Publications by authors named "Xiaowei Yang"

237 Publications

Real-Time Navigation System With Indocyanine Green Fluorescence for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Patients With Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:621914. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of General Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background: The naked-eye invisibility of indocyanine green fluorescence limits the application of near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIR) systems for real-time navigation during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with breast cancer undergoing surgery. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a novel NIR system in visualizing indocyanine green fluorescence images in the surgical field and the application value of combined methylene blue (MB) and the novel NIR system in SLNB.

Methods: Sixty patients with clinical node-negative breast cancer received indocyanine green (ICG) and MB as tracers. Two NIR system instruments, namely, lymphatic fluorescence imaging system (LFIS) designed by the University of Science and Technology of China and vascular imager by Langfang Mingde Medical Biotechnology Co., Ltd. (Langfang vascular imager), were used as navigation assistance to locate sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Excising the lymph nodes developed by both MB and ICG by two NIR systems or palpably suspicious as SLNs and undergoing rapid pathological examination.

Results: Both instruments exhibited 95% (57/60) success for real-time lymphatic fluorescent images. A total of 186 SLNs were identified, of which two were pathologically confirmed as lacking any lymph node tissue. SLN identification rate was 100% (184/184) for MB plus LFIS and 86.96% (160/184) for MB alone. The median number of SLNs identified by LFIS combined with MB was 3 (range of 1-8), which was significantly higher than that by MB alone at 2 (range 1-7) (P<0.05).

Conclusion: LFIS effectively detects SLNs in breast cancer, projects the fluorescence signals during surgery, and provides a continuous surgical navigation system without the need for a remote monitor. The ICG method navigated by combined LFIS and MB may be a promising alternative tracer for radioisotope in SLN mapping.

Clinical Trial Registration: This clinical trial was registered with the China Clinical Trial Center, registration number ChiCTR2000039542.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.621914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8133435PMC
May 2021

DHODH and cancer: promising prospects to be explored.

Cancer Metab 2021 May 10;9(1):22. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is a flavin-dependent mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the fourth step in the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway. It is originally a target for the treatment of the non-neoplastic diseases involving in rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, and is re-emerging as a validated therapeutic target for cancer therapy. In this review, we mainly unravel the biological function of DHODH in tumor progression, including its crucial role in de novo pyrimidine synthesis and mitochondrial respiratory chain in cancer cells. Moreover, various DHODH inhibitors developing in the past decades are also been displayed, and the specific mechanism between DHODH and its additional effects are illustrated. Collectively, we detailly discuss the association between DHODH and tumors in recent years here, and believe it will provide significant evidences and potential strategies for utilizing DHODH as a potential target in preclinical and clinical cancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40170-021-00250-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107416PMC
May 2021

Letter to the Editor on "Perioperative Mortality After Cemented or Uncemented Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis".

J Arthroplasty 2021 05;36(5):e39

Department of Orthopedics, Jiangxi provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.01.060DOI Listing
May 2021

Rigid anchoring of highly crystallized and uniformly dispersed Pd nanocrystals on carbon fibers for ambient electrocatalytic reduction of nitrogen to ammonia.

Dalton Trans 2021 May;50(20):6975-6981

Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Energy Electrochemistry, Institute of New Carbon Materials, College of Materials Science & Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, 030024, China. and Shanxi Key Laboratory of Gas Energy Efficient and Clean Utilization, Taiyuan, 030024, China.

Developing efficient and stable electrocatalysts for ammonia synthesis via the nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) is essential for the Earth's nitrogen cycle. Herein, a palladium nanocrystals anchored carbon fibers ([email protected]) composite was prepared via electrospinning and carbonization processes. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization studies show that the as-prepared Pd grains are homogeneously anchored on the outer/inner section of the carbon nanofibers. Benefiting from the sufficient exposure and stress effect of active sites, the resultant [email protected] achieves a high Faraday efficiency of ∼14.8% with a current density of 0.028 mA cm-2 at -0.2 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solution, surpassing those of many catalysts previously reported. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the rationality of the distal associative mechanism on [email protected] and Pd nanocrystals on the surface of [email protected] is more favorable for nitrogen (N2) molecule adsorption and polarization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00682gDOI Listing
May 2021

The overexpression of insect endogenous microRNA in transgenic rice inhibits the pupation of Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis are destructive rice pests co-occurring in major rice-growing areas in China. RNA interference (RNAi)-based insect-resistant genetically engineered (IRGE) crops provide a promising approach for pest management by suppressing gene expression or translation. A microRNA (miRNA)-mediated IRGE rice line expressing endogenous Chilo suppressalis miRNA Csu-novel-260, showing significant resistance against Chilo suppressalis, provides an attractive control strategy for Chilo suppressalis by suppressing the expression of the disembodied (dib) gene expression. However, whether this transgenic line also shows the resistance against Cnaphalocrocis medinalis remains unknown.

Results: A spatiotemporal expression analysis of Csu-novel-260 in the transgenic rice line was performed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to determine the paddy field pest exposure dose. In diet feeding assays, a chemically synthesized Csu-novel-260 agomir at 200 fmol g significantly inhibited Chilo suppressalis pupation. However, larval development, survival and pupal weight were not significantly affected. Additionally, the transgenic line significantly affected Cnaphalocrocis medinalis pupation but not larval survival. The qRT-PCR showed that Csdib and Cmdib expression levels were significantly suppressed when the two pests fed on the transgenic line. Additionally, the transgenic line significantly decreased Cry1C-resistant and Cry1C-susceptible Chilo suppressalis larval survival in detached rice tissue feeding assays, indicating that Cry1C-resistant Chilo suppressalis was not cross-resistant to Csu-novel-260 expressed in miRNA-mediated IRGE rice.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that miRNA-mediated IRGE rice significantly inhibited Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis pupation. The results provide a new viewpoint for the application of RNAi-based plants and the inspiration for environmental risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6422DOI Listing
April 2021

Protective effects of sunlight exposure against PRK-induced myopia in infant rhesus monkeys.

Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2021 Jul 20;41(4):911-921. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: Extensive clinical evidence suggests that time spent outdoors might reduce the risk of myopia. This study aimed to determine whether increasing sunlight exposure has a protective effect on hyperopic-defocus induced myopia in a non-human primate.

Methods: Twelve 2-month-old rhesus monkeys were treated monocularly with photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) (4.0 D) and divided randomly into two groups: artificial light (AL; n = 6) and natural light (NL; n = 6). Monkeys in the AL group were reared under artificial (indoor) lighting (08:00-20:00 h). Monkeys in the NL group were exposed to natural (outdoor) lighting for 4 h (09:00-11:00 and 15:00-17:00 h). Ocular refraction, corneal power and axial dimensions were measured before sunlight exposure and every 10 days after PRK. At day 180, retinal histology and apoptosis activity were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin (dUTP) nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay.

Results: Mean (±SD) PRK induced anisometropia was +3.11 (0.33) D. At the end of the experiment, both eyes of the NL monkeys exhibited significantly more hyperopia and shorter vitreous chamber depths (VCD), compared with AL monkeys (p < 0.05). The NL group exhibited a significantly slower rate of compensation to the induced anisometropia than the AL group (p < 0.05). The retinas of both groups exhibited normal histology and levels of apoptosis.

Conclusions: Moderate sunlight exposure exerts protective effects against the myopic shift resulting from PRK-induced defocus in monkeys. These results are consistent with current clinical findings that increased outdoor exposure protects against myopia development. Sunlight exposure should serve as an independent positive factor in human myopia control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/opo.12826DOI Listing
July 2021

Toward Planar and Dendrite-Free Zn Electrodepositions by Regulating Sn-Crystal Textured Surface.

Adv Mater 2021 May 19;33(21):e2008424. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai, 201804, China.

The propensity of Zn-metal anodes to form non-uniform or dendritic electrodeposits is bound up with the nature of the electrode surface. However, the effect of surface structure on the inherent nucleation and deposition of Zn is not yet well understood. Here, the surface structure of a Zn-metal anode is reconstructed with Sn-crystal textures via a facile chemical displacement reaction. Compared to the bare Zn, the high-affinity Zn binding sites of Sn afford lower deposition energy barrier, which promotes deposition kinetics. What is more, a Sn-textured surface with moderate Zn affinity but high average surface energy ensures a better wettability from the deposits, leading to the lateral growth of Zn crystals. The resultant Sn-textured Zn-metal anode exhibits an extremely low voltage hysteresis of 20 mV and achieves a prolonged cycling stability over 500 h cycles without dendrite formation. This work provides new insights into the crystal-texture-dependent Zn electrodeposition process and offers direction for direct surface texturing to better stabilize Zn-metal anodes with improved reversibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202008424DOI Listing
May 2021

New boron nitride monolith phases from high-pressure compression of double-walled boron nitride nanotubes.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(13):134702

Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024, China.

Pressure-induced phase transition of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) provides an effective approach to develop new boron nitride nanostructures with more desirable functions than those of carbon nanotubes, owing to the unique polar B-N bonds. However, the synthetic BNNTs usually comprise double- or multi-walls, whose structural evolution under pressure is complicated and remains largely elusive. Here, we unveil the complete phase transition behavior of hexagonal bundles of double-walled (DW) BNNTs of different chirality and diameters under hydrostatic pressures of up to 60 GPa. A series of new monolith phases are obtained from the compressed DW-BNNT bundles, whose structures can be well retained even after releasing the pressure. The bonding characters; electronic, optical, and mechanical properties; and Raman signature of these monolith phases are elucidated, which provide essential guidance for synthesis of new boron nitride materials with unprecedented properties for technological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0044210DOI Listing
April 2021

Consumption of miRNA-Mediated Insect-Resistant Transgenic Rice Pollen Does Not Harm Adults.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 3;69(14):4234-4242. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China.

RNAi-based insect-resistant genetically engineered (IRGE) crops represent a promising approach for pest management by suppressing gene expressions or translation. A developed microRNA-mediated IRGE rice line expressing endogenous Csu-novel-260 shows significant resistance to target pests. The nontarget insect is an important pollinator used as a surrogate species for the ecological risk assessment of IRGE plants. To simulate a worst-case scenario, the full-length and () cDNAs were cloned. The 3'-untranslated regions shared 58.06% nucleotide sequence similarity between and . No potential Csu-novel-260 binding site in was detected through the bioinformatics analysis. A dietary RNAi toxicity assay of the impacts of ingested Csu-novel-260 on adults showed that the survival rates of RNAi-treated did not significantly differ from those in the blank control (CK) and negative control (NC) treatments. The Csu-novel-260 uptake by peaked at 8 days postfeeding and then gradually decreased. The expression was not affected by the RNAi assay days or treatments. These results suggest that adults are not susceptible to high doses of Csu-novel-260 in the dietary RNAi assay and that the impact of miRNA-mediated IRGE plants on is negligible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c00585DOI Listing
April 2021

Changes in the Peripheral Blood Treg Cell Proportion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients After Transarterial Chemoembolization With Microparticles.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:624789. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Center Department, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital Affiliated to Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) stands for an ideal therapy for patients with intermediate stage HCC. This study was carried out to observe the effect of microparticles-transarterial chemoembolization (microparticles-TACE, m-TACE) on the immune function of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients by detecting the proportion of regulatory (Treg) cells in the peripheral blood of HCC patients before and after m-TACE, and to determine whether m-TACE has a positive regulatory effect on the immune function of HCC patients.

Methods: 33 HCC patients treated with Gelatn Sponge Microparticles (GSMs-TACE) were enrolled. Flow cytometry was used to determine the proportion of Treg cells and CD4+/CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood of HCC patients 1 day before GSMs-TACE, 1 to 2 weeks and 3 to 5 weeks after GSMs-TACE, respectively.

Results: The Tregs cell proportion of HCC patients was significantly higher than that of the healthy and cirrhosis controls and was associated with various clinical indicators of HCC patients. The Treg cell proportion in HCC patients with BCLC stage C was higher than that of stage B patients; The Treg cell proportion at 1 to 2 weeks postoperatively was 8.54 ± 1.27%, which was significantly lower than that before the GSMs-TACE. The Treg cell proportion at 3 to 5 weeks postoperatively was 7.59 ± 1.27%, which continued to decline. The ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T cells was 1.31 ± 0.56, 1.86 ± 0.73, 1.76 ± 0.58% (P<0.01) respectively.

Conclusion: These results indicated that m-TACE could exert a positive regulatory effect on the anticancer immune function of HCC patients, which may be used in combination with immune adjuvant therapies to enhance the efficacy of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.624789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943450PMC
February 2021

Applicability and cost-effectiveness of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) in the Chinese population: A cost-effectiveness modeling study.

PLoS Med 2021 Mar 4;18(3):e1003515. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China.

Background: The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed significant reductions in death and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal of <120 mm Hg compared with a SBP goal of <140 mm Hg. Our study aimed to assess the applicability of SPRINT to Chinese adults. Additionally, we sought to predict the medical and economic implications of this intensive SBP treatment among those meeting SPRINT eligibility.

Methods And Findings: We used nationally representative baseline data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (2011-2012) to estimate the prevalence and number of Chinese adults aged 45 years and older who meet SPRINT criteria. A validated microsimulation model was employed to project costs, clinical outcomes, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) among SPRINT-eligible adults, under 2 alternative treatment strategies (SBP goal of <120 mm Hg [intensive treatment] and SBP goal of <140 mm Hg [standard treatment]). Overall, 22.2% met the SPRINT criteria, representing 116.2 (95% CI 107.5 to 124.8) million people in China. Of these, 66.4%, representing 77.2 (95% CI 69.3 to 85.0) million, were not being treated for hypertension, and 22.9%, representing 26.6 (95% CI 22.4 to 30.7) million, had a SBP between 130 and 139 mm Hg, yet were not taking antihypertensive medication. We estimated that over 5 years, compared to standard treatment, intensive treatment would reduce heart failure incidence by 0.84 (95% CI 0.42 to 1.25) million cases, reduce CVD deaths by 2.03 (95% CI 1.44 to 2.63) million cases, and save 3.84 (95% CI 1.53 to 6.34) million life-years. Estimated reductions of 0.069 (95% CI -0.28, 0.42) million myocardial infarction cases and 0.36 (95% CI -0.10, 0.82) million stroke cases were not statistically significant. Furthermore, over a lifetime, moving from standard to intensive treatment increased the mean QALYs from 9.51 to 9.87 (an increment of 0.38 [95% CI 0.13 to 0.71]), at a cost of Int$10,997 per QALY gained. Of all 1-way sensitivity analyses, high antihypertensive drug cost and lower treatment efficacy for CVD death resulted in the 2 most unfavorable results (Int$25,291 and Int$18,995 per QALY were gained, respectively). Simulation results indicated that intensive treatment could be cost-effective (82.8% probability of being below the willingness-to-pay threshold of Int$16,782 [1× GDP per capita in China in 2017]), with a lower probability in people with SBP 130-139 mm Hg (72.9%) but a higher probability among females (91.2%). Main limitations include lack of specific SPRINT eligibility information in the CHARLS survey, uncertainty about the implications of different blood pressure measurement techniques, the use of several sources of data with large reliance on findings from SPPRINT, limited information about the serious adverse event rate, and lack of information and evidence for medication effectiveness on renal disease.

Conclusions: Although adoption of the SPRINT treatment strategy would increase the number of Chinese adults requiring SBP treatment intensification, this approach has the potential to prevent CVD events, to produce gains in life-years, and to be cost-effective under common thresholds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971845PMC
March 2021

Effects of BMP-2 compound with fibrin on osteoporotic vertebral fracture healing in rats.

J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2021 03;21(1):149-156

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Xuzhou Third Hospital, Affiliated Xuzhou Hospital of Jiangsu University, Xuzhou, China.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) compound with fibrin on osteoporotic vertebral fracture healing in rats.

Methods: For the present study 160 Specific-Pathogen Free 32-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. 120 rats were randomly divided in three groups (experimental, model and sham operation group- n=40 per group) and were ovariectomized to establish the osteoporosis model. 40 rats served as a control group without treatment. The expression of BMP-2 in the fracture zone at the 4th, 6th, 8th, and 12th weeks was detected by qRT-PCR. The expression of BALP and CTX-I in serum at the 12th week was detected by Elisa.

Results: At week 8, the morphology of the sham operation group was the same and the fracture healing occurred more slowly than in the other groups. At week 12, the expression of BMP-2 in the model group was significantly higher than that in the other three groups (p<0.05). At week 12, the maximum load, maximum strain, and elastic modulus of model group were significantly lower than those of the other three groups.

Conclusions: BMP-2 compound with fibrin can enhance the timing and quality of bone fracture healing in rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020021PMC
March 2021

Drug resistance of pathogens causing nosocomial infection in orthopedics from 2012 to 2017: a 6-year retrospective study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Feb 1;16(1):100. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, No. 17 Yong Wai Zheng Street, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi, China.

Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are an emerging global problem that increases in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and cost. We performed a 6-year retrospective study to provide valuable insight into appropriate antibiotic use in HAI cases. We also aimed to understand how hospitals could reduce pathogen drug resistance in a population that overuses antibiotics.

Methods: All data (2012-2017) were obtained from the hospital information warehouse and clinical microbiology laboratory.

Results: We isolated 1392 pathogen strains from patients admitted to the orthopedics department during 2012-2017. Escherichia coli (14.7%, 204/1392), Enterobacter cloacae (13.9%, 193/1392), and Staphylococcus aureus (11.3%, 157/1392) were the most common pathogens causing nosocomial infections. The dominant Gram-negative bacterium was E. coli, with high resistance to ampicillin, levofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin, in that order. E. coli was least resistant to amikacin, cefoperazone-sulbactam. The most dominant Gram-positive bacterium was S. aureus, highly resistant to penicillin and ampicillin, but not resistant to fluoroquinolones and cotrimoxazole. Analysis of risk factors related to multidrug-resistant bacteria showed that patients with open fractures (Gustillo III B and IIIC) were significantly more susceptible to methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections (p < 0.05). Additionally, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli infections occurred significantly more often in patients with degenerative diseases (p < 0.05). Elderly patients tended to be more susceptible to multidrug-resistant bacterial infections, but this outcome was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem in orthopedics. To effectively control antimicrobial resistance among pathogens, we advocate extensive and dynamic monitoring of MDR bacteria, coupled with careful use of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02234-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849088PMC
February 2021

The effects of family physician-contracted service on health-related quality of life and equity in health in China.

Int J Equity Health 2021 Jan 6;20(1):15. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Public Policy and Administration, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No. 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an, 710048, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Family physician-contracted service (FPCs) has been recently implemented in Chinese primary care settings. This study was aimed at measuring the effects of FPCs on residents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and equity in health among the Chinese population.

Methods: The study data was drawn from the 2018 household health survey (Shaanxi Province, China) using multistage, stratified cluster random sampling. We measured HRQoL using EQ-5D-3L based on the Chinese-specific time trade-off values set. Coarsened exact matching (CEM) technique was used to control for confounding factors between residents with and without a contracted family physician. The concentration index (C) was calculated to measure equity in health.

Results: Individuals with a contracted family physician had significantly higher HRQoL than those without, after data matching (0.9355 vs. 0.8995; P <  0.001). Additionally, the inequity in HRQoL among respondents with a contracted family physician was significantly lower than those without a contracted family physician (Cs of EQ-5D utility score: 0.0084 vs. 0.0263; p <  0.001).

Conclusions: This study highlights the positive effects of FPCs on HRQoL and socioeconomic-related equity in HRQoL. Future efforts should prioritize the economically and educationally disadvantaged groups, the expansion of service coverage, and the competency of family physician teams to further enhance health outcome and equity in health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12939-020-01348-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788691PMC
January 2021

Immune-Related Neurological Toxicities of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Immunol 2020 18;11:595655. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Oncology, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Systematic assessment of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor-related neurological toxicities is important for guiding anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to reveal the relationship between PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and neurological toxicities among cancer patients.

Methods: Clinical trials investigating PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in cancer patients were identified by a systematic search of PubMed. The random-effect model was used to synthesize individual studies. Neurological toxicities, including all-grades and grades 3-5, were taken into account for the final comprehensive meta-analysis. The Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to assess the quality of included trials.

Results: Thirty-one clinical trials containing data of neurological toxicities were included. Compared with chemotherapy, the risk of all-grade neurological toxicities caused by PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors was much lower in terms of peripheral neuropathy [OR = 0.07, 95%CI:(0.04, 0.13)], peripheral sensory neuropathy [OR = 0.07, 95%CI(0.04, 0.12)], dysgeusia [OR = 0.26, 95%CI:(0.19, 0.35)], paraesthesia [OR = 0.23, 95%CI:(0.14, 0.36)], and polyneuropathy [OR = 0.12, 95%CI:(0.01, 0.94)]. However, for grades 3-5, the statistically significant results were only seen in peripheral neuropathy [OR = 0.15, 95%CI:(0.07, 0.34)] and peripheral sensory neuropathy [OR = 0.13, 95%CI:(0.04, 0.40)]. No statistically significant difference regarding the risk of headache, dizziness, and Guillain-Barré syndrome was found between PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and chemotherapy. For PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors plus chemotherapy, the risk trends of the above-mentioned neurological toxicities, especially grades 3-5 peripheral neuropathy [OR = 1.76, 95%CI:(1.10, 2.82)] was increased compared to chemotherapy alone.

Conclusion: Our comprehensive analysis showed that PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors alone exhibited lower neurological toxicities than chemotherapy. However, the risk of headache, dizziness, and Guillain-Barré syndrome was similar between PD-1/PD-L1 and chemotherapy. For PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors plus chemotherapy, the incidence trend of neurological toxicities would be increased, especially for peripheral neuropathy of grades 3-5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.595655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775530PMC
December 2020

2D TiCTMXene couples electrical stimulation to promote proliferation and neural differentiation of neural stem cells.

Acta Biomater 2020 Dec 31. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Institute for Cardiovascular Science & Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of the First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou 215000, China; Key Laboratory for Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China; Co-innovation Center of Neuroregeneration, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, China. Electronic address:

Preclinical studies involving stem cells require efficient physiochemical regulations on the fate of such cells. Because of their unique planar structure, metallic conductivity, and flexible surface functionalization, MXenes show potential for modulating stem cell fate. Here, the TiCTMXenenanosheets are dispersed on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS). When primary mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) are cultured on laminin-coated TiCTMXene film, they form stable adhesion, retain their proliferative ability, and show extensive spreading of terminal extensions. With respect to their functional activity, NSCs cultured on TiCTMXene films form more active and synchronous network activity than those cultured on TCPS substrates. Moreover, TiCTMXene film significantly promotes the neural differentiation and the neurons have longer neurites and greater numbers of branch points and branch tips. NSC-derived neurons grown on the TiCT MXene film preserved normal synapse development. Finally, electrical stimulation coupled with TiCTMXene film significantly enhances the proliferation of NSCs. These results indicate that TiCTMXene is an efficient interface for the proliferation and neural differentiation of NSC and the maturation of NSC-derived neurons, which expands the potential uses of the MXene family of materials and provides new strategies for stem cell studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2020.12.035DOI Listing
December 2020

Comparison of the clinical effect of DHS and PFNA on senile osteoporotic fracture and their significance of changes in BALP expression level.

J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2020 12;20(4):556-562

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Affiliated Xuzhou Hospital of Jiangsu University, Xuzhou 3rd Hospital, Xuzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical effects of dynamic hip screw (DHS) and proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) on senile osteoporosis patients and their effects on the expression level of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP).

Methods: 116 elderly patients with osteoporotic fracture were divided into DHS group (n=67) and PFNA group (n=49). BALP values were measured by ELISA before operation and 30 days after operation.

Results: The operation time, the bleeding volume, and the weight-bearing time of PFNA group was shorter than DHS group (p<0.05); the dominant blood loss and occult blood loss in PFNA group were less than those in DHS group (p<0.05); the healing time and detumescence time, the complications of PFNA group was fewer than the DHS group (p<0.05). The ten-meter walking speed and the five sitting tests in PFNA group were shorter than that in DHS group (p<0.05); the excellent and good rate and Harris score in PFNA group were higher than those in DHS group (p<0.05). The expression of BALP in PFNA group was lower than that in DHS group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: PFNA surgery has less trauma, fewer complications, more optimistic postoperative healing and recovery degree, and is more conducive to the reduction of BALP expression level.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716689PMC
December 2020

The Route of Infection Influences the Contribution of Key Immunity Genes to Antibacterial Defense in Anopheles gambiae.

J Innate Immun 2021 18;13(2):107-126. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Biology Department, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon,

Insect systemic immune responses to bacterial infections have been mainly studied using microinjections, whereby the microbe is directly injected into the hemocoel. While this methodology has been instrumental in defining immune signaling pathways and enzymatic cascades in the hemolymph, it remains unclear whether and to what extent the contribution of systemic immune defenses to host microbial resistance varies if bacteria invade the hemolymph after crossing the midgut epithelium subsequent to an oral infection. Here, we address this question using the pathogenic Serratia marcescens (Sm) DB11 strain to establish systemic infections of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, either by septic Sm injections or by midgut crossing after feeding on Sm. Using functional genetic studies by RNAi, we report that the two humoral immune factors, thioester-containing protein 1 and C-type lectin 4, which play key roles in defense against Gram-negative bacterial infections, are essential for defense against systemic Sm infections established through injection, but they become dispensable when Sm infects the hemolymph following oral infection. Similar results were observed for the mosquito Rel2 pathway. Surprisingly, blocking phagocytosis by cytochalasin D treatment did not affect mosquito susceptibility to Sm infections established through either route. Transcriptomic analysis of mosquito midguts and abdomens by RNA-seq revealed that the transcriptional response in these tissues is more pronounced in response to feeding on Sm. Functional classification of differentially expressed transcripts identified metabolic genes as the most represented class in response to both routes of infection, while immune genes were poorly regulated in both routes. We also report that Sm oral infections are associated with significant downregulation of several immune genes belonging to different families, specifically the clip-domain serine protease family. In sum, our findings reveal that the route of infection not only alters the contribution of key immunity genes to host antimicrobial defense but is also associated with different transcriptional responses in midguts and abdomens, possibly reflecting different adaptive strategies of the host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103195PMC
November 2020

Sirt1 improves heart failure through modulating the NF-κB p65/microRNA-155/BNDF signaling cascade.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 11 18;13(10):14482-14498. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, P.R. China.

Heart failure (HF) affects over 26 million people worldwide, yet the pathologies of this complex syndrome have not been completely understood. Here, we investigated the involvement of deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) in HF and its downstream signaling pathways. A HF model was induced by the ligation of the left coronary artery in rats, where factors associated with left ventricular echocardiography, heart hemodynamics and ventricular mass indexes were recorded. Collagen volume fraction in heart tissues was determined by Masson's trichrome staining. Cell models of HF were also established (HO, 30 min) in cardiomyocytes harvested from suckling rats. HF rats presented with downregulated expressions of Sirt1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and exhibited upregulated expressions of NF-κB p65 and miR-155. Repressed Sirt1 expression increased acetylation of NF-κB p65, resulting in the elevation of NF-κB p65 expression. NF-κB p65 silencing improved heart functions, decreased ventricular mass and reduced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. MiR-155 inhibition upregulated its target gene BDNF, thereby reducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Sirt1 overexpression upregulated BDNF, improved heart function, and reduced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, Sirt1 alleviates HF in rats through the NF-κB p65/miR-155/BDNF signaling cascade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202895PMC
November 2020

Systematic Assessment of Risk of Fever in Solid Tumor Patients Treated With PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2020 29;10:570080. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, The First Hospital Affiliated With Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Drug-induced fever is frequently reported in cancer patients treated with anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), and stoppage of the offending agent is the management of choice. However, given the complex management of cancer patients, this needs to be carefully studied. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the risk of fever associated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 in cancer patients. From May 2010 to 2020, an electronic search was conducted through PubMed for relevant studies. All clinical trials reporting fever in cancer patients treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors were included, while other designs were excluded. A manual search was also conducted to search for relevant articles. Outcomes included the risk of pyrexia and febrile neutropenia in the overall population and based on the grade of fever (all grades vs. grades 3-5). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of included studies. Thirty-one articles, involving 27 clinical trials and 15,867 participants, were included. The increased risk of pyrexia for all grades is only found when PD-1/PD-L1 plus cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) was compared to CTLA-4 [odds ratio (OR) = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.17, 5.23]. The risk of febrile neutropenia for all-grade fever was significantly lower in the PD-1/PD-L1 group compared to that of chemotherapy alone (OR = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05). A similar trend in the risk of febrile neutropenia was also found for grades 3-5 (OR = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.05). The increased risk of pyrexia for all grades could only be found when PD-1/PD-L1 plus CTLA-4 was compared with CTLA-4. Meanwhile, compared to chemotherapy, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors reduced the risk of febrile neutropenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.570080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658543PMC
October 2020

Semi-Supervised Domain Adaptation via Asymmetric Joint Distribution Matching.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 Oct 15;PP. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

An intrinsic problem in domain adaptation is the joint distribution mismatch between the source and target domains. Therefore, it is crucial to match the two joint distributions such that the source domain knowledge can be properly transferred to the target domain. Unfortunately, in semi-supervised domain adaptation (SSDA) this problem still remains unsolved. In this article, we therefore present an asymmetric joint distribution matching (AJDM) approach, which seeks a couple of asymmetric matrices to linearly match the source and target joint distributions under the relative chi-square divergence. Specifically, we introduce a least square method to estimate the divergence, which is free from estimating the two joint distributions. Furthermore, we show that our AJDM approach can be generalized to a kernel version, enabling it to handle nonlinearity in the data. From the perspective of Riemannian geometry, learning the linear and nonlinear mappings are both formulated as optimization problems defined on the product of Riemannian manifolds. Numerical experiments on synthetic and real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and testify its superiority over existing SSDA techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3027364DOI Listing
October 2020

Output feedback adaptive super-twisting sliding mode control of hydraulic systems with disturbance compensation.

ISA Trans 2021 Mar 1;109:175-185. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China. Electronic address:

This paper presents an output feedback adaptive super-twisting sliding mode controller (SSMC) for hydraulic systems with unmodeled disturbances via utilizing an extended state observer (ESO). Both unmeasured system states and unmodeled disturbances are estimated by ESO based on output position signal, which avoids using noise-polluted signals and eliminates most of the disturbance effects on control performance simultaneously. Moreover, a SSMC is developed to further suppress the residual error of disturbance compensation, in which feedback gains are adapted online to further reduce the high-gain feedback. In addition, this proposed controller is continuous and chattering-free, which is beneficial to practical applications. Theoretical analysis indicates that the proposed controller ensures an asymptotic stability when existing constant disturbances, and ultimately bounded tracking performance for the time-variant disturbance case. Comparative experimental results reveal the validity of the developed approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2020.09.014DOI Listing
March 2021

[Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid sequential rivaroxaban on blood loss in elderly patients during lumbar interbody fusion].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Sep;34(9):1158-1162

Department of Spine Surgery, Honghui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi, 710054, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the effect and safety of tranexamic acid sequential rivaroxaban on perioperative blood loss and preventing thrombosis for elderly patients during lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) with a prospective randomized controlled study.

Methods: Between April and October 2019, the elderly patients with lumbar degenerative diseases requiring LIF were included in the study, among which were 80 patients met the selection criteria. According to the antifibrinolysis and anticoagulation protocols, they were randomly divided into a tranexamic acid sequential rivaroxaban group (trial group) and a simple rivaroxaban group (control group) on average. Finally, 69 patients (35 in the trial group and 34 in the control group) were included for comparison. There was no significant difference in general data ( >0.05) such as gender, age, body mass index, disease duration, diseased segment, type of disease, and preoperative hemoglobin between the two groups. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, drainage within 3 days after operation, perioperative total blood loss, and proportion of blood transfusion patients were compared between the two groups, as well as postoperative venous thrombosis of lower extremities, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding-related complications.

Results: The operations of the two groups completed successfully, and there was no significant difference in the operation time ( >0.05); the intraoperative blood loss, drainage within 3 days after operation, and perioperative total blood loss in the trial group were significantly lower than those in the control group ( <0.05). The proportion of blood transfusion patients in the trial group was 25.71% (9/35), which was significantly lower than that in the control group [52.94% (18/34)] ( =5.368, =0.021). Postoperative incision bleeding occurred in 4 cases of the trial group and 3 cases of the control group, and there was no significant difference in bleeding-related complications between the two groups ( =1.000). There was 1 case of venous thrombosis of the lower extremities in each group after operation, and there was no significant difference in the incidence between the two groups ( =1.000). Besides, no pulmonary embolism occurred in the two groups.

Conclusion: Perioperative use of tranexamic acid sequential rivaroxaban in elderly LIF patients can effectively reduce the amount of blood loss and the proportion of blood transfusion patients without increasing the risk of postoperative thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202002041DOI Listing
September 2020

Andrographolide attenuates choroidal neovascularization by inhibiting the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 09 29;530(1):60-66. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 226001, China. Electronic address:

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a characteristic of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), leads to severe vision loss amongst the elderly in the developed countries. Currently, the premier treatment for AMD is anti-VEGF therapy, which has limited efficacy, and is still controversial. Previous studies have showed that Andrographolide (Andro) had various biological effects, including anti-angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and antioxidant. However, the effect of Andro on the formation of CNV has not been studied thus far. Here our results showed that Andro reduced the expression levels of HIF-1α and VEGF in the RF/6A cells chemical hypoxia model and the laser-induced CNV mouse model. Moreover, Andro inhibited the tube formation activity of RF/6A cells under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of Andro reduced the severity of choroidal vascular leakage and the size of CNV in the laser-induced CNV mouse model, indicating that Andro attenuated the development of CNV by inhibiting the HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway. These results suggest that Andro could be a potential novel therapeutic agent for AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.06.130DOI Listing
September 2020

Expression and function of lncRNA MALAT1 in gestational diabetes mellitus.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2020 Aug;29(8):903-910

Department of Obstetrics, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, China.

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) severely threatens maternal and fetal health. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) participates in the regulation of various cellular processes.

Objectives: Previous studies have identified the role of lncRNA MALAT1 in diabetic retinopathy-related inflammation. However, the role of lncRNA MALAT1 in GDM has not been reported yet.

Material And Methods: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the lncRNA MALAT1 expression level in placental tissues from GDM patients and from a normal pregnant group. Placental trophoblastic-derived cell line HTR8 cells were divided into a control group, an siRNA negative control group and a MALAT1 siRNA group. The cells underwent RT-PCR analysis of lncRNA MALAT1 expression, an MTT assay of cell proliferation, and a transwell assay of cell invasion and migration. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze the level of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Western blotting was used to measure the changes of the tumor growth factor β (TGF-β)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway.

Results: Gestational diabetes mellitus placental tissues showed higher lncRNA MALAT1 expression compared to a normal control group (p < 0.05). After siRNA intervention, lncRNA MALAT1 showed decreased expression in the trophoblastic layer; inhibited trophoblastic cell proliferation, migration, or invasion; decreased the secretion of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6; and suppressed the expression of TGF-β and NF-κB compared to that of the control and siRNA-NC groups (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Gestational diabetes mellitus appears to upregulate lncRNA MALAT1. Downregulation of lncRNA MALAT1 inhibits inflammation and suppresses the proliferation, invasion and migration of GDM placental trophoblastic cells, possibly by modulating the TGF-β/NF-κB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/121524DOI Listing
August 2020

Domain Adaptation by Joint Distribution Invariant Projections.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2020 Aug 5;PP. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Domain adaptation addresses the learning problem where the training data are sampled from a source joint distribution (source domain), while the test data are sampled from a different target joint distribution (target domain). Because of this joint distribution mismatch, a discriminative classifier naively trained on the source domain often generalizes poorly to the target domain. In this paper, we therefore present a Joint Distribution Invariant Projections (JDIP) approach to solve this problem. The proposed approach exploits linear projections to directly match the source and target joint distributions under the L2-distance. Since the traditional kernel density estimators for distribution estimation tend to be less reliable as the dimensionality increases, we propose a least square method to estimate the L2-distance without the need to estimate the two joint distributions, leading to a quadratic problem with analytic solution. Furthermore, we introduce a kernel version of JDIP to account for inherent nonlinearity in the data. We show that the proposed learning problems can be naturally cast as optimization problems defined on the product of Riemannian manifolds. To be comprehensive, we also establish an error bound, theoretically explaining how our method works and contributes to reducing the target domain generalization error. Extensive empirical evidence demonstrates the benefits of our approach over state-of-the-art domain adaptation methods on several visual data sets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.3013167DOI Listing
August 2020

CELF6 modulates triple-negative breast cancer progression by regulating the stability of FBP1 mRNA.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Aug 29;183(1):71-82. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Breast Surgery, Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, No. 218, Jixi Road, Hefei, 230022, Anhui, China.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a great challenge in clinical treatment due to a shortage of effective therapeutic targets and acquired chemoresistance. Here, we identified the role of an RNA-binding protein, CUG-BP Elav-like family member 6 (CELF6), in the TNBC development and paclitaxel (PTX) chemoresistance.

Methods: Stable CELF6-overexpressing cell lines were established in BT549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell proliferation was determined using cell counting, two-dimensional colony formation, and MTT assay. Meanwhile, cell migration and cell invasion were detected by Transwell assay. Furthermore, the downstream target gene of CELF6 was identified and the direct interaction was further determined by luciferase reporter assay, immunoprecipitation, and RNA pull-down. Additionally, the PTX resistant cell line was established to determine the role of CELF6 in PTX resistance.

Results: CELF6 overexpression suppressed cell proliferation, cell migration, and cell invasion. Mechanistically, Fructose-Bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) was identified as the target gene of CELF6 and stabilized by CELF6 via binding 3'UTR. CELF6 overexpression mediated inhibition in TNBC development was dependent on FBP1. Moreover, CELF6 overexpression increased the sensitivity to PTX treatment.

Conclusion: CELF6 functions as a tumor suppressor by upregulating FBP 1 expression via stabilizing its mRNA, and thereby inhibits TNBC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05753-9DOI Listing
August 2020

Plant breeding involving genetic engineering does not result in unacceptable unintended effects in rice relative to conventional cross-breeding.

Plant J 2020 09 19;103(6):2236-2249. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, People's Republic of China.

Advancements in -omics techniques provide powerful tools to assess the potential effects in composition of a plant at the RNA, protein and metabolite levels. These technologies can thus be deployed to assess whether genetic engineering (GE) causes changes in plants that go beyond the changes introduced by conventional plant breeding. Here, we compare the extent of transcriptome and metabolome modification occurring in leaves of four GE rice lines expressing Bacillus thuringiensis genes developed by GE and seven rice lines developed by conventional cross-breeding. The results showed that both types of crop breeding methods can bring changes at transcriptomic and metabolic levels, but the differences were comparable between the two methods, and were less than those between conventional non-GE lines were. Metabolome profiling analysis found several new metabolites in GE rice lines when compared with the closest non-GE parental lines, but these compounds were also found in several of the conventionally bred rice lines. Functional analyses suggest that the differentially expressed genes and metabolites caused by both GE and conventional cross-breeding do not involve detrimental metabolic pathways. The study successfully employed RNA-sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry technology to assess the unintended changes in new rice varieties, and the results suggest that GE does not cause unintended effects that go beyond conventional cross-breeding in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540705PMC
September 2020

Three-Dimensional Magnesiophilic Scaffolds for Reduced Passivation toward High-Rate Mg Metal Anodes in a Noncorrosive Electrolyte.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jun 12;12(25):28298-28305. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Interdisciplinary Materials Research Center, Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials (Ministry of Education), Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China.

Magnesium ion batteries are a promising alternative of the lithium counterpart; however, the poorly ion-conductive passivation layer on Mg metal makes plating/stripping difficult. In addition to the generally recognized chemical passivation, the interphase is dynamically degraded by electrochemical side reactions. Especially under high current densities, the interphase thickens, exacerbating the electrode degradation. Herein, we adopt 3D MgBi scaffolds for Mg metal, of which the high surface area reduces the effective current density to avoid continuous electrolyte decomposition and the good Mg affinity homogenizes nucleation. The greatly alleviated passivation layer could serve as a stable solid/electrolyte interface instead. The symmetric cell delivers a low overpotential of 0.21 and 0.50 V at a current density of 0.1 and 4 mA cm, respectively, and a superior cycling performance over 300 cycles at 0.5 mA cm in a noncorrosive conventional electrolyte. This work proves that the control of dynamic passivation can enable high-power density Mg metal anodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c07213DOI Listing
June 2020

Exosomal miR-532-5p from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells reduce intervertebral disc degeneration by targeting RASSF5.

Exp Cell Res 2020 08 26;393(2):112109. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been found to be used as an effective therapy of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, the underlying mechanisms of BMSCs in the progress of IDD are not fully explained. In this study, we found that exosomes derived from BMSCs (BMSCs-Exos) inhibited the apoptotic rate, extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, and fibrosis deposition in TNF-α-induced nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs). Importantly, the level of miR-532-5p was observed to be decreased in apoptotic NPCs, but abundant in BMSCs-Exos with TNF-α treatment. The results showed that BMSCs-Exos under TNF-α stimuli exerted better effects on NPCs than BMSCs-Exos, which might be mitigated by the inhibition of miR-532-5p in BMSCs-Exos. The gain-of-function results suggested that the direct overexpression of miR-532-5p in NPCs could inhibit TNF-α-induced increase of apoptotic process, activation of apoptotic proteins, imbalance of anabolism/catabolism levels, and accumulation of collagen I. In addition, RASSF5 was demonstrated to be a target of miR-532-5p. Knockdown of RASSF5 could decrease the apoptotic cells and reduce the activated apoptotic protein levels in TNF-α-induced NPCs. Overall, these data indicate that exosomes from BMSCs may suppress TNF-α-induced apoptosis, ECM degradation, and fibrosis deposition in NPCs through the delivery of miR-532-5p via targeting RASSF5. This work provides a promising therapeutic strategy for the progress of IDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2020.112109DOI Listing
August 2020