Publications by authors named "Xiaorong Wang"

326 Publications

Targeting GluN2B/NO Pathway Ameliorates Social Isolation-Induced Exacerbated Attack Behavior in Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:700003. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medicine and Life Sciences, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Exacerbated attack behavior has a profound socioeconomic impact and devastating social consequences; however, there is no satisfactory clinical management available for an escalated attack behavior. Social isolation (SI) is widespread during this pandemic and may exert detrimental effects on mental health, such as causing heightened attack behavior. To explore the therapeutic approaches that alleviate the SI-induced heightened attack behavior, we utilized pharmacological methods targeting the GluN2B/NO signaling pathway during the attack behavior. Ifenprodil and TAT-9C peptide targeting GluN2B showed that the inhibition of GluN2B mitigated the SI-induced escalated attack behavior and the SI-induced aberrant nitric oxide (NO) level in the brain. Additionally, the potentiation of the NO level by L-arginine reversed the effects of the inhibition of GluN2B. Moreover, we showed that high doses of L-NAME and 7-NI and subeffective doses of L-NAME in combination with ifenprodil or TAT-9C or subeffective doses of 7-NI plus ifenprodil or TAT-9C all decreased the SI-induced escalated attack behavior and reduced the NO level, further supporting the idea that GluN2B/NO signaling is a crucial modulator of the escalated attack behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.700003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322622PMC
July 2021

Anterograde regulation of mitochondrial genes and FGF21 signaling by hepatic LSD1.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, United States of America.

Mitochondrial biogenesis and function are controlled by anterograde regulatory pathways involving more than one thousand nuclear-encoded proteins. Transcriptional networks controlling the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that histone demethylase LSD1 knockout from adult mouse liver (LSD1-LKO) reduces the expression of one-third of all nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and decreases mitochondrial biogenesis and function. LSD1-modulated histone methylation epigenetically regulates nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Furthermore, LSD1 regulates gene expression and protein methylation of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 (NMNAT1), which controls the final step of NAD+ synthesis and limits NAD+ availability in nucleus. Lsd1 knockout reduces NAD+-dependent SIRT1 and SIRT7 deacetylase activity, leading to hyperacetylation and hypofunctioning of GABPβ and PGC-1α, the major transcriptional factor/cofactor for nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes. Despite the reduced mitochondrial function in liver, LSD1-LKO mice are protected from diet-induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance, partially due to induction of hepatokine FGF21. Thus, LSD1 orchestrates a core regulatory network involving epigenetic modifications and NAD+ synthesis to control mitochondrial function and hepatokine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.147692DOI Listing
July 2021

The association of different serum IgG4 levels with distinct clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy in patients with IgG4-related disease.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jul-Aug;39(4):727-735. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, National Clinical Research Center for Dermatologic and Immunologic Diseases (NCRC-DID), Peking, China.

Objectivse: To explore the clinical characteristics and treatment efficacy of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) patients with different levels of serum IgG4.

Methods: A total of 299 patients newly diagnosed with IgG4-RD were enrolled in this study. Patients were classified into four groups according to baseline serum IgG4 levels: Group A: normal concentration; Group B: > normal but <2× the upper reference limit (URL); Group C: between 2× and 5× the URL; Group D: >5× the URL. All patients were followed up for 12 months. The patients' clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, plasmablasts/plasma cells and treatment efficacy were analysed.

Results: IgG4-RD patients with higher serum IgG4 levels had higher percentages of dacryoadenitis, sialadenitis, and autoimmune pancreatitis and a higher prevalence of allergy history, whereas patients with retroperitoneum and mediastinum lesions usually had lower serum IgG4 levels. In addition, the serum IgG4 re-elevation rate in Group D (19.4%) was higher than those in Group B (4.9%) and Group C (7.7%) (p=0.003 and p=0.020, respectively). Patients suffered fewer clinical relapses with a serum IgG4 reduction ≥50% of baseline serum IgG4 in Group B and ≥40% of baseline serum IgG4 in Group D (p=0.019 and p=0.043, respectively). In addition, the rate of clinical relapse in patients who received combination therapy with glucocorticoids and mycophenolate mofetil was 18.75% in Group D, which was higher than the rates in Groups B and C (0) (p=0.027).

Conclusions: IgG4-RD patients with different levels of serum IgG4 exhibit different clinical characteristics and treatment responses.
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July 2021

Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Strawberry Leaves Reveals Flowering Regulation under Blue Light Treatment.

Int J Genomics 2021 12;2021:5572076. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Horticulture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Blue light is an important signal that regulates the flowering of strawberry plants. To reveal the mechanism of early flowering under blue light treatment at the transcriptional regulation level, seedlings of cultivated strawberry ( Duch.) "Benihoppe" were subjected to a white light treatment (WL) and blue light treatment (BL) until their flowering. To detect the expression patterns of genes in response to BL, a transcriptome analysis was performed based on RNA-Seq. The results identified a total of 6875 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that responded to BL, consisting of 3138 (45.64%) downregulated ones and 3737 (54.36%) upregulated ones. These DEGs were significantly enriched into 98 GO terms and 71 KEGG pathways based on gene function annotation. Among the DEGs, the expression levels of genes that might participate in light signaling (, s, and ) and circadian rhythm (, , , and ) in plants were altered under BL. The BBX transcription factors which responded to BL were also identified. The result showed that the , one of strawberry's BBX family genes, may play an important role in flowering regulation. Our results provide a timely, comprehensive view and a reliable reference data resource for further study of flowering regulation under different light qualities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5572076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216796PMC
June 2021

Pleural mesothelial cell migration into lung parenchyma by calpain contributes to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is defined as a specific form of chronic, progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. It is unknown why fibrosis in IPF distributes in the peripheral or named sub-pleural area. Migration of pleural mesothelial cells (PMC) should contribute to sub-pleural fibrosis. Calpain is known to be involved in cell migration, but the role of calpain in PMC migration has not been investigated. In this study, we found that PMCs migrated into lung parenchyma in patients with IPF. Then using Wt1 /J knock-in mice, we observed PMC migration into lung parenchyma in bleomycin-induced pleural fibrosis models, and calpain inhibitor attenuated pulmonary fibrosis with prevention of PMC migration. In vitro studies revealed that bleomycin and transforming growth factor-β1 increased calpain activity in PMCs, and activated calpain-mediated focal adhesion (FA) turnover as well as cell migration, cell proliferation, and collagen-I synthesis. Furthermore, we determined that calpain cleaved FA kinase in both C-terminal and N-terminal regions, which mediated FA turnover. Lastly, the data revealed that activated calpain was also involved in phosphorylation of cofilin-1, and p-cofilin-1 induced PMC migration. Taken together, this study provides evidence that calpain mediates PMC migration into lung parenchyma to promote sub-pleural fibrosis in IPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30500DOI Listing
July 2021

Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Correlates with Abnormal Immune Response in Moderate COVID-19 Patients with Fever.

J Inflamm Res 2021 17;14:2619-2631. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, People's Republic of China.

Background: Most COVID-19 patients are moderate, and fever is the most common clinical manifestation and associated with poorer prognosis. Gut microbiota may also play important roles in COVID-19 pathogenesis. However, the association between gut microbiota and fever in individuals with moderate COVID-19 remains unclear.

Methods: We compared the clinical features and laboratory results of 187 moderate COVID-19 patients with fever and without fever and identified several inflammatory markers in patients with fever. Then, we performed gut metagenome-wide association study for 31 individuals to identify the microbes and their epitopes which have potential role in fever and hyperinflammation.

Results: Among 187 moderate COVID-19 patients, 127 (67.9%) patients presented with fever. Lymphocytes, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells and the ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells were significantly reduced, while AST, LDH, CRP, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly elevated in patients with fever. Gut microbiome composition was significantly altered in patients with fever compared with those with non-fever. Opportunistic pathogens such as and were enriched in patients with fever. was positively correlated with LDH and D-dimer and negatively correlated with CD8+T cells and IL-4, while was positively correlated with diarrhea symptom. Furthermore, several species with anti-inflammatory and protective effects, such as and , were enriched in patients with non-fever. was positively correlated with lymphocytes, and was negatively correlated with LDH, AST and IL-6. Finally, we found that several bacterial epitopes of GroEL, a homolog of human HSP60, were enriched in patients with fever and positively correlated with IL-6, IL-10, WBC, neutrophils, D-dimer, LDH, CRP, and .

Conclusion: Gut microbiota dysbiosis correlates with abnormal immune response in moderate COVID-19 patients with fever.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S311518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217908PMC
June 2021

Silencing of cystatin SN abrogates cancer progression and stem cell properties in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Ultrasound, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) accounts for approximately 80% of total thyroid cancers worldwide. Although the prognosis for early-stage PTC is favorable, the 5-year survival rate of patients with late-stage PTC is still very poor. Cystatin SN (cystatin 1, CST1) facilitates the progression of multiple cancers, but its role in regulating PTC pathogenesis is still largely unknown. In this study, we measured the expression levels of CST1 in PTC clinical tissues and cell lines by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analysis, and we performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to examine the effects of CST1 on PTC cell growth, invasion, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness. Tumorigenicity was assessed using in vivo tumor-bearing nude mouse models. As expected, upregulated CST1 was observed in PTC tissues (P < 0.05) and cells, compared with their normal counterparts (P < 0.05); furthermore, patients with PTC with higher levels of CST1 exhibited unfavorable prognosis (P < 0.05). In addition, CST1 ablation inhibited PTC cell growth (P < 0.05) in vivo and in vitro. Silencing of CST1 also inhibited cell motility and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in PTC cells (P < 0.05), whereas CST1 overexpression had the opposite effects on the earlier cellular functions. Notably, up-regulation of CST1 promoted cell spheroid formation (P < 0.05) and increased the expression levels of stemness signatures (P < 0.05) in PTC cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that CST1 functions as an oncogene to facilitate cancer development and promote cancer stem cell properties in PTC cells, increasing our understanding of PTC pathogenesis mechanisms and possibly aiding in the development of potential therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13221DOI Listing
June 2021

Plasma-Derived Exosomal microRNA-130a Serves as a Noninvasive Biomarker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

J Oncol 2021 16;2021:5547911. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000, China.

Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered as potential stable biomarkers in many types of human cancer, but investigations of plasma-derived exosomal miRNAs in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are still lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic values of exosomal miR-130a in OSCC patients. Exosomes were isolated from plasma samples which were collected from 184 OSCC patients before surgery and 196 healthy individuals. Primary OSCC and paired adjacent noncancerous tissues were also obtained from 47 OSCC patients. The expression levels of miR-130a were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results showed that the expression levels of exosomal miR-130a were significantly higher in OSCC patients than those of the healthy controls ( < 0.0001). Also, the expression of miR-130a was also significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared with paired adjacent noncancerous tissues ( < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation was found between exosomal miR-130a and tissue miR-130a levels. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses yielded an AUC value of 0.812 in discriminating OSCC patients from healthy controls. Furthermore, high levels of exosomal miR-130a were associated with the late T-stage (=0.024), advanced TNM stage (=0.003), and poorly differentiated OSCC (=0.013). Patients with high exosomal miR-130a expression had significantly worse 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Multivariate analysis indicated that exosomal miR-130a was an independent prognostic factor for OS (=0.001) and RFS (=0.003). Our results suggest that exosomal miR-130a may serve as a promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for OSCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5547911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068531PMC
April 2021

Enabling Photoactivated Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Protein Complexes by Novel MS-Cleavable Cross-Linkers.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Apr 27;20:100084. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, California, USA. Electronic address:

Cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) is a powerful tool for studying protein-protein interactions and elucidating architectures of protein complexes. While residue-specific XL-MS studies have been very successful, accessibility of interaction regions nontargetable by specific chemistries remain difficult. Photochemistry has shown great potential in capturing those regions because of nonspecific reactivity, but low yields and high complexities of photocross-linked products have hindered their identification, limiting current studies predominantly to single proteins. Here, we describe the development of three novel MS-cleavable heterobifunctional cross-linkers, namely SDASO (Succinimidyl diazirine sulfoxide), to enable fast and accurate identification of photocross-linked peptides by MS. The MS-based workflow allowed SDASO XL-MS analysis of the yeast 26S proteasome, demonstrating the feasibility of photocross-linking of large protein complexes for the first time. Comparative analyses have revealed that SDASO cross-linking is robust and captures interactions complementary to residue-specific reagents, providing the foundation for future applications of photocross-linking in complex XL-MS studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcpro.2021.100084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214149PMC
April 2021

Splicing factor SRSF6 mediates pleural fibrosis.

JCI Insight 2021 May 24;6(10). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Pleural fibrosis is defined as an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix that results in destruction of the normal pleural tissue architecture and compromised function. Tuberculous pleurisy, asbestos injury, and rheumatoid pleurisy are main causes of pleural fibrosis. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) play a key role in pleural fibrosis. However, detailed mechanisms are poorly understood. Serine/arginine-rich protein SRSF6 belongs to a family of highly conserved RNA-binding splicing-factor proteins. Based on its known functions, SRSF6 should be expected to play a role in fibrotic diseases. However, the role of SRSF6 in pleural fibrosis remains unknown. In this study, SRSF6 protein was found to be increased in cells of tuberculous pleural effusions (TBPE) from patients, and decellularized TBPE, bleomycin, and TGF-β1 were confirmed to increase SRSF6 levels in PMCs. In vitro, SRSF6 mediated PMC proliferation and synthesis of the main fibrotic protein COL1A2. In vivo, SRSF6 inhibition prevented mouse experimental pleural fibrosis. Finally, activated SMAD2/3, increased SOX4, and depressed miRNA-506-3p were associated with SRSF6 upregulation in PMCs. These observations support a model in which SRSF6 induces pleural fibrosis through a cluster pathway, including SRSF6/WNT5A and SRSF6/SMAD1/5/9 signaling. In conclusion, we propose inhibition of the splicing factor SRSF6 as a strategy for treatment of pleural fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.146197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262297PMC
May 2021

Long non-coding RNA NEAT1 promotes lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury by regulating miR-424-5p/MAPK14 axis.

Genes Genomics 2021 Jul 26;43(7):815-827. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Paediatrics, Suizhou Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Long Men Street 60th, Zeng Du District, Suizhou, 441300, Hubei, China.

Background: Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested to play critical roles in acute lung injury (ALI) pathogenesis, including lncRNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1).

Objective: We aimed to further elucidate the functions and molecular mechanism of NEAT1 in ALI.

Methods: Human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were served as a cellular model of ALI. Cell viability and cell apoptosis were determined by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of NEAT1, microRNA-424-5p (miR-424-5p), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14) was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or western blot analysis. Caspase activity was determined by caspase activity kit. The inflammatory responses were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The oxidative stress factors were analyzed by corresponding kits.

Results: NEAT1 was upregulated in LPS-stimulated HPAEpiCs. NEAT1 knockdown weakened LPS-induced injury by inhibiting apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress in HPAEpiCs. Moreover, miR-424-5p was a direct target of NEAT1, and its knockdown reversed the effects caused by NEAT1 knockdown in LPS-induced HPAEpiCs. Furthermore, MAPK14 was a downstream target of miR-424-5p, and its overexpression attenuated the effects of miR-424-5p on reduction of LPS-induced injury in HPAEpiCs. Besides, NEAT1 acted as a sponge of miR-424-5p to regulate MAPK14 expression.

Conclusion: NEAT1 knockdown alleviated LPS-induced injury of HPAEpiCs by regulating miR-424-5p/MAPK14 axis, which provided a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-021-01103-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Common variants in CREB1 gene confer risk for bipolar disorder in Han Chinese.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 May 6;59:102648. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Mood Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Recently, we have identified involvement of the gene encoding cAMP responsive element-binding 1 (CREB1) in risk of BD in European ancestry. CREB1 has significant genetic diversity between Europeans and Chinese, thereby resulting in diverged CREB1 genetic backgrounds. In this study, we aimed to determine whether CREB1 confers susceptibility to BD and cognitive dysfunction in Han Chinese. We recruited 572 patients with BD and 611 healthy controls for genetic study. The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) was used for cognitive evaluation. SNP rs10932201 and rs3770704 within CREB1 were genotyped. The frequency of the G allele of rs10932201 was significantly greater in BD patients (41.8 %) than that in control subjects (37.2 %), with P = 0.02, corrected P = 0.04. There were significant differences in the scores of RBANS attention and total scores between the patients with different genotypes of rs10932201 polymorphism (P = 0.002 and 0.003, corrected P = 0.012 and 0.018, respectively). Post-hoc comparisons showed that rs10932201 G/G or G/A carriers had lower RBANS attention and total scores than those with A/A carriers (P = 0.002 and 0.004, P = 0.002 and 0.006, respectively). We observed a significant association between the rs10932201 and CREB1 expression in intralobular white matter (P = 0.037). Carriers with G allele have significantly lower levels of CREB1 expression in intralobular white matter than those without G allele. In conclusion, this study identified a novel BD risk SNP rs10932201 in Han Chinese and this SNP may be a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in patients with BD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2021.102648DOI Listing
May 2021

Genome-wide identification of GMP genes in Rosaceae and functional characterization of FaGMP4 in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

Genes Genomics 2021 Jun 23;43(6):587-599. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

College of Horticulture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Background: GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP) is one of the key enzymes determining ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthesis. However, little information about GMP genes is currently available for the Rosaceae species, especially in the AsA-riched cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

Objective: To identify the all the GMP genes in Rosaceae, as well as the predominant homologues and the role of GMP genes in strawberry AsA accumulation.

Methods: In the present study, we performed genome-wide identification and comprehensive analysis of the duplicated GMP genes in strawberry and other Rosaceae species by bioinformatics methods, the expression of the GMP genes from cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, FaGMP) was specifically analyzed by qPCR. Finally, the FaGMP4 was transiently overexpressed in strawberry to estimate the role of GMP in regulating AsA accumulation in strawberry.

Results: As results, a total of 28 GMP genes were identified in the five Rosaceae species. The origins of duplication events analysis suggested that most GMP duplications in Rosaceae species were generated from whole genome duplication (WGD). The Ka/Ks ratio suggested that FaGMP genes underwent a stabilization selection. qPCR based expression analysis showed different patterns of FaGMP paralogs during fruit ripening, while FaGMP4 expressed higher in the variety containing higher AsA. Overexpression of FaGMP4 in strawberry significantly enhanced AsA accumulation. Furthermore, the expression of FaGMP4 under the treatment of blue and red light was largely increased in leaves while significantly inhibited in fruit. These results revealed the vital role of FaGMP4 in regulating AsA in strawberry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-021-01062-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Automatic Classification of Hepatic Cystic Echinococcosis Using Ultrasound Images and Deep Learning.

J Ultrasound Med 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Ultrasonography Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China.

Background: Hepatic cystic echinococcosis is the main form of hepatic echinococcosis, which is a life-threatening liver disease caused by parasites that requires a precise diagnosis and proper treatment.

Objective: This study focuses on the automatic classification system of five different subtypes of hepatic cystic echinococcosis based on ultrasound images and deep learning algorithms.

Methods: Three popular deep convolutional neural networks (VGG19, Inception-v3, and ResNet18) with and without pretrained weights were selected to test their performance on the classification task, and the experiments were followed by a 5-fold cross-validation process.

Results: A total of 1820 abdominal ultrasound images covering five subtypes of hepatic cystic echinococcosis from 967 patients were used in the study. The classification accuracy for the models with pretrained weights (fine-tuning) ranged from 88.2 to 90.6%. The best accuracy of 90.6% was obtained by VGG19. For comparison, the models without pretrained weights (from scratch) achieved a lower accuracy, ranging from 69.4 to 75.1%.

Conclusion: Deep convolutional neural networks with pretrained weights are capable of recognizing different subtypes of hepatic cystic echinococcosis from ultrasound images, which are expected to be applied in the computer-aided diagnosis systems in future work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15691DOI Listing
March 2021

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Photocatalysis in Ultraviolet-Induced Nanoparticle Colloid Jet Machining.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 25;14(5). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

School of Mechanical and Electronical Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China.

In this paper, ultraviolet (UV)-induced nanoparticle colloid jet machining is proposed to achieve ultrasmooth surface polishing by using the interaction between nanoparticles and the workpiece surface under the action of the ultraviolet field and the hydrodynamic pressure field. In the process of UV-induced nanoparticle colloid jet machining, the effects of photocatalysis on the interaction between nanoparticles and the workpiece surface need to be further studied in order to better understand the polishing process. This paper presents the interaction between TiO nanoparticles and a Si workpiece surface with and without ultraviolet irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied to investigate the differences in the interaction of TiO nanoparticles with Si workpieces. The SEM and XPS results indicate that the photocatalysis of UV light can promote the interaction between TiO nanoparticles and a Si surface by creating more interfacial reaction active centers between the TiO nanoparticles and the Si workpiece. The FT-IR and XPS spectra show that TiO nanoparticles are chemically bonded to the Si workpiece by oxygen-bridging atoms in Ti-O-Si bonds. Due to the effects of photocatalysis, UV-induced nanoparticle colloid jet machining has a higher polishing efficiency than nanoparticle colloid jet machining with the same polishing parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14051070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956710PMC
February 2021

Proteasome regulation by reversible tyrosine phosphorylation at the membrane.

Oncogene 2021 Mar 18;40(11):1942-1956. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Cancer Molecular Cell Biology, Life Sciences Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Reversible phosphorylation has emerged as an important mechanism for regulating 26S proteasome function in health and disease. Over 100 phospho-tyrosine sites of the human proteasome have been detected, and yet their function and regulation remain poorly understood. Here we show that the 19S subunit Rpt2 is phosphorylated at Tyr439, a strictly conserved residue within the C-terminal HbYX motif of Rpt2 that is essential for 26S proteasome assembly. Unexpectedly, we found that Y439 phosphorylation depends on Rpt2 membrane localization mediated by its N-myristoylation. Multiple receptors tyrosine kinases can trigger Rpt2-Y439 phosphorylation by activating Src, a N-myristoylated tyrosine kinase. Src directly phosphorylates Rpt2-Y439 in vitro and negatively regulates 26S proteasome activity at cellular membranes, which can be reversed by the membrane-associated isoform of protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN2). In H1975 lung cancer cells with activated Src, blocking Rpt2-Y439 phosphorylation by the Y439F mutation conferred partial resistance to the Src inhibitor saracatinib both in vitro and in a mouse xenograft tumor model, and caused significant changes of cellular responses to saracatinib at the proteome level. Our study has defined a novel mechanism involved in the spatial regulation of proteasome function and provided new insights into tyrosine kinase inhibitor-based anticancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01674-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990385PMC
March 2021

The predictive prognostic values of serum interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and procalcitonin in surgical intensive care unit patients.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jan;9(1):56

Nursing Department, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The pathophysiological roles of serum cytokine levels in critically ill surgical patients has yet to be determined. This study aimed to determine the predictive prognostic values of serum interleukin IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and procalcitonin (PCT) in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients.

Methods: Cytokine concentrations were measured with an IMMULITE 1000 Immunoassay System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics GmbH, Berlin, Germany). The study population was divided into quartiles according to the patients' cytokine levels: Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4. The optimal cutoff values of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and PCT level for predicting mortality were established by drawing receiver operating characteristic curves.

Results: The levels of IL-2 in Q3 [odds ratio (OR) =4.434, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.527-12.874] and Q4 (OR =7.715, 95% CI: 2.744-21.693) were significantly higher than those in the Q1. The same results were noted in IL-6 and IL-8, and only Q4 (OR =2.383, 95% CI: 1.419-4.001) showed significance in the level of TNF-α. For IL-2, a cutoff value of 930.5 U/mL yielded a sensitivity of 69.39% and a specificity of 80.16% for the prediction of clinical outcome [area under the curve (AUC): 0.822; 95% CI: 0.789-0.855]. For IL-6, a cutoff value of 50.95 pg/mL showed discrimination ability, yielding a sensitivity of 71.43% and a specificity of 61.75% for (AUC: 0.704; 95% CI: 0.660-0.748). For IL-8, a cutoff value of 44.1 pg/mL yielded a sensitivity of 57.82% and a specificity of 79.58% for predicting clinical outcome (AUC: 0.753; 95% CI: 0.713-0.793). For TNF-α, a cutoff value of 11.95 pg/mL yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 68.66% and 72.90%, respectively, in predicting clinical outcome (AUC: 0.758; 95% CI: 0.717-0.800). The positive likelihood ratios for IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were 3.50, 1.87, 2.83 and 2.53, and the negative likelihood ratios were 0.38, 0.46, 0.53, and 0.43, respectively.

Conclusions: In critically ill patients, high levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in the first 24 h postoperatively were associated with clinical outcome. However, the effect of PCT level on prognosis still requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-6608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859771PMC
January 2021

Single cell ATAC-Seq reveals cell type-specific transcriptional regulation and unique chromatin accessibility in human spermatogenesis.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Medical School, Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Nantong University, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu, China.

During human spermatogenesis, germ cells undergo dynamic changes in chromatin organization/re-packaging and in transcriptomes. In order to better understand the underlying mechanism(s), scATAC-Seq of 5376 testicular cells from 3 normal men were performed. Data were analyzed in parallel with the scRNA-Seq data of human testicular cells. Ten germ cell types associated with spermatogenesis and 6 testicular somatic cell types were identified, along with 142 024 peaks located in promoter, genebody and CpG Island. We had examined chromatin accessibility of all chromosomes, with chromosomes 19 and 17 emerged as the leading chromosomes that displayed high chromatin accessibility. In accessible chromatin regions, transcription factor (TF)-binding sites were identified and specific motifs with high frequencies at different spermatogenesis stages were detected, including CTCF, BORIS, NFY, DMRT6, EN1, ISL1 and GLI3. Two most notable observations were noted. First, TLE3 was specifically expressed in differentiating spermatogonia. Second, PFN4 was found to be involved in actin cytoskeletal organization during meiosis. More important, unique regions upstream of PFN4 and TLE3 were shown to display high accessibility, illustrating their significance in supporting human spermatogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab006DOI Listing
January 2021

Procalcitonin related to stroke-associated pneumonia and clinical outcomes of acute ischemic stroke after IV rt-PA treatment.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, No. 188 Shizi Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 215006, People's Republic of China.

To investigate the possible relationship between procalcitonin (PCT) and stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) as well as clinical outcomes after recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment of AIS. From June 2015 to December 2019, 173 consecutive patients with AIS after IV rt-PA treatment were prospectively enrolled. Serum PCT concentrations were measured after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the potential risk factors of SAP, poor outcome and mortality. Of the 173 patients, 49 (28.3%) participants were identified with SAP, 87 (50.3%) with poor outcome, and 28 (16.2%) with mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients with PCT in the second [odds ratio (OR) 4.413; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.331-14.634; P = 0.015] and third tertile (OR 10.958; 95% CI 3.524-34.071; P < 0.001) were more likely to have SAP compared with the first tertile. Besides, PCT was an independent predictor of 3-month poor outcome (OR 3.219, 95% CI 1.291-8.028, P = 0.007) and mortality (OR 7.538, 95% CI 2.061-27.564, P = 0.002). In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of PCT was higher than hs-CRP. This study demonstrated that PCT was a reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of SAP and poor clinical outcomes in Chinese AIS patients after IV rt-PA treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10571-020-01031-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Preparation and Biological Property Evaluation of Novel Cationic Lipid-Based Liposomes for Efficient Gene Delivery.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2021 Jan 3;22(1):22. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Pharmacy Department, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310006, China.

Novel cationic lipid-based liposomes prepared using an amphiphilic cationic lipid material, N,N-dimethyl-(N',N'-di-stearoyl-1-ethyl)1,3-diaminopropane (DMSP), have been proposed to enhance the transfection of nucleic acids. Herein, we designed and investigated liposomes prepared using DMSP, soybean phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol. This novel gene vector has high gene loading capabilities and excellent protection against nuclease degradation. An in vitro study showed that the liposomes had lower toxicity and superior cellular uptake and transfection efficiency compared with Lipofectamine 2000. An endosomal escape study revealed that the liposomes demonstrated high endosomal escape and released their genetic payload in the cytoplasm efficiently. Mechanistic studies indicated that the liposome/nucleic acid complexes entered cells through energy-dependent endocytosis that was mediated by fossa proteins. These results suggest that such cationic lipid-based liposome vectors have potential for clinical gene delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-020-01868-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Three-month Follow-up Study of Survivors of Coronavirus Disease 2019 after Discharge.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 Dec 7;35(47):e418. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Most patients including health care workers (HCWs) survived the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), however, knowledge about the sequelae of COVID-19 after discharge remains limited.

Methods: A prospectively observational 3-month follow-up study evaluated symptoms, dynamic changes of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG and IgM, lung function, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of survivors of COVID-19 after discharge at Wuhan Union Hospital, China.

Results: Seventy-six survivors (55 females) with a mean age of 41.3 ± 13.8 years were enrolled, and 65 (86%) were HCWs. A total of 69 (91%) patients had returned to their original work at 3-months after discharge. Most of the survivors had symptoms including fever, sputum production, fatigue, diarrhea, dyspnea, cough, chest tightness on exertion and palpitations in the three months after discharge. The serum troponin-I levels during the acute illness showed high correlation with the symptom of fatigue after hospital discharge ( = 0.782; = 0.008) and lymphopenia was correlated with the symptoms of chest tightness and palpitations on exertion of patients after hospital discharge ( = -.285, = 0.027; = -.363, = 0.004, respectively). The mean values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, total lung capacity and diffusion capacity were all normal (> 80% predicted) and lung HRCTs returned to normal in most of the patients (82%), however, 42% of survivors had mild pulmonary function abnormalities at 3-months after discharge. SARS-CoV-2 IgG turned negative in 11% (6 of 57 patients), 8% (4 of 52 patients) and 13% (7 of 55 patients), and SARS-CoV-2 IgM turned negative in 72% (41 of 57 patients), 85% (44 of 52 patients) and 87% (48 of 55 patients) at 1-month, 2-months and 3-months after discharge, respectively.

Conclusion: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 caused some mild impairments of survivors within the first three months of their discharge and the duration of SARS-CoV-2 antibody was limited, which indicates the necessity of long-term follow-up of survivors of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721559PMC
December 2020

Identification of Anthocyanins-Related Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Genes in the Genome of Cultivated Strawberry ( × ).

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 18;21(22). Epub 2020 Nov 18.

College of Horticulture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Anthocyanins are responsible for the red color of strawberry, they are a subclass of flavonoids synthesized in cytosol and transferred to vacuole to form the visible color. Previous studies in model and ornamental plants indicated members of the glutathione S-transferase () gene family were involved in vacuolar accumulation of anthocyanins. In the present study, a total of 130 genes were identified in the genome of cultivated strawberry ( × ), which were unevenly distributed across the 28 chromosomes from the four subgenomes. Evolutionary analysis revealed the expansion of family was under stable selection and mainly drove by WGD/segmental duplication event. Classification and phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the genes were clarified into seven subclasses, among which , , and belonging to Phi class were closely related to , an anthocyanin-related of wildwood strawberry, and this clade was clustered with other known anthocyanin-related . RNAseq-based expression analysis at different developmental stages of strawberry revealed that the expression of , , , , and was gradually increased during the fruit ripening, consistent with the anthocyanins accumulation. These expression patterns of those five genes were also significantly correlated with those of other anthocyanin biosynthetic genes such as , , and , as well as anthocyanin regulatory gene . These results indicated , , , , and may function in vacuolar anthocyanin accumulation in cultivated strawberry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698900PMC
November 2020

Distribution and resistance of pathogens in infected patients within 1 year after heart transplantation.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Feb 16;103:132-137. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Background: Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after heart transplantation (HT). However, there have been few data on clinical manifestation, distribution, and resistance of pathogens in the infected population of heart transplant recipients.

Methods: We conducted a single-center retrospective study on patients who underwent HT in Wuhan Union Hospital from August 3, 2012 to July 30, 2016. Risk factors for infections that occur within 1 year after HT were investigated by multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results: Among 299 patients, 147 patients (49.2%) confirmed infection. The most common site of infection was the respiratory system. A total of 259 pathogens were detected in 147 patients (49.2%) with infection after HT. In all, 64 multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria were detected in infected patients within 1 year after HT, the most common MDR bacteria were extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) Klebsiella pneumonia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the multivariable model, diabetes (OR 3.273 [95%CI, 1.748-6.130], and p < .001) and antibiotics treatment within 1 month before transplant (OR 1.860 [95%CI, 1.093-3.166], and p = .022) were significantly associated with infections within 1 year after HT.

Conclusions: This study confirmed the high rate of infections within 1 year after HT. Diabetes and antibiotics treatment within 1 month before transplant were independent risk factors for infections within 1 year after HT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.137DOI Listing
February 2021

Broaden the sugar donor selectivity of blackberry glycosyltransferase UGT78H2 through residual substitutions.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 29;166:277-287. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

College of Horticulture, Sichuan Agricultural University, China; Institute of Pomology and Olericulture, Sichuan Agricultural University, China. Electronic address:

Glycosylated secondary metabolites constitute a large proportion of nutrients or ingredients in consumed plants and related products. The glycosyl decoration largely depends on the activity of plant UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Mechanisms underlying the substrate selectivity and specificity of these reactions remain elusive. Here we report the cloning and functional characterization of a UGT, UGT78H2 in blackberry fruits. In vitro enzyme substrate specificity analysis and enzymatic kinetics evidenced that UGT78H2 glycosylate exclusively quercetin using uridine-5' diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDP-glucuronic acid) and uridine-5' diphosphate galactose (UDP-galactose). Site-directed mutagenesis was introduced into two residuals (N340P, K360N) previously unexplored. The mutation enhanced the protein catalyzing efficiency, especially toward UDP-galactose (23% higher), and expanded the sugar donor selectivity, which can use UDP-glucose as well. Molecular modeling and biochemical analysis results enable identification of the 23rd residue (360th in UGT78H2) of the PSPG (plant secondary product glycosyltransferase) motif as a key residue in defining this sugar selecting spectrum. Additionally, promoter of UGT78H2 was obtained. Transgenic analysis using the UGT78H2pro::GUS reporter system demonstrated that transcripts controlled by the promoter predominantly expressed in younger tissues. Subcellular localization study revealed that UGT78H2 was a soluble protein in the nucleus and cytoplasm. These results clarified the bio-function of UGT78H2 and provided a valid approach for substrate selectivity modification in horticultural plants, particularly for sugar donor selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.10.184DOI Listing
January 2021

Identification of the Cytosolic Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene from Strawberry Involved in Cold Stress Response.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 3;21(19). Epub 2020 Oct 3.

College of Horticulture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) plays an important role in plant stress responses. Here, five sequences were obtained in strawberry, designated as , , , and , which were divided into cytosolic (CY) and plastidic (P) isoforms based on the bioinformatic analysis. The respective genes had distinct expression patterns in all tissues and at different stages of fruit development. Notably, was the most highly expressed gene among five members, indicating it encoded the major G6PDH isoform throughout the plant. FaG6PDH positively regulated cold tolerance in strawberry. Inhibition of its activity gave rise to greater cold-induced injury in plant. The transcript had a significant increase under cold stress, similar to the G6PDH enzyme activity, suggesting a principal participant in response to cold stress. Further study showed that the low-temperature responsiveness (LTR) element in promoter can promote the gene expression when plant encountered cold stimuli. Besides, was involved in regulating cold-induced activation of antioxidant enzyme genes (, , and ) and RBOH-dependent ROS generation. The elevated enhanced ROS-scavenging capability of antioxidant enzymes to suppress ROS excessive accumulation and relieved the oxidative damage, eventually improving the strawberry resistance to cold stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582851PMC
October 2020

Genome-Wide Analysis of the Heat Shock Transcription Factor Gene Family in : Structure, Evolution, and Expression Profiles.

DNA Cell Biol 2020 Nov 18;39(11):1990-2004. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

College of Horticulture and Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) is ubiquitous in the whole biological world and plays an important role in regulating growth and development and responses to environment stress. In this study, a total of 60 HSF transcription factors in genome were identified and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HSF genes were divided into three groups namely: A, B, and C, of which group A was further divided into nine subgroups (A1-A9). The analysis of gene structure and conserved motifs showed that some homologous genes are highly conserved. There was strong conservative microcollinearity among , , and , which provides a basis for studying the replication of gene families. Moreover, the results revealed that the promoter regions of genes were rich in -elements related to growth and development, hormone signal, and stress response. The prediction of protein interaction results showed that HSFs could interact with multiple transcription factors and proteins in the genome, while functional annotation revealed that genes were involved in many biological processes. The expression patterns of genes were analyzed by qPCR, and the results showed that these genes were closely linked to stress response, hormones, and development process. These results are a foundation for further analysis of the regulation mechanism of HSF gene family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2020.5922DOI Listing
November 2020

Coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and Other Respiratory Pathogens.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 26;13:3045-3053. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wuhan Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To differentiate between respiratory infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, we simultaneously tested for SARS-CoV-2 and pathogens associated with CAP to determine the incidence and impact of respiratory coinfections in COVID-19 patients.

Patients And Methods: We included 250 patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19. RT-PCR was used to detect influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial viruses. Chemiluminescence immunoassays were used to detect IgM antibodies for adenovirus, and in the serum of patients. Based on these results, we divided the patients into two groups, the simple SARS-CoV-2-infected group and the coinfected SARS-COV-2 group. Coinfected patients were then further categorized as having a coinfection of viral pathogen (CoIV) or coinfection of atypical bacterial pathogen (CoIaB).

Results: No statistically significant differences were found in age, gender, the time taken to return negative SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test results, length of hospital stays, and mortality between the simple SARS-CoV-2 infection group and the coinfection group. Of the 250 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 39 (15.6%) tested positive for at least one respiratory pathogen in addition to SARS-CoV-2. A third of these pathogens were detected as early as the 1st week after symptom onset and another third were identified after more than three weeks. The most detected CAP pathogen was (5.2%), followed by the respiratory syncytial virus (4.8%), (4.4%) and adenovirus (2.8%). Patients coinfected with viral pathogens (CoIV) (n=18) had longer hospital stays when compared to patients coinfected with atypical bacterial pathogens (CoIaB) (n=21). Except for one fatality, the remaining 38 coinfected patients all recovered with favourable outcomes.

Conclusion: Coinfections in COVID-19 patients are common. The coinfecting pathogens can be detected at variable intervals during COVID-19 disease course and remain an important consideration in targeted treatment strategies for COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S267238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457866PMC
August 2020

In-situ immobilization of cadmium-polluted upland soil: A ten-year field study.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 10;207:111275. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

In-situ immobilization is an effective and economically viable strategy for remediation of soil extensively polluted with heavy metals. The long-term sustainability is critical for the remediation practice. In the present study, a ten-year experiment was performed in a Cd-polluted agricultural field to evaluate the long-term stability of lime, silicon fertilizer (SF), fused calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (FCMP), bone charcoal, steel slag, and blast furnace slag with one-off application. All amendments had no significant effect on biomass but significantly reduced Cd uptake by Artemisia selengensis at higher dose. Among them, SF and FCMP applied at 1% could reduce Cd uptake by more than 40% to meet the Chinese maximum permissible limit for Cd content in food products (50 μg kg). These amendments stimulated high Cd immobilization by increasing the soil pH and decreasing the soil acid-extractable Cd content, which were closely associated with Cd uptake. In addition, the two amendments altered the soil microbial structure and stimulated metabolism pathways, including amino acid, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism, which are beneficial for soil function and quality. The results proved that SF and FCMP at 1% are stable and ecologically safe amendments, suitable for long-term Cd immobilization, and provide a strategy to mitigate the risk of food product contamination in heavy-metal-polluted soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111275DOI Listing
January 2021

Traumatic vertebral fractures involve the anterior end plate more than the posterior end plate: A retrospective study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Aug;99(34):e21572

Department of Radiology, Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine.

Traumatic end plate fractures (EPFs) refers to the EPF caused by trauma, rather than the pathological status of the end plate (EP). However, some old traumatic EPFs may be mistaken as osteoporotic in the elderly. The objective of this study is to describe the radiological features of traumatic EPF in different traumatic fracture type patients presenting in the Emergency department setting. And to compare the result with osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VF).This study retrospectively analyzed the anatomical location of acute thoracolumbar vertebral traumatic EPFs in males (age≤55 years) and females (age≤50 years). The anatomic distribution of EPFs, the anterior and posterior wall fracture were analyzed in patients, who were scanned with 1 or more of the following methods: radiography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging.There were 194 cases of acute spine trauma involving at least 1 EPF, including 118 males and 76 females. The involved vertebra was mostly at L1 (29.7%), followed by T12 (18.3%), and then by L2 (12.9%). Excluding those with both upper and lower EP involvements, the ratio of superior EPF to inferior EPF was 33.5 for males and 45.5 for females. With the EP divided into 5 segments of equal length in the anteroposterior direction in different fracture types, fractures occurred mostly at a2 segment (71.48% for superior EPs and 7.60% for inferior EPs), followed by a1 segment (66.16% for superior EPs). The upper third of the anterior and posterior walls were most prone to fracture in traumatic vertebral fracture.Traumatic EPFs more likely involve the anterior EP more than the posterior EP and is correlated with fracture type. These characteristics may help radiologist differential diagnosis between traumatic and osteoporotic EPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7447371PMC
August 2020

Tumorous Stem Development of : A Complex Regulatory Network of Stem Formation and Identification of Key Genes in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Aug 9;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 9.

College of Horticulture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Stem mustard is a stem variety of mustard, an important vegetable. The formation and development of the tumorous stem, which is the key organ for the direct yield and quality, is a complex biological process involving morphogenesis, material accumulation and gene regulation. In this study, we demonstrated through anatomical studies that stem swelling is mainly dependent on the increase in the number of cells and the volume of parenchyma cells in the cortex and pith. To further understand transcript and metabolic changes during stem swelling, we obtained 27,901 differentially expressed genes, of which 671 were specifically detected using transcriptome sequencing technology in all four stages of stem swelling. Functional annotation identified enrichment for genes involved in photosynthesis, energy metabolism, cell growth, sulfur metabolism and glucosinolate biosynthesis. Glucosinolates are a group of nitrogen- and sulfur-containing secondary metabolites, which largely exist in the Cruciferous vegetables. HPLC analysis of the contents and components of glucosinolates in four different stem development stages revealed eight glucosinolates, namely, three aliphatic glucosinolates (sinigrin, glucoalyssin and gluconapin), four indole glucosinolates (4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin) and one aromatic glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). All these types of glucosinolates showed a significant downward trend during the stem swelling period. The content of aliphatic glucosinolates was the highest, with sinigrin being the main component. In addition, qPCR was used to validate the expression of nine genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis. Most of these genes were down-regulated during stem swelling in qPCR, which is consistent with transcriptome data. These data provide a basic resource for further molecular and genetic research on .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9081006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466272PMC
August 2020
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