Publications by authors named "Xiaoqin Zhou"

102 Publications

Experiences and attitudes of elementary school students and their parents toward online learning in China during the COVID-19 pandemic: Questionnaire Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of psychiatry, Chaohu Hospital, Anhui Medical University, 64 North Chaohu Road, Hefei, CN.

Background: Due to the widespread infection of COVID-19, an emergency homeschooling plan was rigorously implemented throughout China.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the experiences and attitudes of elementary school students and their parents (two generations from the same family) toward online learning in China during the pandemic.

Methods: A 16-item questionnaire was distributed at the 10 day- and 40 day-mark after the first online course to 867 parent-child pairs and 141 parent-child pairs, respectively. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to the course and homework's completeness, effectiveness, reliability, and abundance as well as the students' enthusiasm to take part in online classes and their satisfaction with the courses.

Results: The findings indicate that more than 91% of students exhibited high or moderate enthusiasm for participating in online classes. However, most students performed poorly in online learning classes and after school homework. Regarding satisfaction, parents' and students' average scores were 7.35 and 7.25, respectively (10-point scoring system). During the second stage of the study, parents' positive evaluations of online learning declined, including the effectiveness and reliability of the courses. Furthermore, the proportion of students who completed the courses and homework on time decreased; this difference proved statistically significant. The overall satisfaction of parents and students with online learning also declined during this second stage (7.21 vs. 7.23); however, the difference between the two stages was not statistically significant. Several of the parents (36.2%) indicated that assisting and supervising the students' online learning caused increased stress. Thirty-six percent of parents expressed dissatisfaction or suggestions concerning online learning; most parents and students hoped to return to face-to-face classes (94.9% vs. 93.5%). Finally, the results presented six main issues that parents are most concerned about: (1) disappointment regarding timely interaction in courses; (2) apprehensive about students understanding of the course; (3) increased burden of annoying adult responsibilities; (4) concern about the children's eyesight; (5) teachers' explanations were not detailed enough; (6) concerned about the decline of students' interest and attention.

Conclusions: Online learning could prevent the spread of infectious diseases while still allowing elementary school students to attain knowledge. However, children's completion of the courses and homework were not satisfactory. Furthermore, their parents often experienced stress and had many concerns and complaints. Measures such as increasing the interactivity of the courses and prohibiting teachers from assigning the task to parents could improve the effectiveness of these courses and the mental health level of parents and students.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/24496DOI Listing
April 2021

Associations Between Childhood Trauma and the Age of First-Time Drug Use in Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:658205. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Chaohu Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Childhood trauma is related to substance use disorder; however, few studies have examined the relationship between childhood trauma and the age at which the drug was first used. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between childhood trauma and the age of first-time drug use among methamphetamine-dependent patients. Moreover, we analyzed the characteristics of adverse family environment associated with severe childhood trauma and the risk factors for starting drugs in minors. A baseline interview was conducted with 110 participants who were in detoxification, including demographic information, past substance use, and age of first-time drug use. The participants' childhood trauma experience before 18 years of age was evaluated using the simplified version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF). The Chinese version of the Family Environment Scale (FES-CV) was used to assess the family environment of methamphetamine-dependent patients. Among 110 non-injecting methamphetamine-dependent patients, nearly half ( = 48, 43.6%) had moderate and severe childhood trauma. Correlation analysis showed that the age of first-time drug use negatively correlated with emotional abuse ( = -0.32, < 0.01) and physical abuse ( = -0.27, < 0.01). The age of first-time drug use negatively correlated with conflict ( = -0.20, < 0.05) and independence ( = -0.22, < 0.05) of family environment, but positively correlated with intellectual-cultural orientation ( = 0.28, < 0.01). Additionally, childhood trauma factors significantly correlated with many indexes of family environment, especially cohesion ( = -0.45, < 0.01), conflict ( = 0.49, < 0.01), and independence ( = 0.33, < 0.01). Additionally, the regression model showed that when emotional abuse increased by one point, the age of first-time drug use was 0.69 years earlier. These findings suggest that a detrimental family environment can aggravate childhood trauma, and the experience of childhood emotional or physical abuse may be an effective predictor of early drug use among methamphetamine-dependent patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.658205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044866PMC
March 2021

The mediating role of prenatal depression in adult attachment and maternal-fetal attachment in primigravida in the third trimester.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Apr 16;21(1):307. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Chaohu Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 238000, China.

Background: Prenatal depression and adult attachment are factors that affect the establishment of an intimate relationship between a mother and fetus. The study explored differences in prenatal depression and maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) scores between different types of adult attachment and the effects of maternal depression scores and attachment dimensions on maternal intimacy with the fetus.

Methods: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Experience of Close Relationship (ECR) scale, Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) and a general data scale were used to investigate 260 primigravida. An exploratory analysis was performed to analyze the effects of the depression score and adult attachment on MFA.

Results: The results showed that pregnant women with insecure attachment exhibited an increased prevalence of prenatal depression, lower total MFA scores, and lower MFA quality compared with those women with secure adult attachment. The explorative analysis showed that the depression scores mediated the relationship between adult attachment avoidance and MFA quality.

Conclusions: Primigravida who had insecure adult attachment exhibited an increased prevalence of prenatal depression and lower MFA. Maternal depression and adult attachment may affect the emotional bond between a mother and fetus. This finding should be seriously considered, and timely intervention needs to take personality traits into consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03779-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052769PMC
April 2021

Self-esteem, social support and coping strategies of left-behind children in rural China, and the intermediary role of subjective support:a cross-sectional survey.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 03 17;21(1):158. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Chaohu Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 238000, China.

Background: Negative coping strategies and behavioral problems are common among Chinese left-behind children, which are relate to a variety of negative consequences. At this stage of development, the relevant factors of coping strategies need to be further studied, in which social support and self-esteem are worthy of our attention. The aim of this study is to detect the current situation of self-esteem, social support, and coping styles of left-behind children (LBC) in rural China.

Methods: 322 children from 3 schools in China enrolled in this study, including 236 LBC and 86 non-left-behind children (NLBC) to assess self-esteem, social support and coping strategies.

Results: The LBC group had lower self-esteem score and lower total social support (subjective support, objective support and support-seeking behavior) than the NLBC group. In terms of coping strategies, the LBC group was lower than the NLBC group in problem-solving and rationalization. The self-esteem score in LBC was significant positive associated with the subjective support score, objective support score, problem-solving and help-seeking score. In addition, self-esteem has significant mediating effect between subjective support and problem-solving, subjective support and help-seeking, respectively.

Conclusions: The finding indicate that Chinese LBC's self-esteem and social support need to be improved. Given the significant correlativity between self-esteem, subjective support and coping strategy, it is necessary to promote Chinese LBC's self-esteem and social support, especially subjective support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03160-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972224PMC
March 2021

Removal of tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli and its genes through ultrasound treatment combined with ultraviolet light emitting diodes.

Environ Res 2021 Mar 11;197:111007. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, PR China.

Antibiotic resistance has gained increasing attention worldwide, and wastewater treatment plants have been regarded as hotspots for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs). In this study, we evaluated the removal of tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli and its related genes through ultrasound (US) treatment with different input levels of US-specific energy combined with ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). Simultaneous US with UV-LEDs effectively eliminated tetracycline-resistant E. coli with the normal suggested UV-LEDs dosage (below 30 mJ/cm). The removal efficiency increased with the addition of US (specific input energy of 8-16 kJ/L), and simultaneous US treatment with UV-LEDs was relatively more effective than US pretreatment. Analyses of cell damage by K leakage and flow cytometry showed that the cell wall kept its integrity during the applied treatment conditions. Consequently, the removal efficiencies of 16 S rRNA, tet M, and tet Q were unsatisfactory because less than 1 log reduction was achieved. Increasing the US energy remarkably damaged the cell wall and potentially promoted the reaction. The removal of ARGs increased four times when using US-specific input energy at 330 kJ/L with 5 mJ/cm compared with UV-LEDs alone. The US treatment combined with UV-LEDs is a novel process that does not require chemicals. Results of this research can provide theoretical support for the removal of ARGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111007DOI Listing
March 2021

Two-dimensional vibration actuated polishing of small surfaces by generating random-like Lissajous trajectories.

Appl Opt 2021 Feb;60(4):851-863

Small-surface optical components with complex shapes and high-precision requirements are increasingly needed in the fields of mobile communications, in vivo diagnosis, and other fields. Some scholars have studied and proposed a two-dimensional vibration actuated polishing (2D-VAP) method based on small polishing tools for the preparation of small-surface optical elements. Using the nonresonant 2D-VAP device developed by the author, the frequency and amplitude of 2D-VAP are precisely adjusted to generate a random-like Lissajous polishing trajectory, which can overcome the problem that most of the existing 2D-VAP methods generate a circular or elliptical polishing trajectory at the small polishing tool, resulting in leaving periodic polishing marks on the workpiece surface. The removal function model under the condition of random-like Lissajous polishing motion with a small polishing tool is established. In addition, the removal function verification experiments and surface polishing experiments are carried out. The experimental results show that the measured removal function is in good agreement with that obtained by numerical simulation. Compared with the circular polishing trajectory, the random-like Lissajous polishing trajectory can significantly improve the material removal rate, and there are no obvious periodic polishing marks on the workpiece surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.413073DOI Listing
February 2021

Attitudes of food consumers at universities towards recycling human urine as crop fertiliser: A multinational survey dataset.

Data Brief 2021 Apr 26;35:106794. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.

We present here a data set generated from a multinational survey on opinions of university community members on the prospect of consuming food grown with human urine as fertiliser and about their urine recycling perceptions in general. The data set comprises answers from 3,763 university community members (students, faculty/researchers, and staff) from 20 universities in 16 countries and includes demographic variables (age bracket, gender, type of settlement of origin, academic discipline, and role in the university). Questions were designed based on Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour to elicit information about three components of behavioural intention-attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control. Survey questions covered perceived risks and benefits (attitudes), perceptions of colleagues (injunctive social norm) and willingness to consume food grown with cow urine/faeces (descriptive social norm), and willingness to pay a price premium for food grown with human urine as fertiliser (perceived behavioural control). We also included a question about acceptable urine recycling and disposal options and assessed general environmental outlook via the 15-item revised New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale. Data were collected through a standardised survey instrument translated into the relevant languages and then administered via an online form. Invitations to the survey were sent by email to university mailing lists or to a systematic sample of the university directory. Only a few studies on attitudes towards using human urine as fertiliser have been conducted previously. The data described here, which we analysed in "Willingness among food consumers at universities to recycle human urine as crop fertiliser: Evidence from a multinational survey" [1], may be used to further understand potential barriers to acceptance of new sanitation systems based on wastewater source separation and urine recycling and can help inform the design of future sociological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2021.106794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875816PMC
April 2021

Prenatal Depression in Women in the Third Trimester: Prevalence, Predictive Factors, and Relationship With Maternal-Fetal Attachment.

Front Public Health 2020 26;8:602005. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

College of Mental Health and Psychological Science, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

The prevalence of prenatal depression in pregnant women has found to be high, which may adversely affect the intimacy of a mother to her fetus. Few studies have investigated the relationship between prenatal depression and maternal-fetal attachment in pregnant Chinese women. This study is thus designed to evaluate the prevalence rate, predictive factors of prenatal depression in Chinese pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy, and the effect of prenatal depression on maternal-fetal attachment. A total of 340 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy were recruited from a hospital in Anhui Province. The Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) was rated to assess the prenatal depression; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) were used to assess sleep quality and anxiety level for all participants. The Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale (MAAS) was used to assess maternal-fetal attachment. The prevalence of prenatal depression in the participants was high (19.1%) in our study. The scores of prenatal anxiety and sleep disorders were higher with prenatal depression than in those without prenatal depression (47.6 ± 9.5 vs. 38.9 ± 6.9; 8.3 ± 3.3 vs. 6.1 ± 2.7, all < 0.01). MAAS quality was lower in prenatal depression women than those in non-prenatal depression women (43.8 ± 5.6 vs. 46.4 ± 4.5, < 0.01). Correlation analysis showed that prenatal depression was associated with parity, prenatal education, education level, marital satisfaction, anxiety and sleep disorders (all < 0.05). Furthermore, binary logistic regression results showed that anxiety and sleep disorders were risk factors for prenatal depression. Prenatal education, higher marriage satisfaction were protective factors for prenatal depression. In addition, correlation analysis also showed that prenatal depression was positively correlated with MAAS intensity, but negatively correlated with MAAS quality. Our results indicated a high prevalence of prenatal depression in women in the third trimester. Prenatal education and higher marital satisfaction were protective factors for prenatal depression; antenatal anxiety and sleep disorders during pregnancy were risk factors for prenatal depression. Prenatal depression was negatively correlated with MAAS quality, but positively correlated with MAAS intensity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.602005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870992PMC
January 2021

Willingness among food consumers to recycle human urine as crop fertiliser: Evidence from a multinational survey.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 24;765:144438. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology, Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

Source-separating sanitation systems offer the possibility of recycling nutrients present in wastewater as crop fertilisers. Thereby, they can reduce agriculture's impacts on global sources, sinks, and cycles for nitrogen and phosphorous, as well as their associated environmental costs. However, it has been broadly assumed that people would be reluctant to perform the new sanitation behaviours that are necessary for implementing such systems in practice. Yet, few studies have tried to systematically gather evidence in support of this assumption. To address this gap, we surveyed 3763 people at 20 universities in 16 countries using a standardised questionnaire. We identified and systematically assessed cross-cultural and country-level explanatory factors that were strongly associated with people's willingness to consume food grown using human urine as fertiliser. Overall, 68% of the respondents favoured recycling human urine, 59% stated a willingness to eat urine-fertilised food, and only 11% believed that urine posed health risks that could not be mitigated by treatment. Most people did not expect to pay less for urine-fertilised food, but only 15% were willing to pay a price premium. Consumer perceptions were found to differ greatly by country and the strongest predictive factors for acceptance overall were cognitive factors (perceptions of risks and benefits) and social norms. Increasing awareness and building trust among consumers about the effectiveness of new sanitation systems via cognitive and normative messaging can help increase acceptance. Based on our findings, we believe that in many countries, acceptance by food consumers will not be the major social barrier to closing the loop on human urine. That a potential market exists for urine-fertilised food, however, needs to be communicated to other stakeholders in the sanitation service chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144438DOI Listing
April 2021

Occurrence of typical antibiotics, representative antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and genes in fresh and stored source-separated human urine.

Environ Int 2021 01 11;146:106280. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, PR China.

Human urine is a source of fertilizer and, with proper management, it can be reused in agriculture. Determining the contamination issue of antibiotics in source-separated urine is important because the majority of antibiotics are excreted with urine. In this study, source-separated urine samples were randomly collected from a male toilet in a university building and analyzed in terms of 30 typical antibiotics (including 14 sulfonamides, 4 tetracyclines, and 12 fluoroquinolones) and tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli, as well as its antibiotic-resistant genes to determine the contamination characteristics of antibiotic-related pollution in fresh and stored urine. Results showed that 18 out of 30 typical antibiotics were detected in fresh source-separated human urine. The dominant antibiotic was oxytetracycline with a frequency of 100%, followed by tetracycline, sparfloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ofloxacin, which demonstrated a detection frequency of 55%. Among the detected values, sulfonamides (2 antibiotics), tetracyclines (4 antibiotics), and fluoroquinolones (12 antibiotics) had a concentration range of 0.25-2.94, 0.94-41.2, and 0.06-163.16 ng/mL, respectively. Furthermore, tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli, which was measured using plate count method, and its related gene, tet M, exhibited a maximum cell density of (200,000 ± 5000) CFU/100 mL and (2.73 ± 0.261) × 10 copies/mL, respectively. When the fresh urine was stored in an ambient environment for 30 days to simulate the real circumstances of urine management, a significant reduction in antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria was observed, while the change in antibiotic-resistant genes was insignificant. The results of this study suggest that risks associated with antibiotics and their antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are retained during collection and storage. Hence, these kinds of microcontaminants must be considered in further urine utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786438PMC
January 2021

Stabilization of source-separated urine by heat-activated peroxydisulfate.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 9;749:142213. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, PR China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, PR China.

Source-separated urine is an attractive fertilizer due to its high nutrient content, but the rapidly hydrolysis of urea leads to ammonia volatilization and other environmental problems. Urine stabilization, which meanly means preventing enzymatic urea hydrolysis, receives increasing attention. Accordingly, this study developed a technique to stabilize fresh urine by heat-activated peroxydisulfate (PDS). The effect of three crucial parameters, including temperature (55, 62.5, and 70 °C), heat-activated time (1, 2, and 3 h), and PDS concentration (10, 30, and 50 mM) that affect the activation of PDS in urine stabilization were investigated. Nitrogen in fresh urine treated with 50 mM PDS at 62.5 °C for 3 h existed mainly in the form of urea for more than 22 days at 25 °C. Moreover, the stabilized urine could remain stable and resist second contamination by continuous and slow pH decrease due to PDS decomposition during storage. Less than 8% of nitrogen loss in stabilized urine was detected during the experiment. The investigation of nitrogen transformation pathway demonstrated that urea was decomposed into NH by heat-activated PDS and further oxidized to NO and NO. The nitrogen loss during treatment occurred via heat-driven ammonia volatilization and N emission produced by synproportionation of NO and NH under acid and thermal conditions. Overall, this study investigated an efficient approach of urine stabilization to improve urine utilization in terms of nutrient recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607252PMC
December 2020

Safety of semi-depot house dust mite allergen extract in children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis and asthma.

Immunotherapy 2021 Feb 15;13(3):227-239. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Global Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Medical Writing (GBEM), Merck Serono Co., Ltd, Beijing 100016, China.

Multicenter study to investigate the safety of mite extract product Novo-Helisen Depot, Strengths 1 to 3 (NHD3), as subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT), in Chinese children and adolescents with allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma (AA). We evaluated SCIT-related adverse events (AEs) during NHD3 14-week initial therapy in children (5-11 years) and adolescents (12-17 years) with perennial symptomatic AR and AA. Among 3600 injections in 250 patients, 361/3600 (10.0%) injections caused SCIT-related AEs in 96/250 (38.4%) patients, 321/3600 injections (8.9%) caused local reactions in 89/250 (35.6%) and 40/3600 injections (1.1%) caused systemic reactions in 23/250 (9.2%). Initial SCIT treatment using NHD3 was safe and well tolerated in Chinese children and adolescents with AR and AA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/imt-2020-0232DOI Listing
February 2021

Fate of antibiotics during membrane separation followed by physical-chemical treatment processes.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 12;759:143520. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, PR China.

Membrane separation technology has been widely utilised to obtain clean permeate and concentrated nutrients from biogas digested slurry. However, some antibiotics are frequently found in digested slurry. Antibiotic removal during the steps, including paper filtration (PF), hollow-fibre membrane ultrafiltration (HF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), of combined membrane separation processing (CMP) remain poorly understood. Experiments were performed on a pilot-scale CMP plant to investigate antibiotic transport and rejection efficiencies in CMP products and analyse the antibiotic removal performances of additional treatments. Results showed average relative antibiotic rejection efficiencies of 50%, 83%, 28% and 14% for PF, HF, NF and RO during CMP, respectively. Each CMP product needed additional treatment for antibiotic removal. Antibiotic removal capacity followed the order of fine halloysite > P25 > activated charcoal > coarse halloysite. The average antibiotic removal rates for different CMP products ranged from 73.3% to 99.9%. But antibiotics can only be adsorbed by fine halloysite and must be degraded through other treatments, Thus, P25 has considerable practical importance for the removal of antibiotics, as antibiotics can be degraded during photocatalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143520DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of Adding Zero Valent Iron on the Anaerobic Digestion of Cow Manure and Lignocellulose.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 28;8:590200. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, International Science and Technology Cooperation Base for Environmental and Energy Technology of Ministry of Science and Technology of People's Republic of China, School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China.

Previous studies showed that adding zero valent iron (ZVI) can increase the methane production and degradation rate of organic waste by improving the performance of anaerobic digester. However, our study firstly found that ZVI (37 μm, 10 g/L) inhibited the anaerobic digestion (AD) of cow manure and lignocellulose. ZVI significantly increased the methanogenic rate of cow manure in the first 6 days, but decreased the accumulative methane yield and volatile fatty acids yield by 10.3 and 12%, respectively. The effect of ZVI on AD of liquid biomass separated from cow manure was positive, but the effect on solid biomass was negative. These results indicated that ZVI enhanced the AD of easily biodegradable organics but inhibited the biodegradation of refractory organics (lignocellulose). By analyzing the varying effects of ZVI in diverse anaerobic systems, it was found that the effects were influenced by the characteristics of substrate and inoculum-substrate ratio. This study suggested that only proper ZVI addition can improve the AD process depending on the feeding materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.590200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655976PMC
October 2020

Do Individuals With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Share Similar Neural Mechanisms of Decision-Making Under Ambiguous Circumstances?

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 22;14:585086. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Medical Psychology, School of Mental Health and Psychological Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Impaired decision-making is well documented in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and a range of electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging measures have begun to reveal the pathological mechanisms that underlie the decision-making process. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has core symptoms that often overlap with OCD, but similarities between these disorders at the behavioral and neurological levels are often unclear, including whether OCPD exhibits similar decision-making deficits and shared neurological dysfunction. To address these issues, we examined 24 cases of OCD, 19 cases of OCPD, and 26 matched normal control (NC) subjects during the revised Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) using event-related potentials (ERPs). The net IGT scores were lower for OCD subjects than for OCPD or NC subjects, thus indicating that OCD subjects chose more disadvantageous options and were "short-sighted" with regards to information. The feedback-related negativity (FRN) waveform (lose-win) was larger in both OCD and OCPD subjects, which suggested that obstacles exist in the feedback process. Consequently, these subjects might share similar neural mechanisms under ambiguous decision-making circumstances. Furthermore, IGT net scores were significantly and negatively correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) scales. This implies that more severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms inspired more negative emotions that led to worse decision-making ability. Therefore, although similar neural mechanisms might exist, this led to different behaviors in which OCPD is associated with better behavioral performance compared to OCD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.585086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643011PMC
October 2020

Adaptive variational mode decomposition and its application to multi-fault detection using mechanical vibration signals.

ISA Trans 2021 May 28;111:360-375. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston K7L 3N6, Canada. Electronic address:

Vibration-based feature extraction of multiple transient fault signals is a challenge in the field of rotating machinery fault diagnosis. Variational mode decomposition (VMD) has great potential for multiple faults decoupling because of its equivalent filtering characteristics. However, the two key hyper-parameters of VMD, i.e., the number of modes and balancing parameter, require to be predefined, thereby resulting in sub-optimal decomposition performance. Although some studies focused on the adaptive parameter determination, the problems in these improved methods like mode redundancy or being sensitive to random impacts still need to be solved. To overcome these drawbacks, an adaptive variational mode decomposition (AVMD) method is developed in this paper. In the proposed method, a novel index called syncretic impact index (SII) is firstly introduced for better evaluation of the complex impulsive fault components of signals. It can exclude the effects of interference terms and concentrate on the fault impacts effectively. The optimal parameters of VMD are selected based on the index SII through the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. The envelope power spectrum, proved to be more capable for fault feature extraction than the envelope spectrum, is applied in this study. Analysis on simulated signals and two experimental applications based on the proposed method demonstrates its effectiveness over other existing methods. The results indicate that the proposed method outperforms in separating impulsive multi-fault signals, thus being an efficient method for multi-fault diagnosis of rotating machines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2020.10.060DOI Listing
May 2021

Modeling and optimization of the integrated TDICCD aerial camera pointing error.

Appl Opt 2020 Sep;59(27):8196-8204

Aerial cameras are widely used in a number of fields. Various mechanical errors cannot be ignored with the improvement of imaging quality requirements. This paper introduces an integrated time delay integration charge coupled device (TDICCD) aerial camera. Compared with traditional aerial cameras, it can significantly improve shooting efficiency and imaging quality under similar load conditions. This paper first analyzes mechanical errors of the integrated TDICCD aerial camera and establishes a pointing error model based on ray tracing, then performs model parameter identification using a genetic algorithm, and completes error compensation. Finally, test results demonstrate that the compensation of the pointing error can effectively improve pointing accuracy of the optical axis. The mean of comprehensive errors was reduced by an order of magnitude, and the variance of comprehensive errors was reduced from 1.0075() to 0.0543().
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.402276DOI Listing
September 2020

Association Between Cognitive Function and Early Life Experiences in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2020 13;11:792. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Chaohu Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Introduction: Early life experiences could be potential risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder. In similar circumstances, it might also influence cognitive impairment in later life. However, the relationship between early life experience and cognitive function in people with alcohol use disorders is unclear. The current study examined the effects of early social environments and experiences on cognitive function in patients with alcohol use disorder.

Methods: A total of 37 adult male patients with alcohol use disorder and 30 healthy control (HC) subjects were enrolled. The MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery (MCCB) was used to evaluate cognitive function. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) were used to evaluate early life experiences of the participants. The RAAS was used to evaluate the attachment patterns of participants.

Results: Compared with the HC group, the alcohol use disorder group reported higher levels of childhood abuse and were more likely to form an insecure attachment style. Patients with alcohol use disorder who experienced trauma performed worse in terms of discrete cognitive parameters such as social cognition, reasoning and problem solving compared to patients without trauma. Importantly, emotional neglect and social comfort were significantly associated with individual social cognitive skills.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the cognitive function of patients with alcohol use disorder, especially social cognitive function, is affected by early life experiences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7438706PMC
August 2020

Immunological detection of serum antibodies in pediatric medical workers exposed to varying levels of SARS-CoV-2.

J Infect 2021 01 25;82(1):159-198. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

State Key Laboratory of Virology and National Virus Resource Center, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.07.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382336PMC
January 2021

Efficacy of interventions for amblyopia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

BMC Ophthalmol 2020 May 25;20(1):203. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No.37 Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Background: Many treatments are currently available for amblyopic patients; although, the comparative efficacy of these therapies is unclear. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to establish the relative efficacy of these treatments for amblyopia.

Methods: Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library) were systematically searched from inception to Sep. 2019. Only Randomized clinical trials comparing any two or three of the following treatments were included: refractive correction (spectacles alone), patching of 2 h per day (patch 2H), patch 6H, patch 12H, patch 2H + near activities (N), patch 2H + distant activities (D), atropine (Atr) daily, Atr weekly, Atr weekly + plano lens over the sound eye (Plano), optical penalization and binocular therapy. The reviewers independently extracted the data according to the PRISMA guidelines; assessed study quality by Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials. The primary outcome measure was the change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) expressed as log MAR lines. Direct comparisons and a Bayesian meta-analysis were performed to synthesize data.

Results: Twenty-three studies with 3279 patients were included. In the network meta-analysis, optical penalization was the least effective of all the treatments for the change of visual acuity, spectacles (mean difference [MD], 2.9 Log MAR lines; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 1.8-4.0), patch 2H (MD, 3.3; 95% CrI, 2.3-4.3), patch 6H (MD, 3.6; 95% CrI, 2.6-4.6), patch 12H (MD, 3.4; 95% CrI, 2.3-4.5), patch 2H + N (MD, 3.7; 95% CrI, 2.5-5.0), patch 2H + D (MD, 3.5; 95% CrI, 2.1-5.0), Atr daily (MD, 3.2; 95% CrI, 2.2-4.3), Atr weekly (MD, 3.2; 95% CrI, 2.2-4.3), Atr weekly + Plano (MD, 3.7; 95% CrI, 2.7-4.7), binocular therapy (MD, 3.1; 95% CrI, 2.0-4.2). The patch 6H and patch 2H + N were better than spectacles ([MD, 0.73; 95% Crl, 0.10-1.40]; [MD, 0.84; 95% CrI, 0.19-1.50]).

Conclusions: The NMA indicated that the efficacy of the most of the examined treatment modalities for amblyopia were comparable, with no significant difference. Further high quality randomized controlled trials are required to determine their efficacy and acceptability.

Systematic Review Registration: CRD42019119843.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-020-01442-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249307PMC
May 2020

Severe Pneumonia Due to SARS-CoV-2 and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection: A Case Report.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2020 07 15;59(8):823-826. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province (Women and Children's Hospital of Hubei Province), Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922820920016DOI Listing
July 2020

Reliability and concurrent validity of Alzheimer's disease assessment scale - Cognitive subscale, Chinese version (ADAS-Cog-C) among Chinese community-dwelling older people population.

Clin Neuropsychol 2020 12 11;34(sup1):43-53. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, The affiliated Wuxi Mental Health Center of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, China.

Objective: To evaluate reliability and concurrent validity of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive Subscale, Chinese Version (ADAS-Cog-C) among Chinese community older adults.

Method: Three groups, comprising of 1,276 community-dwelling older adults, were included in this study: a normal control (NC), a mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and an Alzheimer's disease (AD) group. All participants were assessed through ADAS-Cog-C, clinical interviews, physical examinations, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Internal consistency was assessed to evaluate the reliability of ADAS-Cog-C. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the concurrent validity between ADAS-Cog-C, MMSE, and CDR.

Results: Overall, the Cronbach's alpha coefficients of ADAS-Cog-C for the AD and MCI groups were 0.843 and 0.554, respectively. The split-half reliability coefficients for the AD and MCI groups were 0.860 and 0.539, respectively. ADAS-Cog-C scores were negatively correlated with MMSE scores ( = -0.706,  < 0.001) and positively associated with CDR scores ( = 0.546,  < 0.001). After excluding the MCI group from the analysis, the internal consistency of ADAS-Cog-C for the total population improved (α = 0.813, = 0.852, all  < 0.001), as did the correlation between ADAS-Cog-C and MMSE ( = -0.828,  < 0.001) and CDR ( = 0.429, all  < 0.001) scores.

Conclusions: ADAS-Cog-C has good internal consistency and concurrent validity for assessing Chinese community older adults with AD, but poor consistency, good concurrent validity with the MMSE while moderate concurrent validity with the CDR for MCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2020.1750704DOI Listing
December 2020

Treatment concerns for psychiatric symptoms in patients with COVID-19 with or without psychiatric disorders.

Br J Psychiatry 2020 Jul;217(1):351

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Japan.

Many psychiatric patients have been infected with COVID-19, and patients with COVID-19 may develop psychiatric symptoms after treatment with antiviral drugs. Given the tolerability and minimal P450 interactions, antidepressants (i.e., citalopram, escitalopram etc.), antipsychotics (i.e., olanzapine) and valproate can be considered to be safe in combination with antiviral drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.2020.84DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190394PMC
July 2020

Effects of Machining Errors on Optical Performance of Optical Aspheric Components in Ultra-Precision Diamond Turning.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Mar 23;11(3). Epub 2020 Mar 23.

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China.

Optical aspheric components are inevitably affected by various disturbances during their precision machining, which reduces the actual machining accuracy and affects the optical performance of components. In this paper, based on the theory of multi-body system, we established a machining error model for optical aspheric surface machined by fast tool servo turning and analyzed the effect of the geometric errors on the machining accuracy of optical aspheric surface. We used the method of ray tracing to analyze the effect of the surface form distortion caused by the machining error on the optical performance, and identified the main machining errors according to the optical performance. Finally, the aspheric surface was successfully applied to the design of optical lens components for an aerial camera. Our research has a certain guiding significance for the identification and compensation of machining errors of optical components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi11030331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143373PMC
March 2020

Enhanced lipid production by cultured with synthetic and waste-derived high-content volatile fatty acids under alkaline conditions.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2020 6;13. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 People's Republic of China.

Background: Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) can be effective and promising alternate carbon sources for microbial lipid production by a few oleaginous yeasts. However, the severe inhibitory effect of high-content (> 10 g/L) VFAs on these yeasts has impeded the production of high lipid yields and their large-scale application. Slightly acidic conditions have been commonly adopted because they have been considered favorable to oleaginous yeast cultivation. However, the acidic pH environment further aggravates this inhibition because VFAs appear largely in an undissociated form under this condition. Alkaline conditions likely alleviate the severe inhibition of high-content VFAs by significantly increasing the dissociation degree of VFAs. This hypothesis should be verified through a systematic research.

Results: The combined effects of high acetic acid concentrations and alkaline conditions on VFA utilization, cell growth, and lipid accumulation of were systematically investigated through batch cultures of by using high concentrations (30-110 g/L) of acetic acid as a carbon source at an initial pH ranging from 6 to 10. An initial pH of 8 was determined as optimal. The highest biomass and lipid production (37.14 and 10.11 g/L) were obtained with 70 g/L acetic acid, whereas cultures with > 70 g/L acetic acid had decreased biomass and lipid yield due to excessive anion accumulation. Feasibilities on high-content propionic acid, butyric acid, and mixed VFAs were compared and evaluated. Results indicated that and of cultures on butyric acid (0.570, 0.144) were comparable with those on acetic acid (0.578, 0.160) under alkaline conditions. The performance on propionic acid was much inferior to that on other acids. Mixed VFAs were more beneficial to fast adaptation and lipid production than single types of VFA. Furthermore, cultures on food waste (FW) and fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) fermentate were carried out and lipid production was effectively improved under this alkaline condition. The highest biomass and lipid production on FW fermentate reached 14.65 g/L (: 0.414) and 3.20 g/L (: 0.091) with a lipid content of 21.86%, respectively. By comparison, the highest biomass and lipid production on FVW fermentate were 11.84 g/L (: 0.534) and 3.08 g/L (: 0.139), respectively, with a lipid content of 26.02%.

Conclusions: This study assumed and verified that alkaline conditions (optimal pH 8) could effectively alleviate the lethal effect of high-content VFA on and significantly improve biomass and lipid production. These results could provide a new cultivation strategy to achieve simple utilizations of high-content VFAs and increase lipid production. Feasibilities on FW and FVW-derived VFAs were evaluated, and meaningful information was provided for practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-019-1645-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945533PMC
January 2020

Inactivation and change of tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli in secondary effluent by visible light-driven photocatalytic process using Ag/AgBr/g-CN.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 29;705:135639. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, PR China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, PR China.

Control of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and their related genes in secondary effluents has become a serious issue because of increased awareness of their health risks. A considerable number of techniques have been developed in recent years, particularly in relation to advanced oxidation. However, limited information is known about cellular behavior and resistance characteristic change during photocatalytic treatment. In this study, the inactivation of tetracycline (TC)-resistant Escherichia coli (TC-E. coli), removal of TC-resistant genes (TC-RGs), and antibiotic susceptibility were evaluated by employing photocatalytic treatment using Ag/AgBr/g-CN with visible light irradiation. The effects of light intensity, photocatalyst dosage, and reaction ambient temperature on photocatalysis were modelled and investigated. The rate of TC-E. coli removal was also optimized. Results demonstrated that the optimal conditions for TC-E. coli removal included light intensity of 96.0 mW/cm, photocatalyst dosage of 211.0 mg/L, and reaction ambient temperature of 23.7 °C. Under such conditions, the ARB removal rate was 6.1 log after 90 min and the related TC-RG removal rates were 49%, 86%, 69%, and 86% for tetA, tetM, tetQ, and intl1, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration test after photocatalysis shows that the antibiotic resistance of TC-E. coli was enhanced, which may be mainly due to the changes in the membrane potential and resulted in difficulty in destroying the bacteria through antibiotic contact. Hence, photocatalytic treatment could be an ideal method for ARB and antibiotic-resistant gene (ARG) control in wastewater, but the health risks of the remaining ARB and ARG should be investigated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135639DOI Listing
February 2020

Utilisation of appropriately treated wastewater for some further beneficial purposes: a review of the disinfection method of treated wastewater using UV radiation technology.

Rev Environ Health 2020 Jun;35(2):139-146

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Resource-Oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, P.R. China.

Due to world population growth, global climate change and the deteriorated quality of water, water supply struggles to keep up the clean water demand to meet human needs. Ultraviolet (UV) technology holds a great potential in advancing water and wastewater treatment to improve the efficiency of safe treatment. Over the last 20 years, the UV light disinfection industry has shown a tremendous growth. Therefore, reuse of wastewater contributes significantly to an efficient and sustainable water usage. Disinfection is a requirement for wastewater reuse due to the presence of a swarm of pathogens (e.g. bacteria, viruses, worms and protozoa) in secondary effluents. UV technology is widely favoured due to its environmentally friendly, chemical-free ability to provide high-log reductions of all known microorganisms, including chlorine-resistant strains such as Cryptosporidium. The UV disinfection process does not create disinfection by-products and unlike the chlorine UV disinfection process, it is not reliant on water temperature and pH. UV disinfection can eliminate the need to generate, handle, transport or store toxic/hazardous or corrosive chemicals and requires less space than other methods. As UV does not leave any residual effect that can be harmful to humans or aquatic life, it is safer for plant operators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2019-0066DOI Listing
June 2020

Efficacy and safety of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies combined with different chemotherapy regimens in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

J Evid Based Med 2019 Nov 9;12(4):300-312. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Objectives: To investigate the efficacy and safety of adding anti-epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR] MoAbs to various chemotherapy regimens in patients with RAS wild-type metastasized colorectal cancer (RAS WT metastatic colorectal cancer [mCRC]) and to identify the optimal combination regimens.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL from the inception date to 20th May 2019. Randomized clinical trials investigating chemotherapy with or without anti-EGFR MoAbs in treatment of patients with RAS WT mCRC were included.

Results: Eighteen studies involving 8848 participants were eligible. Comparing with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy, adding anti-EGFR MoAbs benefited only in progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67 to 0.94), but not in overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.02). Further sensitivity analysis indicated that adding anti-EGFR MoAbs to FOLFOLX regimen as a first-line treatment showed benefits in both PFS and OS (PFS: HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.84; OS: HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.95, respectively). Comparing with irinotecan-based chemotherapy or best supportive care, adding anti-EGFR MoAbs revealed an improvement in both PFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.69 to 0.86; HR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.54, respectively) and OS (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80 to 0.98; HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.54 to 0.78, respectively).

Conclusion: Anti-EGFR MoAbs as a monotherapy or in combination with either irinotecan-based chemotherapy or FOLFOX in patients with RAS wild-type mCRC have better response and survival outcome, whereas OS does not benefit from adding anti-EGFR MoAbs to another oxaliplatin-based regimen. Anti-EGFR MoAbs have increased the risk of adverse effects than chemotherapy alone. More high-quality randomized controlled trials for RAS wild type are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jebm.12360DOI Listing
November 2019

Photocatalytic degradation of norfloxacin using N-doped TiO: Optimization, mechanism, identification of intermediates and toxicity evaluation.

Chemosphere 2019 Dec 22;237:124433. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, PR China.

In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of Norfloxacin (NOR) has been studied using N-doped TiO (N-TiO) under visible light irradiation, which was synthesized from a self-owned patent recipe and procedure. Subsequently, a three-factor five-level model, which was based on the central composite design (CCD), was developed to determine the optimal NOR concentration, N-TiO dosage, and initial pH in practical use. Meanwhile, the degradation pathway was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS). Moreover, the toxicity of degradation intermediates was determined using the bacterium Escherichia coli so as to evaluate the health risk of the photocatalytic treated influent. The synthesized N-TiO nanoparticles were spherical, and the grain sizes were distributed from approximately 12 nm-20 nm, with a specific surface area of 148.52 m/g. The light absorption is range from the ultraviolet region to the visible light region since the band gap was reduced to 2.92eV. It was demonstrated from the response surface method results that the initial NOR of 6.03 mg/L, N-TiO dose of 0.54 g/L, and pH of 6.37 could be the proposed optimal degradation conditions, which resulted in a 99.53% removal of NOR within 30 min under visible light irradiation. Two possible degradation pathways were proposed, including the replacement of F atoms by hydroxyl radicals, piperazinyl ring cleavage, hydroxylation, and decarboxylation. In the acute toxicity test, the toxicity declined 55% after photocatalytic treatment for 60 min. The results show the feasibility and novelty for photocatalytic treatment of antibiotics by N-TiO photocatalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124433DOI Listing
December 2019