Publications by authors named "Xiaoping Yi"

69 Publications

Long-term low-dose oxytetracycline potentially leads to neurobehavioural changes.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 27;223:112546. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Infectious Disease, Xinhua Children's Hospital, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Trace levels of oxytetracycline (OTC)-a veterinary antibiotic and feed additive-are widespread in the environment. Studies revealed that OTC potentially impairs thyroid function, which may affect neurobehaviour; however, the impact of exposure to environmental concentrations of OTC on adult neurobehaviour is unknown. In this study, the effects of OTC on zebrafish after 30-day exposure were investigated. The total swimming distance was significantly increased under vibration and light/dark stimulation, while time spent in the white area was prolonged during the black/white preference test, indicating that the zebrafish became bolder and more impulsive under low OTC exposure. Additionally, monoamine neurotransmitter (5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, norepinephrine) levels were decreased and gene expression of monoamine oxidase (mao) involved in neurotransmitter metabolism was upregulated at the transcription level after OTC exposure. Because triiodothyronine (T3) levels were enhanced following exposure to OTC, we speculated that T3 may mediate OTC damage to the nervous system. Our simulated molecular docking analysis showed that OTC combined with the sodium iodide cotransporter protein may result in excessive T3 synthesis. We further exposed zebrafish to T3, and they exhibited similar behaviour to the OTC exposure group. In conclusion, environmental OTC may activate monoamine oxidase and enhance the metabolism of monoaminergic neurotransmitters via T3, thereby inducing abnormal neurobehaviour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112546DOI Listing
October 2021

Pre-treatment CT-based radiomics nomogram for predicting microsatellite instability status in colorectal cancer.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

Objectives: Stratification of microsatellite instability (MSI) status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) improves clinical decision-making for cancer treatment. The present study aimed to develop a radiomics nomogram to predict the pre-treatment MSI status in patients with CRC.

Methods: A total of 762 patients with CRC confirmed by surgical pathology and MSI status determined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method were retrospectively recruited between January 2013 and May 2019. Radiomics features were extracted from routine pre-treatment abdominal pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans acquired as part of the patients' clinical care. A radiomics nomogram was constructed using multivariate logistic regression. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated using discrimination, calibration, and decision curves.

Results: The radiomics nomogram incorporating radiomics signatures, tumor location, patient age, high-density lipoprotein expression, and platelet counts showed good discrimination between patients with non-MSI-H and MSI-H, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74 [95% CI, 0.68-0.80] in the training cohort and 0.77 [95% CI, 0.68-0.85] in the validation cohort. Favorable clinical application was observed using decision curve analysis. The addition of pathological characteristics to the nomogram failed to show incremental prognostic value.

Conclusions: We developed a radiomics nomogram incorporating radiomics signatures and clinical indicators, which could potentially be used to facilitate the individualized prediction of MSI status in patients with CRC.

Key Points: • There is an unmet need to non-invasively determine MSI status prior to treatment. However, the traditional radiological evaluation of CT is limited for evaluating MSI status. • Our non-invasive CT imaging-based radiomics method could efficiently distinguish patients with high MSI disease from those with low MSI disease. • Our radiomics approach demonstrated promising diagnostic efficiency for MSI status, similar to the commonly used IHC method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08167-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Myosteatosis predicting risk of transition to severe COVID-19 infection.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

Background: About 10-20% of patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection progressed to severe illness within a week or so after initially diagnosed as mild infection. Identification of this subgroup of patients was crucial for early aggressive intervention to improve survival. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether computer tomography (CT) - derived measurements of body composition such as myosteatosis indicating fat deposition inside the muscles could be used to predict the risk of transition to severe illness in patients with initial diagnosis of mild COVID-19 infection.

Methods: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection presenting initially as having the mild common-subtype illness were retrospectively recruited between January 21, 2020 and February 19, 2020. CT-derived body composition measurements were obtained from the initial chest CT images at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra (T12) and were used to build models to predict the risk of transition. A myosteatosis nomogram was constructed using multivariate logistic regression incorporating both clinical variables and myosteatosis measurements. The performance of the prediction models was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve including the area under the curve (AUC). The performance of the nomogram was evaluated by discrimination, calibration curve, and decision curve.

Results: A total of 234 patients were included in this study. Thirty-one of the enrolled patients transitioned to severe illness. Myosteatosis measurements including SM-RA (skeletal muscle radiation attenuation) and SMFI (skeletal muscle fat index) score fitted with SMFI, age and gender, were significantly associated with risk of transition for both the training and validation cohorts (P < 0.01). The nomogram combining the SM-RA, SMFI score and clinical model improved prediction for the transition risk with an AUC of 0.85 [95% CI, 0.75 to 0.95] for the training cohort and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97] for the validation cohort, as compared to the nomogram of the clinical model with AUC of 0.75 and 0.74 for the training and validation cohorts respectively. Favorable clinical utility was observed using decision curve analysis.

Conclusion: We found CT-derived measurements of thoracic myosteatosis to be associated with higher risk of transition to severe illness in patients affected by COVID-19 who presented initially as having the mild common-subtype infection. Our study showed the relevance of skeletal muscle examination in the overall assessment of disease progression and prognosis of patients with COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.05.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180452PMC
June 2021

Background, applications and challenges of radiogenomics in genitourinary tumor.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(5):1936-1945. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University Changsha 410008, Hunan, P. R. China.

Genitourinary tumors are groups of tumors with high complexity and heterogeneity. For long-term monitoring, biomarkers that can be used in detection, grading and treatment response assessment are needed. With rapid development in imaging technology and cancer genomics, radiogenomics, the combination of "radiology" and "genomics", has emerged as a powerful tool in oncology practice in recent years because imaging can provide some information that genomic test cannot as gene expression and mutation status are usually evaluated on a small portion of the tumor and are usually not powerful enough to reflect tumor heterogeneity. Radiogenomics investigates the correlations between imaging features and gene expression of a disease, especially in oncologic diseases. It aims to detect the disease's mutation status and supplement genomic analysis based on imaging analysis, providing additional findings for diagnosis, treatment decisions, evaluation of treatment response and prognosis prediction of the disease. Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies investigating the application of radiogenomics in genitourinary tumors. Many studies have shown promising results. However, there still exist limitations and challenges. In this review, we will summarize recent applications of radiogenomics in genitourinary tumors and discuss limitiations, challenges and future directions of radiogenomics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167692PMC
May 2021

Study Progression of Apelin/APJ Signaling and Apela in Different Types of Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:658253. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Apelin is an endogenous ligand that binds to the G protein-coupled receptor angiotensin-like-receptor 1 (APJ). Apelin and APJ are widely distributed in organs and tissues and are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes including cardiovascular regulation, neuroendocrine stress response, energy metabolism, etc. Additionally, apelin/APJ axis was found to play an important role in cancer development and progression. Apela is a newly identified endogenous ligand for APJ. Several studies have revealed the potential role of Apela in cancers. In this article, we review the current studies focusing on the role of apelin/APJ signaling and Apela in different cancers. Potential mechanisms by which apelin/APJ and Apela mediate the regulation of cancer development and progression were also mentioned. The Apelin/APJ signaling and Apela may serve as potential therapeutic candidates for treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.658253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075258PMC
April 2021

Computed Tomography Radiomics for Predicting Pathological Grade of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2020 27;10:570396. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, United States.

Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common renal cancer and it has the worst prognosis among all renal cancers. However, traditional radiological characteristics on computed tomography (CT) scans of ccRCC have been insufficient to predict the pathological grade of ccRCC before surgery.

Methods: Patients with ccRCC were retrospectively enrolled into this study and were separated into two groups according to the World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system, i.e., low-grade (Grade I and II) group and high-grade (Grade III and IV) group. Traditional CT radiological characteristics such as tumor size, pre- and post-enhancing CT densities were assessed. In addition, radiomic texture analysis based on the CT imaging of the ccRCC were also performed. A CT-based machine learning method combining the traditional radiological characteristics and radiomic features was used in the predictive modeling for differentiating the low-grade from the high-grade ccRCC. Model performance was evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis.

Results: A total of 264 patients with pathologically confirmed ccRCC were included in this study. In this cohort, 206 patients had the low-grade tumors and 58 had the high-grade tumors. The model built with traditional radiological characteristics achieved an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.9175 (95% CI: 0.8765-0.9585) and 0.8088 (95% CI: 0.7064-0.9113) in differentiating the low-grade from the high-grade ccRCC for the training cohort and the validation cohort respectively. The model built with the radiomic textural features yielded an AUC value of 0.8170 (95% CI: 0.7353-0.8987) and 0.8017 (95% CI: 0.6878-0.9157) for the training cohort and the validation cohort, respectively. The combined model integrating both the traditional radiological characteristics and the radiomic textural features achieved the highest efficacy, with an AUC of 0.9235 (95% CI: 0.8646-0.9824) and an AUC of 0.9099 (95% CI: 0.8324-0.9873) for the training cohort and validation cohort, respectively.

Conclusion: We developed a machine learning radiomic model achieving a satisfying performance in differentiating the low-grade from the high-grade ccRCC. Our study presented a potentially useful non-invasive imaging-focused method to predict the pathological grade of renal cancers prior to surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.570396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873602PMC
January 2021

Targeted Deep Sequencing Reveals Unrecognized KIT Mutation Coexistent with NF1 Deficiency in GISTs.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 12;13:297-306. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: -deficient GISTs account for about 1% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and are usually considered as a subtype of wild-type GISTs that have no detectable and mutations. Some wild-type GISTs actually have cryptic mutations (). So we investigate whether concurrent existed in -associated GISTs.

Patients And Methods: Three independent cohorts were retrospectively analyzed. wild-type GISTs in Xiangya Hospital between May 2017 and Oct 2019 were investigated by next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach targeted 1021 cancer-related genes regions. GISTs cases in Gene+ dataset from May 2017 to May 2020 were collected from the platform of this company. The genotypes of GISTs in MSKCC cohort were downloaded from cBioPortal.

Results: A total of 290 cases including 23 wild-type GISTs in Xiangya Hospital, 136 GISTs in Gene+ database, and 131 GISTs in MSKCC were enrolled. Twenty-six cases have mutations (), and 48% (12/26) of -mutated GISTs have concurrent . Compared with MSKCC (2/10, 20%), a higher ratio of in -associated GISTs was detected in Xiangya Hospital (3/5, 60%) and Gene+ (7/11, 64%) (p<0.05). No mutation hotspot existed in . Most of centered within exon 11 (7/12, 58%) and others including exon 17 (3/12, 25%), exon 9(1/12, 8%), exon 13 (1/12, 8%) and exon 21 (1/12, 8%). No differences in age, gender, and location were detected between -related GISTs with and those without . Three GIST cases of type I neurofibromatosis, skin neurofibromas and micro-GISTs (≤1 cm) were devoid of , but all the mini-GISTs (1~2 cm) and clinic GIST lesions (>2 cm) in two cases harbored .

Conclusion: was not unusual in -associated GISTs, especially in Chinese populations. The gain-of-function possibly facilitated the progression of -deficient lesions to clinic GISTs, however, the underlying mechanism warrants further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S280174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811451PMC
January 2021

Validation of the World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology grading for Chinese patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Transl Androl Urol 2020 Dec;9(6):2665-2674

Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: This study aimed to compare the World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) grading system and the Fuhrman grading system and to verify the WHO/ISUP grade as a prognostic parameter of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in a Chinese population.

Methods: The study consisted of 753 ccRCC patients treated with curative surgery between 2010 and 2018 at Xiangya Hospital Central South University (Changsha, China). All pathologic data were retrospectively reviewed by two pathologists. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were examined as clinical outcomes.

Results: According to the WHO/ISUP grading system (ISUP group), nephrectomy type, pT stage and WHO/ISUP grade were independent risk factors for CSS (P<0.0001, P=0.0127 and P<0.0001, respectively) and RFS (P<0.0001, P=0.0077, and P<0.0001, respectively). In the Fuhrman group, nephrectomy type, pT stage and Fuhrman grade were independent risk factors for CSS (P<0.0001, P=0.0004, and P<0.0001, respectively) and RFS (P<0.0001, P=0.0001, and P<0.0001, respectively). The C-index for CSS and RFS using the Fuhrman grading system was 0.6323 and 0.6342, respectively, and that using the WHO/ISUP grading system was 0.6983 and 0.7005, respectively, both higher than the former (P=0.0185, and P=0.0172, respectively). In addition, upgrading from Fuhrman grade 2 to ISUP grade 3 resulted in worse CSS and RFS for ccRCC patients (P=0.0033 and P =0.0003, respectively).

Conclusions: We first verified correlations between the postoperative prognosis and WHO/ISUP grade of ccRCC in a Chinese population and confirmed that the ability to predict clinical outcomes with the WHO/ISUP grading system was superior to that with the Fuhrman grading system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807344PMC
December 2020

Incorporating SULF1 polymorphisms in a pretreatment CT-based radiomic model for predicting platinum resistance in ovarian cancer treatment.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 20;133:111013. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, United States.

Objective: Early detection of platinum resistance for ovarian cancer treatment remains challenging. This study aims to develop a machine learning model incorporating genomic data such as Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of Human Sulfatase 1 (SULF1) with a CT radiomic model based on pre-treatment CT images, to predict platinum resistance for ovarian cancer (OC) treatment.

Methods: A cohort of 102 patients with pathologically confirmed OC was retrospectively enrolled into this study from January 2006 to February 2018. All patients had platinum-based chemotherapy after maximal cyto-reductive surgery. This cohort was separated into two groups according to treatment response, i.e., the group with platinum-resistant disease (PR group) and the group with platinum-sensitive disease (PS group). We genotyped 12 SNPs of SULF1 for all OC patients using Mass Array Method. Radiomic features, SNP data and clinicopathological data of the 102 patients were used to build the differentiation models. The study participants were divided into two cohorts: the training cohort (n = 71) and the validation cohort (n = 31). Feature selection and predictive modeling were performed using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Random Forest Classifier and Support Vector Machine methods. Model performance for predicting platinum resistance was assessed with respect to its calibration, discrimination, and clinical application.

Results: For prediction of platinum resistance, the approach combining the radiomics, clinicopathological data and SNP data demonstrated higher classification efficiency, with an AUC value of 0.993 (95 % CI: 0.83 to 0.98) in the training cohort and 0.967 (95 % CI: 0.83 to 0.98) in validation cohort, than the performance with only the SNPs of SULF1 model (AUC: training, 0.843 [95 %CI: 0.738-0.948]; validation, 0.815 [0.601-1.000]), or with only the radiomic model (AUC: training, 0.874 [95 %CI: 0.789-0.960]; validation, 0.832 [95 %CI: 0.687-0.976]). This integrated approach also showed good calibration and favorable clinical utility.

Conclusions: A predictive model combining pretreatment CT radiomics with genomic data such as SNPs of SULF1 could potentially help to predict platinum resistance in ovarian cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111013DOI Listing
January 2021

Applications of radiomics in genitourinary tumors.

Am J Cancer Res 2020 1;10(8):2293-2308. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University Changsha 410008, Hunan, P. R. China.

Genitourinary tumors are heterogeneous groups of tumors with high morbidity and mortality rates. Confronted with existing problems in the management of genitourinary tumors, a personalized imaging method called radiomics shows great potential in areas including detection, grading, and treatment response assessment. Radiomics is characterized by extraction of quantitative imaging features which are not visible to the naked eye from conventional imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), followed by data analysis and model building. It outperforms other invasive methods in terms of non-invasiveness, low cost and high efficiency. Recently, a number of studies have evaluated the application of radiomics in patients with genitourinary tumors with promising data. The combination of radiomics and clinical/laboratory factors provides added value in many studies. Despite this, there are limitations and challenges to be overcome before a more extensive clinical application in the future. In this article, we will introduce the concept, significance and workflow of radiomics, review their current applications in patients with genitourinary tumors and discuss limitations and future directions of radiomics. It would help multidisciplinary team involved in the treatment of patients with genitourinary tumors to achieve a better understanding of the results of radiomics study toward a personalized medicine.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471369PMC
August 2020

Low-dose effects on thyroid disruption in zebrafish by long-term exposure to oxytetracycline.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Oct 20;227:105608. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

As a feed additive in agriculture, the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) has become widely distributed in the natural environment, leading to the exposure of many organisms to low doses of OTC. Although OTC is clinically contraindicated in children because of its multiple side effects, the effect of exposure to low doses of environmental OTC on children is unknown, particularly during development. In this study, we investigated the effects of OTC on the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish, through determinations of the whole-body contents of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and analysis of the mRNA expression of regulatory genes involved in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to OTC at environmentally relevant concentrations from 2 h to 120 days post-fertilisation. After exposure to OTC at 1,000 and 5,000 ng/L, T3 contents were significantly enhanced (37.8% and 45.1%, respectively) and TSH contents were reduced (16% and 16.3%, respectively) compared with those in the controls. The OTC-driven increase in the transcription of genes involved in thyroid synthesis (tpo and nis) may be responsible for the altered T3 levels. These data indicate that OTC may cause thyroid dysfunction and lead to reduced TSH secretion owing to enhanced negative feedback control of the HPT axis. Meanwhile, a decrease in body length, weight, and BMI and an increase in heart rate were observed with increasing OTC exposure. In conclusion, our results indicate that long-term exposure to low concentrations of OTC may alter the transcription of key genes involved in the HPT axis, as well as T3 and TSH contents, thereby disrupting the thyroid system and affecting the growth and development of zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105608DOI Listing
October 2020

Anti-Dopamine Receptor 2 Antibody-Positive Encephalitis in Adolescent.

Front Neurol 2020 16;11:471. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Autoimmune encephalitic syndromes include mutism, somnolence, movement disorder, and behavioral, or psychiatric symptoms. When paired with bilateral basal ganglia lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, these support the diagnosis of basal ganglia encephalitis (BGE). BGE is a rare but distinct entity of putative autoimmune etiology, with specific basal ganglia inflammation and acute movement disorders. A previous study identified dopamine-2 receptors (D2R) antibody to be positive in most BGE children, indicating that the D2R antibody may trigger the downstream pathological process in BGE patients. The highest levels of D2R are found in the striatum, the nucleus accumbens, and the olfactory tubercle. D2R antibody-positive BGE is widely reported in children. Here we present a 17-year-old girl with a typical clinical feature of basal ganglia encephalitis, who benefited from immune therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308480PMC
June 2020

Diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging for colorectal liver metastasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2020 02 6;10(1):1969. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Pathology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410008, China.

The prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely dependent on the early detection of hepatic metastases. With the advantages of nonradioactivity and the availability of multiple scanning sequences, the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is not yet clear. We performed this meta-analysis to address this issue. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies reporting diagnostic performance of MRI for CRLM. Descriptive and quantitative data were extracted. The study quality was evaluated for the identified studies and a random effects model was used to determine the integrated diagnosis estimation. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were implemented to investigate the potential contributors to heterogeneity. As a result, seventeen studies were included for analysis (from the year 1996 to 2018), comprising 1121 patients with a total of 3279 liver lesions. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio were 0.90 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.81-0.95), 0.88 (0.80-0.92), and 62.19 (23.71-163.13), respectively. The overall weighted area under the curve was 0.94 (0.92-0.96). Using two or more imaging planes and a quantitative/semiquantitative interpretation method showed higher diagnostic performance, although only the latter demonstrated statistical significance (P < 0.05). Advanced scanning sequences with DWI and liver-specific contrast media tended to increase the sensitivity for CRLM detection. We therefore concluded that contemporary MRI has high sensitivity and specificity for screening CRLM, especially for those with advanced scanning sequences. Using two or more imaging planes and adopting a quantitative/semiquantitative imaging interpretation may further improve diagnosis. However, the MRI results should be interpreted with caution because of substantial heterogeneity among studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58855-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005325PMC
February 2020

Computational Insights into LiO Formation, Nucleation, and Adsorption on Carbon Nanotube Electrodes in Nonaqueous Li-O Batteries.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Mar 5;11(6):2195-2202. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

Recent theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the formation of LiO, the main discharge product of nonaqueous Li-O batteries, is a complex multistep reaction process. The formation, nucleation, and adsorption of LiO ( and = 0, 1, and 2) and (LiO) clusters with = 1-4 on the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were investigated by periodic density functional theory calculation. The results showed that both LiO and LiO on CNT electrodes are preferentially generated by lithiation reaction rather than disproportionation reaction. The free energy profiles demonstrate that the discharge potentials of 2.54 and 1.29 V are the threshold values of spontaneous nucleation of (LiO) and (LiO) on a CNT surface, respectively. The electronic structure indicates that LiO is a -type semiconductor, while LiO exhibits the properties of an insulator. Interestingly, once LiO molecules condense into large clusters, they will be repelled away from the CNT surface and continue to grow into large-sized LiO. Our results provide insights into the full understanding of the electrochemical reaction mechanism and product formation processes of lithium oxides in the cathodes of Li-O batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b03757DOI Listing
March 2020

Clinical findings of autosomal-dominant striatal degeneration and PDE8B mutation screening in parkinsonism and related disorders.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2019 12 5;69:94-98. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, PR China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410008, PR China; Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410008, PR China; Center for Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Autosomal-dominant striatal degeneration (ADSD) is a rare neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by mutations in the Phosphodiesterase 8B (PDE8B) gene.

Objective: To summarize the clinical and imaging features of a Chinese ADSD family and determine whether mutations in PDE8B are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) or Parkinsonism.

Methods: Clinical, imaging and genetic findings in a Chinese ADSD family are reported. Rare, potentially pathogenic variants in PDE8B were searched in whole-exome sequencing datasets from 1714 PD or parkinsonism patients and 1039 controls.

Results: An ADSD diagnosis was confirmed by a nonsense mutation in PDE8B (p.E102X) in a patient and a presymptomatic carrier. Clinically, the patient exhibited progressive parkinsonism without tremor and ataxia phenotype. Neuroimaging showed an inhomogeneous increased signal in the patient's striatum on T1-weighted images but a decreased signal in the presymptomatic carrier. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) showed a disturbance in the white matter fiber distribution, especially between the lentiform nucleus and caudate nucleus, which was more prominent in the patient than in the presymptomatic carrier. Within the 1714 patients, three PDE8B missense variants were identified that were unlikely to be the cause of the parkinsonism phenotype according to the functional prediction and mutation types reported in ADSD.

Conclusions: For the first time, we described the typical ataxia phenotype in ADSD. A loss of white matter fiber integrity was shown on DTI scanning. No causative PDE8B mutation was discovered in our cohort of PD or Parkinsonism patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2019.11.002DOI Listing
December 2019

Coupling metabolomics analysis and DOE optimization strategy towards enhanced IBDV production by chicken embryo fibroblast DF-1 cells.

J Biotechnol 2020 Jan 4;307:114-124. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology (ECUST), Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Infectious bursal disease (IBD) caused by IBD virus (IBDV) is highly contagious viral and vaccination in chicken embryo has been an effective mean to prevent acute infection. However, the current production of IBDV vaccine faces serious batch instability and external contamination. The chicken embryonic fibroblast cell line DF-1 is widely used for the proliferation of avian viruses and vaccine production. Thus, optimizing the production of IBDV by DF-1 cells has an important application value. Combining metabolomics analysis and a Design of Experiments (DOE) statistical strategy, this study successfully optimized the process of IBDV production by DF-1 cells. Differential analysis and time series analysis of metabolite data in both IBDV-infected and uninfected DF-1 cells were performed by multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the intracellular metabolite intensities of glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the nucleoside synthesis pathway, lipid metabolism, and glutathione metabolism were upregulated, and the TCA cycle underwent a slight downregulation after IBDV infection of DF-1 cells. Based on the metabolome results and DOE statistical optimization method, the additive components suitable for IBDV proliferation were determined. The IBDV titer increased by 20.7 times upon exogenous addition of cysteine, methionine, lysine and nucleosides in the control medium, which is consistent with the predicted result (20.0 times) by a multivariate quadratic equation. This study provides a strategy for the efficient production of IBDV vaccines and could potentially be utilized to improve the production of other viral vaccines and biologics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2019.10.018DOI Listing
January 2020

Sensorimotor and pain-related alterations of the gray matter and white matter in Type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 02 29;41(3):710-725. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Although diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has long been considered a disease of the peripheral nervous system, recent neuroimaging studies have shown that alterations in the central nervous system may play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Here, we used surface-based morphometry (SBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) differences between patients with DPN (n = 67, 44 painless and 23 painful) and healthy controls (HCs; n = 88). Compared with HCs, patients with DPN exhibited GM abnormalities in the pre- and postcentral gyrus and in several deep GM nuclei (caudate, putamen, medial pallidum, thalamus, and ventral nuclear). They also exhibited altered WM tracts (corticospinal tract, spinothalamic tract, and thalamocortical projecting fibers). These findings suggest impaired motor and somatosensory pathways in DPN. Further, patients with DPN (particularly painful DPN) exhibited morphological differences in the cingulate, insula, prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, as well as impaired WM integrity in periaqueductal WM and internal and external capsules. This suggests pain-perception/modulation pathways are altered in painful DPN. Intermodal correlation analyses found that the morphological indices of the brain regions identified by the SBM analysis were significantly correlated with the fractional anisotropy of brain regions identified by the TBSS analysis, suggesting that the GM and WM alterations were tightly coupled. Overall, our study showed sensorimotor and pain-related GM and WM alterations in patients with DPN, which might be involved in the development of DPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268085PMC
February 2020

Development of a simple and high-yielding fed-batch process for the production of porcine circovirus type 2 virus-like particle subunit vaccine.

AMB Express 2019 Oct 11;9(1):164. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

School of Biotechnology, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China.

The cap protein is encoded by the orf2 gene of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has the main antigen epitope of PCV2 and can form virus-like particles (VLPs), which are expressed in insect cells. PCV2-VLPs can effectively inhibit PCV2 replication as a subunit vaccine. In this study, a robust and reliable fed-batch process was successfully developed for the production of PCV2-VLPs by Sf9 cells. The feeding solution, feeding strategy, and cell density at infection were optimized to maximize the final PCV2-VLPs production yields. The cell density at infection and the volumetric PCV2-VLPs production reached 12 × 10 cells/mL and 110 mg/L, respectively, which yielded 3- and 3.6-fold enhancements compared to the batch culture. The PCV2-VLPs produced in fed-batch culture were not different from the PCV2-VLPs produced in a batch culture in an immunity test. A highly efficient production process was produced for PCV2-VLPs subunit vaccines, which could provide an effective means for the industrial production of PCV2 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-019-0880-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6789058PMC
October 2019

A study on enhanced O-glycosylation strategy for improved production of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

J Biotechnol 2019 Dec 8;306:159-168. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200137, China.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a glycoprotein hormone that exists as a heterodimer comprised of an α subunit and β subunit linked with disulfide bridges. The β subunit contains four O-glycosylation sites. Previous studies have found that the translation of mRNA to polypeptides of the β subunit was a severely limiting step for the expression of recombinant hCG protein in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The effects of O-glycosylation on recombinant hCG protein expression were assessed by adding O-glycan precursors and overexpressing and knocking down key regulatory genes of O-glycan precursor synthesis and O-glycan sugar chain synthesis or hydrolases. The results indicated that O-glycosylation was indeed limiting in the expression of recombinant hCG protein, and N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) was the major limiting precursor. Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 2 (Gfat2) and Uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (Ugp2), key regulatory genes of O-glycan precursor synthesis, were overexpressed. Ugp2 overexpression significantly increased the recombinant hCG protein level by 1.92 times compared to that of the control. The LC-MS/MS analysis and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) lectin blot analysis showed that Ugp2 overexpression significantly increased the total galactosylation levels of intracellular proteins and the O-glycosylation of recombinant hCG protein. The stability of the hCG protein to trypsin digestion was also enhanced. Ugp2 is the major limiting enzyme of the O-glycan precursor synthesis in recombinant hCG protein production. Furthermore, the effects and mechanisms of the key genes of O-glycan sugar chain synthesis and hydrolases such as polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase1 (Galnt1), Core 1 synthase, glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta-galactosyltransferase (C1galt1), O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase (Ogt) and Hexosaminidase (Hex), were evaluated. The results indicated that Galnt1 overexpression increased the recombinant hCG protein level by 1.57 times and improved the total galactosylation of intracellular proteins, O-glycosylation and the stability of recombinant hCG protein. Galnt1 is the major limiting enzyme of O-glycan sugar chain synthesis. Overexpression of Ugp2 and Galnt1 simultaneously improved the recombinant hCG protein level by 2.44 times, and both had synergistic effects. Based on the results of overexpression of Galnt1, the major limiting gene of O-Glycan chain synthesis, the precursors GalNAc and Gal were added and increased the recombinant hCG protein level by 3.68 times. This study revealed the major limiting factors of O-glycosylation of recombinant hCG protein in CHO cells and proposed an effective expression regulation strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2019.10.006DOI Listing
December 2019

Chemotherapy Potentially Facilitates the Occurrence of Radiation Encephalopathy in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Following Radiotherapy: A Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

Front Oncol 2019 3;9:567. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Radiation encephalopathy (RE) is deemed to be a disease induced only by radiotherapy (RT), with the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on the brains of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients being largely overlooked. In this study, we investigated structural and functional brain alterations in NPC patients following RT with or without chemotherapy. Fifty-six pre-RT, 37 post-RT, and 108 post-CCRT (concomitant chemo-radiotherapy) NPC patients were enrolled in this study. A surface-based local gyrification index (LGI) was obtained from high resolution MRI and was used to evaluate between-group differences in cortical folding. Seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis of resting-state fMRI data was also conducted to investigate the functional significance of the cortical folding alterations. Compared with the Pre-RT group, patients in the Post-CCRT group showed LGI reductions in widespread brain regions including the bilateral temporal lobes, insula, frontal lobes, and parietal lobes. Compared with the Post-RT group, patients in the Post-CCRT group showed LGI reductions in the right insula, which extended to the adjacent frontal lobe. Seed-based FC analysis showed that patients in the Post-CCRT group had lower FC between the insula and the left middle frontal gyrus than patients in the Pre-RT group. The follow-up results showed that patients in the Post-CCRT group had a much higher RE incidence rate (20.4%) than patients in the Post-RT group (2.7%; = 0.01). These findings indicate that chemotherapy potentially facilitated the occurrence of RE in NPC patients who underwent radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6618298PMC
July 2019

MRI-Based Radiomics Predicts Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2019 26;9:552. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, United States.

Conventional methods for predicting treatment response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) are limited. This study retrospectively recruited 134 LARC patients who underwent standard nCRT followed by total mesorectal excision surgery in our institution. Based on pre-operative axial T2-weighted images, machine learning radiomics was performed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to test the efficiencies of the predictive model. Among the 134 patients, 32 (23.9%) achieved pathological complete response (pCR), 69 (51.5%) achieved a good response, and 91 (67.9%) achieved down-staging. For prediction of pCR, good-response, and down-staging, the predictive model demonstrated high classification efficiencies, with an AUC value of 0.91 (95% CI: 0.83-0.98), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.97), and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.87-0.98), respectively. Our machine learning radiomics model showed promise for predicting response to nCRT in patients with LARC. Our predictive model based on the commonly used T2-weighted images on pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans has the potential to be adapted in clinical practice. Methods for predicting the response of the locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC, T3-4, or N+) to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) is lacking. In the present study, we developed a new machine learning radiomics method based on T2-weighted images. As a non-invasive tool, this method facilitates prediction performance effectively. It achieves a satisfactory overall diagnostic accuracy for predicting of pCR, good response, and down-staging show an AUC of 0.908, 0.902, and 0.930 in LARC patients, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6606732PMC
June 2019

Clinical Syndromes and Genetic Screening Strategies of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

J Kidney Cancer VHL 2018 27;5(4):14-22. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Urology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that originate from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, and paragangliomas (PGLs) are extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas. These can be mainly found in clinical syndromes including multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome, neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) and familial paraganglioma (FPGL). PCCs and PGLs are thought to have the highest degree of heritability among human tumors, and it has been estimated that 60% of the patients have genetic abnormalities. This review provides an overview of the clinical syndrome and the genetic screening strategies of PCCs and PGLs. Comprehensive screening principles and strategies, along with specific screening based on clinical symptoms, biochemical tests and immunohistochemistry, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15586/jkcvhl.2018.113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6308242PMC
December 2018

Radiomics improves efficiency for differentiating subclinical pheochromocytoma from lipid-poor adenoma: a predictive, preventive and personalized medical approach in adrenal incidentalomas.

EPMA J 2018 Dec 21;9(4):421-429. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

7Department of Radiology, Keck Medical Center of USC, Los Angeles, CA USA.

Objectives: This study aims to define a radiomic signature for pre-operative differentiation between subclinical pheochromocytoma (sPHEO) and lipid-poor adrenal adenoma (LPA) in adrenal incidentaloma. The goal was to apply a predictive, preventive, and personalized medical approach to the management of adrenal tumors.

Patients And Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 265 consecutive patients (training cohort, 212 (LPA, 145; sPHEO, 67); validation cohort, 53 (LPA, 36; sPHEO, 17)). Computed tomography (CT) imaging features were evaluated, including long diameter (LD), short diameter (SD), pre-enhanced CT value (CT), enhanced CT value (CT), shape, homogeneity, necrosis or cystic degeneration (N/C). Radiomic features were extracted and then were used to construct a radiomic signature (Rad-score) and radiomic nomogram. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate their performance.

Results: Sixteen of three hundred forty candidate features were used to build a radiomic signature. The signature was significantly different between the sPHEO and LPA groups (AUC: training, 0.907; validation, 0.902). The radiomic nomogram based on enhanced CT features (M1) consisted of Rad-score, LD, SD, CT, shape, homogeneity and N/C (AUC: training, 0.957; validation, 0.967). The pre-enhanced CT features based radiomic nomogram (M2) included Rad-score, LD, SD, CT, shape, and homogeneity (AUC: training, 0.955; validation, 0.958).

Conclusions: Our radiomic nomograms based on pre-enhanced and enhanced CT images distinguished sPHEO from LPA. In addition, the promising result using pre-enhanced CT images for predictive diagnostics is important because patients could avoid the additional radiation and risk associated with enhanced CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13167-018-0149-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6261906PMC
December 2018

Comparative physiological and proteomic analyses of the chloroplasts in halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum under differential salt conditions.

J Plant Physiol 2019 Jan 16;232:141-150. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Institute of Tropical Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou Hainan 571101, China; College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, Ministry of Education, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158, China. Electronic address:

Sesuvium portulacastrum, an important mangrove-associated true halophyte belongs to the family Aizoaceae, has excellent salt tolerance. Chloroplasts are the most sensitive organelles involved in the response to salinity. However, the regulation mechanism of chloroplasts of S. portulacastrum under salinity stress has not been reported. In this study, morphological and physiological analyses of leaves and comparative proteomics of chloroplasts isolated from the leaves of S. portulacastrum under different NaCl treatments were performed. Our results showed that the thickness of the palisade tissue, the leaf area, the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and the electron transport rate increased remarkably after the plants were subjected to differential saline environments, indicating that salinity can increase photosynthetic efficiency and improve the growth of S. portulacastrum. Subsequently, 55 differentially expressed protein species (DEPs) from the chloroplasts of S. portulacastrum under differential salt conditions were positively identified by mass spectrometry. These DEPs were involved in multiple metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis, carbon metabolism, ATP synthesis and the cell structure. Among these DEPs, the abundance of most proteins was induced by salt stress. Based on a combination of the morphological and physiological data, as well as the chloroplast proteome results, we speculated that S. portulacastrum can maintain photosynthetic efficiency and growth by maintaining the stability of the photosystem II complex, promoting the photochemical reaction rate, enhancing carbon fixation, developing plastoglobules, and preserving the biomembrane system of chloroplasts under salt stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2018.10.028DOI Listing
January 2019

Adrenal incidentaloma: machine learning-based quantitative texture analysis of unenhanced CT can effectively differentiate sPHEO from lipid-poor adrenal adenoma.

J Cancer 2018 8;9(19):3577-3582. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Department of Radiology, Keck Medical Center of USC, Los Angeles, CA.

To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of machine learning based texture analysis of unenhanced CT images in differentiating subclinical pheochromocytoma (sPHEO) from lipid-poor adenoma (LPA) in adrenal incidentaloma (AI). Seventy-nine patients with 80 LPA and 29 patients with 30 sPHEO were included in the study. Texture parameters were derived using imaging software (MaZda). Thirty texture features were selected and LPA was performed for the features selected. The number of positive features was used to predict results. Logistic multiple regression analysis was performed on the 30 texture features, and a predictive equation was created based on the coefficients obtained. LPA yielded a misclassification rate of 19.39% in differentiating sPHEO from LPA. Our predictive model had an accuracy rate of 94.4% (102/108), with a sensitivity of 86.2% (25/29) and a specificity of 97.5% (77/79) for differentiation. When the number of positive features was greater than 8, the accuracy of prediction was 85.2% (92/108), with a sensitivity of 96.6% (28/29) and a specificity of 81% (64/79). Machine learning-based quantitative texture analysis of unenhanced CT may be a reliable quantitative method in differentiating sPHEO from LPA when AI is present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.26356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171020PMC
September 2018

Catheter-Based Computed Tomography Angiography in Anterolateral Thigh Perforator Mapping of Chinese Patients.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2019 Mar 2;35(3):221-228. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California, United States.

Background:  During reconstructive surgery, anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap harvest is challenging due to variation and uncertainty in perforator distribution. We performed a pilot study to identify the predictive value of catheter-based computed tomography angiography (C-CTA) and traditional CTA (T-CTA) in ALT perforator mapping for patients whose ALT perforators were difficult to identify.

Methods:  Thirty-four consecutive T-CTA/C-CTA-mapped ALT flaps were evaluated for extremity reconstruction. The perforator location, origin, and course were compared between T-CTA/C-CTA imaging and intraoperative findings. The mapping efficiency of T-CTA and C-CTA was compared thoroughly.

Results:  Among the 34 ALT thigh flaps, 117 (36) of the 130 perforators identified intraoperatively were visible on C-CTA (T-CTA) in a subgroup of Chinese limb trauma patients with limited activity. C-CTA showed a satisfactory efficiency in perforator mapping, which was much better than the efficiency of T-CTA. C-CTA also showed a much better sensitivity (90.00 vs. 27.69%), specificity (94.74 vs. 66.67%), and accuracy (91.07 vs. 36.69%), and a much lower false-positive (1.68 vs. 26.53%), and false-negative rate (10.00 vs. 72.31%). Moreover, C-CTA could accurately predict the origin and septocutaneous or intramuscular course in all identified perforators. All flaps were elevated successfully and survived.

Conclusion:  C-CTA outperforms T-CTA in the preoperative perforator mapping of ALT flaps in a subgroup of Chinese limb trauma patients. C-CTA should be the method of choice for perforator mapping in patients whose ALT flaps are intended for extremity reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1672129DOI Listing
March 2019

Drought-introduced variability of mesophyll conductance in Gossypium and its relationship with leaf anatomy.

Physiol Plant 2019 Jul 20;166(3):873-887. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

The Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, Xinjiang Production and Construction Group, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China.

Mesophyll conductance (g ) is one of the major determinants of photosynthetic rate, for which it has an impact on crop yield. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind the decline in g of cotton (Gossypium. spp) by drought are unclear. An upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) genotype and a pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense) genotype were used to determine the gas exchange parameters, leaf anatomical structure as well as aquaporin and carbonic anhydrase gene expression under well-watered and drought treatment conditions. In this study, the decrease of net photosynthetic rate (A ) under drought conditions was related to a decline in g and in stomatal conductance (g ). g and g coordinate with each other to ensure optimum state of CO diffusion and achieve the balance of water and CO demand in the process of photosynthesis. Meanwhile, mesophyll limitations to photosynthesis are equally important to the stomatal limitations. Considering g , its decline in cotton leaves under drought was mostly regulated by the chloroplast surface area exposed to leaf intercellular air spaces per leaf area (S /S) and might also be regulated by the expression of leaf CARBONIC ANHYDRASE (CA1). Meanwhile, cotton leaves can minimize the decrease in g under drought by maintaining cell wall thickness (T ). Our results indicated that modification of chloroplasts might be a target trait in future attempts to improve cotton drought tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.12845DOI Listing
July 2019

Pancreatic primitive neuroectodermal tumor: Focus on radiological features and differential diagnosis - A case report and literature review.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Sep;14(Supplement):S793-S795

Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, Hunan, P.R. China.

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is an exceedingly rare type of malignant tumor. The diagnosis of pancreatic PNET is usually challenging for radiologists and surgeons, especially when an accurate preoperative diagnosis is needed. Herein, we report a case of a 36-year-old patient with a mass diagnosed as PNET in the head of the pancreas and present a literature review. Compared to previous literature reports, there were some imaging features observed by computed tomography (CT) in our case that might be helpful for a relatively accurate preoperative diagnosis. PNET should be considered preoperatively for soft-tissue neoplasms of the pancreas when the diagnosis of more common pancreatic tumors is not favored by signs in CT, especially in pediatric and adolescent populations. This case is the 20th case of pancreatic PNET reported in literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.189399DOI Listing
September 2018

Renal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma: computed tomography findings and clinicopathologic features.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2019 02;44(2):642-651

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

Purpose: To retrospectively characterize the clinical, pathological, and computed tomography (CT) findings of renal solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (rSFT/HPC).

Methods: Twelve patients with rSFT/HPCs were enrolled. The CT findings and clinicopathological features were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: This study included six male and six female patients (median age: 47; age range: 20-82 years). Eight benign (grade I) and four malignant (grade III) rSFT/HPCs were identified. Of the 12 lesions, 10 were in the renal sinus near the renal pelvis, while two replaced the whole kidney. Five lesions were well-defined, five were partially ill-defined, and two were ill-defined. Mild (5/12) and intermediate (1/12) hydronephrosis was observed. On the unenhanced CT images, ten tumors showed slightly higher density when compared to the normal renal parenchyma, and two masses were isodense to hypodense. After intravenous contrast medium injection, three enhancement patterns were observed, including "prolonged enhancement" (PE) (6/12), "gradual enhancement" (4/12), and "early washout" (2/12). A central fibrous scar was found in five patients. Compared to the grade I lesions, the grade III rSFT/HPC lesions tended to be larger (maximal diameter > 10 cm) and more heterogeneous with a higher incidence of the PE pattern.

Conclusions: We have shown that rSFT/HPCs usually arise from the renal sinus, and present as lobulated, slightly hyperdense, gradually enhancing soft tissue masses. CT findings, including large size, heterogeneity, and the PE pattern, may assist in the pre-operative identification of malignant grade III rSFT/HPCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-018-1777-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Hydrodynamic investigation of a novel shear-generating device for the measurement of anchorage-dependent cell adhesion intensity.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2018 Sep 13;41(9):1371-1382. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Key Laboratory of High Magnetic Field and Ion Beam Physical Biology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1138, Comprehensive Laboratory Building, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei, 230031, Anhui, People's Republic of China.

Proliferation of anchorage-dependent cells occurs after adhesion to a suitable surface. Thus, quantitative information about the force of cells adhesion to microcarriers at early culture phases is vital for scaling up such system. In this work, a newly designed shear-generating device was proposed, based on a previously proposed contraction flow device designed for suspended cells. A design equation for the new device was also proposed to correlate the generated energy dissipation rate (EDR) with the cross-sectional area and flow rate. Microscopic-particle image velocimetry was measured to validate the simulation results, and good agreement was achieved. The newly designed device was then used to measure the adhesion force of MDCK and PK cells, and the results showed that the critical EDR was 3000 W/m for MDCK and 5000 W/m for PK cells. This quantitative information is of great value for better understanding shearing effects during the scaling up of anchorage-dependent cell cultures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-018-1964-6DOI Listing
September 2018
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