Publications by authors named "Xiaorong Tao"

46 Publications

Efficacy of evoked potential monitoring for predicting postoperative motor status in internal carotid artery aneurysm surgeries.

J Clin Monit Comput 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neurophysiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, 119 South Fourth Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100070, China.

This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intraoperative motor evoked potential (MEP) and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring for predicting postoperative motor deficits (PMDs) in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. The data for 138 patients with ICA aneurysms who underwent surgical clipping as well as their intraoperative neuromonitoring data were retrospectively reviewed. The efficacy of MEP/SSEP changes for predicting PMDs was assessed using binary logistic regression analysis. Subsequently, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to obtain a supplementary critical value of the MEP/SSEP deterioration duration. The sensitivity and specificity of MEP changes for predicting PMDs were 0.824 and 0.843, respectively. For SSEP changes, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.529 and 0.959, respectively. MEP and SSEP changes were identified as independent predictors for short-term (p = 0.002 and 0.011, respectively) and long-term PMDs (p = 0.040 and 0.006, respectively). The supplementary critical value for MEP deterioration duration for predicting PMDs was 14 min (p = 0.007, AUC = 0.805). For SSEP, the value was 14.5 min (p = 0.042, AUC = 0.875). The MEP/SSEP changes adjusted by those optimal values were also identified as independent predictors for short-term (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively) and long-term PMDs (p = 0.019 and 0.003, respectively). Intraoperative MEP and SSEP deterioration durations are effective in predicting PMDs in patients with ICA aneurysms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10877-021-00693-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Purification of Rice Stripe Virus.

Bio Protoc 2020 Mar 20;10(6):e3565. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Although many spherical and rod-shaped plant virus purification protocols are now available, only a few protocols on filamentous plant virus purification have been published. Here, we report a protocol for large-scale purification of Rice stripe virus (RSV) from RSV-infected rice tissues. RSV virions with high infectivity were first precipitated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) followed by pelleting through primary ultracentrifugation, ultracentrifugation in a glycerol cushion and ultracentrifugation in density gradient. The purified RSV virions can not only be viewed as filamentous particles under an electron microscope, but can also be acquired by insect vector through direct injection into insect body or through membrane feeding prior to transmission to rice plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.3565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842563PMC
March 2020

Expression, purification and crystallization of the N-terminal Solanaceae domain of the Sw-5b NLR immune receptor.

Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2021 Jan 1;77(Pt 1):8-12. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People's Republic of China.

Plant nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) play crucial roles in recognizing pathogen effectors and activating plant immunity. The tomato NLR Sw-5b is a coiled-coil NLR (CC-NLR) immune receptor that confers resistance against tospoviruses, which cause serious economic losses in agronomic crops worldwide. Compared with other CC-NLRs, Sw-5b possesses an extended N-terminal Solanaceae domain (SD). The SD of Sw-5b is critical for recognition of the tospovirus viral movement protein NSm. An SD is also frequently detected in many NLRs from Solanaceae plants. However, no sequences homologous to the SD have been detected in animals or in plants other than Solanaceae. The properties of the SD protein are largely unknown, and thus 3D structural information is vital in order to better understand its role in pathogen perception and the activation of immune receptors. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of Sw-5b SD (amino acids 1-245) are reported. Native and selenomethionine-substituted crystals of the SD protein belonged to space group P312, with unit-cell parameters a = 81.53, b = 81.53, c = 98.44 Å and a = 81.63, b = 81.63, c = 98.80 Å, respectively. This is the first report of a structural study of the noncanonical SD domain of the NLR proteins from Solanaceae plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2053230X20016398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805550PMC
January 2021

Corrigendum: Functional analysis reveals G/U pairs critical for replication and trafficking of an infectious non-coding viroid RNA.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 01;49(1):596-598

Department of Molecular Genetics, Center for Applied Plant Sciences, Center for RNA Biology, and Infectious Diseases Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa1211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797051PMC
January 2021

Identifying the Epileptogenic Zone With the Relative Strength of High-Frequency Oscillation: A Stereoelectroencephalography Study.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 9;14:186. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: High-frequency oscillation (HFO) represents a promising biomarker of epileptogenicity. However, the significant interindividual differences among patients limit its application in clinical practice. Here, we applied and evaluated an individualized, frequency-based approach of HFO analysis in stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) data for localizing the epileptogenic zones (EZs).

Methods: Clinical and SEEG data of 19 patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy were retrospectively analyzed. The individualized spectral power of all signals recorded by electrode array, i.e., the relative strength of HFO, was computed with a wavelet method for each patient. Subsequently, the clinical value of the relative strength of HFO for identifying the EZ was evaluated.

Results: Focal increase in the relative strength of HFO in SEEG recordings were identified in all 19 patients. HFOs identified inside the clinically identified seizure onset zone had more spectral power than those identified outside ( < 0.001), and HFOs in 250-500 Hz band (fast ripples) seemed to be more specific identifying the EZ than in those in 80-250 Hz band (ripples) ( < 0.01). The resection of brain regions generating HFOs resulted in a favorable seizure outcome in 17 patients (17/19; 89.5%), while in the cases of other patients with poor outcomes, the brain regions generating HFOs were not removed completely.

Conclusion: The relative strength of HFO, especially fast ripples, is a promising effective biomarker for identifying the EZ and can lead to a favorable seizure outcome if used to guide epilepsy surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.00186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296092PMC
June 2020

Developmentally regulated Arabidopsis thaliana susceptibility to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

Mol Plant Pathol 2020 07 22;21(7):985-998. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Plant Pathology, the Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most devastating plant viruses and often causes severe crop losses worldwide. Generally, mature plants become more resistant to pathogens, known as adult plant resistance. In this study, we demonstrated a new phenomenon involving developmentally regulated susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana to TSWV. We found that Arabidopsis plants become more susceptible to TSWV as plants mature. Most young 3-week-old Arabidopsis were not infected by TSWV. Infection of TSWV in 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old Arabidopsis increased from 9%, 21%, and 25%, respectively, to 100% in 7- to 8-week-old Arabidopsis plants. Different isolates of TSWV and different tospoviruses show a low rate of infection in young Arabidopsis but a high rate in mature plants. When Arabidopsis dcl2/3/4 or rdr1/2/6 mutant plants were inoculated with TSWV, similar results as observed for the wild-type Arabidopsis plants were obtained. A cell-to-cell movement assay showed that the intercellular movement efficiency of TSWV NSm:GFP fusion was significantly higher in 8-week-old Arabidopsis leaves compared with 4-week-old Arabidopsis leaves. Moreover, the expression levels of pectin methylesterase and β-1,3-glucanase, which play critical roles in macromolecule cell-to-cell trafficking, were significantly up-regulated in 8-week-old Arabidopsis leaves compared with 4-week-old Arabidopsis leaves during TSWV infection. To date, this mature plant susceptibility to pathogen infections has rarely been investigated. Thus, the findings presented here should advance our knowledge on the developmentally regulated mature host susceptibility to plant virus infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280033PMC
July 2020

Functional analysis reveals G/U pairs critical for replication and trafficking of an infectious non-coding viroid RNA.

Nucleic Acids Res 2020 04;48(6):3134-3155

Department of Molecular Genetics, Center for Applied Plant Sciences, Center for RNA Biology, and Infectious Diseases Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

While G/U pairs are present in many RNAs, the lack of molecular studies to characterize the roles of multiple G/U pairs within a single RNA limits our understanding of their biological significance. From known RNA 3D structures, we observed that the probability a G/U will form a Watson-Crick (WC) base pair depends on sequence context. We analyzed 17 G/U pairs in the 359-nucleotide genome of Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), a circular non-coding RNA that replicates and spreads systemically in host plants. Most putative G/U base pairs were experimentally supported by selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). Deep sequencing PSTVd genomes from plants inoculated with a cloned master sequence revealed naturally occurring variants, and showed that G/U pairs are maintained to the same extent as canonical WC base pairs. Comprehensive mutational analysis demonstrated that nearly all G/U pairs are critical for replication and/or systemic spread. Two selected G/U pairs were found to be required for PSTVd entry into, but not for exit from, the host vascular system. This study identifies critical roles for G/U pairs in the survival of an infectious RNA, and increases understanding of structure-based regulation of replication and trafficking of pathogen and cellular RNAs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkaa100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7102988PMC
April 2020

Prediction of postoperative motor deficits using intraoperative motor-evoked potentials in middle cerebral artery aneurysm.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Feb 22;44(1):495-501. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Neurophysiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, 119 Fanyang Road, Beijing, 100070, China.

To explore the relationship between postoperative motor deficits and the duration of reduced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm. This study included 285 cases of MCA aneurysm treated with clipping surgery with MEP monitoring. The effects of MEP changes on postoperative motor function were assessed, and the key time point for minimizing the incidence of postoperative motor dysfunction was found through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Motor dysfunction was significantly associated with the occurrence of MEP changes, and patients with irreversible changes were more likely to suffer motor dysfunction than were those with reversible changes. The critical duration of MEP changes that minimized the risk of postoperative motor dysfunction was 8.5 min. This study revealed that MEP monitoring is an effective method for preventing ischemic brain injury during surgical treatment of MCA aneurysm and proposes a critical cutoff for the duration of MEP deterioration of 8.5 min for predicting postoperative motor dysfunction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-020-01235-0DOI Listing
February 2021

Rescue of tomato spotted wilt virus entirely from complementary DNA clones.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 01 26;117(2):1181-1190. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, 210095 Nanjing, People's Republic of China;

Negative-stranded/ambisense RNA viruses (NSVs) include not only dangerous pathogens of medical importance but also serious plant pathogens of agronomic importance. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most important plant NSVs, infecting more than 1,000 plant species, and poses major threats to global food security. The segmented negative-stranded/ambisense RNA genomes of TSWV, however, have been a major obstacle to molecular genetic manipulation. In this study, we report the complete recovery of infectious TSWV entirely from complementary DNA (cDNA) clones. First, a replication- and transcription-competent minigenome replication system was established based on 35S-driven constructs of the S-genomic (g) or S-antigenomic (ag) RNA template, flanked by the 5' hammerhead and 3' ribozyme sequence of hepatitis delta virus, a nucleocapsid (N) protein gene and codon-optimized viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. Next, a movement-competent minigenome replication system was developed based on M-gRNA, which was able to complement cell-to-cell and systemic movement of reconstituted ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) of S RNA replicon. Finally, infectious TSWV and derivatives carrying eGFP reporters were rescued via simultaneous expression of full-length cDNA constructs coding for S-agRNA, M-gRNA, and L-agRNA in which the glycoprotein gene sequence of M-gRNA was optimized. Viral rescue occurred with the addition of various RNAi suppressors including P19, HcPro, and γb, but TSWV NSs interfered with the rescue of genomic RNA. This reverse genetics system for TSWV now allows detailed molecular genetic analysis of all aspects of viral infection cycle and pathogenicity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1910787117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6969498PMC
January 2020

The XIth International Symposium on Thysanoptera and Tospoviruses Co-sponsored by Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Nanjing Agricultural University in Kunming, China 2019.

Viruses 2019 10 12;11(10). Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Resources, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650223, China.

The XIth International Symposium on Thysanoptera and Tospoviruses co-hosted by the Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and Nanjing Agricultural University was held from September 21-25 in Kunming, China (Figure 1) [...].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11100939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832289PMC
October 2019

Dynamic Transcriptional Profiles of Infected by .

Phytopathology 2020 Jan 29;110(1):153-163. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, People's Republic of China.

(TSWV) is a negative-stranded RNA virus that infects hundreds of plant species, causing great economic loss. Infected plants develop symptoms including chlorosis and wilt, which can lead to cell death. From 9 to 15 days after TSWV infection, symptoms progress through a three-stage process of appearance, severity, and death. In this study, deep sequencing technology was first used to explore gene expression in response to TSWV infection in model plant at different symptom development stages. We found that plant immune defense and protein degradation are induced by TSWV infection and that both inductions became stronger over time. The photosynthesis pathway was attenuated with TSWV infection. Cell wall metabolism had a large extent of downregulation while some genes were upregulated. These results illustrate the dynamic nature of TSWV infection in . at the whole-transcriptome level. The link between biological processes and subpathway metabolism was further analyzed. Our study provides new insight into host regulatory networks and dynamic processes in response to TSWV infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-06-19-0199-FIDOI Listing
January 2020

Cellular RNA Hubs: Friends and Foes of Plant Viruses.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2020 Jan 11;33(1):40-54. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Laboratory of Virology, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.

RNA granules are dynamic cellular foci that are widely spread in eukaryotic cells and play essential roles in cell growth and development, and immune and stress responses. Different types of granules can be distinguished, each with a specific function and playing a role in, for example, RNA transcription, modification, processing, decay, translation, and arrest. By means of communication and exchange of (shared) components, they form a large regulatory network in cells. Viruses have been reported to interact with one or more of these either cytoplasmic or nuclear granules, and act either proviral, to enable and support viral infection and facilitate viral movement, or antiviral, protecting or clearing hosts from viral infection. This review describes an overview and recent progress on cytoplasmic and nuclear RNA granules and their interplay with virus infection, first in animal systems and as a prelude to the status and current developments on plant viruses, which have been less well studied on this thus far.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-06-19-0161-FIDOI Listing
January 2020

Tenuivirus utilizes its glycoprotein as a helper component to overcome insect midgut barriers for its circulative and propagative transmission.

PLoS Pathog 2019 03 28;15(3):e1007655. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, P.R. China.

Many persistent transmitted plant viruses, including rice stripe virus (RSV), cause serious damage to crop production worldwide. Although many reports have indicated that a successful insect-mediated virus transmission depends on a proper interaction between the virus and its insect vector, the mechanism(s) controlling this interaction remained poorly understood. In this study, we used RSV and its small brown planthopper (SBPH) vector as a working model to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the entrance of RSV virions into SBPH midgut cells for virus circulative and propagative transmission. We have determined that this non-enveloped tenuivirus uses its non-structural glycoprotein NSvc2 as a helper component to overcome the midgut barrier(s) for RSV replication and transmission. In the absence of this glycoprotein, purified RSV virions were unable to enter SBPH midgut cells. In the RSV-infected cells, this glycoprotein was processed into two mature proteins: an amino-terminal protein (NSvc2-N) and a carboxyl-terminal protein (NSvc2-C). Both NSvc2-N and NSvc2-C interact with RSV virions. Our results showed that the NSvc2-N could bind directly to the surface of midgut lumen via its N-glycosylation sites. Upon recognition, the midgut cells underwent endocytosis followed by compartmentalization of RSV virions and NSvc2 into early and then late endosomes. The NSvc2-C triggered cell membrane fusion via its highly conserved fusion loop motifs under the acidic condition inside the late endosomes, leading to the release of RSV virions from endosomes into cytosol. In summary, our results showed for the first time that a rice tenuivirus utilized its glycoprotein NSvc2 as a helper component to ensure a proper interaction between its virions and SBPH midgut cells for its circulative and propagative transmission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456217PMC
March 2019

Paving the Way to Tospovirus Infection: Multilined Interplays with Plant Innate Immunity.

Annu Rev Phytopathol 2019 08 20;57:41-62. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; email:

Tospoviruses are among the most important plant pathogens and cause serious crop losses worldwide. Tospoviruses have evolved to smartly utilize the host cellular machinery to accomplish their life cycle. Plants mount two layers of defense to combat their invasion. The first one involves the activation of an antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) defense response. However, tospoviruses encode an RNA silencing suppressor that enables them to counteract antiviral RNAi. To further combat viral invasion, plants also employ intracellular innate immune receptors (e.g., Sw-5b and Tsw) to recognize different viral effectors (e.g., NSm and NSs). This leads to the triggering of a much more robust defense against tospoviruses called effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Tospoviruses have further evolved their effectors and can break Sw-5b-/Tsw-mediated resistance. The arms race between tospoviruses and both layers of innate immunity drives the coevolution of host defense and viral genes involved in counter defense. In this review, a state-of-the-art overview is presented on the tospoviral life cycle and the multilined interplays between tospoviruses and the distinct layers of defense.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-082718-100309DOI Listing
August 2019

Prediction of postoperative motor deficits using motor evoked potential deterioration duration in intracranial aneurysm surgery.

Clin Neurophysiol 2019 05 7;130(5):707-713. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Neurophysiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The study aimed to investigate the predictive value of motor evoked potential (MEP) deterioration duration for postoperative motor deficits in patients undergoing intracranial aneurysm surgery.

Methods: Data from 587 patients were reviewed and 92 patients with MEP deterioration were enrolled. MEP deterioration duration was compared between patients with and without postoperative motor deficits. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to define the threshold value for predicting postoperative motor deficit risk. Additionally, the association between MEP deterioration duration and postoperative CT findings was explored.

Results: Patients with postoperative motor deficits had a significantly longer MEP deterioration duration (p < 0.01). An MEP deterioration duration greater than or equal to 13 min was identified as an independent predictor of immediate (p < 0.01), short-term (p < 0.01), and long-term postoperative motor deficits (p < 0.05). There was no significant association between MEP deterioration duration and new CT abnormalities.

Conclusion: MEP deterioration duration could be used for predicting intracranial aneurysm surgical outcome.

Significance: The study first proposed a threshold value of MEP deterioration duration (13 min) for predicting the risk of postoperative motor deficits in patients undergoing intracranial aneurysm surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2019.02.010DOI Listing
May 2019

A Plant Immune Receptor Adopts a Two-Step Recognition Mechanism to Enhance Viral Effector Perception.

Mol Plant 2019 02 11;12(2):248-262. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Plant intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors play critical roles in pathogen surveillance. Most plant NLRs characterized so far were found to use a single domain/sensor to recognize pathogen effectors. Here we report that the Sw-5b NLR immune receptor uses two distinct domains to detect the viral movement protein NSm encoded by tospovirus. In addition to its leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain that has been previously reported, the N-terminal Solanaceae domain (SD) of Sw-5b also interacts with NSm and a conserved 21-amino-acid region of NSm (NSm). The specific interaction between Sw-5b SD and NSm is required for releasing the inhibitory effect of coiled-coil domain on the NB-ARC-LRR region. Furthermore, we found that the binding of NSm affects the nucleotide binding activity of the NB-ARC-LRR in vitro, while Sw-5b NB-ARC-LRR is activated only when NSm and NSm levels are high. Interestingly, Sw-5b SD could significantly enhance the ability of the NB-ARC-LRR to detect low levels of NSm effector and facilitate its activation and induction of defense response. An Sw-5b SD mutant that is disrupted in NSm recognition failed to enhance the ability of the NB-ARC-LRR to sense low levels of NSm and NSm. Taken together, our results suggest that Sw-5b SD functions as an extra sensor and the NB-ARC-LRR as an activator, and that Sw-5b NLR adopts a two-step recognition mechanism to enhance viral effector perception.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2019.01.005DOI Listing
February 2019

A prediction of postoperative neurological deficits following intracranial aneurysm surgery using somatosensory evoked potential deterioration duration.

Neurosurg Rev 2020 Feb 12;43(1):293-299. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Neuroelectrophysiology Room of Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Although the application of somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) in intracranial aneurysm surgery has been well demonstrated, the relationship between the duration of SSEP deterioration and postoperative neurological deficits (PNDs) is still not clear. The objectives of this study were (1) to detect the relationship between the SSEP deterioration duration and PND; and (2) detect the relationship between SSEP deterioration duration and postoperative computed tomography (CT) findings. Data from 587 patients were reviewed and 40 patients with SSEP deterioration were enrolled. Four patients presented irreversible disappearance and 36 patients presented reversible deterioration (including 9 [25%] patients with reversible reduction and 27 [75%] patients with reversible disappearance). In the patients with reversible SSEP deterioration, 17 patients had PNDs, and the SSEP deterioration duration was 42 ± 46 min, ranging from 5 to 180 min. Nineteen patients did not have PNDs, and their duration of SSEP deterioration was 11 ± 9 min (range 2-40 min). The SSEP deterioration duration significantly differed between patients with or without PND (P < 0.01). Eleven minutes is the optimal cut-off value of motor evoked potential change duration avoiding PND (area under the curve = 0.84). Patients with a SSEP deteriorating duration > 11 min had a significant higher incidence rate of abnormal CT finding postoperatively (p < 0.05). According to these results, we conclude that the duration of SSEP deterioration is extremely important to postoperative neurological function, and in order to avoid PND, the SSEP deterioration duration must not exceed 10 min. The SSEP deterioration duration is also associated with postoperative CT findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-019-01077-5DOI Listing
February 2020

Non-Structural Protein NSm of Is an Avirulence Factor Recognized by Resistance Genes of Tobacco and Tomato via Different Elicitor Active Sites.

Viruses 2018 11 21;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

(TSWV) is one of the most destructive viral pathogens of plants. Recently, a single dominant gene conferring complete resistance to TSWV (RTSW) was identified in and introgressed into cultivated tobacco (). However, whether the TSWV carries an avirulence (Avr) factor directed against RTSW remains obscure. In the present study, we identified the non-structural protein (NSm), the movement protein of TSWV, which is an RTSW-specific Avr factor, by using two different transient expression systems. Using amino acid (aa) substitution mutants, we demonstrated the ability to induce RTSW-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) of NSm is independent of its movement function. Moreover, key substitutions (C118Y and T120N), a 21-aa viral effector epitope, and different truncated versions of NSm, which are responsible for the recognition of the resistance gene of tomato, were tested for their ability to trigger HR to TSWV in tobacco. Together, our results demonstrated that RTSW-mediated resistance is triggered by NSm in the same way as by Sw-5b, however, via different elicitor active sites. Finally, an gene-based diagnostic approach was established and used to determine the presence and effectiveness of resistance genes in tobacco.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10110660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6265799PMC
November 2018

Molecular Co-Chaperone SGT1 Is Critical for Cell-to-Cell Movement and Systemic Infection of Tomato Spotted Wild Virus in Nicotiana benthamiana.

Viruses 2018 11 17;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Tospovirus is a tripartite negative stranded RNA virus and is considered as one of the most devastating plant viruses. Successful virus infection in plant requires many host factors. To date, very few host factors have been identified as important in infection in plants. We reported earlier that NSm protein encoded by (TSWV), a type species of the genus plays critical roles in viral cell-to-cell and long-distance movement. In this study, we determined that molecular co-chaperone NbSGT1 interacted with TSWV NSm in . TSWV infection significantly upregulated the expression of gene and transient overexpression of in leaves accelerated TSWV infection. In contrast, silencing the gene expression using a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach strongly inhibited TSWV NSm cell-to-cell movement, as well as TSWV local and systemic infection in plants. Furthermore, NbSGT1 was found to regulate the infection of both American and Euro/Asia type tospoviruses in plant. Collectively, our findings presented in this paper and the results published previously indicated that molecular co-chaperone NbSGT1 plays important roles in modulating both positive stranded and tripartite negative stranded RNA virus infection in plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10110647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267219PMC
November 2018

Neuronavigation-Guided Corticospinal Tract Mapping in Brainstem Tumor Surgery: Better Preservation of Motor Function.

World Neurosurg 2018 Aug 4;116:e291-e297. Epub 2018 May 4.

Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Department of Neuroelectrophysiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate a new technique in brainstem surgery, neuronavigation (NN)-guided corticospinal tract (CST) mapping, in a retrospective study of patients undergoing brainstem tumor surgery.

Methods: We studied 40 patients with a brainstem tumor who were enrolled in this study. Patients whose worst preoperative muscle strength of the 4 limbs was greater than 3 levels from normal on the Lovett scale were divided into 2 groups: a treatment group of 21 patients who underwent NN-guided CST mapping and routine intraoperative neurophysiology monitoring (IONM) and a control group of 19 patients who underwent routine NN and IONM. Preoperative muscle strength and postoperative (day 90 postsurgery) muscle strength were assessed and compared between the 2 groups.

Results: In the NN-guided CST mapping group, 3 patients (14.3%) had a decrease in muscle strength by 1 level postoperatively, and no patient experienced a decrease of >1 level. In the control group, 4 patients (21.1%) had a 1-level decrease in muscle strength, and 5 (26.3%) had a decrease of >1 level. Patients in the NN-guided CST mapping group had significantly better surgical outcomes compared with those in the control group (P = 0.018, Fisher exact test).

Conclusions: Brainstem tumor resection using NN-guided CST mapping achieved better preservation of motor function compared with routine NN and IONM. NN-guided CST mapping not only decreased the difficulty of the surgery, but also significantly improved the efficiency of surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.04.189DOI Listing
August 2018

Predictive Value of Intraoperative Facial Motor Evoked Potentials in Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery Under 2 Anesthesia Protocols.

World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 16;111:e267-e276. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We sought to validate the feasibility of facial motor evoked potential (FMEP) in facial nerve (FN) monitoring during vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery under 2 anesthesia protocols and to examine its value for postoperative prognosis.

Methods: This prospective study included 106 patients with VS who underwent microsurgical excision between May 2014 and November 2016 at the Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. All patients were investigated for FMEP elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation in the contralateral facial motor cortex. The patients randomly received total intravenous anesthesia or combined intravenous-inhalation anesthesia. Postoperative FN function was evaluated 7-10 days after surgery (short-term) and at the last follow-up (long-term) using the House-Brackmann (HB) grading system. HB grades 1 and 2 were deemed satisfactory, whereas HB grades 3-6 were deemed unsatisfactory. The value of the final-to-start FMEP ratio for predicting short-term and long-term postoperative FN functions was examined.

Results: Valid FMEPs were obtained in 97 patients, which were recorded from the mentalis muscle. The FMEP amplitude ratio was significantly correlated with short-term and long-term postoperative FN functions. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the FMEP ratio cut-off values of 77.4% (area under the curve = 0.797) and 56.9% (area under the curve = 0.900) predicted satisfactory FN function 7-10 days after surgery and at the last follow-up, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found in FMEP quantitative parameters between the 2 anesthesia protocols.

Conclusion: The FMEP amplitude ratio is a valuable predictor for postoperative FN function. FMEP ratio ≥57% is predictive of satisfactory long-term FN function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2017.12.029DOI Listing
March 2018

Complete genome sequence of a lettuce chlorosis virus isolate from China and genome recombination/rearrangement analysis.

Arch Virol 2018 Mar 4;163(3):751-754. Epub 2017 Nov 4.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, 210095, Nanjing, China.

We determined the complete genome sequence of a lettuce chlorosis crinivirus (LCV) from China (LCV-NJ). The bipartite genome of LCV-NJ consists of RNA1 and RNA2 which are 8165 and 8454 nucleotides (nt) in length, respectively. The genomic structure of LCV-NJ RNA1 resembles that of LCV-California, an isolate with four open reading frames (ORFs) in RNA1. Although the amino acid sequences of ORF 1a and 1b have 92 and 99% identity between LCV-NJ and LCV-California, ORF 2 and ORF3 of LCV-NJ share only 63 and 71% identity with those of LCV-California, respectively. In addition LCV-NJ RNA2 contains 9 ORFs, compared to 10 ORFs in LCV-California. ORF10 was missing due to the deletion of a 173-nt sequence within the 3'-terminal region of LCV-NJ RNA2. Insertion or deletion of sequences of varying lengths was also observed in RNA1 and other regions of RNA2. Based on these findings, we propose that LCV-NJ/LCV-California may have undergone genome recombination and/or rearrangement in RNA1 and RNA2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-017-3604-xDOI Listing
March 2018

The Intracellular Immune Receptor Sw-5b Confers Broad-Spectrum Resistance to Tospoviruses through Recognition of a Conserved 21-Amino Acid Viral Effector Epitope.

Plant Cell 2017 Sep 16;29(9):2214-2232. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P.R. China

Plants use both cell surface-resident pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors to detect various pathogens. Plant PRRs typically recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to provide broad-spectrum resistance. By contrast, plant NLRs generally detect pathogen strain-specific effectors and confer race-specific resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the tomato () NLR Sw-5b confers broad-spectrum resistance against American-type tospoviruses by recognizing a conserved 21-amino acid peptide region within viral movement protein NSm (NSm). Sw-5b NB-ARC-LRR domains directly associate with NSm in vitro and in planta. Domain swap, site-directed mutagenesis and structure modeling analyses identified four polymorphic sites in the Sw-5b LRR domain that are critical for the recognition of NSm Furthermore, recognition of NSm by Sw-5b likely disturbs the residues adjacent to R927 in the LRR domain to weaken the intramolecular interaction between LRR and NB-ARC domains, thus translating recognition of NSm into activation of Sw-5b. Natural variation analysis of Sw-5b homologs from wild tomato species of South America revealed that the four polymorphic sites in the Sw-5b LRR domain were positively selected during evolution and are all necessary to confer resistance to tospovirus. The results described here provide a new example of a plant NLR mediating broad-spectrum resistance through recognition of a small conserved PAMP-like region within the pathogen effector.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.17.00180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5635987PMC
September 2017

Model-based structural and functional characterization of the Rice stripe tenuivirus nucleocapsid protein interacting with viral genomic RNA.

Virology 2017 06 27;506:73-83. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China. Electronic address:

Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) is a filamentous, negative-strand RNA virus causing severe diseases on rice in Asian countries. The viral particle is composed predominantly of a nucleocapsid protein (NP) and genomic RNA. However, the molecular details of how the RSV NP interacts with genomic RNA during particle assembly remain largely unknown. Here, we modeled the NP-RNA complex and show that polar amino acids within a predicted groove of NP are critical for RNA binding and protecting the RNA from RNase digestion. RSV NP formed pentamers, hexamers, heptamers, and octamers. By modeling the higher-order structures, we found that oligomer formation was driven by the N-terminal amino arm of the NP. Deletion of this arm abolished oligomerization; the N-terminally truncated NP was less able to interact with RNA and protect RNA than was the wild type. These findings afford valuable new insights into molecular mechanism of RSV NPs interacting with genomic RNA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2017.03.010DOI Listing
June 2017

A multilayered regulatory mechanism for the autoinhibition and activation of a plant CC-NB-LRR resistance protein with an extra N-terminal domain.

New Phytol 2016 10 12;212(1):161-75. Epub 2016 May 12.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

The tomato resistance protein Sw-5b differs from the classical coiled-coil nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) resistance proteins by having an extra N-terminal domain (NTD). To understand how NTD, CC and NB-LRR regulate autoinhibition and activation of Sw-5b, we dissected the function(s) of each domain. When viral elicitor was absent, Sw-5b LRR suppressed the central NB-ARC to maintain autoinhibition of the NB-LRR segment. The CC and NTD domains independently and additively enhanced the autoinhibition of NB-LRR. When viral elicitor was present, the NB-LRR segment of Sw-5b was specifically activated to trigger a hypersensitive response. Surprisingly, Sw-5b CC suppressed the activation of NB-LRR, whereas the extra NTD of Sw-5b became a positive regulator and fully activated the resistance protein, probably by relieving the inhibitory effects of the CC. In infection assays of transgenic plants, the NB-LRR segment alone was insufficient to confer resistance against Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus; the layers of NTD and CC regulation on NB-LRR were required for Sw-5b to confer resistance. Based on these findings, we propose that, to counter the negative regulation of the CC on NB-LRR, Sw-5b evolved an extra NTD to coordinate with the CC, thus developing a multilayered regulatory mechanism to control autoinhibition and activation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.14013DOI Listing
October 2016

Plasmodesmata targeting and intercellular trafficking of Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus movement protein NSm is independent of its function in HR induction.

J Gen Virol 2016 08 4;97(8):1990-1997. Epub 2016 May 4.

Key Laboratory for the Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China.

The movement protein NSm of Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) plays pivotal roles in viral intercellular trafficking. Recently, the TSWV NSm was also identified as an avirulence (Avr) determinant during the Sw-5b-mediated hypersensitive response (HR). However, whether the cell-to-cell movement of NSm is coupled to its function in HR induction remains obscure. Here, we showed that the NSm mutants defective in targeting plasmodesmata and cell-to-cell movement were still capable of inducing Sw-5b-mediated HR. In addition, introduction of a single amino-acid substitution, C118Y or T120N, identified previously from TSWV resistance-breaking isolates, into the movement-defective NSm mutants resulted in the failure of HR induction. Collectively, our results showed that the intercellular trafficking of NSm is uncoupled from its function in HR induction. These findings shed light on the evolutionary mechanism of R-Avr recognition and may be used to explain why this uncoupled phenomenon can be observed in many different viruses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000496DOI Listing
August 2016

The ER-Membrane Transport System Is Critical for Intercellular Trafficking of the NSm Movement Protein and Tomato Spotted Wilt Tospovirus.

PLoS Pathog 2016 Feb 10;12(2):e1005443. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata to infect new cells. The plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is interconnected among cells via the ER desmotubule in the plasmodesma across the cell wall, forming a continuous ER network throughout the entire plant. This ER continuity is unique to plants and has been postulated to serve as a platform for the intercellular trafficking of macromolecules. In the present study, the contribution of the plant ER membrane transport system to the intercellular trafficking of the NSm movement protein and Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) is investigated. We showed that TSWV NSm is physically associated with the ER membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. An NSm-GFP fusion protein transiently expressed in single leaf cells was trafficked into neighboring cells. Mutations in NSm that impaired its association with the ER or caused its mis-localization to other subcellular sites inhibited cell-to-cell trafficking. Pharmacological disruption of the ER network severely inhibited NSm-GFP trafficking but not GFP diffusion. In the Arabidopsis thaliana mutant rhd3 with an impaired ER network, NSm-GFP trafficking was significantly reduced, whereas GFP diffusion was not affected. We also showed that the ER-to-Golgi secretion pathway and the cytoskeleton transport systems were not involved in the intercellular trafficking of TSWV NSm. Importantly, TSWV cell-to-cell spread was delayed in the ER-defective rhd3 mutant, and this reduced viral infection was not due to reduced replication. On the basis of robust biochemical, cellular and genetic analysis, we established that the ER membrane transport system serves as an important direct route for intercellular trafficking of NSm and TSWV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4749231PMC
February 2016

[Preliminary study of facial nerve F wave evaluation hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction with predegenerated nerve graft for peripheral facial palsy].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2015 Jun;95(21):1648-50

Email:

Objective: To Preliminary study of facial nerve F wave evaluation hypoglossal-facial nerve reconstruction with pre-degenerated nerve graft for peripheral facial palsy.

Methods: The clinical data were retrospectively reviewed for 30 patients with peripheral facial palsy after cerebellontine angle underwent nerve anastomosis were analyzed between November 2011 and February 2014. F wave and M wave detection were used to evaluate the pre-, post-opertive and status.The hypoglossal-facial nerve by "side- to-side" anastomisis was performed.

Results: All patients were followed-up.The mean time of follow-up was 8 months (ranged from 3 to 20 months). 12 patients were found a higher recovery of facial nerve function after the nerve anastomosis.16 patients who F wave of post-opertive were found a higher recovery compared to F wave of pre-opertive (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The hypoglossal-facial nerve by "side"-to-side anastomisis with pre-degenerated auto-nerve graft was effective for the treatment of peripheral facial palsy after CPA tumor resection, F wave can be used as one of the objective index for the effect of the operation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2015

Rice stripe virus counters reduced fecundity in its insect vector by modifying insect physiology, primary endosymbionts and feeding behavior.

Sci Rep 2015 Jul 27;5:12527. Epub 2015 Jul 27.

Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Virus-vector relationships can be complex and diverse as a result of long-term coevolution. Understanding these interactions is crucial for disease and vector management. Rice stripe virus (RSV) is known to be transovarially transmitted within its vector, Laodelphax striatellus, and causes serious rice stripe disease. In RSV-infected L. striatellus, we found contrasting changes in vector fecundity, physiology, primary endosymbionts (i.e. yeast-like symbionts, YLS) and feeding behavior that can interact to affect the spread of RSV. RSV-infected L. striatellus exhibited a significant decrease in fecundity that could lead a reduction of viruliferous individuals in populations. As a potential response to this loss, RSV infection also significantly shortened nymphal stage duration, which can strengthen RSV vertical circulation in L. striatellus populations and promote RSV spreading by adult migration and dispersal. Down-regulated JHAMT and up-regulated CYP307A1 in the juvenile hormone and ecdysteroid pathways, respectively, were linked to accelerated development. RSV-infected adults were also found to have higher body weight in conjunction with increased YLS abundance. Furthermore, prolonged host plant phloem exposure to salivation by RSV-infected adults should further enhance RSV horizontal transmission. Our study highlights potential strategies of RSV in enhancing its transmission, and provides new insights into the complexity of virus-vector interactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep12527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4648468PMC
July 2015

Structure and function analysis of nucleocapsid protein of tomato spotted wilt virus interacting with RNA using homology modeling.

J Biol Chem 2015 Feb 24;290(7):3950-61. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

From the Department of Plant Pathology, Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests (Ministry of Education), and

The nucleocapsid (N) protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) plays key roles in assembling genomic RNA into ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which serves as a template for both viral gene transcription and genome replication. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of how TSWV N interacts with genomic RNA. In this study, we demonstrated that TSWV N protein forms a range of higher ordered oligomers. Analysis of the RNA binding behavior of N protein revealed that no specific oligomer binds to RNA preferentially, instead each type of N oligomer is able to bind RNA. To better characterize the structure and function of N protein interacting with RNA, we constructed homology models of TSWV N and N-RNA complexes. Based on these homology models, we demonstrated that the positively charged and polar amino acids in its predicted surface cleft of TSWV N are critical for RNA binding. Moreover, by N-RNA homology modeling, we found that the RNA component is deeply embedded in the predicted protein cleft; consistently, TSWV N-RNA complexes are relatively resistant to digestion by RNase. Collectively, using homology modeling, we determined the RNA binding sites on N and found a new protective feature for N protein. Our findings also provide novel insights into the molecular details of the interaction of TSWV N with RNA components.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.604678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326804PMC
February 2015