Publications by authors named "Xiaoyu Liu"

758 Publications

Aberrant nucleosome organization in mouse SCNT embryos revealed by ULI-MNase-seq.

Stem Cell Reports 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Clinical and Translation Research Center of Shanghai First Maternity & Infant Hospital, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, Frontier Science Center for Stem Cell Research, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) can reprogram terminally differentiated somatic cells into totipotent embryos, but with multiple defects. The nucleosome positioning, as an important epigenetic regulator for gene expression, is largely unexplored during SCNT embryonic development. Here, we mapped genome-wide nucleosome profiles in mouse SCNT embryos using ultra-low-input MNase-seq (ULI-MNase-seq). We found that the nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs) around promoters underwent dramatic reestablishment, which is consistent with the cell cycle. Dynamics of nucleosome position in SCNT embryos were delayed compared to fertilized embryos. Subsequently, we found that the aberrant gene expression levels in inner cell mass (ICM) were positively correlated with promoter NDRs in donor cells, which indicated that the memory of nucleosome occupancy in donor cells was a potential barrier for SCNT-mediated reprogramming. We further confirmed that the histone acetylation level of donor cells was associated with the memory of promoter NDRs. Our study provides insight into nucleosome reconfiguration during SCNT preimplantation embryonic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2022.05.020DOI Listing
June 2022

Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Administered Simultaneously with Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine, Group A Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine, Measles-Rubella Combined Vaccine and Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial in China.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 2;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of the enterovirus 71 vaccine (EV71 vaccine) administered alone or simultaneously.

Methods: A multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial was performed involving 1080 healthy infants aged 6 months or 8 months from Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Hunan provinces. These infants were divided into four simultaneous administration groups and EV71 vaccine separate administration group. Blood samples were collected from the infants before the first vaccination and after the completion of the vaccination. This trial was registered in the Clinical Trials Registry (NCT03519568).

Results: A total of 895 were included in the per-protocol analysis. The seroconversion rates of antibodies against EV71 in four simultaneous administration groups (98.44% (189/192), 94.57% (122/129), 99.47% (187/188) and 98.45% (190/193)) were non-inferior to EV71 vaccine separate administration group (97.93% [189/193]) respectively. Fever was the most common adverse event, the pairwise comparison tests showed no difference in the incidence rate of solicited, systemic or local adverse events. Three serious adverse events related to the vaccination were reported.

Conclusions: The evidence of immunogenicity and safety supports that the EV71 vaccine administered simultaneously with vaccines need to be administered during the same period of time recommended in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060895DOI Listing
June 2022

Cadherin-dependent adhesion modulated 3D cell-assembly.

J Mater Chem B 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Hefei National Research Center for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

The emergence of synthetic biology has opened new avenues in constructing cell-assembly biosystems with specific gene expression and function. The phenomena of cell spreading and detachment during tissue development and cancer metastasis are caused by surface tension, which in turn results from differences in cell-cell adhesion mediated by the dimerization of cadherin expressed on the cell surface. In this study, E- and P-cadherin plasmids were first constructed based on the differential adhesion hypothesis, then they were electroporated into K562 cells and HEK293T cells, respectively, to explore the process of cell migration and assembly regulated by cadherins. Using this approach, some special 3D cell functional components with a phase separation structure were fabricated successfully. Our work will be of potential application in the construction of self-assembling synthetic tissues and organoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2tb01006bDOI Listing
June 2022

Coexistence of and in One Novel Hybrid Plasmid Confers Transferable Carbapenem Resistance in an ST20-K28 .

Front Microbiol 2022 31;13:891807. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Objectives: We identified a novel hybrid plasmid simultaneously carrying and in an ST20-K28 carbapenem-resistant (CRKP) strain AZS099 and reported its detailed genetic and phenotypic characterization.

Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility was characterized using broth microdilution method. Complete genome characteristics and plasmid detailed analysis were carried out by PacBio Sequel and Illumina sequencing and further bioinformatics analysis. Conjugation assay, S1-PFGE, Southern blot, plasmid stability, and fitness cost were conducted to the phenotypic characterization of this novel hybrid plasmid.

Results: AZS099 was isolated from a blood specimen obtained from a 3-month baby who presented with biliary tract infection. Susceptibility testing showed that AZS099 was resistant to almost all β-lactams examined, including cephalosporins, combinations of β-lactams and β-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and aztreonam. PacBio and Illumina sequencing together with S1-PFGE and Southern blot showed that and were simultaneously located on a 296 kb IncFIB(K)/IncHI1B/IncX3 plasmid (pAZS099-NDM-IMP), which consists of four main parts that came from four different types of plasmids. The region harboring is located in a class 1 integron designated as , which is located in an - transposon-like structure with a total length of ~5 kb. The region harboring is located in the transposon remnant. Conjugation and transformation assay confirmed that the plasmid pAZS099-NDM-IMP has the potential for horizontal transfer and displayed high stability (retention rate > 95%). Furthermore, growth curve assessment confirmed that the presence of pAZS099-NDM-IMP exhibits no growth pressure on bacteria.

Conclusion: Our research reported a hybrid plasmid coharboring and in an ST20-K28 CRKP strain. The emergence of novel hybrid plasmid could threaten the control of antimicrobial resistance and should be closely supervised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.891807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9194606PMC
May 2022

Architecture of the linker-scaffold in the nuclear pore.

Science 2022 06 10;376(6598):eabm9798. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.

INTRODUCTION In eukaryotic cells, the selective bidirectional transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm occurs through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Embedded in nuclear envelope pores, the ~110-MDa human NPC is an ~1200-Å-wide and ~750-Å-tall assembly of ~1000 proteins, collectively termed nucleoporins. Because of the NPC's eightfold rotational symmetry along the nucleocytoplasmic axis, each of the ~34 different nucleoporins occurs in multiples of eight. Architecturally, the NPC's symmetric core is composed of an inner ring encircling the central transport channel and two outer rings anchored on both sides of the nuclear envelope. Because of its central role in the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein, the NPC is commonly targeted in viral infections and its nucleoporin constituents are associated with a plethora of diseases. RATIONALE Although the arrangement of most scaffold nucleoporins in the NPC's symmetric core was determined by quantitative docking of crystal structures into cryo-electron tomographic (cryo-ET) maps of intact NPCs, the topology and molecular details of their cohesion by multivalent linker nucleoporins have remained elusive. Recently, in situ cryo-ET reconstructions of NPCs from various species have indicated that the NPC's inner ring is capable of reversible constriction and dilation in response to variations in nuclear envelope membrane tension, thereby modulating the diameter of the central transport channel by ~200 Å. We combined biochemical reconstitution, high-resolution crystal and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination, docking into cryo-ET maps, and physiological validation to elucidate the molecular architecture of the linker-scaffold interaction network that not only is essential for the NPC's integrity but also confers the plasticity and robustness necessary to allow and withstand such large-scale conformational changes. RESULTS By biochemically mapping scaffold-binding regions of all fungal and human linker nucleoporins and determining crystal and single-particle cryo-EM structures of linker-scaffold complexes, we completed the characterization of the biochemically tractable linker-scaffold network and established its evolutionary conservation, despite considerable sequence divergence. We determined a series of crystal and single-particle cryo-EM structures of the intact Nup188 and Nup192 scaffold hubs bound to their Nic96, Nup145N, and Nup53 linker nucleoporin binding regions, revealing that both proteins form distinct question mark-shaped keystones of two evolutionarily conserved hetero‑octameric inner ring complexes. Linkers bind to scaffold surface pockets through short defined motifs, with flanking regions commonly forming additional disperse interactions that reinforce the binding. Using a structure‑guided functional analysis in , we confirmed the robustness of linker‑scaffold interactions and established the physiological relevance of our biochemical and structural findings. The near-atomic composite structures resulting from quantitative docking of experimental structures into human and cryo-ET maps of constricted and dilated NPCs structurally disambiguated the positioning of the Nup188 and Nup192 hubs in the intact fungal and human NPC and revealed the topology of the linker-scaffold network. The linker-scaffold gives rise to eight relatively rigid inner ring spokes that are flexibly interconnected to allow for the formation of lateral channels. Unexpectedly, we uncovered that linker‑scaffold interactions play an opposing role in the outer rings by forming tight cross-link staples between the eight nuclear and cytoplasmic outer ring spokes, thereby limiting the dilatory movements to the inner ring. CONCLUSION We have substantially advanced the structural and biochemical characterization of the symmetric core of the and human NPCs and determined near-atomic composite structures. The composite structures uncover the molecular mechanism by which the evolutionarily conserved linker‑scaffold establishes the NPC's integrity while simultaneously allowing for the observed plasticity of the central transport channel. The composite structures are roadmaps for the mechanistic dissection of NPC assembly and disassembly, the etiology of NPC‑associated diseases, the role of NPC dilation in nucleocytoplasmic transport of soluble and integral membrane protein cargos, and the anchoring of asymmetric nucleoporins. [Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abm9798DOI Listing
June 2022

Architecture of the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore.

Science 2022 06 10;376(6598):eabm9129. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.

INTRODUCTION The subcellular compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells requires selective transport of folded proteins and protein-nucleic acid complexes. Embedded in nuclear envelope pores, which are generated by the circumscribed fusion of the inner and outer nuclear membranes, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the sole bidirectional gateways for nucleocytoplasmic transport. The ~110-MDa human NPC is an ~1000-protein assembly that comprises multiple copies of ~34 different proteins, collectively termed nucleoporins. The symmetric core of the NPC is composed of an inner ring encircling the central transport channel and outer rings formed by Y‑shaped coat nucleoporin complexes (CNCs) anchored atop both sides of the nuclear envelope. The outer rings are decorated with compartment‑specific asymmetric nuclear basket and cytoplasmic filament nucleoporins, which establish transport directionality and provide docking sites for transport factors and the small guanosine triphosphatase Ran. The cytoplasmic filament nucleoporins also play an essential role in the irreversible remodeling of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) as they exit the central transport channel. Unsurprisingly, the NPC's cytoplasmic face represents a hotspot for disease‑associated mutations and is commonly targeted by viral virulence factors. RATIONALE Previous studies established a near-atomic composite structure of the human NPC's symmetric core by combining (i) biochemical reconstitution to elucidate the interaction network between symmetric nucleoporins, (ii) crystal and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structure determination of nucleoporins and nucleoporin complexes to reveal their three-dimensional shape and the molecular details of their interactions, (iii) quantitative docking in cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) maps of the intact human NPC to uncover nucleoporin stoichiometry and positioning, and (iv) cell‑based assays to validate the physiological relevance of the biochemical and structural findings. In this work, we extended our approach to the cytoplasmic filament nucleoporins to reveal the near-atomic architecture of the cytoplasmic face of the human NPC. RESULTS Using biochemical reconstitution, we elucidated the protein-protein and protein-RNA interaction networks of the human and cytoplasmic filament nucleoporins, establishing an evolutionarily conserved heterohexameric cytoplasmic filament nucleoporin complex (CFNC) held together by a central heterotrimeric coiled‑coil hub that tethers two separate mRNP‑remodeling complexes. Further biochemical analysis and determination of a series of crystal structures revealed that the metazoan‑specific cytoplasmic filament nucleoporin NUP358 is composed of 16 distinct domains, including an N‑terminal S‑shaped α‑helical solenoid followed by a coiled‑coil oligomerization element, numerous Ran‑interacting domains, an E3 ligase domain, and a C‑terminal prolyl‑isomerase domain. Physiologically validated quantitative docking into cryo-ET maps of the intact human NPC revealed that pentameric NUP358 bundles, conjoined by the oligomerization element, are anchored through their N‑terminal domains to the central stalk regions of the CNC, projecting flexibly attached domains as far as ~600 Å into the cytoplasm. Using cell‑based assays, we demonstrated that NUP358 is dispensable for the architectural integrity of the assembled interphase NPC and RNA export but is required for efficient translation. After NUP358 assignment, the remaining 4-shaped cryo‑ET density matched the dimensions of the CFNC coiled‑coil hub, in close proximity to an outer-ring NUP93. Whereas the N-terminal NUP93 assembly sensor motif anchors the properly assembled related coiled‑coil channel nucleoporin heterotrimer to the inner ring, biochemical reconstitution confirmed that the NUP93 assembly sensor is reused in anchoring the CFNC to the cytoplasmic face of the human NPC. By contrast, two CFNCs are anchored by a divergent mechanism that involves assembly sensors located in unstructured portions of two CNC nucleoporins. Whereas unassigned cryo‑ET density occupies the NUP358 and CFNC binding sites on the nuclear face, docking of the nuclear basket component ELYS established that the equivalent position on the cytoplasmic face is unoccupied, suggesting that mechanisms other than steric competition promote asymmetric distribution of nucleoporins. CONCLUSION We have substantially advanced the biochemical and structural characterization of the asymmetric nucleoporins' architecture and attachment at the cytoplasmic and nuclear faces of the NPC. Our near‑atomic composite structure of the human NPC's cytoplasmic face provides a biochemical and structural framework for elucidating the molecular basis of mRNP remodeling, viral virulence factor interference with NPC function, and the underlying mechanisms of nucleoporin diseases at the cytoplasmic face of the NPC. [Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abm9129DOI Listing
June 2022

De Novo Centromere Formation in Pericentromeric Region of Rice Chromosome 8.

Plant J 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/ Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education/ Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China.

Neocentromeres develop when kinetochores assemble de novo at DNA loci that are not previously associated with CenH3 nucleosomes, and can rescue rearranged chromosomes that have lost a functional centromere. The molecular mechanisms associated with neocentromere formation in plants has been elusive. Here, we developed a Xian (indica) rice line with poor growth performance in the field due to a ~272 kb deletion that spans centromeric DNA sequences, including the centromeric satellite repeat CentO, in the centromere of chromosome 8 (Cen8). The CENH3-binding domains were expanded downstream of the original CentO position in Cen8, which revealed a de novo centromere formation in rice. The neocentromere formation avoids chromosomal regions containing functional genes. Meanwhile, canonical histone H3 was replaced by CENH3 in the regions with low CENH3 levels, and the CenH3 nucleosomes in these regions became more periodic. In addition, we identified active genes in the deleted centromeric region, which are essential for chloroplast growth and development. In summary, our results provide valuable insights into neocentromere formation and show that functional genes exist in the centromeric regions of plant chromosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15862DOI Listing
June 2022

Secondary metabolite pathway of SDG (secoisolariciresinol) was observed to trigger ROS scavenging system in response to Ca stress in cotton.

Genomics 2022 Jun 5;114(4):110398. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences / Zhengzhou Research Base, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, School of Agricultural Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Anyang, Henan 455000, China. Electronic address:

Ca is an essential nutrient for plants and animals which plays an important role in plant signal transduction. Although the function and regulation of mechanism of Ca in alleviating various biotic and abiotic stresses in plants have been studied deeply, the molecular mechanism to adapt high Ca stress is still unclear in cotton. In this study, 103 cotton accessions were germinated under 200 mM CaCl stress, and two extremely Ca-resistant (Zhong 9807, R) and Ca-sensitive (CRI 50, S) genotypes were selected from 103 cotton accessions. The two accessions were then germinated for 5 days in 0 mM CaCl and 200 mM CaCl respectively, after which they were sampled for transcriptome sequencing. Morphological and physiological analyses suggested that PLR2 specifically expressed in R may enhance the ability of cotton to scavenge ROS by promoting the synthesis of SDG. In conclusion, this study proposed the adaptation mechanisms to response to the high Ca stress in cotton which can contribute to improve the stress resistance of cotton.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2022.110398DOI Listing
June 2022

Identification and Functional Analysis of Tomato microRNAs in the Biocontrol Bacterium Pseudomonas putida Induced Plant Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.

Phytopathology 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Shenyang Agricultural University, 98428, College of Plant Protection, Shenyang, China;

Root-knot nematodes seriously damage tomato production worldwide, and biocontrol bacteria can induce tomato immunity to RKNs. Our previous studies have revealed that Pseudomonas putida strain Sneb821 can trigger tomato immunity against M. incognita and that several long noncoding RNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in this process. However, the molecular functions of the miRNAs in tomato immune responses remain unclear. In this study, deep small RNA sequencing identified 78 differentially expressed miRNAs in tomato plants inoculated with Sneb821 and M. incognita relative to plants inoculated with M. incognita alone; 38 miRNAs were upregulated and 40 miRNAs were downregulated. The expression levels of six known miRNAs and five novel miRNAs were validated using RT-qPCR assays. These included sly-miR482d-3p, sly-miR156e-5p, sly-miR319a, novel_miR_116, novel_miR_121 and novel_miR_221, which were down-regulated, and sly-miR390a-3p, sly-miR394-3p, sly-miR396a-3p, novel_miR_215 and novel_miR_83, up-regulated in plants treated by Sneb821 and M. incognita. In addition, miR482d was functionally characterized through gene silencing and overexpression of its target gene NBS-LRR in tomato and by challenging the plants with M. incognita inoculation. The number of second-stage juveniles (J2) inside roots and induced galls were significantly decreased in both miR482d silenced plants and Solyc05g009750.1 overexpressing plants, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content were significantly increased. The results suggest that Sneb821 could inhibit miR482d expression and thus regulate tomato immune responses against M. incognita infestation. This study provides novel insights into the biocontrol bacteria mediated tomato immunity to M. incognita that engages with plant miRNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-03-21-0101-RDOI Listing
June 2022

Characterization of a Novel Esterase Est33 From an Antarctic Bacterium: A Representative of a New Esterase Family.

Front Microbiol 2022 17;13:855658. Epub 2022 May 17.

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States.

Studies of microorganisms from extreme environments can sometimes reveal novel proteins with unique properties. Here, we identified a novel esterase gene () from an Antarctic bacterium. The protein was expressed and purified for biochemical characterizations. Site-mutation variants including S94A, D205A, and H233A were constructed to explore the structure-function relationship of the catalytic triad of Est33, and we found mutating Ser, Asp, and His residues lead to a complete loss of enzyme activity. In addition, the catalytic Ser located in a conserved pentapeptide motif GVSWG. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Est33 and its closely related homologs belonged to an independent group apart from other known family members, indicating that Est33 represented a new family of esterase. The Est33 enzyme was found to be a cold-active esterase retaining 25%-100% activity from 10°C to 30°C and to have optimal catalytic activity toward -nitrophenol acetate (30°C and pH7.5). The serine modifying reagent phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inhibited the activity of Est33 by 77.34%, while thiol reagents such as dithiol threitol (DTT) activated the enzyme by 3-fold. Metal chelating reagents EDTA had no effects, indicating that Est33 is not a metalloenzyme. Collectively, these results indicate that Est33 constitutes the first member of a novel esterase family XXI that has been identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.855658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9152352PMC
May 2022

Copper(II) based low molecular weight collagen fragments-chlorin e6 nanoparticles synergize anti-cancer and anti-bacteria photodynamic therapy.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2022 Jul 17;232:112473. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of medicine, Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, Shandong 264003, PR China.

Copper-based photosensitizer nanoparticle has high potential clinic translation potency for its extensive physiological effects such as anti-cancer progression, anti-bacteria and accelerate tissue regeneration. However, copper excess or improper coordination can induce toxicity or reduce drug efficacy. To get proper copper-photosensitizer complex nanoparticle, a portion of chlorin e6 covalently conjugated with low molecular weight fish collagen fragments-collage tripeptides (CTPs), and Cu subsequently triggers CTP-Ce6 conjugates assemble to Cu(II) based CTP-Ce6 nanosphere(CCeC-Ns). CCeC-Ns are 10-20 nm nanoparticles. CCeC-Ns quenched Ce6 fluorescence in aqueous solution and improved longer wavelength light absorbance. It exhibited dramatically higher cellular uptake rates and much more anticancer potency than those of free Ce6 under 660 nm irradiation without obvious dark toxicity in vitro. CCeC-Ns have longer retention time and higher penetrating rate than free Ce6 in tumor spheroid model. CCeC-Ns displayed extremely higher anti-bacterial potency than free Ce6 and sustainable efficacy. It provides a more potent and safer nanodrug for cancer and infection treatment and an idea for highly efficient metal-photosensitizers complexes design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2022.112473DOI Listing
July 2022

The characteristics and clinical relevance of tumor fusion burden in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Med 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Oncology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

Background: Recent studies suggest that tumor fusion burden (TFB) is a hallmark of immune infiltration in prostate cancer, the correlation of TFB with immune microenvironment, and genomic patterns in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSC) remain largely unclear.

Methods: Gene fusion, genomic, transcriptomic, and clinical data of HNSC patients from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database were collected to analyze the correlation of TFB with mutation patterns, tumor immune microenvironment, and survival time in HNSC patients.

Results: Human papillomavirus (HPV) (-) patients with low TFB exhibited significantly enhanced CD8+ T cells infiltration and cytolysis activity and increased level of interferon-gamma (IL-γ), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I, and chemokines. Moreover, TFB was positively correlated with TP53 mutation, score of gene copy number, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), as well as the biological progress of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, and stem cell characteristics. Further analysis revealed that HPV (-) HNSC patients with low TFB have a better prognosis.

Conclusions: Our data revealed the correlation of TFB with tumor immune microenvironment and predictive features for immunotherapy, implying tumors with low TFB may be potential candidates for immunotherapeutic agents. Moreover, the TFB low group had prolonged overall survival (OS) in the HPV (-) HNSC cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4890DOI Listing
May 2022

The role of low-frequency oscillations in three-dimensional perception with depth cues in virtual reality.

Neuroimage 2022 Aug 20;257:119328. Epub 2022 May 20.

Key Laboratory of Biomechanics and Mechanobiology (Beihang University), Ministry of Education, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083, China; School of Medical Science and Engineering Medicine, Beihang University, Beijing 100083, China; State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, Beihang University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Currently, vision-related neuroscience studies are undergoing a trend from simplified image stimuli toward more naturalistic stimuli. Virtual reality (VR), as an emerging technology for visual immersion, provides more depth cues for three-dimensional (3D) presentation than two-dimensional (2D) image. It is still unclear whether the depth cues used to create 3D visual perception modulate specific cortical activation. Here, we constructed two visual stimuli presented by stereoscopic vision in VR and graphical projection with 2D image, respectively, and used electroencephalography to examine neural oscillations and their functional connectivity during 3D perception. We find that neural oscillations are specific to delta and theta bands in stereoscopic vision and the functional connectivity in the two bands increase in cortical areas related to visual pathways. These findings indicate that low-frequency oscillations play an important role in 3D perception with depth cues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2022.119328DOI Listing
August 2022

Thickened Retinal Nerve Fiber Layers Associated With High-Altitude Headache.

Front Physiol 2022 4;13:864222. Epub 2022 May 4.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, and Human Phenome Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

This study aimed to quantify the different quadrants of the optic nerve head (ONH) and macular parameters and their changes during exposure to high altitude, and to assess their correlation with high-altitude headache (HAH). Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to quantify changes in the retinal structure in 109 healthy subjects during acute exposure to high altitude (3,700 m). Self-reported symptoms of HAH and acute mountain sickness AMS were assessed using Lake Louise Score (LLS), alongside measurements of physiological parameters (oxygen saturation [SpO], heart rate [HR], hemoglobin level [Hb], and red blood cell [RBC] count). Measurements were taken before and after exposure to the high-altitude environment. The correlations of these parameters and changes at ONH were examined. With the exposure to high altitude, the incidence of AMS was 44.0% and the frequency of HAH was 67.0% (54.1% mild, 12.9% moderate-severe). As for systemic parameters measured at high altitude, the participants exhibited significantly lower SpO, higher resting HR, higher Hb, and a higher RBC (all < 0.05). Key stereometric parameters used to describe ONH [superior, inferior, nasal, temporal, and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness] and macula (macular thickness) increased at high altitude compared with baseline. Most parameters of ONH changed, especially superior, inferior, and mean RNFL thickness ( < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between the ratios of RNFL at ONH and HAH [mean thickness (r = 0.246, = 0.01); inferior (r = 0.216, = 0.02); nasal (r = 0.193, = 0.04)]. No associations between parameters of ONH and AMS or LLS were observed. The high-altitude environment can increase RNFL thickness at ONH. Furthermore, we found that the ratios of mean thickness, inferior area, and nasal area correlated positively with HAH, which provides new insights for understanding of the underlying pathological mechanisms of high-altitude retinopathy (HAR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2022.864222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9114875PMC
May 2022

Exploring the characteristics and driving factors of coupling coordination of regional sustainable development: evidence from China's 31 provinces.

Authors:
Xiaoyu Liu Yun Xin

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Statistics School, Jiangxi University of Finance and Economics, Nanchang, 330013, China.

China's provinces' development conditions, levels, and models are quite different. Indeed, the contradictions in development are becoming increasingly prominent, and the task of sustainable development is becoming increasingly arduous. The difference in the coordination degree of the development of the economy, sci-technology, ecology, resources, and society (ESERS), and the influencing factors among the research areas have become the most concerned scientific proposition of regional sustainable development. This paper measures the ESERS coupling and coordinated development relationship among the five development levels of China's provinces on the coupling coordination model. The spatial autoregressive (SAR) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models are used to capture the spatial correlation and spatial heterogeneity of the sustainable and coordinated development of various districts in China. The main research conclusions are as follows: (1) the coupling coordination relationship of different regions in China remained at the mild and moderate maladjusted recession stage. In each of the five dimensions (ESERS), the coupling coordination relationship is relatively weak. (2) In terms of temporal distribution, among the four geographical regions of China, except the northeast, the development of ESERS in the eastern, central, and western regions is shifting to a coordinated balance. In terms of spatial distribution, the unbalanced development of ESERS is mainly concentrated in the northeast and part of the western regions. (3) The backward industrial structure is the main reason leading to the unbalanced development of ESERS in China, while the degree of opening up, eco-environmental governance ability, and education investment intensity are the critical factors leading to the development differentiation of ESERS in different regions of China. Overall optimization of industrial structure is the best way to improve the balance of the overall development of ESERS in China, and strengthening human ecology and international construction is the more effective way to narrow the development differences of regional ESERS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20792-zDOI Listing
May 2022

Aberrant cholesterol metabolic signaling impairs antitumor immunosurveillance through natural killer T cell dysfunction in obese liver.

Cell Mol Immunol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

State Key Laboratory of Digestive Disease, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, 999077, China.

Obesity is a major risk factor for cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that develops from a background of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hypercholesterolemia is a common comorbidity of obesity. Although cholesterol biosynthesis mainly occurs in the liver, its role in HCC development of obese people remains obscure. Using high-fat high-carbohydrate diet-associated orthotopic and spontaneous NAFLD-HCC mouse models, we found that hepatic cholesterol accumulation in obesity selectively suppressed natural killer T (NKT) cell-mediated antitumor immunosurveillance. Transcriptome analysis of human liver revealed aberrant cholesterol metabolism and NKT cell dysfunction in NAFLD patients. Notably, cholesterol-lowering rosuvastatin restored NKT expansion and cytotoxicity to prevent obesogenic diet-promoted HCC development. Moreover, suppression of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis by a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor vistusertib preceded tumor regression, which was abolished by NKT inactivation but not CD8 T cell depletion. Mechanistically, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2)-driven excessive cholesterol production from hepatocytes induced lipid peroxide accumulation and deficient cytotoxicity in NKT cells, which were supported by findings in people with obesity, NAFLD and NAFLD-HCC. This study highlights mTORC1/SREBP2/cholesterol-mediated NKT dysfunction in the tumor-promoting NAFLD liver microenvironment, providing intervention strategies that invigorating NKT cells to control HCC in the obesity epidemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-022-00872-3DOI Listing
May 2022

Neural Functions of Hypothalamic Oxytocin and its Regulation.

ASN Neuro 2022 Jan-Dec;14:17590914221100706

Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, 34707Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide, has a variety of functions. Despite extensive studies on OT over past decades, our understanding of its neural functions and their regulation remains incomplete. OT is mainly produced in OT neurons in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and accessory nuclei between the SON and PVN. OT exerts neuromodulatory effects in the brain and spinal cord. While magnocellular OT neurons in the SON and PVN mainly innervate the pituitary and forebrain regions, and parvocellular OT neurons in the PVN innervate brainstem and spinal cord, the two sets of OT neurons have close interactions histologically and functionally. OT expression occurs at early life to promote mental and physical development, while its subsequent decrease in expression in later life stage accompanies aging and diseases. Adaptive changes in this OT system, however, take place under different conditions and upon the maturation of OT release machinery. OT can modulate social recognition and behaviors, learning and memory, emotion, reward, and other higher brain functions. OT also regulates eating and drinking, sleep and wakefulness, nociception and analgesia, sexual behavior, parturition, lactation and other instinctive behaviors. OT regulates the autonomic nervous system, and somatic and specialized senses. Notably, OT can have different modulatory effects on the same function under different conditions. Such divergence may derive from different neural connections, OT receptor gene dimorphism and methylation, and complex interactions with other hormones. In this review, brain functions of OT and their underlying neural mechanisms as well as the perspectives of their clinical usage are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17590914221100706DOI Listing
May 2022

Casein micelles embedded composite organohydrogel as potential wound dressing.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jun 14;211:678-688. Epub 2022 May 14.

Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, PR China. Electronic address:

Excellent mechanical and tissue adhesive properties, long-lasting environmental suitability and reliable biocompatibility are essential factors for the hydrogels to be applied as wound dressing in the clinical fields. Based on the self-assembly micelle structures, a new type of casein micelles (CEs)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) GW (glycerol-water) organohydrogel was designed and synthesized by a simple one-pot method. Through a unique "load sharing" effect, the CEs which own suitable adhesion abilities and drug loading capacities simultaneously were embedded into the PVA networks by rich hydrogen bonds, so that to obtain the composite organ hydrogel with not only excellent adhesive abilities, but also enhanced mechanical properties. Benefited from the unique GW binary solvent system, the organohydrogel showed long-lasting moisture lock-in capacity and extreme temperature tolerance (in the range of --20 °C ~ 60 °C). Particularly, after loading the model antibacterial drugs (allicin) within the CEs, the as-developed CEs/PVA GW gel exhibited a prominent long-lasting (>100 h) antibacterial properties (>90%). Furthermore, the organohydrogel was confirmed with prominent biocompatibility to support fibroblast cell proliferation and migration. This work proposed a new strategy to build CEs-based gel system, which have a great potential application in terms of prevent bacterial infection, accelerate tissue proliferation and wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.05.081DOI Listing
June 2022

Genome-wide identification of small interfering RNAs from sRNA libraries constructed from soybean cyst nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars.

Gene 2022 Jul 11;832:146557. Epub 2022 May 11.

Nematology Institute of Northern China, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China; College of Biological Science and Technology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China. Electronic address:

Plant small-RNAs regulate various biological processes by manipulating the expression of target genes at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, little is known about the response and the functional roles of sRNAs, particularly small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs), in the soybean-soybean cyst nematode interaction. In this study, siRNA data from 24 sRNA libraries constructed from SCN-infected and non-SCN-infected resistant and susceptible soybean roots were analysed in silico. A total of 26 novel siRNAs including 17 phasiRNAs and 9 nat-siRNAs, as well as two phasiRNAs that were differentially expressed (DE) in three comparisons, were identified. Then, using qRT-PCR, the expression of majority of siRNAs was found to be downregulated after SCN infection, and the expression patterns of DE siRNAs were confirmed. Further functional annotation analyses revealed that the target genes of these siRNA were highly related to disease resistance, which included the genes coding for the NB-ARC domain, leucine-rich repeats, and Hs1pro-1 homologous proteins. Overall, the present research identified novel siRNAs and annotated their target genes, thereby laying the foundation for deciphering the roles of siRNAs in the soybean-SCN interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2022.146557DOI Listing
July 2022

In Situ Alkyl Radical Recycling-Driven Decoupled Electrophotochemical Deamination.

Org Lett 2022 05 12;24(19):3471-3476. Epub 2022 May 12.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, People's Republic of China.

Molecular electrophotocatalysis has emerged as a powerful strategy for the development of sustainable synthetic protocols. With the proof-of-concept, we exploited a versatile electrophotocatalytic deaminative alkylation approach. Mechanistic investigation indicated that in situ recycling of the alkyl radicals was the key point. Notably, ligand modification and late-stage functionalization of pharmaceuticals were also established, highlighting its feasibility in practical utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c01022DOI Listing
May 2022

Improving antibody affinity through mutagenesis in complementarity determining regions.

J Biomed Res 2022 Mar 28:1-13. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Jiangsu Key Lab of Cancer Biomarkers, Prevention and Treatment, Collaborative Innovation Center for Personalized Cancer Medicine, Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, National Health Commission Key Laboratory of Antibody Techniques, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China.

High-affinity antibodies are widely used in diagnostics and for the treatment of human diseases. However, most antibodies are isolated from semi-synthetic libraries by phage display and do not possess affinity maturation, which is triggered by antigen immunization. It is therefore necessary to engineer the affinity of these antibodies by way of assaying. In this study, we optimized the affinity of two human monoclonal antibodies which were isolated by phage display in a previous related study. For the 42A1 antibody, which targets the liver cancer antigen glypican-3, the variant T57H in the second complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain (CDR-H2) exhibited a 2.6-fold improvement in affinity, as well as enhanced cell-binding activity. For the I4A3 antibody to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, beneficial single mutations in CDR-H2 and CDR-H3 were randomly combined to select the best synergistic mutations. Among these, the mutation S53P-S98T improved binding affinity (about 3.7 fold) and the neutralizing activity (about 12 fold) compared to the parent antibody. Taken together, single mutations of key residues in antibody CDRs were enough to increase binding affinity with improved antibody functions. The mutagenic combination of key residues in different CDRs creates additive enhancements. Therefore, this study provides a safe and effective strategy for optimizing antibody affinity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7555/JBR.36.20220003DOI Listing
March 2022

Comparative Genomics Reveals Insights into the Divergent Evolution of Astigmatic Mites and Household Pest Adaptations.

Mol Biol Evol 2022 May;39(5)

School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Highly diversified astigmatic mites comprise many medically important human household pests such as house dust mites causing ∼1-2% of all allergic diseases globally; however, their evolutionary origin and diverse lifestyles including reversible parasitism have not been illustrated at the genomic level, which hampers allergy prevention and our exploration of these household pests. Using six high-quality assembled and annotated genomes, this study not only refuted the monophyly of mites and ticks, but also thoroughly explored the divergence of Acariformes and the diversification of astigmatic mites. In monophyletic Acariformes, Prostigmata known as notorious plant pests first evolved, and then rapidly evolving Astigmata diverged from soil oribatid mites. Within astigmatic mites, a wide range of gene families rapidly expanded via tandem gene duplications, including ionotropic glutamate receptors, triacylglycerol lipases, serine proteases and UDP glucuronosyltransferases. Gene diversification after tandem duplications provides many genetic resources for adaptation to sensing environmental signals, digestion, and detoxification in rapidly changing household environments. Many gene decay events only occurred in the skin-burrowing parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Throughout the evolution of Acariformes, massive horizontal gene transfer events occurred in gene families such as UDP glucuronosyltransferases and several important fungal cell wall lytic enzymes, which enable detoxification and digestive functions and provide perfect drug targets for pest control. This comparative study sheds light on the divergent evolution and quick adaptation to human household environments of astigmatic mites and provides insights into the genetic adaptations and even control of human household pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msac097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9113151PMC
May 2022

The impacts of metabolic syndrome on the risk of severe urolithiasis.

Urolithiasis 2022 May 9. Epub 2022 May 9.

Urology, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, 23 Pingjiang Road, Hexi District, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is significantly correlated with urolithiasis. However, few studies have evaluated the severity of urolithiasis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of MetS with severe urolithiasis disease (SUD). The data of 910 patients with urolithiasis in the Department of Urology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University from June 2020 to May 2021 were retrospectively collected. The patients were divided into two groups according to the severity of urolithiasis, and the relationships of MetS and its components with SUD were evaluated. The results showed 605 SUD and 272 Mets patients. Multiple regression analysis showed that middle age, male gender, and MetS increased the risk of SUD, whereas serum magnesium decreased it (P < 0.05). Further analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) of SUD increased with MetS grade (0-4) (1.029-2.117). Grade 4 patients had a 2.1-fold higher risk of SUD than grade 0 patients (OR 2.117; 95% CI 1.053-4.256; P = 0.035); hypertension and dyslipidemia were most strongly associated with SUD among the four MetS features (P < 0.05). Additionally, calcium oxalate was the most predominant stone component (78.7%) in the SUD(+) group, which also had stones with higher uric acid and lower calcium oxalate dihydrate levels than those of the SUD(-) group (P < 0.05). Our study concluded that SUD is more common in middle-aged men, MetS is an independent risk factor for SUD. The more severe the MetS, the higher the risk of SUD, in which hypertension and dyslipidemia play major roles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00240-022-01328-zDOI Listing
May 2022

6-Gingerol suppresses cell viability, migration and invasion via inhibiting EMT, and inducing autophagy and ferroptosis in LPS-stimulated and LPS-unstimulated prostate cancer cells.

Oncol Lett 2022 Jun 26;23(6):187. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

School of Medicine, Yichun University, Yichun, Jiangxi 336000, P.R. China.

6-Gingerol is a bioactive compound isolated from . 6-Gingerol has been shown to have anticancer effects in numerous types of cancer cell. The mechanisms underlying the anticancer effect of 6-Gingerol in prostate cancer requires investigation. In the present study, the effect on cell viability of 6-Gingerol on LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were determined using the MTT and colony formation assays. 6-Gingerol significantly inhibited cell migration, adhesion and invasion in LPS-stimulated and LPS-unstimulated prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, these changes were accompanied by alterations in the protein expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition biomarkers, including E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin and zonula occludens-1. 6-Gingerol also induced autophagy by significantly increasing LC3B-II and Beclin-1 protein expression levels in prostate cancer cells. Combining 6-Gingerol with LY294002, an autophagy inhibitor, significantly increased cell survival in DU145 cells. Furthermore, 6-Gingerol significantly decreased the protein expression levels of glutathione (GSH) peroxidase 4 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in prostate cancer cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were significantly increased but GSH levels were decreased following 6-Gingerol treatment in prostate cancer cells. Co-treatment with the ferroptosis inhibitor, ferrostatin-1, significantly increased cell viability and significantly decreased ROS levels in 6-Gingerol-treated cells. These results suggested that 6-Gingerol may have inhibited prostate cell cancer viability via the regulation of autophagy and ferroptosis. In addition, 6-Gingerol inhibited cell migration, adhesion and invasion via the regulation of EMT-related protein expression levels in LPS-stimulated and LPS-unstimulated prostate cancer cells. In conclusion, 6-Gingerol may induce protective autophagy, autophagic cell death and ferroptosis-mediated cell death in prostate cancer cells. These findings may provide a strategy for the treatment and prevention of prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2022.13307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9073581PMC
June 2022

Macroaggregates Serve as Micro-Hotspots Enriched With Functional and Networked Microbial Communities and Enhanced Under Organic/Inorganic Fertilization in a Paddy Topsoil From Southeastern China.

Front Microbiol 2022 11;13:831746. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Microbial communities of soil aggregate-size fractions were explored with molecular and networking assays for topsoil samples from a clayey rice paddy under long-term fertilization treatments. The treatments included no fertilizer (NF) as control, chemical fertilizer only (CF), chemical fertilizer with swine manure (CFM), and chemical fertilizer with rice straw return (CFS). Following a wet-sieving protocol, water-stable aggregates were separated into size fractions of large macroaggregates (L-MacA, >2,000 μm), macroaggregates (MacA, 2,000-250 μm), microaggregates (MicA, 250-53 μm), fine microaggregates (F-MicA, 53-2 μm), and fine clay (F-Clay, <2 μm). Mass proportion was 32.3-38.2% for F-MicA, 23.0-31.5% for MacA, 19.0-23.1% for MicA, 9.1-12.0% for L-MacA, and 4.9-7.5% for F-Clay, respectively. The proportion of MacA was increased, but F-Clay was reduced by fertilization, whereas the mean weight diameter was increased by 8.0-16.2% from 534.8 μm under NF to 621.5 μm under CFM. Fertilization affected bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rRNA gene abundance in F-MicA and F-Clay but not in aggregates in size larger than 53 μm. However, bacterial and fungal community α-diversities and community structures were quite more divergent among the fertilization treatments in all size fractions. Organic carbon and gene abundance of bacteria and fungi were enriched in both L-MacA and MacA but depleted in F-Clay, whereas microbial Shannon diversity was rarely changed by fraction size under the four treatments. L-MacA and MacA contained more bacteria of r-strategists and copiotrophs, whereas F-MicA and F-Clay were demonstrated with a higher abundance of K-strategists and oligotrophs. Guilds of parasitic and litter saprotrophic fungi were enriched in F-MicA but depleted in L-MacA. Furthermore, most of bacterial and fungal operational taxonomic units were strongly interacted in L-MacA and MacA rather than in MicA and F-Clay. Thus, MacA acted as micro-hotspots enriched with functional and networked microbial communities, which were enhanced with organic/inorganic fertilization in the rice paddy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.831746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9039729PMC
April 2022

Cervical lymph node dissection on the treatment of cervical tuberculosis.

J Infect 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital, Wuhan Institute for Tuberculosis Control, No. 28 Baofeng Road, Qiaokou District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2022.04.036DOI Listing
April 2022

Improved interface passivation by optimizing a polysilicon film under different hydrogen dilution in N-type TOPCon silicon solar cells.

RSC Adv 2022 Apr 26;12(20):12753-12759. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-Electronic Information and Materials, National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of New Energy Photoelectric Devices, College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University Baoding 071002 China

The passivation properties of a polysilicon (poly-Si) thin film are the key for improving the photovoltaic performance of TOPCon silicon solar cells. In this work, we investigate the influence of the poly-Si microstructure on the interface passivation and photovoltaic performance in TOPCon solar cells. The poly-Si thin films are prepared from phosphorus-doped hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) layers deposited plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) under different hydrogen dilutions and recrystallized by high temperature post-deposition annealing. The results revealed that, as the hydrogen dilution ratio increases, the microstructure of the pre-deposited films transforms from an amorphous phase to a microcrystalline phase. Meanwhile, the effective minority carrier lifetime of the symmetrically passivated contact structure shows a maximum value of 1.75 ms, implying that the efficient passivation at the c-Si interface is obtained which is mainly attributed to the joint enhancement of the improved field effect passivation from poly-Si films and the reduced defects density on the silicon surface. Consequently, the devices displayed excellent rectification behavior with a rectifying ratio of 3 × 10, ascribed to the enhanced carrier transport with the high quality poly-Si film pre-deposited in the initial region of structural transition. Correspondingly, the obvious improvement of TOPCon solar cell performance was achieved, exhibiting an optimized conversion efficiency of 17.91%. The results provide an optimal design scheme for enhancing the photovoltaic properties of the TOPCon silicon solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra01286cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9041107PMC
April 2022

How fluorescent labels affect the kinetics of the toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement reaction.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 May 12;58(39):5849-5852. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, P. R. China.

End modification of the toehold domain or near to it using fluorophore dyes or quenchers can significantly modulate the kinetics of the toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction (TMSDR) by almost two orders of magnitude. The labels at the end of the signal strand impede the TMSDR, while those at the end of the toehold domain of the substrate strand accelerate the TMSDR kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cc01072kDOI Listing
May 2022

Optimization of Protoplast Preparation and Establishment of Genetic Transformation System of an Arctic-Derived Fungus sp.

Front Microbiol 2022 6;13:769008. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Arctic-derived fungus sp. D-1 has attracted wide attention due to its huge ability to synthesize secondary metabolites. However, current studies only focus on stimulating its production of new secondary metabolites by OSMAC strategies, and the relationship between secondary metabolites and biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) has not been explored. In this study, the preparation and regeneration conditions of sp. D-1 protoplasts were explored to lay a foundation for the study of genetic transformation of this fungus. Orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal preparation conditions were 0.75 M NaCl, 20 g/L of lysing enzyme, and 20 g/L of driselase, 28°C for 6 h. The maximum yield of sp. D-1 protoplasts could reach 6.15 × 10 cells·ml, and the concentration of osmotic stabilizer NaCl was the most important factor for sp. D-1 protoplasts. The results of FDA staining showed that the prepared protoplasts had good activity. Besides, the best protoplasts regeneration medium was YEPS, whose maximum regeneration rate is 36%. The mediums with nitrogen sources, such as SR and RM, also had good effects on the sp. D-1 protoplast regeneration, indicating that nitrogen sources played an important role on the sp. D-1 protoplast regeneration. Subsequent transformation experiments showed that hygromycin resistance genes () could be successfully transferred into the genome of sp. D-1, indicating that the prepared protoplasts could meet the needs of subsequent gene manipulation and research. This study lays a foundation for the genetic transformation of sp. D-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.769008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9019751PMC
April 2022

Analysis of Multi-Part Phenotypic Changes in Skin to Characterize the Trajectory of Skin Aging in Chinese Women.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2022 13;15:631-642. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Dermatology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: As the human body's largest organ exposed to the external environment, the skin suffers from internal and external aging factors, leading to wrinkles, loss of elasticity, sagging, and rough appearance. However, little is known of the characteristics of skin aging of different body parts in Chinese women. Here, we study the signs of extrinsic skin aging in different body parts to identify the knowledge map of manifestations of aging in Chinese women.

Patients And Methods: Wrinkle and texture phenotypes and collagen samples from the face, neck, hands, and arms of 326 Chinese women were collected. The correlations between phenotypes and ages and the differences in phenotypes by age were evaluated.

Results: The wrinkle and texture phenotypes around the eyes and mouth and of the hands were strongly correlated with age. Ages 32 and 58 showed the largest number of differentially changed aging phenotypes. The number of aging phenotypes increased sharply between the ages of 24 and 30, suggesting that the skin was undergoing rapid aging. Eye aging was the most rapidly changing phenotype between 19 and 30 years old. Wrinkles at the corner of the eyes showed a significant difference in the older group, suggesting an early onset and long-term effects.

Conclusion: This is the first study to be performed on the characteristics of skin aging among Chinese women that takes account of multiple areas of the body. It was found that 24 years old was the time point at which the skin begins to age in Chinese women. This provides important clues for aging-related research and personalized skin care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S349401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9013710PMC
April 2022
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