Publications by authors named "Xiaoqing Xu"

135 Publications

The first case study of wastewater-based epidemiology of COVID-19 in Hong Kong.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 24;790:148000. Epub 2021 May 24.

Environmental Microbiome Engineering and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Early detection and surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus are key pre-requisites for the effective control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). So far, sewage testing has been increasingly employed as an alternative surveillance tool for this disease. However, sampling site characteristics impact the testing results and should be addressed in the early use stage of this emerging tool. In this study, we implemented the sewage testing for SARS-CoV-2 virus across sampling sites with different sewage system characteristics. We first validated a testing method using "positive" samples from a hospital treating COVID-19 patients. This method was used to test 107 sewage samples collected during the third wave of the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong (from June 8 to September 29, 2020), covering sampling sites associated with a COVID-19 hospital, public housing estates, and conventional sewage treatment facilities. The highest viral titer of 1975 copy/mL in sewage was observed in a sample collected from the isolation ward of the COVID-19 hospital. Sewage sampling at individual buildings detected the virus 2 days before the first cases were identified. Sequencing of the detected viral fragment confirmed an identical nucleotide sequence to that of the SARS-CoV-2 isolated from human samples. The virus was also detected in sewage treatment facilities, which serve populations of approximately 40,000 to more than one million people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142803PMC
May 2021

Spatial topological analysis of sympathetic neurovascular characteristic of acupoints in Ren meridian using advanced tissue-clearing and near infrared II imaging.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 8;19:2236-2245. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Institutes of Brain Science, Brain Science Collaborative Innovation Center, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Fudan Institutes of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Acupuncture has been used for treating various medical conditions in traditional Chinese medicine. Both manual and electro-acupuncture stimulate specific acupoints to obtain local and systemic biological effects, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used three-dimensional tissue-clearing technology to study acupoints on the Ren meridian of mice to reveal the distribution, density, branching, and relationships between blood vessels and nerves. Using topological methods, we found that sympathetic neurovascular networks were denser in the CV 4 acupoint compared with surrounding non-acupoints. Furthermore, high resolution real-time vascular imaging using the near infrared-II probe LZ-1105 demonstrated increased blood flow in the CV 4 acupoint compared with neighboring non-acupoints after manual or electro-acupuncture. Consistent with earlier findings, our research indicated that acupuncture could enhance local blood flow, and our high-resolution 3D images show for the first time the important role of sympathetic neurovascular networks in the CV 4 acupoint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.04.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099720PMC
April 2021

Reply to Shaw: Challenges for enrichment analysis of AMR gene-bearing plasmids.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(21)

Environmental Microbiome Engineering and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China;

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2104557118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166170PMC
May 2021

Activation of RAW264.7 cells by PCp-I, a polysaccharide from L, through NF-B/MAPK signalling pathway.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Dec;35:20587384211010058

National R & D Center for Edible Fungus Processing Technology, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

PCp-I is a polysaccharide isolated and identified from the L. by our research group. In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of PCp-I on RAW264.7 cells was evaluated. PCp-I could enhance the level of NO along with up-regulation of iNOS mRNA in RAW264.7 cells. The PCp-I could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression of TNF- and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells, and then the expression of TNF-, IL-6, ROS and the phagocytic activity were increased. Additionally, PCp-I could significantly up-regulate the phosphorylation level of p65, p38, ERK and JNK proteins, which proved that PCp-I could activate the macrophages by MAPKs and NF-B signalling pathway and the TLR4 may be one of the receptors of PCp-I regulate the RAW264.7 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/20587384211010058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058790PMC
April 2021

Microbial abundance and community in constructed wetlands planted with and in winter.

Int J Phytoremediation 2021 Apr 7:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Geography and Environment, Collaborative Innovation Center of Human-Nature and Green Development in the Universities of Shandong, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, PR China.

Novelty Statement: The microbial abundance and communities were characterized in CWs with different plant species during winter. Better removal efficiency with high microbial abundance and diversified microbial community were found in CWs planted with This study confirmed that in winter, withered plants in CWs can effectively remove NH-N and COD by affecting microbial abundance and community structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2021.1907737DOI Listing
April 2021

Synthetic phenolic antioxidants: Metabolism, hazards and mechanism of action.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 5;353:129488. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), and Research Institute Hospital 12 de Octubre (i+12), 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Synthetic phenolic antioxidants can interact with peroxides produced by food. This paper reviews correlation between BHA, BHT and TBHQ metabolism and harms they cause and provides a theoretical basis for rational use of BHA, BHT and TBHQ in food, and also put some attention on the transformation and metabolic products of PG. We introduce BHA, BHT, TBHQ, PG and their possible metabolic pathways, and discuss possible harms and their specific mechanisms responsible. Excessive addition or incorrect use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants results in carcinogenicity, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress induction and endocrine disrupting effects, which warrant attention. BHA carcinogenicity is related to production of metabolites TBHQ and TQ, and cytotoxic effect of BHA is the main cause of apoptosis induction. BHT carcinogenicity depends on DNA damage degree, and tumour promotion is mainly related to production of quinone methylation metabolites. TBHQ carcinogenicity is related to induction of metabolite TQ and enzyme CYP1A1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129488DOI Listing
August 2021

Dynamic programming for solving a simulated clinical scenario of sepsis resuscitation.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 23;10(4):3715-3725. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Key Laboratory of Emergency and Trauma of Ministry of Education, Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory for Tropical Cardiovascular Diseases Research, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Research Unit of Island Emergency Medicine of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Background: A major challenge in clinical research is population heterogeneity and we need to consider both historical response and current condition of an individual in considering medical decision making. The idea of precise medicine cannot be fully accounted for in traditional randomized controlled trials. Reinforcement learning (RL) is developing rapidly and has found its way into various fields including clinical medicine in which RL is employed to find an optimal treatment strategy. The key idea of RL is to optimize the treatment policy depending on the current state and previous treatment history, which is consistent with the idea behind dynamic programming (DP). DP is a prototype of RL and can be implemented when the system dynamics can be fully quantified.

Methods: The present article aims to illustrate how to perform DP algorithm in a clinical scenario of Sepsis resuscitation. The state transition dynamics are constructed in the framework of Markov Decision Process. The state space is defined by mean arterial pressure (MAP) and lactate; the action space is comprised of fluid administration and vasopressor. The implementation of policy evaluation, policy improvement and iteration are explained with R code.

Results: the DP algorithm was able to find the optimal treatment policy depending on the current states and previous conditions. The iteration process converged at finite steps. We defined several functions such as nextStep(), policyEval() and policy_iteration() to implement the DP algorithm.

Conclusions: This article illustrates how DP can be used to solve a clinical problem. We show that DP is a potential useful tool to tailor treatment strategy to patients with different conditions/states. Potential audience of the paper are those who are interested in using DP for solving clinical problems with dynamic changing states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2084DOI Listing
April 2021

Dual-wavelength interferogram decoupling method for three-frame generalized dual-wavelength phase-shifting interferometry based on deep learning.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2021 Mar;38(3):321-327

In dual-wavelength interferometry, the key issue is how to efficiently retrieve the phases at each wavelength using the minimum number of wavelength-multiplexed interferograms. To address this problem, a new dual-wavelength interferogram decoupling method with the help of deep learning is proposed in this study. This method requires only three randomly phase-shifted dual-wavelength interferograms. With a well-trained deep neural network, one can obtain three interferograms with arbitrary phase shifts at each wavelength. Using these interferograms, the wrapped phases of a single wavelength can be extracted, respectively, via an iterative phase retrieval algorithm, and then the phases at different synthetic beat wavelengths can be calculated. The feasibility and applicability of the proposed method are demonstrated by simulation experiments of the spherical cap and red blood cell, respectively. This method will provide a solution for the problem of phase retrieval in multiwavelength interferometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.412433DOI Listing
March 2021

Curcumin suppresses the malignancy of non-small cell lung cancer by modulating the circ-PRKCA/miR-384/ITGB1 pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 6;138:111439. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Clinical Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of TCM, Jinan, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Curcumin exerts a suppressive effect in tumor growth by acting as a modulator of multiple molecular targets. Circular RNA hsa_circ_0007580 (circ-PRKCA) accelerates the tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, whether curcumin can regulate circ-PRKCA to inhibit NSCLC progression is unclear.

Methods: Cell viability, colony formation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were analyzed using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), plate clone, flow cytometry, or transwell assay. Expression of circ-PRKCA, microRNA (miR)-384, and ITGB1 mRNA (integrin subunit beta 1) mRNA were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Curcumin repressed NSCLC growth through regulating circ-PRKCA expression was validated by xenograft assay. The targeting relationship between circ-PRKCA or ITGB1 and miR-384 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. The level of ITGB1 protein was measured by western blotting.

Results: Circ-PRKCA and ITGB1 expression were elevated in NSCLC tissues and cells, but miR-384 had an opposing tendency. After curcumin treatment, the expression tendency of circ-PRKCA, miR-384, and ITGB1 in NSCLC cells was overturned. Furthermore, curcumin impeded viability, colony formation, migration, invasion, and accelerated apoptosis of NSCLC cells, but these impacts were partially reversed by circ-PRKCA elevation, miR-384 downregulation, or ITGB1 overexpression. Also, the inhibitory effect of curcumin on xenograft tumor was further enhanced after circ-PRKCA knockdown. Notably, circ-PRKCA regulated ITGB1 expression through sponging miR-384 in curcumin-treated NSCLC cells.

Conclusions: Curcumin inhibited NSCLC growth through downregulating circ-PRKCA, which regulated ITGB1 expression by adsorbing miR-384. This study provided a new mechanism to understand how curcumin inhibited the progression of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111439DOI Listing
June 2021

Conjugative plasmids interact with insertion sequences to shape the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 02;118(6)

Environmental Microbiome Engineering and Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China;

It is well established that plasmids play an important role in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes; however, little is known about the role of the underlying interactions between different plasmid categories and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in shaping the promiscuous spread of AMR genes. Here, we developed a tool designed for plasmid classification, AMR gene annotation, and plasmid visualization and found that most plasmid-borne AMR genes, including those localized on class 1 integrons, are enriched in conjugative plasmids. Notably, we report the discovery and characterization of a massive insertion sequence (IS)-associated AMR gene transfer network (245 combinations covering 59 AMR gene subtypes and 53 ISs) linking conjugative plasmids and phylogenetically distant pathogens, suggesting a general evolutionary mechanism for the horizontal transfer of AMR genes mediated by the interaction between conjugative plasmids and ISs. Moreover, our experimental results confirmed the importance of the observed interactions in aiding the horizontal transfer and expanding the genetic range of AMR genes within complex microbial communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2008731118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017928PMC
February 2021

Long-term androgen excess induces insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in PCOS-like rats.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 04 26;208:105829. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology, State Key Lab of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of Integrative Medicine of Fudan University, Institute of Brain Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, 200032, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at higher risk for metabolic disorders compared to healthy women, and about 51 % of women with PCOS suffer from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Investigation into the pathological mechanism behind this association will provide insights for the prevention and treatment of this complication.

Methods: Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonaromatic androgen, was used to mimic the pathological conditions of hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Hematoxylin and eosin staining, Oil Red O staining, immunofluorescent staining, Western blots, and qRT-PCR were used to verify the hepatic steatosis and inflammation, and the latter two methods were also used for energy and mitochondrion-related assays. ELISA was used to measure the level of reactive oxygen species.

Results: Twelve weeks of DHT exposure led to obesity and insulin resistance as well as hepatic steatosis, lipid deposition, and different degrees of inflammation. The expression of molecules involved in respiratory chain and aerobic respiration processes, such as electron transfer complex II, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A, was inhibited. In addition, molecules associated with apoptosis and autophagy were also abnormally expressed, such as increased Bak mRNA, an increased activated caspase-3 to caspase-3 ratio, and increased Atg12 protein expression. All of these changes are associated with the mitochondria and lead to lipid deposition and inflammation in the liver.

Conclusions: Long-term androgen excess contributes to insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis by affecting mitochondrial function and causing an imbalance in apoptosis and autophagy, thus suggesting the pathogenesis of NAFLD in women with PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105829DOI Listing
April 2021

Glucose absorption regulation and mechanism of the compounds in Lilium lancifolium Thunb on Caco-2 cells.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Mar 22;149:112010. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

National R & D Center for Edible Fungus Processing Technology, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, Henan, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Food & Medicine Resource Function, Henan Province, Kaifeng, 475004, China; Functional Food Engineering Technology Research Center, Henan Province, Kaifeng, 475004, China. Electronic address:

In this paper, the Caco-2 cell was used to study the glucose absorption regulation and mechanism of kaempferol, caffeic acid and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside in Lilium lancifolium Thunb in vitro. Glucose oxidase-peroxidase (GOD-POD) method was used to measure glucose consumption in supernatant. The fluorescent D-glucose analog (2-NBDG) was used as a tracer probe to study the changes in the fluorescence intensity of 2-NBDG uptake by Caco-2 cells with an inverted fluorescence microscope. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR were used to detect the protein expression and mRNA transcription of SGLT1 and GLUT2. The results showed that caffeic acid and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside could significantly promote the absorption of glucose by normal Caco-2 cells compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Both caffeic acid and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside could significantly promote the uptake of glucose tracer 2-NBDG on Caco-2 cells. Caffeic acid and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside could significantly promote SGLT1 and GLUT2 protein expression levels and mRNA transcription (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The mechanism might be related to the promotion of SGLT1 and GLUT2 protein expression levels and mRNA transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112010DOI Listing
March 2021

Practical Experience of Endoscope Reprocessing and Working-Platform Disinfection in COVID-19 Patients: A Report from Guangdong China during the Pandemic.

Gastroenterol Res Pract 2020 31;2020:9869742. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, 519000 Guangdong, China.

Background: No consensus exists regarding which procedures should be performed to disinfect endoscopes and working platforms after COVID-19 patients have undergone endoscopy.

Methods: We analyzed the disinfection quality of endoscopes and working platforms after 11 COVID-19 patients had undergone endoscopy.

Conclusions: For endoscopic preprocessing at the bedside, a key disinfection step is using a multienzyme stock solution. The nucleic acid tests for endoscopists, washers, endoscopes, and working platforms were all negative. Based on our experience with the 11 COVID-19 patients who had undergone endoscopy, we provide an endoscopic reprocessing method for the bedside endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients for reference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9869742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790553PMC
December 2020

Silk fibroin/poly-(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) nanofiber scaffolds loaded with Huangbai Liniment to accelerate diabetic wound healing.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Mar 5;199:111557. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

State Key Lab. For Modification of Chemical Fiber & Polymer Materials, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, 201620, China. Electronic address:

Diabetic infection is a long-term complication difficult to cure. The skin of diabetic patients is prone to damage, the healing is slow after the injury, and the wound occurs repeatedly. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop an effective method for treating diabetes wounds. In this study, we used the electrospinning technique to load Huangbai Liniment (Compound Phellodendron Liquid, CPL) into Silk fibroin (SF) /poly-(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLCL) to prepare the nanofiber membrane (SP/CPL) to treat the diabetic wound. The morphology and structure of the nanofibers were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM results indicate the smooth and bead free fibers and the diameter of the fiber decreased with increasing drug concentration. The release profile indicates the sustained release of the drug. Moreover, the drug-loaded nanofibers showed inhibitory effects for S.aureus and E.coli. Furthermore, in vitro cell culture studies showed the increased proliferation and adhesion of NIH-3T3 cells on the drug-containing nanofiber membrane. Animal experiments showed that the nanofiber membrane loaded with CPL increases the expression of the TGF-β signaling pathway and collagen during wound healing, inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory factors, and thus effectively promotes wound healing in diabetic mice. Therefore, the SP/CPL nanofiber scaffold with CPL loading is a potential candidate for diabetic wound dressings and tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111557DOI Listing
March 2021

Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Properties of Partially purified Exopolysaccharide from Isolated from Chinese Northeast Sauerkraut.

Immunol Invest 2021 Jan 8:1-18. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Food Science, The University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

: Exopolysaccharides (EPS) from spp. have been found to have biological activities. Our previous work demonstrated the antibiofilm activity of EPS from NA-2 ( NA-2) isolated from northeast Chinese sauerkraut (Suan Cai). The present study has focussed on the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of the EPS in vitro.: Antioxidant properties of the EPS were evaluated by the radical-scavenging activities in vitro. The immunomodulatory effects of EPS were assayed by measuring nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the mechanism was investigated through NF-κB and JNK.: EPS contains 88% total sugar, with the molecular weights (Mw) of 1.3 × 10 Da, 6.4 × 10 Da, 2.0 × 10 Da, and 1.4 × 10 Da. EPS showed antioxidant activity by scavenging hydroxyl radicals (42% at 1.2 mg/mL), superoxide radicals (76% at 100 µg/mL), and DPPH (80% at 10 mg/mL); and did not affect the proliferation of unstimulated or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells at the concentrations ranging from 31.25 to 500 µg/mL. Results showed EPS promoted the production of ROS and TNF-α involved in NF-κB p65 and JNK signaling pathways in unstimulated RAW 264.7 cells. On the other hand, the levels of NO and iNOS were reduced after EPS treatment in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.: Our results showed the protective effect against oxidative damage and potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of EPS from NA-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2020.1869777DOI Listing
January 2021

Long-term direct and indirect economic burden associated with osteoporotic fracture in US postmenopausal women.

Osteoporos Int 2021 Jun 7;32(6):1195-1205. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.

The study examined long-term direct and indirect economic burden of osteoporotic fractures among postmenopausal women. Healthcare costs among fracture patients were substantial in first year after fracture and remained higher than fracture-free controls for 5 years which highlight needs for early detection of high-risk patients and continued management for osteoporosis.

Introduction: This study compared direct and indirect healthcare costs between postmenopausal women and demographically matched controls in the 5 years after incident non-traumatic fracture, and by fracture type in commercially insured and Medicare populations.

Methods: Two hundred twenty-six thousand one hundred ninety women (91,925 aged 50-64 years; 134,265 aged ≥ 65 years) with incident non-traumatic fracture (hip, vertebral, and non-hip non-vertebral (NHNV)) from 2008 to 2017 were identified. Patients with fracture were directly matched (1:1) to non-fracture controls based on demographic characteristics. Direct healthcare costs were assessed using general linear models, adjusting for baseline costs, comorbidities, osteoporosis diagnosis, and treatment. Indirect costs associated with work loss due to absenteeism and short-term disability (STD) were assessed among commercially insured patients. Costs were standardized to 2019 US dollars.

Results: Osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment rates prior to fracture were low. Patients with fracture incurred higher direct costs across 5-year post-index compared with non-fracture controls, regardless of fracture type or insurance. For commercially insured hip fracture patients, the mean adjusted incremental direct healthcare costs in years 1, 3, and 5 were $59,327, $6885, and $3241, respectively. Incremental costs were lower, but trends were similar for vertebral and NHNV fracture types and Medicare-insured patients. Commercially insured patients with fracture had higher unadjusted indirect costs due to absenteeism and STD in year 1 and higher adjusted indirect costs due to STD at year 1 (incremental cost $5848, $2748, and $2596 for hip, vertebral, and NHNV fracture).

Conclusions: A considerable and sustained economic burden after a non-traumatic fracture underscores the need for early patient identification and continued management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-020-05769-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128807PMC
June 2021

Effects of edpetiline from Fritillaria on inflammation and oxidative stress induced by LPS stimulation in RAW264.7 macrophages.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Feb;53(2):229-237

National R & D Center for Edible Fungus Processing Technology, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.

The dry bulbs of Fritillaria cirrhosa species can help resolve phlegm, soothe cough, clear heat, and moisten the lung, and the main active components responsible for these effect are its alkaloids. However, it is unclear whether or how edpetiline in Fritillaria can inhibit the excessive inflammatory response and oxidative stress. In this research, we aimed to examine this aspect using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages as an inflammatory model. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis results showed that edpetiline significantly inhibited the content and mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, significantly increased the mRNA expression of IL-4 (anti-inflammatory cytokine), and markedly downregulated the inflammatory mediators inductible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA and protein expression levels. The oxidative stress induced by LPS was also inhibited by edpetiline, as the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species decreased notably. Edpetiline may exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects through inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκB and the nuclear transcription of nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 and decreasing the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, without activating the JNK/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. These findings suggest that edpetiline may be a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of inflammation- and oxidative stress-related pathophysiological processes and diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmaa160DOI Listing
February 2021

Pancreatobiliary Diversion in the Mouse.

Eur Surg Res 2020 1;61(4-5):130-135. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Laboratory of Acute Abdomen Disease Associated Organ Injury and Repair, Nankai Hospital Affiliated to Nankai University, Tianjin, China,

The gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) is primarily secreted from I-cells in the duodenum and proximal jejunum. CCK secretion is stimulated by food digests and inhibited by proteases from pancreatic juice. CCK regulates digestion and appetite, stimulates pancreatic growth, and participates in pancreatic carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of CCK-induced effects are not fully understood. When the mechanisms are studied in animals, the surgical model of pancreatobiliary diversion (PBD) is frequently used. After animals have had PBD, their CCK secretion is no longer inhibited by pancreas-derived proteases, so circulating CCK is increased. PBD is established in rats and hamsters, but not in mice. In this study, we modified PBD procedures and established the model in the mouse. In an experiment, we performed PBD and sham operation (SO) in two groups of mice (20 mice per group). Twenty days after operation, 75% of the PBD mice and all SO mice survived. When plasma CCK was determined by radioimmunoassay, the PBD group had higher levels than the SO group (p < 0.001). To assess pancreatic growth, we determined pancreatic weight and pancreatic contents of protein and DNA. We also stained pancreatic sections by immunohistochemistry to show the proliferating cells that either expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen or were labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. As a result, the pancreases of the PBD mice were heavier (p < 0.001) and had more protein (p < 0.001), DNA (p < 0.01), and proliferating cells (p < 0.01) than those of the SO counterparts. Thus, pancreatic growth was increased as a result of PBD-induced hypercholecystokininemia. The plasma and pancreatic data demonstrated that the PBD model was a success. This model may be used in CCK-related research. For instance, pancreatic cancer is frequently studied in transgenic mice. PBD may be combined with the cancer model to study the role of CCK in the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508270DOI Listing
December 2020

Effect of Yugengtongyu Granules in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease on Reducing Adverse Cardiovascular Events: A Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

J Altern Complement Med 2021 Feb 1;27(2):142-149. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

To evaluate the effect of Yugengtongyu granules on reducing the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events and improving quality of life (QOL) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCAD). A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted among SCAD population. One hundred fourteen patients were randomly assigned to experimental group ( = 57) and control group ( = 57) following randomized block design. Combined with the basis of standard treatment of SCAD, the experimental group and control group received Yugengtongyu granules or placebo, respectively, twice daily for 6 months and were followed for another 1 year (18 months in total from enrollment). Major outcomes (any occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization), minor outcomes (any occurrence of all-cause death, ischemic stroke, readmission due to unstable angina, heart failure, or malignant arrhythmia), and composite outcomes (union of major and minor outcomes) were used to evaluate prognosis; Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) was applied to evaluate QOL, and levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high sensitive C reacting protein (HS-CRP) in serum were tested. The incidence of composite outcomes in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (3 [5.2%] vs. 11 [19.2%], hazard ratio: 0.273, 95% confidence interval: 0.080-0.926,  = 0.022); major outcomes, minor outcomes, and independent events such as nonfatal myocardial infarction showed lowering trend in experimental group. Experimental group scored significantly higher than control group in four dimensions of SAQ: physical limitation, angina frequency, treatment satisfaction, and disease perception at the third- and sixth-month follow-up; there was no significant difference in serum level of LDL or HS-CRP at all scheduled timepoints. The addition of Yugengtongyu granules based on current standard treatment reduced the incidence of composite outcomes and improved QOL in patients with SCAD. The trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-TRC-13004370).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2020.0361DOI Listing
February 2021

Microplastics interfere with mixotrophic Ochromonas eliminating toxic Microcystis.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 19;265:129030. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics with different sizes exist widely in fresh waters, which may affect the interspecific dynamics between predator and prey. The flagellate Ochromonas gloeopara can efficiently eliminate Microcystis aeruginosa and degrade microcystins, which shows great potential for controlling harmful Microcystis. In order to evaluate the effects of microplastics on O. gloeopara eliminating Microcystis, we designed an experiment of O. gloeopara feeding on Microcystis under different sizes (0.07 and 3 μm) and concentrations (0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 2.0 mg L) of microplastics. The results showed that maximum abundance of M. aeruginosa decreased significantly with addition of microplastics, regardless of the size and concentration. O. gloeopara can ingest the microplastics and suffer from their adverse effects. The maximum abundance of O. gloeopara decreased with enhancing concentrations of 3 μm microplastics during the process of O. gloeopara eliminating M. aeruginosa, whereas 0.07 μm microplastics did not affect the growth of O. gloeopara obviously. During the period of exposure under microplastics, clearance rate of O. gloeopara on M. aeruginosa decreased with the increasing concentrations of microplastics. Specially, 3 μm microplastics had a stronger reduction on clearance rate of O. gloeopara. The time to M. aeruginosa extinction was prolonged with the increasing concentrations of microplastics in both sizes. Comparatively speaking, 3 μm microplastics had a stronger delayed effect on the removal of Microcystis. These findings suggest that microplastics can interfere with protozoa eliminating toxic Microcystis, which may aggravate their adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129030DOI Listing
February 2021

Met and unmet care needs of home-living people with dementia in China: An observational study using the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021 Jan 25;21(1):102-107. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Geriatrics Department, Gansu Provincial Hospital, Lanzhou, China.

Aim: The goal of the study was to investigate the patterns of needs in older individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia living at home using the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly questionnaire.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 378 home-living residents served as the sample. The Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly questionnaire was used to analyze the needs of those receiving adequate interventions (met needs) and those without appropriate supports (unmet needs). Thereafter, the factors that correlated with total needs were determined using demographic characteristics.

Results: Persons with dementia (PWD) had a mean care needs of 18.5 ± 5.4 (range 5-35). Unmet needs were most common in caring for someone (65.1%), looking after the home (63.5%), self-care (58.7%) and intimate relationships (44.4%) domains. Higher needs were significantly related to living with others than a spouse, longer length of diagnosis, older age and higher cognitive function.

Conclusion: Unmet needs are common in home-living PWD. Home-based dementia care can identify and address PWD's unmet needs by focusing on care recipients and caregivers to enable PWD to remain safely at home and improve their quality of life. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 102-107.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.14093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839676PMC
January 2021

Zinc ferrate nanoparticles for applications in medicine: synthesis, physicochemical properties, regulation of macrophage functions, and safety evaluation.

Nanotoxicology 2020 12 19;14(10):1381-1398. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmaceutics and New Drug System, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Zinc ferrate nanoparticles (ZnFeO NPs) have attracted enormous interest as potential nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to examine the macrophages toxicity, safety, and immunogenicity. Three kinds of ZnFeO NPs with different shapes (round, litchi, and raspberry), nano-sizes, and pores were successfully prepared. experiments showed that ZnFeO NPs caused no cytotoxicity against the RAW 264.7 cells up to administered dose of 200 μg/mL, enhanced proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, and costimulatory marker CD86 expression in the RAW 264.7 cells. Interestingly, ZnFeO NPs reduced ROS expression, which was inconsistent with common metal oxide NPs such as iron oxide (FeO) NPs and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs. ZnFeO NPs improved the RAW 264.7 cells phagocytosed more neutral red. There was no obvious difference in body weight, the number of immune cells, organ index, and expression of inflammatory factors in serum of rats administrated intravenously and subcutaneously on day 21 after treatment by ZnFeO NPs in comparison with the blank control. These results demonstrated that ZnFeO NPs slightly enhanced the function of the RAW 264.7 cells but caused no obvious toxicity to macrophages as well as rat blood cells, and low immunogenicity in rats, suggesting that ZnFeO NPs as a biocompatible nanomaterials achieved potential for bioapplication in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2020.1831094DOI Listing
December 2020

Dibromoacetic acid exposure is associated with abnormal melatonin rhythm in rats via inhibition of p-CREB1-AANAT signalling pathway.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 7;208:111401. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Toxicology, College of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150081, PR China; National Key Discipline, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150081, PR China; College of Engineering, IT and Environment, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0810, Australia; Department of Clinical Laboratory, Jiamusi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Jiamusi, Heilongjiang Province 154000, PR China. Electronic address:

Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is a by-product of disinfection in drinking water, which could cause many adverse effects in test animals. However, little research on its neurotoxicity has been conducted, and its mechanism has not been elucidated. In the present study, ninety Sprague-Dawley rats were administered DBA at doses of 0, 30, and 90 mg/kg body weight for 28 days via oral gavage. We found that DBA could induce obvious neurotoxicity in the pineal gland as indicated by histological changes and impaired rhythm of melatonin in pineal and serum. In the mechanism study, transcriptome data showed that DBA exposure could induce 732 differential expression genes. Besides, GO and KEGG analysis results indicated that these genes were enriched in circadian rhythms, among which CREB1 had the most significant fold change. And immunofluorescence staining (IF) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) results showed that the number of amber-colored masculine neurons for the p-CREB1 in the 90 mg/kg group was markedly lower, and staining for the p-CREB1 was weaker. Moreover, the results of PCR and western blot showed that DBA exposure could down-regulate the expressions of CREB1 and p-CREB1, leading to the decreased expressions of gene and protein of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), and then resulting in the impaired melatonin synthesis in the pineal and serum. In conclusion, DBA exposure is associated with abnormal melatonin rhythm via inhibition of the p-CREB1-AANAT signalling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111401DOI Listing
January 2021

Anti-Hepatoma Compound Determination by the Method of Spectrum Effect Relationship, Component Knock-Out, and UPLC-MS in (L.)Frodin Harms and Its Mechanism.

Front Pharmacol 2020 9;11:1342. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

National R & D Center for Edible Fungus Processing Technology, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

(L.)Frodin, a kind of Traditional Chinese Medicine, is commonly used in anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-viral, anti-tumor, and hemostasis. This study aimed to determine the anti-hepatoma components and its mechanism from the leaves of . The spectrum-effect relationships were analyzed by the method of Partial least squares, indicating that P1, P2, and P10 were positively correlated to inhibitory activity of Huh7 cells. Whereas others were negatively correlated. The technologies of component knock-out and UPLC-MS were used to determine compounds as 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid (P6), 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid (P7), 3-Hydroxy-lup-20(29)-ene-23,28-dioic acid (P10, named Compound A). The results forecasted that Compound A had the best correlation with inhibitory activity. The effects of Compound A on the activities of human hepatoma cells (Huh7, SMMC-7721, HepG 2) and normal hepatocytes (L0-2, Chang liver) were evaluated. Cell apoptosis was observed with inverted microscope and flow cytometer. In addition, the proteins, related to apoptosis, were detected by Western blot. The results showed that Compound A (400 nM) could significantly inhibit the activity of three hepatoma cells ( < 0.001) with slight toxicity to normal hepatocytes, and the IC values were 285.3 and 315.1 nM, respectively, which were consistent with the prediction of spectrum-effect relationships. After treatment with Compound A, the number of hepatoma cells decreased significantly. And the apoptosis rate of Huh7 cells increased significantly ( < 0.001) in Compound A (200, 400 nM) groups, SMMC-7721 and HepG 2 were directly necrotic. Compound A groups could significantly improve the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) ( < 0.05, < 0.001) in Huh7 with no effect on normal hepatocytes. The content of apoptotic protein (Bax and Bim) in mitochondria was significantly increased in Compound A groups ( < 0.001). On the contrary, the content of anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL and Mcl-1) decreased significantly ( < 0.001). These results demonstrated that Compound A was the main anti-hepatoma active component in the leaves. It achieved the effect of promoting apoptosis of Huh7 cells by regulating the levels of ROS and Bcl-2 family protein in mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.01342DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509203PMC
September 2020

Suppression of c-Met-Overexpressing Tumors by a Novel c-Met/CD3 Bispecific Antibody.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2020 7;14:3201-3214. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Overexpression of c-Met, or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, is commonly observed in tumor biopsies and often associated with poor patient survival, which makes HGF/c-Met pathway an attractive molecular target for cancer therapy. A number of antibody-based therapeutic strategies have been explored to block c-Met or HGF in cancers; however, clinical efficacy has been very limited, indicating that blockade of c-Met signal alone is not sufficient. Thus, an alternative approach is to develop an immunotherapy strategy for c-Met-overexpressing cancers. c-Met/CD3 bispecific antibody (BsAb) could bridge CD3-positive T lymphocytes and tumor cells to result in potent tumor cell killing.

Materials And Methods: A bispecific antibody, BS001, which binds both c-Met and CD3, was generated using a novel BsAb platform. Western blotting and T cells-mediated killing assays were utilized to evaluate the BsAb's effects on cell proliferation, survival and signal transduction in tumor cells. Subcutaneous tumor mouse models were used to analyze the in vivo anti-tumor effects of the bispecific antibody and its combination therapy with PD-L1 antibody.

Results: BS001 showed potent T-cell mediated tumor cells killing in vitro. Furthermore, BS001 inhibited phosphorylation of c-Met and downstream signal transduction in tumor cells. In A549 lung cancer xenograft model, BS001 inhibited tumor growth and increased the proportion of activated CD56 tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. In vivo combination therapy of BS001 with Atezolizumab (an anti-programmed cell death protein1-ligand (PD-L1) antibody) showed more potent tumor inhibition than monotherapies. Similarly, in SKOV3 xenograft model, BS001 showed a significant efficacy in tumor growth inhibition and tumor recurrence was not observed in more than half of mice treated with a combination of BS001 and Pembrolizumab.

Conclusion: c-Met/CD3 bispecific antibody BS001 exhibited potent anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo, which was achieved through two distinguished mechanisms: through antibody-mediated tumor cell killing by T cells and through inhibition of c-Met signal transduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S254117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495354PMC
July 2021

Tetrandrine enhances antitumor effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 in human cancer in a Bax- and p53-dependent manner.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Dec 17;888:173575. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Cell Homeostasis, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, PR China. Electronic address:

MS-275 (Entinostat), is an oral histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with a high specificity for class 1 HDACs. As single agent, MS-275 exerts only modest antitumor activity against most solid malignancies. The use of MS-275 in combination with other anticancer agents is currently being evaluated to determine whether this approach can achieve superior therapeutic efficacy. Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the root of a Chinese medicinal herb, is safe and exhibits low toxicity, showing great potential to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy. In the present study, we investigated the synergistic antitumor effects of MS-275 in combination with tetrandrine. Based on the results of in vitro experiments, the application of MS-275 in combination with tetrandrine induced selective apoptotic death in various cancer cells but spared normal cells. Mechanistically, the combination treatment induced a dramatic accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and a pretreatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) significantly prevented the cellular apoptosis induced by MS-275/tetrandrine. Moreover, molecular assays indicated that Bax and p53 were the key regulators of MS-275/tetrandrine induced apoptosis. The results of the in vivo studies were consistent with the results of the in vitro studies. Based on our findings, tetrandrine enhanced the antitumor effects of MS-275 in a Bax- and p53-dependent manner. The combination of MS-275 and tetrandrine may represent a novel and promising therapeutic strategy for cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173575DOI Listing
December 2020

Improving seismic remote sensing of typhoon with a three-dimensional Earth model.

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 Aug;148(2):478

Key Laboratory of Ocean Observation-Imaging Testbed of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province, 316021, People's Republic of China.

Typhoon-induced P-wave microseisms can be observed using seismological arrays and analyzed for the seismic monitoring of ocean storms. This paper presents a frequency-domain beamforming (FB) method that integrates a three-dimensional (3-D) Earth model to better capture the heterogeneities in the subsurface structure, and therefore yield more accurate ray-tracing and travel-time predictions. This method is applied to the Super Typhoon Lupit (2009) using seismological array observations from the Northeast China Extended Seismic Array (NECESSArray) and high-sensitivity seismograph network in Japan (Hi-net). The results show that the localized P-wave microseism source regions based on the 3-D model are in better agreement with the theoretical source regions and typhoon centers than those based on a conventional one-dimensional (1-D) model. The significance of using a 3-D model instead of a 1-D model in the FB method is further investigated by comparing the consistency of the localization results for the two different arrays, with the localized source regions being more mutually concordant when using the 3-D model. The results demonstrate that integrating the 3-D model into the FB method improves the accuracy of locating the typhoon-induced P-wave microseism source regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0001624DOI Listing
August 2020

Tackling COVID-19: Insights from the Qinghai Province plague prevention and control (PPC) model.

Biosaf Health 2020 Dec 5;2(4):187-192. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Health Commission of Qinghai Province, Xining 810001, China.

Plague, caused by , is a natural focus infectious disease. In China, plague is classified as category A, with the highest risk and hazard among the infectious diseases. Qinghai used to be considered as one of the most serious areas of plague in China. In recent years, thank to the measures in eight aspects summarized as the "Qinghai model" which were adopted to prevent and control the human plague in Qinghai, Qinghai has not experienced any plague case reported for eight years. In early 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbroke in China. The Qinghai model on plague was employed to deal with the COVID-19 emergency in Qinghai Province. The Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Qinghai CDC) and hospitals, along with the departments of public security, animal husbandry and other departments, quickly tracked and treated the patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and started surveillance programs on close contacts timely. At present, the cure rate of patients has reached 100%, and close contacts have been effectively quarantined and tested to avoid the spread of COVID-19. The findings from the study suggest that the prevention and control measures undertaken in Qinghai Province might be effective in dealing with the category A infectious diseases such as COVID-19 and other diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bsheal.2020.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403129PMC
December 2020

A Review: Effects of Macrolides on CYP450 Enzymes.

Curr Drug Metab 2020 ;21(12):928-937

National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residues (HZAU) and MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.

As a kind of haemoglobin, cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP450) participate in the metabolism of many substances, including endogenous substances, exogenous substances and drugs. It is estimated that 60% of common prescription drugs require bioconversion through CYP450. The influence of macrolides on CYP450 contributes to the metabolism and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) of macrolides. At present, most studies on the effects of macrolides on CYP450 are focused on CYP3A, but a few exist on other enzymes and drug combinations, such as telithromycin, which can decrease the activity of hepatic CYP1A2 and CYP3A2. This article summarizes some published applications of the influence of macrolides on CYP450 and the DDIs of macrolides caused by CYP450. And the article may subsequently guide the rational use of drugs in clinical trials. To a certain extent, poisoning caused by adverse drug interactions can be avoided. Unreasonable use of macrolide antibiotics may enable the presence of residue of macrolide antibiotics in animal-origin food. It is unhealthy for people to eat food with macrolide antibiotic residues. So it is of great significance to guarantee food safety and protect the health of consumers by the rational use of macrolides. This review gives a detailed description of the influence of macrolides on CYP450 and the DDIs of macrolides caused by CYP450. Moreover, it offers a perspective for researchers to further explore in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389200221666200817113920DOI Listing
January 2020