Publications by authors named "Xiaoqian Ma"

150 Publications

Risk Factors and Prediction Model for Non-curative Resection of Early Gastric Cancer With Endoscopic Resection and the Evaluation.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 14;8:637875. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Disease, Beijing Digestive Disease Center, Beijing Key Laboratory for Precancerous Lesion of Digestive Disease, Beijing, China.

EGC, also known as Early Gastric Cancer is known to lack the lymph node metastasis and confined along the mucosa, which is treated through an endoscopic resection procedure that includes ESD (Endoscopic Submucosal dissection) and EMR (Endoscopic Mucosal Resection). However, some cases underwent residual disease, recurrence, or additional gastrectomy because of non-curative resection. The following research aims to delineate the threat factors causing the non-curative resection as well as develop a predictive model. Effort was taken to collect all the records about the health history of pathologically diagnosed EGC who experienced endoscopic treatment in the Department of Endoscopy, the Capital Medical University, and Beijing Friendship Hospital from January 2012 to January 2020. Patients were grouped into two categories primarily; a curative resection group and finally a non-curative resection group based on the outcomes of the postoperative pathological and immunohistochemical examination results. The statistical methods used included single factor analysis, a multivariate logistic regression analysis and a chi-square test. A nomogram for the prediction of non-curative resection was constructed, which included information on age, gender, resection method, postoperative pathology, tumor size, ulcer, treatment, and infiltration depth. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and calibration were performed to present the predictive accuracy of the nomogram. Of 443 patients with 478 lesions who had undergone ESD or EMR for EGCs, 127 were identified as being treated non-curative resection. Older patients (>60 years), a large tumor size (>30 mm), submucosal lesion, piecemeal resection, EMR for treatment and undifferentiated tumor histology were associated with non-curative resection group. Our risk nomogram showed good discriminated performance in internal validation (bootstrap-corrected area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.881; < 0.001). A validated prediction model was developed to identify people who were subject to undergoing a non-curative resection for ESD. The predictive model that we formulated is essential in providing reliable information to guide the decision-making process on the treatment for EGC before undertaking an endoscopic resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.637875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160094PMC
May 2021

Serum Uric Acid Is a Mediator of the Association Between Obesity and Incident Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 13;12:657856. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Gastroenterology, National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Disease, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Digestive Disease Center, Beijing Key Laboratory for Precancerous Lesion of Digestive Disease, Beijing, China.

Objective: Obesity has been demonstrated to show a consistent link with the increased possibility of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Since both serum uric acid (SUA) and obesity are essential components of metabolic syndrome (MetS), it is uncertain whether the incidence of NAFLD results from serum uric acid, obesity, or other potential factors based on previous studies.

Patients And Methods: This study enrolled 16,839 participants with no history of alcohol consumption and no fatty liver disease in 2010. All participants completed a survey which included health and lifestyle questionnaires, and underwent physical examination, ultrasonography, and laboratory examinations of blood samples. After the four-year follow up, 5,104 (30.31%) participants were diagnosed with NAFLD. The associations between SUA, BMI or obesity, and incident NAFLD were assessed by multivariate linear regression, logistic regression analysis, and mediation analysis, respectively.

Results: By adjusting demographic and serum characteristics, linear correlation coefficients between obesity and SUA were 20.26 [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 15.74, 24.77), 13.31 (95% CI: 6.63, 19.99) and 22.21 (95% CI: 16.41, 28.02) in the total population, and in the female and male groups, respectively. The odds ratios were 2.49 (95% CI: 1.61, 3.87) in the total population, 5.71 (95% CI: 2.25, 14.45) in the female group and 1.99 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.45) in the male group for the correlation between obesity and incident NAFLD. The mediation analysis showed that SUA contributed to 10.03%, 0.58%, and 12.54% of obesity-related NAFLD development in the total population, females and males, respectively.

Conclusion: The findings showed mediation linkages of both obesity and SUA with the incident NAFLD. The role of SUA as a mediator constitutes clinical significance that should be recognized and considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.657856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158156PMC
May 2021

Hydrogen bonding capacity in DNA attracts protons and prompts the formation of mutagenic and carcinogenic HCl.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou The Third Xiang Ya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000673DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures With Psychosis Onset in Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Developing Psychosis: An ENIGMA Working Group Mega-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Importance: The ENIGMA clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis initiative, the largest pooled neuroimaging sample of individuals at CHR to date, aims to discover robust neurobiological markers of psychosis risk.

Objective: To investigate baseline structural neuroimaging differences between individuals at CHR and healthy controls as well as between participants at CHR who later developed a psychotic disorder (CHR-PS+) and those who did not (CHR-PS-).

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this case-control study, baseline T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were pooled from 31 international sites participating in the ENIGMA Clinical High Risk for Psychosis Working Group. CHR status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States or Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. MRI scans were processed using harmonized protocols and analyzed within a mega-analysis and meta-analysis framework from January to October 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Measures of regional cortical thickness (CT), surface area, and subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted MRI scans. Independent variables were group (CHR group vs control group) and conversion status (CHR-PS+ group vs CHR-PS- group vs control group).

Results: Of the 3169 included participants, 1428 (45.1%) were female, and the mean (SD; range) age was 21.1 (4.9; 9.5-39.9) years. This study included 1792 individuals at CHR and 1377 healthy controls. Using longitudinal clinical information, 253 in the CHR-PS+ group, 1234 in the CHR-PS- group, and 305 at CHR without follow-up data were identified. Compared with healthy controls, individuals at CHR exhibited widespread lower CT measures (mean [range] Cohen d = -0.13 [-0.17 to -0.09]), but not surface area or subcortical volume. Lower CT measures in the fusiform, superior temporal, and paracentral regions were associated with psychosis conversion (mean Cohen d = -0.22; 95% CI, -0.35 to 0.10). Among healthy controls, compared with those in the CHR-PS+ group, age showed a stronger negative association with left fusiform CT measures (F = 9.8; P < .001; q < .001) and left paracentral CT measures (F = 5.9; P = .005; q = .02). Effect sizes representing lower CT associated with psychosis conversion resembled patterns of CT differences observed in ENIGMA studies of schizophrenia (ρ = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.55; P = .004) and individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome and a psychotic disorder diagnosis (ρ = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.61; P = .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: This study provides evidence for widespread subtle, lower CT measures in individuals at CHR. The pattern of CT measure differences in those in the CHR-PS+ group was similar to those reported in other large-scale investigations of psychosis. Additionally, a subset of these regions displayed abnormal age associations. Widespread disruptions in CT coupled with abnormal age associations in those at CHR may point to disruptions in postnatal brain developmental processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100913PMC
May 2021

Comparison of Autogenous Tooth Materials and Other Bone Grafts.

Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 Jun 30;18(3):327-341. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Clinical Dentistry, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.

Autogenous odontogenic materials are a new, highly biocompatible option for jaw restoration. The inorganic component of autogenous teeth acts as a scaffold to maintain the volume and enable donor cell attachment and proliferation; the organic component contains various growth factors that promote bone reconstruction and repair. The composition of dentin is similar to that of bone, which can be a rationale for promoting bone reconstruction. Recent advances have been made in the field of autogenous odontogenic materials, and studies have confirmed their safety and feasibility after successful clinical application. Autogenous odontogenic materials have unique characteristics compared with other bone-repair materials, such as the conventional autogenous, allogeneic, xenogeneic, and alloplastic bone substitutes. To encourage further research into odontogenic bone grafts, we compared the composition, osteogenesis, and development of autogenous odontogenic materials with those of other bone grafts. In conclusion, odontogenic bone grafts should be classified as a novel bone substitute.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13770-021-00333-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169722PMC
June 2021

Sublethal concentration of emamectin benzoate inhibits the growth of gypsy moth by inducing digestive dysfunction and nutrient metabolism disorder.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Forest Protection, College of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.

Background: Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is one of the most important pests in the world. Emamectin benzoate (EMB) is widely used in the control of agricultural and forestry pests. Here, we explored the sublethal effects of EMB on gypsy moths in order to better understand the toxicological mechanism of EMB.

Results: The sublethal concentration of EMB exposure significantly decreased the larvae body weight. To further explore the mechanism, indicators related to digestion and nutrient metabolism were detected. The results showed that EMB exposure caused midgut damage, reduced the activities of digestive enzymes and changed the content of sugar and amino acids. Moreover, the expression of insulin/phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/forkhead box protein O (FoxO) pathway and sugar metabolism-related genes was abnormal. The expression of insulin receptor (InR), chico, PI3K, and protein kinase B (Akt) significantly reduced, and that of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and FoxO increased. The expression of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) was upregulation and that of glycogen synthase (GS), trehalase (TRE) and trehalose-phosphate synthase (TPS) were downregulation. All results indicated that EMB inhibits the growth of gypsy moth by inducing midgut injury, digestive dysfunction and nutrient metabolism disorder. In addition, EMB caused midgut injury may be related to apoptosis or a collateral effect of the damage in other tissues, and more extensive and deeper research is still needed to investigate the detailed mechanism.

Conclusion: Our finding strengthens the understanding of the sublethal effect of EMB, and provides a theoretical basis for the application of EMB in the prevention and control of gypsy moth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6432DOI Listing
April 2021

Machine learning based on clinical characteristics and chest CT quantitative measurements for prediction of adverse clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, No. 138 Tongzipo Road, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, China.

Objectives: To develop and validate a machine learning model for the prediction of adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Methods: We included 424 patients with non-severe COVID-19 on admission from January 17, 2020, to February 17, 2020, in the primary cohort of this retrospective multicenter study. The extent of lung involvement was quantified on chest CT images by a deep learning-based framework. The composite endpoint was the occurrence of severe or critical COVID-19 or death during hospitalization. The optimal machine learning classifier and feature subset were selected for model construction. The performance was further tested in an external validation cohort consisting of 98 patients.

Results: There was no significant difference in the prevalence of adverse outcomes (8.7% vs. 8.2%, p = 0.858) between the primary and validation cohorts. The machine learning method extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) and optimal feature subset including lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), presence of comorbidity, CT lesion ratio (lesion%), and hypersensitive cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) were selected for model construction. The XGBoost classifier based on the optimal feature subset performed well for the prediction of developing adverse outcomes in the primary and validation cohorts, with AUCs of 0.959 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.936-0.976) and 0.953 (95% CI: 0.891-0.986), respectively. Furthermore, the XGBoost classifier also showed clinical usefulness.

Conclusions: We presented a machine learning model that could be effectively used as a predictor of adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, opening up the possibility for patient stratification and treatment allocation.

Key Points: • Developing an individually prognostic model for COVID-19 has the potential to allow efficient allocation of medical resources. • We proposed a deep learning-based framework for accurate lung involvement quantification on chest CT images. • Machine learning based on clinical and CT variables can facilitate the prediction of adverse outcomes of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07957-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046645PMC
April 2021

Frequency-Specific Changes in the Fractional Amplitude of the Low-Frequency Fluctuations in the Default Mode Network in Medication-Free Patients With Bipolar II Depression: A Longitudinal Functional MRI Study.

Front Psychiatry 2020 8;11:574819. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

This study aimed to examine the treatment-related changes of the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in the default mode network (DMN) across different bands after the medication-free patients with bipolar II depression received a 16-week treatment of escitalopram and lithium. A total of 23 medication-free patients with bipolar II depression and 29 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. We evaluated the fALFF values of slow 4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) band and slow 5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) band of the patients and compared the results with those of the 29 HCs at baseline. After 16-week treatment of escitalopram with lithium, the slow 4 and slow 5 fALFF values of the patients were assessed and compared with the baselines of patients and HCs. The depressive symptoms of bipolar II depression in patients were assessed with a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) before and after treatment. Treatment-related effects showed increased slow 5 fALFF in cluster D (bilateral medial superior frontal gyrus, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and bilateral anterior cingulate), cluster E (bilateral precuneus/posterior cingulate, left cuneus), and cluster F (left angular, left middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus) in comparison with the baseline of the patients. Moreover, a positive association was found between the increase in slow 5 fALFF values (follow-up value minus the baseline values) in cluster D and the decrease in HDRS scores (baseline HDRS scores minus follow-up HDRS scores) at follow-up, and the same association between the increase in slow 5 fALFF values and the decrease in HDRS scores was found in cluster E. The study reveals that the hypoactivity of slow 5 fALFF in the DMN is related to depression symptoms and might be corrected by the administration of escitalopram with lithium, implying that slow 5 fALFF of the DMN plays a key role in bipolar depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.574819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7819893PMC
January 2021

Association of Paraspinal Muscle Measurements on Chest Computed Tomography With Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 02;76(3):e78-e84

Department of Radiology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Skeletal muscle depletion is common in old adults and individuals with chronic comorbidities, who have an increased risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is defined by hypoxia requiring supplemental oxygen. This study aimed to determine the association between skeletal muscle depletion and clinical outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19.

Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients with severe COVID-19 who underwent chest computed tomography scan on admission were included in this multicenter, retrospective study. Paraspinal muscle index (PMI) and radiodensity (PMD) were measured using computed tomography images. The primary composite outcome was the occurrence of critical illness (respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, shock, or intensive care unit admission) or death, and the secondary outcomes were the duration of viral shedding and pulmonary fibrosis in the early rehabilitation phase. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were employed to evaluate the associations.

Results: The primary composite outcome occurred in 48 (41.4%) patients, who were older and had lower PMD (both p < .05). Higher PMD was associated with reduced risk of critical illness or death in a fully adjusted model overall (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation [SD] increment: 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80-0.95; p = .002) and in female patients (OR per SD increment: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56-0.91; p = .006), although the effect was not statistically significant in male patients (p = .202). Higher PMD (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increment: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.14; p = .008) was associated with shorter duration of viral shedding among female survivors. However, no significant association was found between PMD and pulmonary fibrosis in the early rehabilitation phase, or between PMI and any outcome in both men and women.

Conclusions: Higher PMD, a proxy measure of lower muscle fat deposition, was associated with a reduced risk of disease deterioration and decreased likelihood of prolonged viral shedding among female patients with severe COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799309PMC
February 2021

Economic analysis on sewage sludge drying and its co-combustion in municipal solid waste power plant.

Waste Manag 2021 Feb 17;121:11-22. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, 510640 Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, 510640 Guangzhou, China.

Co-treatment in municipal solid waste power plant has been deemed to one of the most suitable ways to handle sewage sludge. Economy of the co-treatment process is very concerned in the waste incineration plant. Thermal calculation of sewage sludge co-combustion was done. Four common sludge drying schemes was compared: flue gas drying, steam drying, electric heating drying in the waste incineration plant and in situ electric heating drying in the sewage treatment plant. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. When the water content was 30-40% and the absolute-dry sludge ratio was 2-3%, the boiler efficiency was reduced by 0.56-1.12% compared with the case without mixing sludge, and the power generation decreased by 0.2568-0.3767 MW in steam drying scheme and by 0.0037-0.0094 MW in other schemes. Net present value (NPV) of flue gas drying was the highest among the four sludge drying schemes, which was more than 20 ¥ million, while the scheme of electric heating drying in the waste incineration plant had the lowest NPV, which can't recoup the initial investment. Sensitivity coefficient of flue gas drying was smallest among different schemes, showing that the risk of this program was the smallest. Absolute-dry sludge ratio and unit subsidy for sludge treatment were sensitive factors for NPV in flue gas scheme, which had a sensitivity coefficient of 1.123-1.171 and 1.232, respectively. Operating parameters optimization of co-combustion of sludge was done and ways to improve economic efficiency was discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2020.11.038DOI Listing
February 2021

Secondary Chemical Bonding between Insoluble Calcium Oxalate and Carbonyl Oxygen Atoms of GLY and VAL Residues Triggers the Formation of Aβ Aggregates and Their Deposition in the Brain.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 12 3;11(24):4007-4011. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.

Despite intense efforts, the cause of Alzheimer's disease is still not fully understood. A chemical and biochemical perspective could shed light on this disorder. Secondary chemical bonding between calcium and carbonyl oxygen atoms of glycine and valine might give rise to aggregates in the brain, which may later result in cell senescence. The decrease of solubility caused by amino acid substitutions in specific risk factors compounds insolubility issue and likely triggers early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Occasionally the enhancement of hydrogen bonding by amino acid replacements can reinforce the aggregates. Therefore, secondary chemical bonding to cations can generate cellular stresses in patients with Alzheimer's disease in addition to other chemical and biochemical interactions such as salt bridge. The distinction between early-onset and late-onset Alzheimer's disease risk factors may lie in the total capacity of a protein or local potency of a protein fragment to bind calcium or/and oxalate as calcium oxalate is highly insoluble and stressful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00662DOI Listing
December 2020

Local strong acids: A driving force for metastasis.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Nov 27;144:110221. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China. Electronic address:

Carcinogenesis was postulated as the result of the local buildup of strong acids such as hydrogenchloride which may trigger metastasis. A previous study revealed that bicarbonate raised tumor pH and suppressed metastases. The phosphate groups in DNA on neutrophil extracellular traps possess hydrogen bonding capacity and can accept protons. The proteins commonly found in neutrophil extracellular traps such as CCDC25, myeloperoxidase (MPO), histone H3, peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) possess basic amino acid content at about 20.2%, 12.8%, 24.3% and 13.0% respectively, which attracts anions such as chloride. The striking 20.2% basic amino acid content in CCDC25 is similar to that of typical oncoproteins. Local hydrogenchloride may be the dominant impetus for metastasis, accounting for the anticancer effects of virtually all weak organic acids, acetic acid and lactic acid in particular.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110221DOI Listing
November 2020

Anterior Cingulate Cortex Glutamate Levels Are Related to Response to Initial Antipsychotic Treatment in Drug-Naive First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients.

Front Psychiatry 2020 23;11:553269. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Hunan Medical Center for Mental Health, China National Technology Institute on Mental Disorders, Institute of Mental Health, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The glutamatergic system has previously been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the mechanisms of action of antipsychotic treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the levels of glutamate (Glu) or Glu/total creatine (Glu/Cr+PCr) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and psychiatric symptoms as well as the response to antipsychotic treatment. We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) to measure Glu and Glu/Cr+PCr in the ACC of 35 drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and 40 well-matched healthy controls (HCs). After scanning, we treated the patients with risperidone for eight weeks. Remission status was based on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores at week 8. At baseline, there were no significant differences in the levels of Glu or Glu/Cr+PCr in the ACC between drug-naïve FES patients and HCs. Lower baseline levels of Glu/Cr+PCr but not Glu in the ACC were associated with more severe negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Compared to the remission group (RM), the non-remission group (NRM) had lower baseline ACC Glu levels ( < 0.05). Our results suggest that ACC Glu levels may be related to the severity of symptoms in the early stages of schizophrenia and therefore may be a marker with which to evaluate the treatment effect of antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.553269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644538PMC
October 2020

Genetic architecture to cause dynamic change in tiller and panicle numbers revealed by genome-wide association study and transcriptome profile in rice.

Plant J 2020 12 12;104(6):1603-1616. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology/Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Panicle number (PN) is one of the three yield components in rice. As one of the most unstable traits, the dynamic change in tiller number (DCTN) may determine the final PN. However, the genetic basis of DCTN and its relationship with PN remain unclear. Here, 377 deeply re-sequenced rice accessions were used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for tiller/PN. It was found that the DCTN pattern rather than maximum tiller number or effective tiller ratio is the determinant factor of high PN. The DCTN pattern that affords more panicles exhibits a period of stable tillering peak between 30 and 45 days after transplant (called DT30 and DT45, respectively), which was believed as an ideal pattern contributing to the steady transition from tiller development to panicle development (ST-TtP). Consistently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) expressed near DT30-DT45 were especially critical to the rice DCTN and in supporting the ST-TtP. The spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that the expression pattern of keeping relatively high expression in root at 24:00 (R24-P2) from about DT30 to DT45 is a typical expression pattern of cloned tiller genes, and the candidate genes with R24-P2 can facilitate the prediction of PN. Moreover, gene OsSAUR27 was identified by an integrated approach combining GWAS, bi-parental QTL mapping and transcription. These findings related to the genetic basis underlying the DCTN will provide the genetic theory in making appropriate decisions on field management, and in developing new varieties with high PN and ideal dynamic plant architecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15023DOI Listing
December 2020

IL-10 producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells prolong islet allograft survival.

EMBO Mol Med 2020 11 9;12(11):e12305. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Henan Key Laboratory of Immunology and Targeted Drugs, School of Laboratory Medicine, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a subset of ILCs with critical roles in immunoregulation. However, the possible role of ILC2s as immunotherapy against allograft rejection remains unclear. Here, we show that IL-33 significantly prolonged islet allograft survival. IL-33-treated mice had elevated numbers of ILC2s and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Depletion of Tregs partially abolished the protective effect of IL-33 on allograft survival, and additional ILC2 depletion in Treg-depleted DEREG mice completely abolished the protective effects of IL-33, indicating that ILC2s play critical roles in IL-33-mediated islet graft protection. Two subsets of ILC2s were identified in islet allografts of IL-33-treated mice: IL-10 producing ILC2s (ILC2 ) and non-IL-10 producing ILC2s (non-ILC ). Intravenous transfer of ILC2 cells, but not non-ILC , prolonged islet allograft survival in an IL-10-dependent manner. Locally transferred ILC2 cells led to long-term islet graft survival, suggesting that ILC2 cells are required within the allograft for maximal suppressive effect and graft protection. This study has uncovered a major protective role of ILC2 in islet transplantation which could be potentiated as a therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202012305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645373PMC
November 2020

Catalytic co-pyrolysis of microwave pretreated chili straw and polypropylene to produce hydrocarbons-rich bio-oil.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jan 30;319:124191. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, Guangzhou 510640, China.

In this work, the kinetic behavior and products of the co-pyrolysis of chili straw (CS) and polypropylene (PP) of distinguishing conditions (blending ratios, addition of catalysts, and microwave pretreatment at different power) had been investigated. Co-pyrolysis effectively reduced the proportion of oxygenated composition in CS, and the Oxygenated composition of 5CS5PP decreased by 76.69% compared to CS. When HZSM-5 was added, the aromatic hydrocarbons in the product increased from 4.46% to 17.34%, and the final residual mass decreased from 12.75% to 7.71%, illustrating that HZSM-5 had a positive effect on co-pyrolysis. Compared with P0HZSM-5, the microwave pretreatment at a higher power level of 567 W reduced the oxygenated composition from 17.41% to 13.09%, and the weight loss peak in the first stage increased from -18.11%/min to -19.94%/min. At the same time, the activation energy decreased from 271.25 kJ/mol to 231.13 kJ/mol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124191DOI Listing
January 2021

Clinical Factors Associated with Progression and Prolonged Viral Shedding in COVID-19 Patients: A Multicenter Study.

Aging Dis 2020 Oct 1;11(5):1069-1081. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

1Department of Radiology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic associated with a high mortality. Our study aimed to determine the clinical risk factors associated with disease progression and prolonged viral shedding in patients with COVID-19. Consecutive 564 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 between January 17, 2020 and February 28, 2020 were included in this multicenter, retrospective study. The effects of clinical factors on disease progression and prolonged viral shedding were analyzed using logistic regression and Cox regression analyses. 69 patients (12.2%) developed severe or critical pneumonia, with a higher incidence in the elderly and in individuals with underlying comorbidities, fever, dyspnea, and laboratory and imaging abnormalities at admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.06), hypertension without receiving angiotensinogen converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) therapy (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.14-4.59), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 7.55; 95% CI, 2.44-23.39) were independent risk factors for progression to severe or critical pneumonia. Hypertensive patients without receiving ACEI/ARB therapy showed higher lactate dehydrogenase levels and computed tomography (CT) lung scores at about 3 days after admission than those on ACEI/ARB therapy. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that male gender (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.46), receiving lopinavir/ritonavir treatment within 7 days from illness onset (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.90), and receiving systemic glucocorticoid therapy (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.46-2.21) were independent factors associated with prolonged viral shedding. Our findings presented several potential clinical factors associated with developing severe or critical pneumonia and prolonged viral shedding, which may provide a rationale for clinicians in medical resource allocation and early intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2020.0630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7505267PMC
October 2020

Investigation of Mannich reaction during co-liquefaction of microalgae and sweet potato waste: Combustion performance of bio-oil and bio-char.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Dec 9;317:123993. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China. Electronic address:

Microalgae (MA) was co-liquefied with sweet potato waste (SPW) to improve bio-oil and bio-char qualities via Mannich reaction. The influence of Mannich reaction on combustion performances of bio-oil and bio-char were investigated. Results suggested that the addition of SPW decrease the ignition temperature of bio-oil from 186.6 °C to 165.0 °C. In addition, the denitrification effect of Mannich reaction can decrease the HCN and NO emission of bio-oil, contributing to reducing pollutant emission. As for bio-char, Mannich reaction improved the combustible material content in bio-char, which decreased the risk of slagging problem. The comprehensive combustion indexes of bio-oil (1.23 × 10 × min×°C) and bio-char (4.79 × 10 × min×°C) from co-liquefaction were higher than those from liquefaction of MA (0.91 × 10 × min×°C for bio-oil and 1.24 × 10 × min×°C for bio-char), indicating that the combustion performance was promoted by adding SPW. Overall, Mannich reaction can be applied to improve the combustion performance of bio-oil and bio-char.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123993DOI Listing
December 2020

Hydrothermal liquefaction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and effect of emulsification on upgrading the bio-oil.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Nov 28;316:123914. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

This work studied the hydrothermal liquefaction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and effect of emulsification on upgrading the bio-oil. The fuel properties and storage stability characteristics of emulsion fuels were explored. The combustion characteristic analysis showed that the ignition temperatures of emulsion fuels (139.6-151.3 °C) were lower than that of bio-oil (176.9 °C). Besides, emulsion fuels had higher comprehensive combustion indexes (7.24-14.08 × 10 × min × C) than bio-oil (1.51 × 10 × min × C), indicating that emulsion fuels had better combustion performance. The kinetic analysis showed that emulsification could effectively reduce the activation energy, resulting in less energy input for combustion. Based on chemical composition evolution during the storage process, a possible stability mechanism was proposed. The storage stability analysis indicated that the diesel-solvable fractions in bio-oil had better stability. Overall, this work provides a feasible way for bio-oil upgrading through emulsification. In addition, a better understanding of the stability property of emulsion fuel was provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123914DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification of a Potent Oridonin Analogue for Treatment of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

J Med Chem 2020 08 21;63(15):8157-8178. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, P. R. China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most highly invasive and metastatic breast cancers without safe and effective therapeutic drugs. The natural product oridonin is reported to be a potential anti-TNBC agent. However, its moderate activity and complex structure hampered its clinical application. In this study, the novel oridonin analogues were first identified by removal of multiple hydroxyl groups and structural simplification of oridonin. The representative analogue exhibited potent anticancer effects. Further structural modification on generated the most potent derivative , which possessed 120-fold more potent antiproliferative activity than oridonin in the TNBC cell line HCC1806. Importantly, compound exhibited more potent anticancer activity than paclitaxel in TNBC xenograft nude mice. Moreover, could attenuate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, p-FAK, and integrin β1 to inhibit TNBC cell metastasis. All results suggest that compound may warrant further investigation as a promising candidate agent for the treatment of TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c00408DOI Listing
August 2020

Co-hydrothermal carbonization of water hyacinth and polyvinyl chloride: Optimization of process parameters and characterization of hydrochar.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Oct 13;314:123676. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China; School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, No. 381, Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640, China.

The co-hydrothermal carbonization (co-HTC) of water hyacinth (WH) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was investigated and the response surface methodology, which could deduce the interactions among process parameters and establish reliable mathematical models forecasting the behavior of output variables, was implemented to optimize process parameters, including reaction temperature (200-260 °C), residence time (30-90 min) and WH/PVC mixing ratios (0.5-2). Statistical analysis revealed that reaction temperature was the predominant parameter affecting hydrochar dechlorination efficiency, yield, calorific value, energetic recovery efficiency and electricity consumption. The predicted condition of 200-30-0.5 could simultaneously acquire the optimal energetic recovery efficiency and electricity consumption for producing unit HHV, corresponding to 94.96% and 13.81. The characterization results identified that hydrochar could harvest lower H/C and O/C ratios as well as superior inorganics removal ability. Overall, the co-HTC of WH and PVC could definitely be a promising alternative to bridge the gap from solid wastes to renewable fuels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123676DOI Listing
October 2020

The Role of Interleukin-1β in Destruction of Transplanted Islets.

Cell Transplant 2020 Jan-Dec;29:963689720934413

Cell Transplantation and Gene Therapy Institute, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Islet transplantation is a promising β-cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes, which can reduce glucose lability and hypoglycemic episodes compared with standard insulin therapy. Despite the tremendous progress made in this field, challenges remain in terms of long-term successful transplant outcomes. The insulin independence rate remains low after islet transplantation from one donor pancreas. It has been reported that the islet-related inflammatory response is the main cause of early islet damage and graft loss after transplantation. The production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) has considered to be one of the primary harmful inflammatory events during pancreatic procurement, islet isolation, and islet transplantation. Evidence suggests that the innate immune response is upregulated through the activity of Toll-like receptors and The NACHT Domain-Leucine-Rich Repeat and PYD-containing Protein 3 inflammasome, which are the starting points for a series of signaling events that drive excessive IL-1β production in islet transplantation. In this review, we show recent contributions to the advancement of knowledge of IL-1β in islet transplantation and discuss several strategies targeting IL-1β for improving islet engraftment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963689720934413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563886PMC
June 2020

Development of a novel truncated deguelin derivative possessing nitric oxide donor as a potential anti-lung cancer agent.

Fitoterapia 2020 Oct 12;146:104670. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

College of Materials & Chemical Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000, China; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the world. Natural product deguelin and its truncated analogs have been reported to be potential therapeutic agents for lung cancer. In order to improve the potency, a novel truncated deguelin derivative (4) possessing nitric oxide (NO) donor was designed and synthesized. The biological evaluation showed that hybrid 4 exerted potent activity with an IC value of 0.41 μM in H1299 cells. Mechanism studies showed that it arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase and suppressed Hsp90 function. In addition, hybrid 4 demonstrated potent inhibitory activity on the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Together, the promising results warrant further development of hybrid 4 as a potential anticancer agent for the treatment of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104670DOI Listing
October 2020

Comparison of catalytic effect on upgrading bio-oil derived from co-pyrolysis of water hyacinth and scrap tire over multilamellar MFI nanosheets and HZSM-5.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Sep 28;312:123592. Epub 2020 May 28.

School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, No. 381, Wushan Road, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Catalytic co-pyrolysis of water hyacinth and scrap tire experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of improving the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons production. The production of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased from 5.31% (sole pyrolysis of water hyacinth) to 13.11% (co-pyrolysis with scrap tire). With use of zeolites, the highest production of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can reach up to 69.18%. Comprehensive comparison on catalytic effects of HZSM-5 and multilamellar MFI nanosheets were provided. With the material to multilamellar MFI nanosheets ratios changes from 2:1 to 1:4, the production of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increases significantly from 37.15-69.18%. The average production of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons produced by using multilamellar MFI nanosheets were 12.07% higher than that using HZSM-5, indicating the better performance of multilamellar MFI nanosheets in producing monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This work provided a reference for the reuse of water hyacinth and scrap tire over multilamellar MFI nanosheets in energy field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123592DOI Listing
September 2020

Differentiation, evolution and utilization of natural alleles for cold adaptability at the reproductive stage in rice.

Plant Biotechnol J 2020 12 24;18(12):2491-2503. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology/Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Genetic studies on cold tolerance at the reproductive stage in rice could lead to significant reductions in yield losses. However, knowledge about the genetic basis and adaptive differentiation, as well as the evolution and utilization of the underlying natural alleles, remains limited. Here, 580 rice accessions in two association panels were used to perform genome-wide association study, and 156 loci associated with cold tolerance at the reproductive stage were identified. Os01g0923600 and Os01g0923800 were identified as promising candidate genes in qCTB1t, a major associated locus. Through population genetic analyses, 22 and 29 divergent regions controlling cold adaptive differentiation inter-subspecies (Xian/Indica and Geng/Japonica) and intra-Geng, respectively, were identified. Joint analyses of four cloned cold-tolerance genes showed that they had different origins and utilizations under various climatic conditions. bZIP73 and OsAPX1 differentiating inter-subspecies evolved directly from wild rice, whereas the novel mutations CTB4a and Ctb1 arose in Geng during adaptation to colder climates. The cold-tolerant Geng accessions have undergone stronger selection under colder climate conditions than other accessions during the domestication and breeding processes. Additive effects of dominant allelic variants of four identified genes have been important in adaptation to cold in modern rice varieties. Therefore, this study provides valuable information for further gene discovery and pyramiding breeding to improve cold tolerance at the reproductive stage in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7680545PMC
December 2020

Mouse Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Paracrine Alleviates Renal Fibrosis in Diabetic Nephropathy by Reducing Myofibroblast Transdifferentiation and Cell Proliferation and Upregulating MMPs in Mesangial Cells.

J Diabetes Res 2020 2;2020:3847171. Epub 2020 May 2.

Cell Transplantation and Gene Therapy Institute, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Transplantation of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) is currently considered a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the mechanisms by which UC-MSCs ameliorate renal fibrosis in DN are not well understood. Herein, we firstly investigated the therapeutic effects of mouse UC-MSC infusion on kidney structural and functional impairment in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice. We found that the repeated injection with mUC-MSCs alleviates albuminuria, glomerulus injury, and fibrosis in DN mouse models. Next, mesangial cells were exposed to 5.6 mM glucose, 30 mM glucose, or mUC-MSC-conditioned medium, and then we performed western blotting, immunofluorescence, wound healing assay, and cell proliferation assay to measure extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), myofibroblast transdifferentiation (MFT), and cell proliferation. We demonstrated that mUC-MSC paracrine decreased the deposition of fibronectin and collagen I by inhibiting TGF-1-triggered MFT and cell proliferation mediated by PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, and elevating the levels of MMP2 and MMP9. Importantly, we provided evidence that the antifibrosis role of mUC-MSC paracrine in DN might be determined by exosomes shed by MSCs. Together, these findings reveal the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of UC-MSCs on renal fibrosis in DN and provide the evidence for DN cell-free therapy based on UC-MSCs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3847171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222483PMC
March 2021

Volatilization characteristics and risk evaluation of heavy metals during the pyrolysis and combustion of rubber waste without or with molecular sieves.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Jul 1;198:110677. Epub 2020 May 1.

School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, 510640, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, 510640, Guangzhou, China.

The volatilization characteristics and risk evaluation of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co ,Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Ti) during pyrolysis and combustion of rubber waste with or without molecular sieves (MS) were studied. The addition of MS during pyrolysis inhibited the volatilization of As and promoted the volatilization of Ni and Co, while during combustion it inhibited the volatilization of Pb, Zn and promoted the volatilization of Cu. For Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Ti, their volatilization rates during pyrolysis were significantly higher than those during combustion, whereas for As and Cu, the volatilization rates during pyrolysis were lower than those during combustion. Risk evaluation of gaseous heavy metals was exhibited based on the Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) method. The potential ecological risk during combustion was generally lower than that during pyrolysis. The research results provide important information of heavy metals control during waste thermal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110677DOI Listing
July 2020

Alteration of the gut microbiome in first-episode drug-naïve and chronic medicated schizophrenia correlate with regional brain volumes.

J Psychiatr Res 2020 04 8;123:136-144. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China; Hunan Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Changsha, Hunan, China; Mental Health Institute of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; China National Clinical Research Center on Mental Disorders (Xiangya), Changsha, Hunan, China; China National Technology Institute on Mental Disorders, Changsha, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

The human gut microbiome plays an important role in the basic neurodevelopmental processes of the central nervous system and has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the connection between the gut microbiome and the underlying pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) is poorly defined. Here we analyzed the faecal samples from 40 first-episode drug-naïve SCZ (FSCZ) patients, 85 chronically antipsychotic-treated SCZ (TSCZ) patients and 69 healthy controls (HCs) using 16S rRNA gene sequence to determine whether the alterations of the gut microbiome were associated with SCZ or antipsychotic treatment. In addition, we acquired the T1-weighted brain imaging data by using structural magnetic resonance imaging to test whether microbial composition correlated with structural brain signatures. Our analyses revealed low microbiome alpha-diversity indexes in TSCZ patients but not in FSCZ patients as compared to HCs. Importantly, both FSCZ and TSCZ patients had distinct changes in gut microbial composition at certain taxa including Christensenellaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, Turicibacteraceae at the family level and Escherichia at genus level as compared to HCs. We also found significant disturbances of gut microbial composition in TSCZ versus FSCZ patients (eg. Enterococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae). Most interestingly, our exploratory analyses found specific SCZ-associated microbiota to be correlated with the right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG) volume which was aberrant in SCZ patients. Our findings extend prior work and suggest a possible link between the gut microbiome and brain structure which may be implicated in the pathology of SCZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.02.005DOI Listing
April 2020

Co-hydrothermal carbonization of polyvinyl chloride and corncob for clean solid fuel production.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Apr 10;301:122763. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

The improvement of dechlorination efficiency remains an important challenge during co-hydrothermal carbonization (co-HTC) of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In this work, co-HTC of biomass and PVC at different mixing ratios (30%-70%) and feed-water pH (3-11) was proposed to further improve the dechlorination efficiency. In terms of water solvent, the dechlorination efficiency of co-HTC process (87.83%-93.63%) was higher than that of individual HTC of polyvinyl chloride (87.44%). In case of organic acid/alkali solvents, the dechlorination efficiency further increased to 95.20% at pH = 5. Particularly, the hydrochars derived from co-HTC showed high fuel ratio (0.71-0.99) and their higher heating value reached approximately 29.16-32.83 MJ/kg. The TGA results showed that the combustion behaviors of hydrochars derived from co-HTC got better compared with that of hydrochar derived from PVC. Therefore, co-HTC can realize sustainable utilization of PVC towards clean solid fuels. This work also sheds light on the potential of organic acid in dechlorination treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.122763DOI Listing
April 2020

Catalytic co-pyrolysis behaviors, product characteristics and kinetics of rural solid waste and chlorella vulgaris.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Mar 17;299:122636. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, 510640 Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Efficient and Clean Energy Utilization, 510640 Guangzhou, China.

Catalytic and non-catalytic co-pyrolysis behaviors, kinetics and products distribution of rural solid waste (RSW) and chlorella vulgaris (CV) were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed bed reactor. TGA results showed that co-pyrolysis of RSW and CV presented synergism by decreasing the temperature relating to the first mass loss peak. All the additives reduced residual mass for co-pyrolysis (5.21%, 1.57% and 4.89% for CaO, MgO and HZSM-5). Addition of CaO increased activation energy while HZSM-5 and MgO reduced it. Co-pyrolysis of RSW and CV remarkably reduced carboxylic acids and nitrogenous compounds especially for 1:1 ratio. (30.85% and 25.87%). Catalytic pyrolysis with CaO showed the best results by increasing aliphatic hydrocarbons especially light fraction (5.96%-11.98%), reducing acids (0%-30.85%) and nitrogenous compounds (0.08%-17.26%), causing higher HHV of oil. Overall, catalytic co-pyrolysis of CV and RSW with CaO could obtain bio-oil of higher quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122636DOI Listing
March 2020