechanisms. A GSE104165 chip was downloaded from the gene expression omnibus (GEO) for analysis. The qRT-PCR assay was used for quantifying miR-204 and Notch2 in the serum and tissues of the patients, and the patients were followed up for 3 years to analyze independent factors of prognosis. The CCK8, transwell, and flow cytometry assays were applied for analyzing proliferation, invasion, as well as apoptosis of cells, and the dual luciferase reporter (DLR) assay was adopted for determining the association of miR-204 with Notch2. MiR-204 was low in patients with GC, and it might serve as a diagnostic indicator for GC. In addition, patients with low e MiR-204 usually faced high rates of III+IV stage, distant metastasis, and low differentiation, and also showed a poor prognosis. DLR assay verified the targeted binding of miR-204 to Notch2 mRNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880336PMC
January 2021

Estimation of Prevalence of Kidney Disease Treated With Dialysis in China: A Study of Insurance Claims Data.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 06 7;77(6):889-897.e1. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Science, Beijing, China.

Rationale & Objective: The national prevalence of dialysis in China has not been well studied. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of kidney disease treated with dialysis and predict the trend using claims data in order to provide evidence for developing prevention strategies.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study of insurance claims.

Setting & Participants: Medical claims data from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017, were extracted from a large claims database by using a 2-stage sampling design to obtain a national sample covered by the urban basic medical insurance, the most predominant insurance program in China.

Exposure: Patients receiving maintenance dialysis, including hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD), were identified according to medical billing data and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes.

Outcomes: The age- and sex-standardized population prevalence of kidney disease treated with dialysis was estimated by year and treatment modality.

Analytical Approach: Crude and age- and sex-standardized prevalence of kidney disease treated with dialysis were calculated stratified by year and treatment modality. The gray Verhulst model was used to predict dialysis prevalence from 2018 to 2025.

Results: The age-and sex-standardized prevalence of dialysis patients increased from 255.11 per million population (pmp) in 2013 to 419.39 pmp in 2017. The age- and sex-standardized prevalence of HD and PD in 2017 were 384.41 pmp and 34.98 pmp, respectively, and the total number of dialysis patients in China was estimated to be 581,273. The prevalence of dialysis was predicted to rise above 2017 levels, with a predicted prevalence of 534.60 pmp in 2020 and 629.67 pmp in 2025, corresponding to 744,817 and 874,373 patients, respectively.

Limitations: Claims data have potential errors in classification of patients, and population selection bias may have limited inferences to the entire Chinese population.

Conclusions: The prevalence of kidney disease treated with dialysis has risen between 2013 and 2017 in China and is predicted to increase further through 2025. These findings highlight the importance of prevention and control strategies to reduce the escalating burden of kidney failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.11.021DOI Listing
June 2021

Interleukin-38 ameliorates poly(I:C) induced lung inflammation: therapeutic implications in respiratory viral infections.

Cell Death Dis 2021 01 7;12(1):53. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Interleukin-38 has recently been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in lung inflammatory diseases. However, the effects of IL-38 in viral pneumonia remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that circulating IL-38 concentrations together with IL-36α increased significantly in influenza and COVID-19 patients, and the level of IL-38 and IL-36α correlated negatively and positively with disease severity and inflammation, respectively. In the co-cultured human respiratory epithelial cells with macrophages to mimic lung microenvironment in vitro, IL-38 was able to alleviate inflammatory responses by inhibiting poly(I:C)-induced overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines through intracellular STAT1, STAT3, p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, MEK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Intriguingly, transcriptomic profiling revealed that IL-38 targeted genes were associated with the host innate immune response to virus. We also found that IL-38 counteracts the biological processes induced by IL-36α in the co-culture. Furthermore, the administration of recombinant IL-38 could mitigate poly I:C-induced lung injury, with reduced early accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, activation of lymphocytes, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and permeability of the alveolar-epithelial barrier. Taken together, our study indicates that IL-38 plays a crucial role in protection from exaggerated pulmonary inflammation during poly(I:C)-induced pneumonia, thereby providing the basis of a novel therapeutic target for respiratory viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03283-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790341PMC
January 2021

Overexpression of P-glycoprotein, MRP2, and CYP3A4 impairs intestinal absorption of octreotide in rats with portal hypertension.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Jan 6;21(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian, China.

Background: Portal hypertension (PH) is the main cause of complications and death in liver cirrhosis. The effect of oral administration of octreotide (OCT), a drug that reduces PH by the constriction of mesenteric arteries, is limited by a remarkable intestinal first-pass elimination.

Methods: The bile duct ligation (BDL) was used in rats to induce liver cirrhosis with PH to examine the kinetics and molecular factors such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) influencing the intestinal OCT absorption via in situ and in vitro experiments on jejunal segments, transportation experiments on Caco-2 cells and experiments using intestinal microsomes and recombinant human CYP3A4. Moreover, RT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry were performed.

Results: Both in situ and in vitro experiments in jejunal segments showed that intestinal OCT absorption in both control and PH rats was largely controlled by P-gp and, to a lesser extent, by MRP2. OCT transport mediated by P-gp and MRP2 was demonstrated on Caco-2 cells. The results of RT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry suggested that impaired OCT absorption in PH was in part due to the jejunal upregulation of these two transporters. The use of intestinal microsomes and recombinant human CYP3A4 revealed that CYP3A4 metabolized OCT, and its upregulation in PH likely contributed to impaired drug absorption.

Conclusions: Inhibition of P-gp, MRP2, and CYP3A4 might represent a valid option for decreasing intestinal first-pass effects on orally administered OCT, thereby increasing its bioavailability to alleviate PH in patients with cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01532-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789354PMC
January 2021

Executive summary for China Kidney Disease Network (CK-NET) 2016 Annual Data Report.

Kidney Int 2020 12;98(6):1419-1423

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China; Research Units of Diagnosis and Treatment of Immune-Mediated Kidney Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China; Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Beijing, China.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been recognized as a public health problem globally. The spectrum of CKD in China has been evolving toward that of developed countries, which will have enormous impacts on the health care system. However, there has been no well-established national surveillance system for kidney diseases. Furthermore, China still faces several challenges of kidney care, including limited capacity and efficiency, suboptimal awareness, and huge heterogeneity in diagnosis and treatment. The China Kidney Disease Network has published 2 reports regarding the burden of CKD and end-stage kidney disease in China and intends to become a comprehensive surveillance system for kidney diseases based on multisource data. With the expansion of research group and data sources, the content of the China Kidney Disease Network 2016 Annual Data Report was further enriched. Section I addresses the epidemiologic characteristics of patients with CKD based on a national inpatient database, Hospital Quality Monitoring System, covering more than 52% of China's tertiary hospitals in China in 2016. Section II focuses on the burden of patients receiving dialysis, mainly based on the nationwide claims database, China Health Insurance Research Association database, which collects data from approximately 2% of the insured population from the municipalities/provincial capital cities and approximately 5% from the prefecture-level cities. An independent chapter regarding dialysis in 3 provincial dialysis quality control centers has been added. The China Kidney Disease Network 2016 Annual Data Report symbolizes a successful team effort in the era of big data, with support from the specialists and partners of the collaborative network, which is of substantial value for understanding the burden of kidney diseases in China and developing prevention and control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.09.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Early versus late acute kidney injury among patients with COVID-19-a multicenter study from Wuhan, China.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2020 12;35(12):2095-2102

Department of Medicine, Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which could be caused by both systematic responses from multi-organ dysfunction and direct virus infection. While advanced evidence is needed regarding its clinical features and mechanisms. We aimed to describe two phenotypes of AKI as well as their risk factors and the association with mortality.

Methods: Consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in tertiary hospitals in Wuhan, China from 1 January 2020 to 23 March 2020 were included. Patients with AKI were classified as AKI-early and AKI-late according to the sequence of organ dysfunction (kidney as the first dysfunctional organ or not). Demographic and clinical features were compared between two AKI groups. Their risk factors and the associations with in-hospital mortality were analyzed.

Results: A total of 4020 cases with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included and 285 (7.09%) of them were identified as AKI. Compared with patients with AKI-early, patients with AKI-late had significantly higher levels of systemic inflammatory markers. Both AKIs were associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality, with similar fully adjusted hazard ratios of 2.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-4.49] for AKI-early and 3.09 (95% CI 2.17-4.40) for AKI-late. Only hypertension was independently associated with the risk of AKI-early. While age, history of chronic kidney disease and the levels of inflammatory biomarkers were associated with the risk of AKI-late.

Conclusions: AKI among patients with COVID-19 has two clinical phenotypes, which could be due to different mechanisms. Considering the increased risk for mortality for both phenotypes, monitoring for AKI should be emphasized during COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfaa288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7798799PMC
December 2020

Contribution of the AbaI/AbaR Quorum Sensing System to Resistance and Virulence of Clinical Strains.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 24;13:4273-4281. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Pathogen Biology, The Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Chinese Ministry of Education, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, People's Republic of China.

Background: () is one of the most important pathogens that cause serious nosocomial infections worldwide. However, there are few reports on the virulence of clinical isolates, and little is known about the mechanism regulating virulence and drug resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug resistance and virulence profiles and explore features related to quorum sensing (QS).

Methods: A total of 80 clinical isolates were collected from Jilin province of China from 2012 to 2017. We investigated these clinical isolates with respect to biofilm formation, surface motility, adherence, invasion into A549 human alveolar epithelial cells, and virulence to . We also explored the prevalence of the AbaI/AbaR QS system and its correlation with bacterial virulence and drug resistance.

Results: The resistance rates of the isolates to 17 commonly used antibiotics were higher than 50%, and 75% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. Approximately 95% (76/80) of the isolates showed the ability to form biofilms, of which 38 showed strong biofilm formation ability (+++). Only 5 strains showed strong surface-related motility. A high level of variability was found in adherence and invasion into A549 epithelial cells, and 16 isolates showed strong virulence to (none survived after 6 days of infection). Of the 61 isolates carrying and genes, 24 were found to produce N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) detectable by biosensor bacteria. Correlation analysis revealed that and genes positively correlated with bacterial resistance rates. All strains showing obvious surface-related motility carried and genes and produced AHLs. The isolates with detectable QS systems also showed stronger invasiveness into A549 cells and pathogenicity toward than the QS-deficient isolates.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that the AbaI/AbaR QS system was widely distributed among the clinical isolates, was necessary for surface-related motility, and significantly correlated with drug resistance, invasion into epithelial cells, and virulence to .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S276970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699449PMC
November 2020

Generation and validation of versatile inducible CRISPRi embryonic stem cell and mouse model.

PLoS Biol 2020 11 30;18(11):e3000749. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, The Province and Ministry Co-Sponsored Collaborative Innovation Center for Medical Epigenetics, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cellular Homeostasis and Human Diseases, Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 has been widely used far beyond genome editing. Fusions of deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) to transcription effectors enable interrogation of the epigenome and controlling of gene expression. However, the large transgene size of dCas9-fusion hinders its applications especially in somatic tissues. Here, we develop a robust CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system by transgenic expression of doxycycline (Dox) inducible dCas9-KRAB in mouse embryonic stem cells (iKRAB ESC). After introduction of specific single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs), the induced dCas9-KRAB efficiently maintains gene inactivation, although it modestly down-regulates the expression of active genes. The proper timing of Dox addition during cell differentiation or reprogramming allows us to study or screen spatiotemporally activated promoters or enhancers and thereby the gene functions. Furthermore, taking the ESC for blastocyst injection, we generate an iKRAB knock-in (KI) mouse model that enables the shutdown of gene expression and loss-of-function (LOF) studies ex vivo and in vivo by a simple transduction of gRNAs. Thus, our inducible CRISPRi ESC line and KI mouse provide versatile and convenient platforms for functional interrogation and high-throughput screens of specific genes and potential regulatory elements in the setting of development or diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728392PMC
November 2020

Effect of non-ionic surfactants on the adsorption of polycyclic aromatic compounds at water/oil interface: A molecular simulation study.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 5;586:766-777. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Molecular simulations can provide unique insights into the adsorption and intermolecular interactions of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and non-ionic surfactants at water/oil interface.

Methods: Molecular dynamic simulations were performed to study the adsorption of PACs at water/oil interface, and the effect of adding non-ionic surfactants. PAC architecture, solvent type, structure and concentration of non-ionic surfactants were varied to address the complex interplay between PAC-surfactant interaction, PAC solubility, and structure-dependent PAC aggregation.

Findings: PACs with multiple cores (PacM) partially adsorbed on the interface, in the form of small and loosely structured aggregates. Adding non-ionic surfactant Brij-93 induced desorption of PacM at both water/toluene and water/heptane interfaces. Another non-ionic surfactant, (EO)(PO)(EO), also reduced the adsorption of PacM at water/toluene interface but enhanced their adsorption at water/heptane interface. PACs with a single large core strongly adsorbed on both interfaces, forming compact aggregated structures. Adding the two types of non-ionic surfactants did not induce desorption. This work identified two opposite roles of non-ionic surfactants in the adsorption of PACs, namely competition and co-adsorption, and provided useful insights into how the roles of non-ionic surfactants might be affected by their concentration, as well as the solubility and interfacial behaviors of the PACs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.10.146DOI Listing
March 2021

Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) vs contrast-enhanced computed tomography for multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential: A retrospective analysis for diagnostic performance study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Nov;99(46):e23110

Department of Urology, Tianjin Institute of Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential (MCRNLMP) might be benefited from nephron-sparing surgery. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is used for the diagnosis of MCRNLMP but contrast-enhanced ultrasound has lack of nephrotoxicity and several advantages over contrast-enhanced computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance. The purpose of the study was to compare diagnostic parameters of preoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasound against contrast-enhanced computed tomography for the detection of MCRNLMP in patients who faced curative surgery for complex cystic renal mass.Data regarding contrast-enhanced ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and clinicopathological results of 219 patients who underwent curative surgery for complex cystic renal mass (Bosniak classification III or IV) were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Bosniak classification for imaging modality and the 2016 WHO criteria for clinic pathology were used for detection of MCRNLMP.Contrast-enhanced ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, and clinicopathology were detected 68, 66, and 67 as a MCRNLMP respectively. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography had 30.37% and 29.27% sensitivities for the detection of MCRNLMP. While 60% and 50% specificities respectively. Bosniak classification III (P = .045) and lower mean Hounsfield unit (P = .049) were associated with the prevalence of MCRNLMP. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography was detected 6 and 7, while contrast-enhanced ultrasound detected 3 and 2 complex cystic renal mass as false positive and false negative MCRNLMP respectively. A contrast-enhanced ultrasound had 0.011 to 1.0 diagnostic confidence and contrast-enhanced computed tomography had 0.045 to 0.983 diagnostic confidence for decision making of nephron-sparing surgeries.Contrast-enhanced ultrasound may have better visualization of MCRNLMP than contrast-enhanced computed tomography.Level of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668474PMC
November 2020

Identification of Microbiota within Aβ Plaque in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mouse.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 May 24;71(5):953-962. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

School of Food Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510641, People's Republic of China.

Microbes like viruses, bacteria, and fungi have all been reported in the brain of Alzheimer's postmortem patients and/or AD mouse model; however, the relationship between brain microbes and Aβ plaque deposition remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we first analyzed bacteria populations in the brain of 4-, 5-, and 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice and then examined the Aβ-positive loads of APP/PS1 mouse at 9 months old to identify bacteria in the brain by 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, blood-brain barrier permeability was measured by injecting dextrans through the tail vein. Surprisingly, the diversity of microbial community gradually decreased in APP/PS1 mouse while wild-type mouse showed no obvious regularity. Moreover, Aβ-positive deposits in the brain showed a significantly higher relative abundance of microbiota than Aβ-negative tissues and age-matched wild-type mouse brain tissues. In addition, an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability was also observed in APP/PS1 mouse. The present study revealed the exact location of microbes within the Aβ plaques in the brain and suggested the potential antimicrobial effect of the Aβ peptide. We strongly recommend that future research on microbiota-related AD pathology should focus on the migration route of microbiota into the brain and how the microbiota enhance AD progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12031-020-01715-4DOI Listing
May 2021
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