Publications by authors named "Xiaoqing Zhang"

347 Publications

CTCs detection from intraoperative salvaged blood in RCC-IVC thrombus patients by negative enrichment and iFISH identification: a preliminary study.

BMC Urol 2021 Jun 10;21(1):89. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Anesthesia, Peking University Third Hospital, Huayuan 49# Rd, Haidian Dist., Beijing, China.

Background: Intra-operative cell salvage (IOCS) and leukocyte-depleted filter (LDF) are widely used and effective in saving blood. However, the safety issue concerning reinfusion of IOCS-LDF processed blood to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus were inconclusive for fear of increased risk of cancer metastases. This study intends to analyze the circulating tumor cell (CTC) eliminating effect of IOCS-LDF in 5 RCC-IVC thrombus patients.

Methods: A novel strategy integrating negative enrichment by immunomagnetic beads and immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes identifying aneuploid of 8 and/or 7 were used to detect CTCs from salvages blood. Blood samples were collected from 4 stages in each patient.

Results: Of the 5 RCC patients, the number of CTCs decreased (from 3, 4, 10, 7, 3, respectively, to all zero) after IOCS-LDF treatment. The triploid of chromosome 7 and/or chromosome 8 were most common karyotype for RCC patients with IVC thrombus. Tetraploid of chromosome 8 occurred in only one sample and no polypoid (number of chromosome > 4) were found.

Conclusion: IOCS-LDF might be a promising way of reducing of allogeneic product transfusion based on current preliminary outcome. More convincing conclusions are to be drawn with enlarged sample size and long-term follow-up for patients prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12894-021-00803-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191124PMC
June 2021

is a genetic factor contributing to cardiac malformation of 4q deletion syndrome patients.

Elife 2021 Jun 8;10. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Shanghai Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease Institute and Pediatric Translational Medicine Institute, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Chromosome 4q deletion is one of the most frequently detected genomic imbalance events in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients. However, a portion of CHD-associated 4q deletions without known CHD genes suggests unknown CHD genes within these intervals. Here, we have shown that knockdown of , a 4q interval gene, disrupted sarcomeric integrity of cardiomyocytes and caused reduced cardiomyocyte number in human embryonic stem cell differentiation model. Molecular analyses revealed decreased expression of second heart field (SHF) marker genes and impaired NOTCH and SHH signaling in knockdown cells. Exogenous SHH rescued knockdown-induced cardiomyocyte differentiation defects. mouse mutants had atrial septal hypoplasia/aplasia or double atrial septum (DAS) derived from impaired posterior SHF with a similar expression alteration. Rare variants were significantly enriched in a cohort of 300 CHD patients. Our findings indicate that is a regulator of SHF development and its variants contribute to CHD pathogenesis. The presence of DAS in hearts reveals the first molecular etiology of this rare anomaly linked to paradoxical thromboembolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.67481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186900PMC
June 2021

Protocol for genome-scale CRISPR screening in engineered lineage reporter hPSCs to study cell fate determination.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 20;2(2):100548. Epub 2021 May 20.

Translational Medical Center for Stem Cell Therapy, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120, China.

is a key determinant of human neuroectoderm cell fate. Here, we describe a protocol for genome-scale CRISPR screening for use in genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Using the germ layer reporter and an inducible CRISPR/Cas9 knockout system, we describe how to identify lineage-specific preventing genes. This protocol can be applied for use with other reporter genes to study cell fate determination in hPSCs. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Xu et al. (2021).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2021.100548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164093PMC
June 2021

The complex role of PD-L1 in antitumor immunity: a recent update.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Sheng Yushou Center of Cell Biology and Immunology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-021-00702-yDOI Listing
May 2021

Erratum to "ILC2 Proliferated by IL-33 Stimulation Alleviates Acute Colitis in Rag1 Mouse through Promoting M2 Macrophage Polarization".

J Immunol Res 2021 11;2021:9843489. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Immunology, China Medical University, No. 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2020/5018975.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9843489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131135PMC
May 2021

A next generation sequencing combined genome-wide association study identifies novel tuberculosis susceptibility loci in Chinese population.

Genomics 2021 May 28;113(4):2377-2384. Epub 2021 May 28.

Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China; Collaborative Innovation Center, Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong 272067, China. Electronic address:

The genetic factors of tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility have been widely recognized. Here we performed a two-stage study in 616 TB patients and 709 healthy controls to systematically identify the genetic markers of TB susceptibility. In the discovery stage, we identified 93 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 3 human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles that had potential associations with TB susceptibility. In the validation stage, we confirmed that 6 nominally significant SNPs, including 2 novel missense variants at RAB17 and DCTN4 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, P = 4.98 × 10 and OR = 2.30, P = 3.17 × 10 respectively), were associated with the predisposition to TB. Moreover, our study found that HLA-II allele DQA1*05:05 (P = 0.0011, OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.15-1.77) was a TB susceptibility locus for the first time. This study comprehensively investigated the genetic variants that were associated with TB susceptibility and provided insight into the tuberculosis pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2021.05.035DOI Listing
May 2021

Response to questioning the evidence for a Janus-faced nature of adult neurogenesis in Alzheimer's disease.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Neurobiology and Department of Neurology of the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310058, China; NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, School of Brain Science and Brain Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 310058, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.05.007DOI Listing
May 2021

Is a Hub lncRNA ceRNA in Hearts With Tetralogy of Fallot Which Regulates Congenital Heart Disease Genes Transcriptionally and Epigenetically.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:630634. Epub 2021 May 11.

Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Heart development requires robust gene regulation, and the related disruption could lead to congenital heart disease (CHD). To gain insights into the regulation of gene expression in CHD, we obtained the expression profiles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in 22 heart tissue samples with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) through strand-specific transcriptomic analysis. Using a causal inference framework based on the expression correlations and validated microRNA (miRNA)-lncRNA-mRNA evidences, we constructed the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA)-mediated network driven by lncRNAs. Four lncRNAs (, , , and ) were identified as hub lncRNAs in the network. was selected for further study since all its targets were CHD-related genes (, , and ). Both and could bind with hsa-miR-421, which has been validated using dual-luciferase reporter assays. Knockdown of not only significantly reduced and expression in HEK 293 and the fetal heart cell line (CCC-HEH-2) but also increased the transcription of its interacted miRNAs in a cell-specific way. Besides ceRNA mechanism, RNAseq and ATACseq results showed that might play repression roles in heart development by transcriptionally regulating CHD-related genes. In conclusion, we identified a ceRNA network driven by lncRNAs in heart tissues of TOF patients. Furthermore, we proved that , one hub lncRNA in the TOF heart ceRNA network, regulates multiple genes transcriptionally and epigenetically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.630634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144506PMC
May 2021

Long Noncoding RNA Activates Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Through Small Heat Shock Proteins HSPA6 and CRYAB.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 10;9:660576. Epub 2021 May 10.

Pediatric Translational Medicine Institute, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defects worldwide. 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is the most common microdeletion disorder that has been frequently associated with conotruncal malformations. By now, the dosage-sensitive gene has been adopted as the major pathogenic gene responsible for 22q11.2 deletion, which is regulated by canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in heart outflow tract development. Here, we report the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) , which is encompassed in the 22q11.2 region, that can activate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by protecting β-catenin from degradation, which could result from decreased ubiquitination. Such effects were mediated by two short heat shock proteins HSPA6 and α-β-crystallin (CRYAB), whose expression was regulated by through a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism. In clinical practice, the pathogenesis of copy number variation (CNV) was always attributed to haploinsufficiency of protein-coding genes. Here, we report that the 22q11.2 lncRNA significantly activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which has major roles in cardiac outflow tract development and should act upstream of . Our results suggested that lncRNAs should contribute to the etiology of CNV-related CHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.660576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141806PMC
May 2021

Engineering mesenchymal stromal cells with neutralizing and anti-inflammatory capability against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Jun 14;21:754-764. Epub 2021 May 14.

Sheng Yushou Center of Cell Biology and Immunology, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

The emergence of the novel human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has markedly affected global health and the economy. Both uncontrolled viral replication and a proinflammatory cytokine storm can cause severe tissue damage in patients with COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 utilizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its entry receptor. In this study, we generated ACE2 extracellular domain-Fc and single-chain variable fragment-interleukin 6 (IL-6) single-chain variable fragment against IL-6 receptor (scFv-IL6R)-Fc fusion proteins to differentially neutralize viruses and ameliorate the cytokine storm. The human ACE2 (hACE2)-Fc fusion protein showed a potent inhibitory effect on pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 entry and a good safety profile in mice. In addition, scFv-IL6R-Fc strongly blocked IL-6 signal activation. We also established a mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based hACE2-Fc and scFv-IL6R-Fc delivery system, which could serve as a potential therapy strategy for urgent clinical needs of patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2021.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8118700PMC
June 2021

Expression and clinical significance of VCAM-1, IL-6, and IL-17A in patients with allergic rhinitis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr;10(4):4516-4522

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Sleep Medicine Center, West China School of Public Health and West China Forth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Allergic rhinitis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a high incidence, affecting the quality of life of patients. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression and clinical significance of vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17A in patients with allergic rhinitis.

Methods: A total of 180 patients with allergic rhinitis, who were admitted to our hospital from March 2017 to March 2020, were enrolled as the observation group. Patients were further divided into 3 subgroups according to the degree of severity of allergic rhinitis as follows: the mild group (n=66), the moderate group (n=60), and the severe group (n=54). During the same period, 188 people without allergic rhinitis, who underwent physical examination in our hospital, were enrolled as the control group. VCAM-1, IL-6, and IL-17A levels were compared between these groups, and the correlation between the 3 levels and allergic rhinitis was analyzed.

Results: VCAM-1, IL-6, and IL-17A levels in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Comparison results of VCAM-1, IL-6 and IL-17A levels among the 3 groups were as follows: mild group < moderate group < severe group, and the differences between the three groups were significant (P<0.05). Pearson linear correlation showed that serum levels of VCAM-1, IL-6 and IL-17A were positively correlated with ARIA (P<0.05). Parent history of allergic rhinitis, living environment pollution, abnormally elevated VCAM-1, abnormally elevated IL-6 and abnormally elevated IL-6 were the related risk factors for inducing allergic rhinitis (P<0.05).

Conclusions: VCAM-1, IL-6, and IL-17A play important roles in allergic rhinitis, and the concentration will increase with disease progression. Clinical testing of VCAM-1, IL-6, IL-17A should be increased to improve the diagnostic rate for early allergic rhinitis and to prevent disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-546DOI Listing
April 2021

Thirty-five new species of the spider genus (Araneae, Pimoidae) from Pan-Himalaya.

Zookeys 2021 8;1029:1-92. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China.

Thirty-five new species of the Chamberlin & Ivie, 1943 are described from Pan-Himalaya: Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, s (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♂♀), Zhang & Li, (♀). The DNA barcodes of the thirty-five new species are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1029.64080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050015PMC
April 2021

Comparison of Three Feeding Regimens on Blood Fatty Acids Metabolites of Wujumqin Sheep in Inner Mongolia.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Grassland Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hohhot 010010, China.

Feeding regimens influence the fatty acid composition of animal-derived products. However, there is limited information on the effect of feeding regimens on the blood fatty acid composition and metabolic pathways of ruminant animals. In this study, 30 Wujumqin sheep were randomly assigned to three groups, PF (pasture feeding), PSF (pasture feeding plus corn supplementation) and BF (barn feeding), to examine the effects of feeding regimens on blood fatty acid composition and metabolic pathways through a metabolomic approach. The results showed that the BF sheep had increased serum n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids levels, while the PF and PSF sheep had increased serum n-3 PUFA levels. Compared to the BF and PSF sheep that were fed ground corn, the PF sheep that only ate natural grass had up-regulated serum DHA levels. Meanwhile, blood metabolites from linoleic acid and arachidonic acid, including pro-inflammatory products (20-HETE, LTs, TX etc.) and anti-inflammatory products (LXB4, DHETs, HPETEs etc.) were elevated in the BF group. It was found that, compared to grazing, concentrate supplement feeding regimens, including either grazing plus supplements or feeding indoors, down-regulated blood n-3 PUFA biosynthesis and up-regulated the blood inflammatory compound metabolism by n-6 PUFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11041080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070206PMC
April 2021

Association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with blood lipids in Chinese adults: The China Multi-Ethnic Cohort study.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 22;197:111174. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Background: Dyslipidemia is a crucial risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have suggested that air pollution is associated with blood lipids. However, little evidence exists in low- and middle-income regions. We aimed to investigate the association between air pollution and blood lipids in southwestern China.

Methods: We included 67,305 participants aged 30-79 years from the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC) study. Three-year average concentrations of particles with diameters ≤1 μm (PM), particles with diameters ≤ 2.5 μm (PM), particles with diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO), and ozone (O) were estimated using satellite-based spatiotemporal models. Individual serum lipids, including cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), were measured. Linear, logistic, and quantile regression models were used to evaluate the association between ambient air pollution and blood lipids.

Results: All five air pollutants in our study were associated with lipid levels. Increased air pollution exposure was associated with a high risk of dyslipidemia. Each 10 μg/m increase in PM was associated with 0.92% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64%, 1.20%), 2.23% (95% CI: 1.44%, 3.02%), and 3.04% (95% CI: 2.61%, 3.47%) increases in TC, TG, and LDL-C levels, respectively, and a 2.03% (95% CI: 1.69%, 2.37%) decrease in HDL-C levels, and high risks of dyslipidemia (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.18). Stronger associations of air pollution with blood lipids were found in participants with high lipid levels than in those with low lipid levels.

Conclusion: Long-term exposure to air pollutants was associated with blood lipid levels and the risk of dyslipidemia. People with high lipid levels were more susceptible to air pollution. Therefore, air pollution prevention and control may help reduce the incidence of dyslipidemia and the burden of CVDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111174DOI Listing
June 2021

A rare case of difficult airway management in a Klippel-Feil syndrome pediatric patient with osseous torticollis undergone orthopedic surgery : Difficult airway in pediatric patient with torticollis.

BMC Anesthesiol 2021 Apr 19;21(1):121. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Rd., Haidian District, Beijing, China.

Background: Orthopedic surgery for cervical torticollis poses potential threat to airway management both in tracheal intubation and extubation. Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a complex syndrome of osseous and visceral anomalies. The anatomical characteristics of KFS might have significant implications for airway management.

Case Presentation: This is a rare case of an 8-year-old boy presenting with osseous torticollis, congenital occipito-atlantal deformity, congenital basilar invagination and KFS undergone elective torticollis correction surgery. Though with difficulty, tracheal intubation was successfully performed. Extubation failed twice on postoperative day 2 and 10, and required tracheostomy. Based on radiological findings, we speculated that prolonged airway edema accounted for the main reason of the failed extubation, the hypertrophic tonsil and occipito-cervical fusion resulted in reduced oropharyngeal space and limited cervical range of motion. Moreover, the Chiari malformation and KFS complicated the airway condition and lead to prolonged airway obstruction. The tracheostomy casing was removed 1 month later.

Conclusions: Cautions should be taken in extubation of pediatric patients undergone major osseous torticollis surgery. Reintubation should be prepared in case of failed extubation. Severe post-operative airway edema, complicated with hypertrophic tonsil, the structural abnormalities in the oropharyngeal cavity, and occipito-cervical deformities constituted the decreased oropharyngeal space and resulted in failed extubation. For severe airway compromise and prolonged intubation, tracheostomy should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-021-01341-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054383PMC
April 2021

Thermally processed lignin reduces the apparent hydrolysis rate of pancreatic α-amylase in starchy foods.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jul 19;263:117961. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Agriculture and Food, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Werribee, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Lignin, despite being the second most abundant constituent of plant cell walls, is thought to be chemically inert during gastrointestinal digestion and therefore attracts little attention for its role in the human diet. This study explores the heat modifications of lignin to derive species capable of slowing starch digestion in vitro. We applied various advanced biochemical (e.g. enzymic digestion, solubility) and physio-chemical (e.g. scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy, C-NMR) analyses to characterize the structure-function of lignin induced by heat treatment. It was found that lignin thermally processed above 300 °C reduced the apparent hydrolysis rate of pancreatic α-amylase, which is ascribed mainly to the insoluble lignin with a modified particle surface morphology. Further kinetic experiments showed that lignin species derived by thermal processing slowed in vitro digestion rates of potato starch and pasta. These findings highlight the potential for utilizing thermally processed lignin in slowing digestion of starchy foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117961DOI Listing
July 2021

Green Remanufacturer's Mixed Collection Channel Strategy Considering Enterprise's Environmental Responsibility and the Fairness Concern in Reverse Green Supply Chain.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 25;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Business School, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China.

In reverse green supply chain, the mixed collection channel strategy of green remanufacturer is analyzed by building a dynamic game model in which we consider that the green remanufacturer undertakes the environmental responsibility and the green collector shows strong fairness concern for the profit. We analyze the impact of the environmental responsibility level of the green remanufacturer, the preference coefficient of the green remanufacturer, the fairness concern coefficient of the green collector, and the coefficient of cross collection price on optimal decision and profit of the green remanufacturer. The result shows that (1) the green remanufacturer can further improve the collection price, so that it makes many more customers participate in the collection activity; (2) the green remanufacturer pays more attention to fulfill the environmental responsibility, which will increase the intensity of collection of the waste green product, and improve the collection price, as the old green product's remanufacturing cost is lower than the production cost of the new product, and it can improve the green remanufacturer's profits; (3) the green remanufacturer's profit in the mixed collection channel is higher than those in online or offline collection channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037556PMC
March 2021

A sweet spot for macrophages: Focusing on polarization.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 24;167:105576. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Life Sciences and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, China. Electronic address:

Macrophages are a type of functionally plastic cells that can create a pro-/anti-inflammatory microenvironment for organs by producing different kinds of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors to regulate immunity and inflammatory responses. In addition, they can also be induced to adopt different phenotypes in response to extracellular and intracellular signals, a process defined as M1/M2 polarization. Growing evidence indicates that glycobiology is closely associated with this polarization process. In this research, we review studies of the roles of glycosylation, glucose metabolism, and key lectins in the regulation of macrophages function and polarization to provide a new perspective for immunotherapies for multiple diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105576DOI Listing
May 2021

A model for obstructive sleep apnea detection using a multi-layer feed-forward neural network based on electrocardiogram, pulse oxygen saturation, and body mass index.

Sleep Breath 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To develop and evaluate a model for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) detection using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the combined features of body mass index (BMI), electrocardiogram (ECG), and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2).

Methods: Polysomnography (PSG) data for 148 patients with OSA and 33 unaffected individuals were included. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network (FNN) was used based on the features obtained from ECG, SpO2, and BMI. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the metrics of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the performance of the overall classification. Some other machine learning methods including linear discriminant, linear Support Vector Machine (SVM), Complex Tree, RUSBoosted Trees, and Logistic Regression were also used to compare their performance with the FNN.

Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the proposed multi-layer FNN were 97.8%, 98.6%, and 93.9%, respectively, and the area under the ROC curve was 97.0%. Compared with the other machine learning methods mentioned above, the FNN achieved the highest performance.

Conclusions: The satisfactory performance of the proposed FNN model for OSA detection indicated that it is reliable to screen potential patients with OSA using the combined channels of ECG and SpO2 and also taking into account BMI. This strategy might be a viable alternative method for OSA diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-021-02302-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Abnormal Rat Cortical Development Induced by Ventricular Injection of rHMGB1 Mimics the Pathophysiology of Human Cortical Dysplasia.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 4;9:634405. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

National Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy. Increasing studies have implicated innate immunity in CD with epilepsy. However, it is unclear whether innate immune factors induce epileptogenic CD. Here, we injected recombinant human high mobility group box 1 (rHMGB1) into embryonic rat ventricles to determine whether rHMGB1 can induce epileptogenic CD with pathophysiological characteristics similar to those of human CD. Compared with controls and 0.1 μg rHMGB1-treated rats, the cortical organization was severely disrupted in the 0.2 μg rHMGB1-treated rats, and microgyria and heterotopia also emerged; additionally, disoriented and deformed neurons were observed in the cortical lesions and heterotopias. Subcortical heterotopia appeared in the white matter and the gray-white junction of the 0.2 μg rHMGB1-treated rats. Moreover, there was decreased number of neurons in layer V-VI and an increased number of astrocytes in layer I and V of the cortical lesions. And the HMGB1 antagonist dexmedetomidine alleviated the changes induced by rHMGB1. Further, we found that TLR4 and NF-κB were increased after rHMGB1 administration. In addition, the excitatory receptors, -methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NR1), 2A (NR2A), and 2B (NR2B) immunoreactivity were increased, and immunoreactivity of excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) and 2 (EAAT2) were reduced in 0.2 μg rHMGB1-treated rats compared with controls. While there were no differences in the glutamic acid decarboxylase 65/67 (GAD65/67) immunoreactivity between the two groups. These results indicate that the excitation of cortical lesions was significantly increased. Furthermore, electroencephalogram (EEG) showed a shorter latency of seizure onset and a higher incidence of status epilepticus in the 0.2 μg rHMGB1-treated rats; the frequency and amplitude of EEG were higher in the treated rats than controls. Intriguingly, spontaneous electrographic seizure discharges were detected in the 0.2 μg rHMGB1-treated rats after 5 months of age, and spike-wave discharges of approximately 8 Hz were the most significantly increased synchronous propagated waves throughout the general brain cortex. Taken together, these findings indicate that rHMGB1 exposure during pregnancy could contribute to the development of epileptogenic CD, which mimicked some pathophysiological characteristics of human CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.634405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969805PMC
March 2021

Clinical features, laboratory findings and persistence of virus in 10 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Biomed J 2021 Mar 24;44(1):94-100. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Pediatric Translational Medicine Institute, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200127, China. Electronic address:

Background: A pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) has rapidly spread across the globe. Although many articles have established the clinical characteristics of adult COVID-19 patients so far, limited data are available for children. The aim of this study was to reveal the clinical features, laboratory findings and nucleic acid test results of ten pediatric cases.

Methods: In this retrospective single-center cohort study, pediatric cases with COVID-19 infection were consecutively enrolled in one hospital in Huangshi, China from January 1 to March 11, 2020.

Results: A total of 10 children with COVID-19 were recruited. Of them, four were the asymptomatic type, one was the mild type, and five were the moderate type (including two subclinical ones). All patients were from family clusters. Only fever, nasal discharge and nasal congestion were observed. Lymphopenia and leukopenia were uncommon in our sample but elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (α-HBDH) were observed frequently. Of these laboratory test variables, no statistical difference was identified between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Abnormalities in radiological data were detected in five patients, and representative findings of chest CT images were patchy shadows and ground-glass opacities. There were two cases whose oropharyngeal nucleic acid tests reversed to positive after one negative result, and two patients whose oropharyngeal swabs tested negative but rectal swabs showed positive.

Conclusions: Clinical symptoms were mild in children with COVID-19. Increased levels of LDH and α-HBDH were potential clinical biomarkers for pediatric cases. More attention should be paid to the SARS-CoV-2 viral assessment of rectal swabs before patients are discharged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2020.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585360PMC
March 2021

BMP4 overexpression induces the upregulation of APP/Tau and memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Mar 15;7(1):51. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Laboratory Medicine, Bengbu Medical College, 233030, Bengbu, Anhui, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system. Its pathogenesis is complex and is related to the abnormal expression of the amyloid β (Aβ), APP, and Tau proteins. Evidence has demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is highly expressed in transgenic mouse models of AD and that endogenous levels of BMP4 mainly affect hippocampal function. To determine whether BMP4 participates in AD development, transgenic mice were constructed that overexpress BMP4 under the control of the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter. We also performed MTT, FACS, transfection, TUNEL, and Western blotting assays to define the role of BMP4 in cells. We found that middle-aged BMP4 transgenic mice exhibited impaired memory via the Morris water maze experiment. Moreover, their hippocampal tissues exhibited high expression levels of AD-related proteins, including APP, Aβ, PSEN-1, Tau, P-Tau (Thr181), and P-Tau (Thr231). Furthermore, in multiple cell lines, the overexpression of BMP4 increased the expression of AD-related proteins, whereas the downregulation of BMP4 demonstrated opposing effects. Consistent with these results, BMP4 modulation affected cell apoptosis via the regulation of BAX and Bcl-2 expression in cells. Our findings indicate that BMP4 overexpression might be a potential factor to induce AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00435-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961014PMC
March 2021

Putative carboxylesterase gene identification and their expression patterns in (Drury).

PeerJ 2021 2;9:e10919. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Control, Engineering Research Center of Fungal Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Forestry & Landscape Architecture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, China.

The olfactory system of insects is important for behavioral activities as it recognizes internal and external volatile stimuli in the environment. Insect odorant degrading enzymes (ODEs), including antennal-specific carboxylesterases (CXEs), are known to degrade redundant odorant molecules or to hydrolyze important olfactory sex pheromone components and plant volatiles. Compared to many well-studied Type-I sex pheromone-producing lepidopteran species, the molecular mechanisms of the olfactory system of Type-II sex pheromone-producing (Drury) remain poorly understood. In the current study, we first identified a total of ten CXE genes based on our previous antennal transcriptomic data. We constructed a phylogenetic tree to evaluate the relationship of HcunCXEs with other insects' CXEs, and used quantitative PCR to investigate the gene expression of CXEs (HcunCXEs). Our results indicate that HcunCXEs are highly expressed in antennae, legs and wings, suggesting a potential function in degrading sex pheromone components, host plant volatiles, and other xenobiotics. This study not only provides a theoretical basis for subsequent olfactory mechanism studies on but also offers some new insights into functions and evolutionary characteristics of CXEs in lepidopteran insects. From a practical point of view, these HcunCXEs might represent meaningful targets for developing behavioral interference control strategies against .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934681PMC
March 2021

Laccase immobilized on amino-functionalized magnetic FeO-SiO core-shell material for 2,4-dichlorophenol removal.

Environ Technol 2021 Mar 11:1-15. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

College of Resource and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

In this study, an amino-functionalized magnetic silica microsphere material (FeO-SiO-NH) was prepared. Using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent, laccase was adsorbed-covalently bonded and immobilized on the material to prepare Laccase @ FeO-SiO. In addition, the materials were characterized and analysed by SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR and VSM. Finally, the thermal inactivation dynamics of immobilized laccase in polar/non-polar/toxic systems and the adsorption and degradation of 2,4-DCP were studied. The results showed that Laccase @ FeO-SiO under the optimal conditions (pH 6, temperature 65°C, initial concentration of 2,4-DCP 10 mg/L), the removal rate was as high as 81.6%. Moreover, compared with free laccase, immobilized laccase had good tolerance under low pH and high-temperature conditions, and storage stability was also greatly improved. After repeated use for 7 times, Laccase @ FeO-SiO can still maintain 59% removal rate of 2,4-DCP, which gives it the potential for industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1895323DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of Sevoflurane versus Propofol on Endogenous Nitric Oxide Metabolism during Laparoscopic Surgery.

J Healthc Eng 2021 3;2021:6691943. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050051, Hebei, China.

For laparoscopic surgery, it is very difficult to assess the effect of different medicines used in the surgical procedure on the surgical results. In the past, doctors could use sevoflurane to numb and calm patients. For decades, this type of treatment has been fairly reliable and effective, but for laparoscopic surgery, the use of sevoflurane can lead to a wide range of blood glucose changes, so in recent years, sevoflurane compared to propofol in laparoscopic surgery on endogenous and nitrogen oxide metabolism has been studied more and more. In this paper, a variety of research methods were used to study the phenomenon of shock and excessive anesthesia encountered by patients in the treatment process. Through observation and drug experiment of patients in different treatment courses and treatment stages, patients were asked to use sevoflurane and propofol to conduct double-blind experiments on their own drug effects. At the same time, through the long-term observation of patients with different diseases and patients who need laparoscopic surgery, the nitrogen oxide metabolism in patients with sevoflurane compared with propofol endogenous was studied and analyzed. Through three groups of different conditions, the experimental group, the blind test group, and the control group were studied. To conclude, in laparoscopic surgery, the use of sevoflurane compared with propofol can have a good impact on the endogenous drug and nitrogen oxide metabolism. It can achieve a good effect on the anesthesia effect of surgery, the maintenance of patient's physical signs and heart rate, which is very beneficial to the operation. . Sevoflurane compared with propofol has a good effect on endogenous nitrogen oxide metabolism in laparoscopic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6691943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875642PMC
February 2021

Relationship between intraoperative measured parameters of parathyroid gland and pathological patterns in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jan;9(2):99

Department of General Surgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: The hyperplastic patterns of parathyroid glands (PTGs) in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) are critical for surgical indication and deciding on the approach. Earlier histopathological investigations have suggested the occurrence of an initial increase in the parathyroid cells, with a normal lobular structure (diffuse hyperplasia, DH). After this, the PTGs become hyperplastic with some nodules (nodular hyperplasia, NH). The current study aimed to explore the relationship between the intraoperative measurements of weight, volume, and maximal diameter of dissected PTGs and the histopathological diagnosis of SHPT patients with end-stage renal disease.

Methods: A total of 182 SHPT patients who received parathyroidectomy (PTX) were retrospectively enrolled. Altogether 21 patients were selected as having at least one diffuse polyclonal hyperplasia PTG. Intraoperative measurements of weight, volume, and maximal diameter of dissected PTGs were compared between tissues with DH and NH.

Results: Intraoperative dissected PTGs were verified histologically. The differences in the intraoperative measurements of weight, volume, maximal diameter, and the combination of the three measurements between the DH and the NH PTGs groups were significant (P=0.000), and the values of area under the ROC curve (AUCs) were 0.824 (95% CI: 0.731-0.918), 0.812 (95% CI: 0.716-0.908), 0.746 (95% CI: 0.633-0.860), and 0.851 (95% CI: 0.768-0.935), respectively, with cut-off values of the three parameters being 0.19 g, 206.3 mm, and 10.5 mm, respectively.

Conclusions: The measurement of weight, volume, and maximal diameter of dissected PTGs is a possible alternative to assess the hyperplasia patterns of the dissected PTGs. It is a promising reference for the ultrasound prediction of pathological patterns of PTGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-1643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867874PMC
January 2021

Meningioma with ring enhancement on MRI: a rare case report.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 02 10;21(1):22. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Army Medical University, 400037, Chongqing, China.

Background: Meningiomas typically manifest on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as iso- to hypointense on T1-weighted imaging and iso- to hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. After contrast administration, they usually homogeneously enhance and exhibit a visible dural tail. Meningiomas with atypical findings may be misdiagnosed.

Case Presentation: We report a 50-year-old female patient with a pathologically diagnosed fibrous meningioma (World Health Organization grade I) that exhibited ring enhancement on MRI.

Conclusions: Meningiomas may rarely present with ring enhancement on MRI. The natural history and mechanisms of cystic degeneration and enhancement in the various types of meningioma require further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-021-00555-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877038PMC
February 2021

A rare case of an unexpected difficult airway management in a diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis patient and post-operative airway evaluation with 3D printing technique.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jan;9(1):75

Department of Anesthesiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), asymptomatic in most cases, is a degenerative condition that commonly leads to anterior cervical osteophytes in most elderly patients. Clinically significant airway compression is rare. However, in some cases, the seemingly insignificant osteophytes could become a threat to airway management during intubation. Here we present a case of an 82-year-old man diagnosed as DISH and scheduled for cervical surgery. Radiographic imaging did not indicate the airway compromise. Preoperative airway assessment indicated modified Mallampati scoring of class III. However, an unexpected large bulge protruding from posterior pharyngeal wall blocked video laryngoscopy assisted intubation. Intubation with direct laryngoscope, laryngeal mask airway (LMAD) and Shikani optical stylet were failed. Only flexible fiberoptic nasal intubation was performed successfully. After surgery, an anatomically matched and patient-specific 3D printed model was made to help more direct and comprehensive estimation of the size and the location of the osteophyte. The relationship of the airway compromise and osteophytes was revealed in DISH patients for the first time with the aid of 3D printed model. The eccentric growth of the cervical osteophytes occupied large portion of the laryngopharynx space and prohibited the direct placement of the tracheal tube. This case is a rare presentation of the management of a DISH patient with unexpected difficult airway. We propose for the first time that different intubation strategies should be considered for potential difficulty airway in DISH patients according to the size and location of the osteophytes. For potential difficult airway management of DISH patients, 3D printing technique is a promising way of preoperative airway assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-5992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859815PMC
January 2021

The Influence of Different Guided Bone Regeneration Procedures on the Contour of Bone Graft after Wound Closure: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jan 27;14(3). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Department of Oral Implantology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures on bone graft contour after wound closure in lateral ridge augmentation. A total of 48 patients with 63 augmented sites were included in this study. Participants were divided into 4 groups ( = 12 in each group) based on different surgical procedures: group 1: particulate bone substitute + collagen membrane; group 2: particulate bone substitute + collagen membrane + healing cap, group 3: particulate bone substitute + injectable platelet-rich fibrin (i-PRF) + collagen membrane; group 4: particulate bone substitute + i-PRF + surgical template + collagen membrane. After wound closure, the thickness of labial graft was measured at 0-5 mm apical to the implant shoulder (T0-T5). At T0-T2, the thickness of labial graft in group 4 was significantly higher than the other three groups ( < 0.05). And group 4 showed significantly more labial graft thickness than group 1 and group 2 at T3-T5 ( < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, the use of i-PRF in combination with the surgical template in GBR may contribute to achieving an appropriate bone graft contour after wound closure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14030583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865681PMC
January 2021

Application of a prediction model with laboratory indexes in the risk stratification of patients with COVID-19.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Mar 5;21(3):182. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Tuberculosis, Huaian No. 4 People's Hospital, Huaian, Jiangsu 223000, P.R. China.

In the present study, a prediction model with combined laboratory indexes in risk stratification of patients with COVID-19 was established and tested. The data of 170 patients with COVID-19 who were divided into an asymptomatic-moderate group (141 cases) and severe or above group (29 cases) were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical characteristics and laboratory indexes of the two groups were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to construct the prediction model based on laboratory indexes. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to compare the diagnostic efficacy of different indexes. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was performed to quantify and compare the clinical validity of the prediction models. There were significant differences in blood cell count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels between the severe or above group and the asymptomatic-moderate group (all P<0.05). Among all individual indexes, hsCRP had the highest diagnostic efficacy (area under the curve=0.870), with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.828 and 0.802, respectively. The red blood cell count, hsCRP and PCT were used to construct the prediction model. The AUC of the prediction model was higher than that of hsCRP (0.912 vs. 0.870) but the difference was not significant (P=0.307). DCA suggested that the net benefit of the prediction model was higher than that of hsCRP in most cases and significantly higher than that of PCT, lymphocytes and monocytes. The prediction model with combined laboratory indexes was able to more effectively predict the clinical classification of patients with COVID-19 and may be used as a tool for risk stratification of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.9613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812582PMC
March 2021