Publications by authors named "Xiaoping Xu"

249 Publications

Engineering a Smart Agent for Enhanced Immunotherapy Effect by Simultaneously Blocking PD-L1 and CTLA-4.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Sep 2:e2102500. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Combinations of immune checkpoint therapies show encouraging results in the treatment of many human cancers. However, the higher costs and greater side effects of such combinations compared with single-agent immunotherapies limit their further applications. In this work, a novel smart agent, [email protected] F-ZIF-8, is developed to overcome these limitations. KN046 is a novel recombinant humanized PD-L1/CTLA-4 bispecific single-domain antibody-Fc fusion protein, which can bind to both PD-L1 and CTLA-4 effectively. ZIF-8 is a smart delivery system, which can safely and effectively deliver KN406 to a tumor. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that the smart agent [email protected] F-ZIF-8 not only improves the immune response rate of the antibody drug in treatment of tumors but also reduces its toxic side effects, thereby achieving excellent antitumor efficacy. This study provides an engineering strategy for clinical applications of a more effective immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202102500DOI Listing
September 2021

Diverging from News Media: An Exploratory Study on the Changing Dynamics between Media and Public Attention on Cancer in China from 2011-2020.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 13;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

College of Media and International Culture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Over the past decade, China has witnessed fast-paced technological advancements in the media industry, as well as major shifts in the health agenda portrayed in the media. Therefore, a key starting point when discussing health communication lies in whether media attention and public attention towards health issues are structurally aligned, and to what extent the news media guides public attention. Based on data mined from 73,060 sets of the Baidu Search Index and Media Index on 20 terms covering different types of cancer from 2011 to 2020, the Granger test demonstrates that, in the last decade, public attention and media attention towards cancer in China has gone through two distinct phases. During the first phase, 2011-2015, Chinese news media still held the key in transferring the salience of issues on most cancer types to the public. In the second phase, from 2016-2020, public attention towards cancer has gradually diverged from media coverage, mirroring the imbalance and mismatch between the demand of active public and the supply of cancer information from news media. This study provides an overview of the dynamic transition on cancer issues in China over a ten-year span, along with descriptive results on public and media attention towards specific cancer types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391632PMC
August 2021

The H, N and C resonance assignments of the C-terminal domain of Serpine mRNA binding protein 1 (SERBP1).

Biomol NMR Assign 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Biochemistry and Structural Biology, and Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 8403 Floyd Curl Dr., San Antonio, TX, 78229, USA.

SERBP1 is a multifunctional mRNA-binding protein that has been shown to play a regulatory role in a number of biological processes such as thrombosis, DNA damage repair, and the cellular response to nutrient deprivation. Additionally, SERBP1 is upregulated in glioblastoma, leukemia as well as liver, prostrate and ovarian cancers where it has been implicated in metastatic disease and poor patient outcomes. SERBP1 binds target mRNA, stabilizing and regulating the post-translational expression of the transcript. Since SERBP1 lacks canonical RNA-binding motifs such as RRM domains or zinc fingers, its target recognition and binding mechanisms are not well understood. Recent reports suggest that it is capable of recognizing both RNA sequence motifs and structured domains. Here we report the production and purification of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of SERBP1, the assignment of the H, C, N backbone resonances of the protein by solution-state NMR, and secondary structure predictions. We show that the protein is not entirely disordered and identify an α-helix that was stable under the experimental conditions. This work is the first step toward understanding the structural basis underpinning the molecular mechanisms of SERBP1 functions, particularly interactions with mRNA targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12104-021-10046-3DOI Listing
August 2021

Design and Methodology of a Multi-Centre Clinical Trial of Low Dose Laser Cycloplasty for the Treatment of Malignant Glaucoma in China.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2021 Aug 25:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Glaucoma, The Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang Eye Hospital, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Purpose: To summarize the design and methodology of a trial designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of low dose laser cycloplasty (LCP) in treating malignant glaucoma.

Methods: Prospective, multicentre, non-controlled clinical trial. Subjects were recruited from eight ophthalmic centers in China. The target sample size was 34. Patients aged >18 years with a clinical diagnosis of malignant glaucoma inadequately controlled on medical therapy or malignant glaucoma recurrence after topical cycloplegics withdrawal were enrolled. All patients underwent LCP under retrobulbar anesthesia or sub-Tenon anesthesia. LCP is a treatment adopting few laser points (1100-2000 mW energy, 2000 milliseconds duration) that cauterizes and remodels the ciliary body over two clock hour-positions, which may relieve the ciliary ring block. Follow-up is planned for a period of 12 months. The primary outcome is the resolution of malignant glaucoma which is defined as central anterior chamber deepening after LCP.

Conclusion: The Malignant Glaucoma Treatment trial (MGTT) will be the first prospective trial providing evidence of a treatment for malignant glaucoma. It intends to provide clinicians an optional, easy and convenient treatment for malignant glaucoma patients. Detailed morphological and biometric information collected during the study period will also help provide experience for the outcomes of malignant glaucoma.

Trial Registration Number: ChiCTR1800017960.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2021.1966809DOI Listing
August 2021

Faciogenital dysplasia 5 confers the cancer stem cell-like traits of gastric cancer cells through enhancing Sox2 protein stability.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Internal Medicine-Cardiovascular, The First People's Hospital of Yuhang District, Hangzhou, China.

The promoting roles of faciogenital dysplasia 5 (FGD5) in tumor progression have been identified in various tumors, however, its roles in gastric cancer progression are still confusing. Currently, it was found that FGD5 was highly expressed in gastric cancer tissues and negatively correlated with different types of survival of gastric cancer patients via online dataset analysis. In vitro analysis of different types of gastric cancer cell lines and normal gastric epithelial cells obtained a consistent result. Then FGD5 was knocked down in gastric cancer cell lines through two independent siRNAs against FGD5 and it was identified that FGD5 knockdown suppressed the cancer stem cell (CSC)-like traits of gastric cancer cells through analyzing the expression of CSC markers, ALDH1 activity and spheroid-formation ability. Further mechanistic studies revealed that FGD5 interacted with Sox2 protein, a critical regulator of CSC progression, enhanced Sox2 protein stability and decreased its ubquitination. Additionally, FGD5 supported the CSC-like traits dependent on Sox2 expression. Taken together, this work identified a novel FGD5/Sox2 axis responsible for the CSC-like traits of gastric cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23355DOI Listing
August 2021

Small-cell lung cancer transformation from EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma after EGFR-TKIs resistance: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Aug;100(32):e26911

Department of Infectious Disease, Xiaoshan Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Rationale: With the recent advancements in molecular biology research, epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have emerged as excellent therapies for patients with EGFR-mutant cancers. However, these patients inevitably develop cross-acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Transformation to small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is considered a rare resistance mechanism against EGFR-TKI therapy. Here, we report a case of TKI resistance due to SCLC transformation and demonstrate its mechanisms and clinical features.

Patient Concerns: A 54-year-old Chinese man with a history of smoking for 40 years complained of an intermittent cough in March 2019.

Diagnosis: Transbronchial lung biopsy was performed on the basal segment of the left lower lobe, which confirmed lung adenocarcinoma. In January 2020, repeat biopsy was performed, and the results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining showed TTF-1 (+), CK7 (+), napsin A (+), syn (+), and CD56 (+), with a Ki-67 (+) index 80% of small cell carcinomas. Infiltrating adenocarcinomas and small cell carcinomas were observed.

Interventions: Icotinib (125 mg thrice daily) was administered as a first-line treatment from June 2019. We subsequently administered a chemotherapy regimen consisting of etoposide (180 mg, days 1-3) plus cisplatin (45 mg, days 1-3) every 3 weeks for 1 cycle after recurrence. As the patient could not tolerate further chemotherapy, he continued taking icotinib orally and received whole-brain radiotherapy 10 times to a total dose of 30 Gy after brain metastases.

Outcomes: The patient relapsed after successful treatment with icotinib for 9 months. A partial response was achieved after 4 cycles of chemotherapy, and despite the brief success of chemotherapy, our patient exhibited brain metastasis and metastases of the eleventh thoracic spine and the second lumbar vertebra with pathological fracture. The patient eventually died of aggressive cancer progression.

Lessons: Our case highlights the possibility of SCLC transformation from EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma and the importance of repeat biopsy for drug resistance. Serum neuron-specific enolase levels may also be useful for detecting early SCLC transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360407PMC
August 2021

Influencing factors and necessity of post-vaccination serologic testing follow-up for HBsAg-positive mothers and their infants: A 5-year prospective study in Zhejiang Province, China (2016-2020).

J Viral Hepat 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China.

In 2016, China officially proposed for the first time that infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers should be tested for HBsAg and anti-HBs 1-2 months after their third dose of HepB, also known as the post-vaccination serological testing programme. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the implementation and influencing factors of PVST to further reduce HBV infection risk in infants and improve the protective effect of HepB to the greatest extent. A prospective observational study was conducted to investigate the interruption of MTCT of hepatitis B. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to explore factors associated with the PVST follow-up rate among HBsAg-positive mothers and their infants. Additionally, bivariate analysis was performed on HBsAg and anti-HBs results in infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Here, the participation rate of PVST was 67.08% among 2120 pairs of positive mothers and infants. The HBsAg-positive rate among participants was 0.77%, whereas the anti-HBs positive rate was 96.84%, and both negative rates were 2.39%. Among infants with double negative results (34), only 15 completed three doses of HepB and PVST again, and 14 (93.33%) of which the antibody test results turned positive. Older mothers with high educational levels who reside in the local area were the most likely to PVST follow-up. The PVST programme is necessary to evaluate the HepB response status of newborns after vaccination. Moreover, revaccination for susceptible infants can effectively improve the MTCT-blocking rate of hepatitis B. Therefore, the scope of PVST projects in Zhejiang and China should be expanded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13581DOI Listing
July 2021

miR-511-3p promotes hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome by activating hedgehog pathway via targeting Ptch1.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 09 21;321(3):G344-G354. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, People's Republic of China.

As a major complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the incidence of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) is as high as 70%. Previous evidence has demonstrated that miR-511-3p was involved in HSOS, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study aims to examine the mechanism underlying miR-511-3p regulating HSOS. Monocrotaline (MCT) was used to create an HSOS rat model and to treat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs). Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and Masson staining were used to detect pathological changes in liver tissue. The expression of miR-511-3p and Hedgehog pathway-related proteins was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The effect of miR-511-3p in regulating HSOS was investigated by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo-2)-3,5-diphenytetrazoliumromide (MTT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay, and flow cytometry. Finally, the interaction between miR-511-3p and patched1 (Ptch1) was determined by luciferase reporter assay. The rats showed a typical HSOS phenotype, including LSEC damage, liver injury, and fibrosis after MCT administration. miR-511-3p was upregulated in hepatic tissue of rat HSOS model and MCT-induced LSECs. miR-511-3p directly targeted Ptch1 and suppressed Ptch1 expression to activate the Hedgehog signaling pathway. Depletion of miR-511-3p showed a protective effect against MCT-induced HSOS, as evidenced by decreased HSOS pathogenesis factors, matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 1 β (IL-1β), and decreased LSEC apoptosis rates. Nevertheless, knockdown of Ptch1 reversed the protective effect of miR-511-3p depletion against MCT-induced LSEC injury and apoptosis. miR-511-3p aggravates HSOS by activating the Hedgehog signaling pathway through targeting Ptch1, and miR-511-3p may develop as the potential therapy for the treatment of HSOS. miR-511-3p is upregulated in HSOS in vivo and in vitro models. miR-511-3p activates the Hedgehog pathway by directly targeting Ptch1. Knockdown of miR-511-3p shows a protective effect against LSEC injury and apoptosis via Hedgehog signaling pathway. Inhibition of Ptch1 reserves the effect of miR-511-3p knockdown on LSEC damage and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00081.2021DOI Listing
September 2021

Prognostic Value of and Its Correlation With Immune Infiltrates in Gliomas.

Front Genet 2021 16;12:679097. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second People's Hospital of Yibin, Yibin, China.

Accumulating evidence has revealed that dysregulated lncRNA expression contributes to the onset and progression of cancer. However, the mechanistic role of lncRNA in glioma progression and tumor immunology remains largely unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of maternally expressed gene 3 () in the prognosis of and its immune-related roles in gliomas. The expression levels of were analyzed using Oncomine and TIMER database. As an important imprinted gene, the copy number variation (CNV) of in both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and low-grade glioma (LGG) were analyzed using GSCALite database, whereas its prognostic significance was assessed using PrognoScan and GEPIA databases. The relationship between and tumor-infiltrated immune cells was analyzed using TIMER. Results showed that expression was lower in most of the human cancer tissues than in the normal tissues. We also found that heterozygous deletion of occurred more frequent than heterozygous amplification in gliomas, and mRNA expression of was significantly positively correlated with its CNV in both the GBM and LGG group. Survival analysis showed that the CNV level of had significant correlation with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) compared with wild type in LGG. Lower expression was related with poor prognosis. Further analysis showed that in GBM, expression level was significantly positively correlated with that of infiltrating CD8 T cells and significantly negatively correlated with that of infiltrating dendritic cells. In LGG, expression level was significantly negatively correlated with levels of infiltrating B cells, CD8 T cells, CD4 T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells. Univariate Cox survival analysis demonstrated that only the level of infiltrating dendritic cells significantly affected the survival time of patients with GBM, while all six types of immune cells had a significant effect on the survival time of patients with LGG. Furthermore, expression showed strong correlations with multiple immune markers in gliomas, especially in LGG. The current findings suggest that expression might serve as a possible prognostic marker and potential immunotherapeutic target for gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.679097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242350PMC
June 2021

Novel magnetically separable tetrahedral AgPO/NrGO/CuFeO photocatalyst for efficient detoxification of 2,4-dichlorophenol.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 15;201:111519. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu, 241000, PR China; College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing, 210098, PR China.

An effective as well as eco-friendly photodegradation methods by atoxic and easily reusable photocatalysts are essential for wastewater treatment. Silver phosphate (AgPO) specifically in tetrahedral shape is one of the superior catalysts under visible light but its photocorrosion, poor electron transfer ability and low surface adsorption properties limits its applications. Combination of AgPO and nitrogen doped reduced graphene oxide (NrGO) having higher in surface area, ample functional groups and hetero atom doping is expected to get over the problem. Further addition of a spinel ferrite (CuFeO) could enhance the visible light response activity and helps in easy separation of catalyst for reuse. Given the merits of AgPO, NrGO and CuFeO we rationally integrated a novel magnetically separable stable AgPO/NrGO/CuFeO photocatalyst for efficient detoxification of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). About 95.3% degradation efficiency was achieved by AgPO/NrGO/CuFeO (k = 0.01978 min) which was ~2.6 times higher than pure AgPO (k = 0.00747 min) in 60 min of visible light irradiation. The AgPO/NrGO/CuFeO heterojunction was able to separate and recycle easily using an external magnetic field due to its strong magnetism, and after 5 recycles it showed 88.6% of degradation efficiency revealed its higher stability and recyclability. The photocatalytic mechanism of AgPO/NrGO/CuFeO was explained by heterojunction energy-band theory. In addition, the plausible intermediate products of 2,4-dichlorophenol were analyzed by ESI/LC-MS and proposed the pathway. Moreover, the phytotoxicity was also studied on V. radiata in which GI (germination index) was found to be 11.97% before degradation, while 80.31% of GI was observed in 60 min of degradation which revealed that more significant reduction in toxicity was attained on this photodegradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111519DOI Listing
June 2021

The epigenetic regulator LSH maintains fork protection and genomic stability via MacroH2A deposition and RAD51 filament formation.

Nat Commun 2021 06 10;12(1):3520. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Epigenetics Section, Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, USA.

The Immunodeficiency Centromeric Instability Facial Anomalies (ICF) 4 syndrome is caused by mutations in LSH/HELLS, a chromatin remodeler promoting incorporation of histone variant macroH2A. Here, we demonstrate that LSH depletion results in degradation of nascent DNA at stalled replication forks and the generation of genomic instability. The protection of stalled forks is mediated by macroH2A, whose knockdown mimics LSH depletion and whose overexpression rescues nascent DNA degradation. LSH or macroH2A deficiency leads to an impairment of RAD51 loading, a factor that prevents MRE11 and EXO1 mediated nascent DNA degradation. The defect in RAD51 loading is linked to a disbalance of BRCA1 and 53BP1 accumulation at stalled forks. This is associated with perturbed histone modifications, including abnormal H4K20 methylation that is critical for BRCA1 enrichment and 53BP1 exclusion. Altogether, our results illuminate the mechanism underlying a human syndrome and reveal a critical role of LSH mediated chromatin remodeling in genomic stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23809-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192551PMC
June 2021

USP28 promotes aerobic glycolysis of colorectal cancer by increasing stability of FOXC1.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 06 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Anorectal Surgery, First People's Hospital of Yuhang District, Hangzhou, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 311100, P.R. China.

Aerobic glycolysis is essential for cancer cell metabolism and growth. Deubiquitinase, USP28 (ubiquitin specific peptidase 28), could maintain stability of proteins involved in tumor progression. This study was performed to investigate the role of USP28 in aerobic glycolysis of colorectal cancer. Our data showed that USP28 mRNA and protein expressions were enhanced in colorectal cancer tissues and cells. Functional assays demonstrated that overexpression of USP28 promoted cell proliferation and aerobic glycolysis of colorectal cancer, while USP28 inhibition could reverse these effects. Protein expression of Forkhead Box C1 (FOXC1) was increased by USP28 over-expression, whereas knockdown of USP28 aggravated cycloheximide (CHX; protein synthesis inhibitor) stimulated decrease of FOXC1. Moreover, proteasome inhibitor, MG132, could rescue USP28 silence-induced degradation of FOXC1. Overexpression of FOXC1 counteracted the suppressive effects of USP28 interference on colorectal cancer cell viability and aerobic glycolysis. In conclusion, USP28 enhanced cell viability and aerobic glycolysis of colorectal cancer by stabilizing FOXC1, suggesting that USP28-FOXC1 might be a novel therapeutic avenue for colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/abp.2020_5504DOI Listing
June 2021

The Construction of DNA Logic Gates Restricted to Certain Live Cells Based on the Structure Programmability and Aptamer-Cell Affinity of G-Quadruplexes.

Chemistry 2021 Aug 25;27(45):11627-11632. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, P.R. China.

DNA computation is considered a fascinating alternative to silicon-based computers; it has evoked substantial attention and made rapid advances. Besides realizing versatile functions, implementing spatiotemporal control of logic operations, especially at the cellular level, is also of great significance to the development of DNA computation. However, developing simple and efficient methods to restrict DNA logic gates performing in live cells is still a challenge. In this work, a series of DNA logic gates was designed by taking full advantage of the diversity and programmability of the G-quadruplex (G4) structure. More importantly, by further using the high affinity and specific endocytosis of cells to aptamer G4, an INHIBIT logic gate has been realized whose operational site is precisely restricted to specific live cells. The design strategy might have great potential in the field of molecular computation and smart bio-applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202100913DOI Listing
August 2021

Using a safe and effective fixative to improve the immunofluorescence staining of bacteria.

Methods Appl Fluoresc 2021 Apr 26;9(3). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, People's Republic of China.

The emerging and development of green chemistry has once again drawn the researchers' attention to eliminating the use and generation of hazardous materials. Here we report the use of a safe and effective fixative, chlorine dioxide (ClO), instead of traditional hazardous fixatives for the cross-linking of cellular proteins to improve immunofluorescence staining of bacteria. The concentration of ClOneeded for 100% fixation is 50g ml, which is much lower than that of traditional fixatives (1000-10000g ml). The ClOmediated cross-linking can preserve the integrity of bacterial cells and prevent cell loss through lysis. Meanwhile, lysozyme can permeabilize the bacterial cells, allowing the labelled antibodies to diffuse to their intracellular target molecules. By usingO157:H7/RP4 as a gram-negative bacteria model, immunofluorescence staining assays for both intracellular protein and surface polysaccharide were carried out to investigate the effect of ClOfixation on the staining. The results demonstrated that ClOfixation could prevent the target antigens from cracking off the bacteria without damage on the interaction between the antibodies and antigens (either for polysaccharide or protein). As a safe and effective fixative, ClOhas potential practical applications in immunofluorescence staining and fluorescencehybridization for single bacteria/cell analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2050-6120/abf81eDOI Listing
April 2021

Development and validation of an individualized nomogram for early prediction of the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding in COVID-19 patients with non-severe disease.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Apr;22(4):318-329

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310016, China.

With the number of cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) increasing rapidly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that patients with mild or moderate symptoms could be released from quarantine without nucleic acid retesting, and self-isolate in the community. This may pose a potential virus transmission risk. We aimed to develop a nomogram to predict the duration of viral shedding for individual COVID-19 patients. This retrospective multicentric study enrolled 135 patients as a training cohort and 102 patients as a validation cohort. Significant factors associated with the duration of viral shedding were identified by multivariate Cox modeling in the training cohort and combined to develop a nomogram to predict the probability of viral shedding at 9, 13, 17, and 21 d after admission. The nomogram was validated in the validation cohort and evaluated by concordance index (C-index), area under the curve (AUC), and calibration curve. A higher absolute lymphocyte count (=0.001) and lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (=0.013) were correlated with a shorter duration of viral shedding, while a longer activated partial thromboplastin time (=0.007) prolonged the viral shedding duration. The C-indices of the nomogram were 0.732 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.685‒0.777) in the training cohort and 0.703 (95% CI: 0.642‒0.764) in the validation cohort. The AUC showed a good discriminative ability (training cohort: 0.879, 0.762, 0.738, and 0.715 for 9, 13, 17, and 21 d; validation cohort: 0.855, 0.758, 0.728, and 0.706 for 9, 13, 17, and 21 d), and calibration curves were consistent between outcomes and predictions in both cohorts. A predictive nomogram for viral shedding duration based on three easily accessible factors was developed to help estimate appropriate self-isolation time for patients with mild or moderate symptoms, and to control virus transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042531PMC
April 2021

Combination of Tc-Labeled PSMA-SPECT/CT and Diffusion-Weighted MRI in the Prediction of Early Response After Carbon Ion Therapy in Prostate Cancer: A Non-Randomized Prospective Pilot Study.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 3;13:2191-2199. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of Tc-labeled PSMA-SPECT/CT and diffusion-weighted image (DWI) for predicting treatment response after carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) in prostate cancer.

Patients And Methods: We prospectively registered 26 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with CIRT. All patients underwent Tc-labeled PSMA-SPECT/CT and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after CIRT. The tumor/background ratio (TBR) and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured on the tumor and the percentage changes before and after therapy (ΔTBR and ΔADC) were calculated. Patients were divided into two groups: good response and poor response according to clinical follow-up.

Results: The median follow up time was 38.3months. The TBR was significantly decreased (=0.001), while the ADC was significantly increased compared with the pretreatment value (<0.001). The ΔTBR and ΔADC were negatively correlated with each other ( = 0.002). On ROC curve analysis for predicting treatment response, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of ΔTBR (0.867) for predicting good response was higher than that of ΔADC (0.819). The AUC of combined with ΔTBR and ΔADC (0.895) was higher than that of either ΔADC or ΔTBR alone. The combined use of ΔTBR and ΔADC showed 91.4% sensitivity and 95.2% specificity.

Conclusion: Our preliminary data indicate that the changes of TBR and ADC maybe an early bio-marker for predicting prognosis after CIRT in localized prostate cancer patients. In addition, the ΔTBR seems to be a more powerful prognostic factor than ΔADC in prostate cancer treated with CIRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S285167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937376PMC
March 2021

Molecular evolution and expression analysis of ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) from longan embryogenic callus.

Gene 2021 Apr 28;777:145461. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Institute of Horticultural Biotechnology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, PR China. Electronic address:

ADP-ribosylation modification considered as a model to study histone post-translational modification in chromatin modification. Despite it was reported in many plants, the study of ARFs gene family in longan was still unclear. In this study, 14 longan ARFs genes were identified using the longan genome (the third-generation genome) and further divided into two major groups, including the DlARF in the I-II group and the ARF-like (DlARL) in the III-V group, according to their structure and evolutionary characteristics. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) and segmental duplication events played a major role in the expansion of the DlARFs gene family, the synteny and phylogenetic analyses provided a deeper insight into the evolutionary characteristics of the DlARFs. Protein-protein interactions suggested that some DlARFs proteins may interact to participate in biological processes. Promoter analysis showed more stress response elements in DlARF5, DlGB1, DlARL1, DlARL2, and DlARL8a, suggesting that they may participate in abiotic stress. Expression profiles of DlARFs by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that they were abundant accumulation during early somatic embryogenesis (SE). Expression pattern analysis of RNA-seq and qRT-PCR revealed that some ARFs members regulated early SE, and respond to exogenous hormones and abiotic stress such as abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellin A3 (GA3), salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), cold, and heat. Our study provides new insights for further research on the potential function of DlARFs, which may be useful for the improvement of longan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145461DOI Listing
April 2021

Chronic Effects of Bromate on Sexual Reproduction of Freshwater Rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Feb 20;106(2):270-277. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu, 241000, Anhui, China.

The effects of potassium bromate (KBrO), sodium bromate (NaBrO), and potassium bromide (KBr) on the sexual reproduction of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were studied by 2-d population growth, 4-d sexual reproduction, and 7-d resting egg production tests. The results showed that low concentrations of bromate promote 2-d and 4-d rotifer population growth, while high concentrations limit it. Bromate stress significantly affected parameters of rotifer sexual reproduction, including the ratio of mictic to amictic females, the mictic rate of rotifers, and the fertilization rate of mictic females. KBrO at 0.001, 0.01, 1, and 10 mg/L, NaBrO at 1 and 10 mg/L, and KBr at 100 and 200 mg/L significantly increased resting egg production, while KBrO at 100 and 200 mg/L, and NaBrO at 200 mg/L significantly decreased it. Resting egg production appears to provide a sensitive endpoint in evaluating the effect of bromate on rotifer sexual reproduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03103-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Genome-wide identification and characterization of DEAD-box helicase family associated with early somatic embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Mar-Apr;258-259:153364. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Institute of Horticultural Biotechnology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. Electronic address:

DEAD-box (DDX) proteins belong to the largest subfamily of RNA helicase SF2, which contributes to all biological processes of RNA metabolism in the plant kingdom. Till now, no significant data are available regarding studies on DDX in Somatic Embryogenesis (SE) of woody plants. It is important to investigate the biological function of the DlDDX family in longan SE. Thus, a comprehensive analysis of 58 longan DEAD-box (DlDDX) genes characterization was performed by genome-wide identification and transcript abundance validation analysis. Homologous evolution has revealed that some DlDDXs in longan had high sequence similarity with Mus musculus, Citrus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating that DlDDXs were highly conservative in the animal, plant, and microorganism. Remarkably, gene duplication, purifying selection, and alternative splicing events, and new auxiliary domains have likely contributed to the functional evolution of DlDDX, indicating that DlDDX appeared neofunctionalization in longan. Besides, DlDDX3, 15, 28, 36 might interact with protein complex (MAC3A, MAC3B, CDC5, CBP20) of miRNA biosynthesis. Notably, DlDDX28 contained a novel auxiliary domain (CAF-1 p150), which might contribute to DNA demethylation in longan early SE. 4 DlDDX genes significantly expressed not only in early SE and zygotic embryogenesis (ZE) but also up-regulated at high levels in 'Honghezi' and 'Quanlongbaihe' with abortive seeds, which are of great significance. Moreover, some DlDDXs presented abiotic stress-response dynamic expression patterns by ABA, SA, JA, and NaCl treatments during early SE. Hence, DEAD-box is essential to SE development and seed abortive in longan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2021.153364DOI Listing
June 2021

Case report: 2 cases of cardiac arrest caused by rhino-cardiac reflex while disinfecting nasal cavity before endonasal transsphenoidal endoscopic pituitary surgery.

BMC Anesthesiol 2021 01 13;21(1):18. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Xiangya Hospital Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, China.

Background: Trigeminal-cardiac reflex (TCR) is a brainstem vagus reflex that occurs when any center or peripheral branch of the trigeminal nerve was stimulated or operated on. The typical clinical manifestation is sudden bradycardia with or without blood pressure decline. The rhino-cardiac reflex which is one type of TCR is rare in clinical practice. As the rhino-cardiac reflex caused by disinfection of the nasal cavity is very rare, we report these two cases to remind other anesthesiologists to be vigilant to this situation.

Case Presentation: This case report describes two cases of cardiac arrest caused by rhino-cardiac reflex while disinfecting nasal cavity before endoscopic transsphenoidal removal of pituitary adenomas. Their heart rate all dropped suddenly at the very moment of nasal stimulation and recovered quickly after stimulation was stopped and the administration of drugs or cardiac support.

Conclusion: Although the occurrence of rhino-cardiac reflex is rare, we should pay attention to it in clinical anesthesia. It is necessary to know the risk factors for preventing it. Once it occurs, we should take active and effective rescue measures to avoid serious complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-021-01240-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805189PMC
January 2021

Identification of a Human Whole Blood-Based Endothelial Cell Impedance Assay for Assessing Clinical Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Target Engagement Ex Vivo.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2021 03 29;376(3):436-443. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, Pennsylvania

Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels expressed on pulmonary endothelial cells are activated by elevated pulmonary vascular pressure, resulting in endothelial shape change, pulmonary barrier disruption, and edema. As such, TRPV4 blocker GSK2798745 was recently investigated in phase I/IIa trials to reduce pulmonary edema caused by heart failure (HF). In the absence of a suitable TRPV4 target engagement biomarker, we hypothesized that an ex vivo assay could be used to predict pharmacological activity at the intended site of action (endothelial cells) of subjects. In this assay, the ability of GSK2798745 to block TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790-induced impendence reduction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the presence of human whole blood was assessed. Blood from healthy volunteers drawn 1-12 hours after single or repeated dose of GSK2798745 (5 mg) inhibited GSK1016790-induced impedance reduction by ≥85%. Similarly, blood samples from 16 subjects with HF dosed with GSK2798745 (2.4 mg) inhibited GSK1016790-induced HUVEC impedance reduction by ≥58% 1-24 hours after single dosing and ≥78% 1-24 hours after 7 days of repeated dosing. No inhibition was detected using blood from placebo subjects. Using matched GSK2798745 plasma levels, a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship was calculated as 2.9 nM IC, consistent with the 6.5 nM IC of GSK2798745 obtained from a rat in vivo PK/PD model of pulmonary edema after correcting for rat-to-human differences. These results indicate that circulating levels of GSK2798745 in the recently completed phase I/IIa trials were sufficient to block TRPV4 in lung vascular endothelial cells to a large extent, supporting this dosing regimen for assessing efficacy in HF. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: In the absence of a suitable target engagement biomarker, we developed an ex vivo assay to predict the pharmacological activity of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) blocker GSK2798745 in healthy volunteers and subjects with heart failure (HF) from phase I/IIa trials. The potency values from the ex vivo assay were consistent with those predicted from a rat in vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of pulmonary edema, strongly suggesting that circulating levels of GSK2798745 were sufficient to robustly block TRPV4, supporting use of GSK2798745 for assessing efficacy in HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.120.000307DOI Listing
March 2021

A nomogram to early predict isolation length for non-severe COVID-19 patients based on laboratory investigation: A multicenter retrospective study in Zhejiang Province, China.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Jan 3;512:49-57. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Majority coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are classified as mild and moderate (non-severe) diseases. We aim to develop a model to predict isolation length for non-severe patients.

Methods: Among 188 non-severe patients, 96 patients were enrolled as training cohort to identify factors associated with isolation length via Cox regression model and develop a nomogram. Other 92 patients formed as validation cohort to validate nomogram. Concordance index (C-index), area under the curve (AUC) and calibration curves were used to evaluated nomogram.

Results: Increasing absolute eosinophil count (AEC) after admission was correlated with shorter isolation length (P = 0.02). Baseline activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) > 30 s was correlated with longer isolation length (P = 0.03). A nomogram to predict isolation probability at 11-, 16- and 21-day was developed and validated. The C-indices of training and validation cohort were 0.604 and 0.682 respectively. Both cohorts showed a good discriminative ability (AUC, 11-day: 0.646 vs 0.730; 16-day: 0.663 vs 0.750; 21-day: 0.711 vs 0.783; respectively) and calibration power.

Conclusions: Baseline APTT and dynamic change of AEC were two significant factors associated with isolation length of non-severe patients. Nomogram could predict isolation probability for each patient to estimate appropriate quarantine length.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.11.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836550PMC
January 2021

Dual Tracers of 16α-[18F]fluoro-17β-Estradiol and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose for Prediction of Progression-Free Survival After Fulvestrant Therapy in Patients With HR+/HER2- Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2020 29;10:580277. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to employ dual tracers 16α-[18F]fluoro-17β-estradiol (F-FES) and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) as imaging biomarkers in predicting progression-free survival (PFS) in ER-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients receiving fulvestrant therapy.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 35 HR+HER2- MBC patients who underwent F-FES and F-FDG PET/CT scans prior to fulvestrant therapy in our center. The SUVmax across all metastatic lesions on the PET/CT were assessed. The heterogeneity of ER expression was assigned by the presence of any F-FES negative lesions for patients with entirely F-FES positive lesions categorized into two groups by the median ratio of FES/FDG SUVmax, low FES/FDG, and high FES/FDG. PFS were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model.

Results: In total, 12 patients had both F-FES negative and positive lesions, indicating the heterogeneity of ER expression in metastatic lesions. These patients had a low median PFS of 5.5 months (95% CI 2.3-8.7). Of patients with entirely F-FES positive lesions, 11 had a low FES/FDG, and 12 had a high FES/FDG. These groups had a median PFS of 29.4 months (95% CI 2.3-56.5) and 14.7 months (95% CI 10.9-18.5), respectively. The patients were stratified in three categories based on incorporating both F-FES and F-FDG imaging results that were significantly correlated with PFS by univariate analysis ( < 0.001) and multivariate analysis ( = 0.006).

Conclusion: F-FES and F-FDG PET could serve as prognostic imaging biomarkers for ER-positive MBC patients treated with fulvestrant therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.580277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673439PMC
October 2020

Study on the anti-infection ability of vancomycin cationic liposome combined with polylactide fracture internal fixator.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 9;167:834-844. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Pharmacology, Shantou University Medical College, 22 Xin Ling Road, Shantou, Guangdong 515041, China. Electronic address:

A polylactide composite fracture fixator loaded with vancomycin cationic liposome ([email protected]) was prepared by reverse evaporation method. The method of cationic liposome encapsulating vancomycin could effectively improve antibacterial property and achieve drug sustained release effect, so as to reduce toxicity of antibiotics in vivo. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe morphology and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to detect the composition of the internal fixator. In vitro drug release model, in vitro degradation model and body fluid osteogenesis model were designed in this study. On the other hand, the experiments of inhibition zone and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts in mice were conducted to explore antibacterial property, cell activity and adhesion of the [email protected] composite internal fixator. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining method and alizarin red assay were used to detect the osteogenic induction ability of the composite internal fixator. Finally, mice fracture models were established to verify osteogenic and anti-infection abilities of the composite internal fixator in vivo. The results showed that MC3T3-E1 cells had better adhesion and proliferation abilities on the [email protected] composite internal fixator than on the PLA fixator, which indicated that the [email protected] composite internal fixator possessed excellent osteogenic and anti-infection abilities both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, the above experiments showed that the fracture internal fixator combined with vancomycin cationic liposome had better biocompatibility, antibacterial ability and osteogenic ability, which provides a promising anti-infection material for the clinical field of fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.11.039DOI Listing
January 2021

Nidogen 1-Enriched Extracellular Vesicles Facilitate Extrahepatic Metastasis of Liver Cancer by Activating Pulmonary Fibroblasts to Secrete Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Nov 19;7(21):2002157. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Pathology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine The University of Hong Kong Hong Kong.

In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with extrahepatic metastasis, the lung is the most frequent site of metastasis. However, how the lung microenvironment favors disseminated cells remains unclear. Here, it is found that nidogen 1 (NID1) in metastatic HCC cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) promotes pre-metastatic niche formation in the lung by enhancing angiogenesis and pulmonary endothelial permeability to facilitate colonization of tumor cells and extrahepatic metastasis. EV-NID1 also activates fibroblasts, which secrete tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), facilitate lung colonization of tumor cells, and augment HCC cell growth and motility. Administration of anti-TNFR1 antibody effectively diminishes lung metastasis induced by the metastatic HCC cell-derived EVs in mice. In the clinical perspective, analysis of serum EV-NID1 and TNFR1 in HCC patients reveals their positive correlation and association with tumor stages suggesting the potential of these molecules as noninvasive biomarkers for the early detection of HCC. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the interplay of HCC EVs and activated fibroblasts in pre-metastatic niche formation and how blockage of their functions inhibits distant metastasis to the lungs. This study offers promise for the new direction of HCC treatment by targeting oncogenic EV components and their mediated pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7640351PMC
November 2020

LSH mediates gene repression through macroH2A deposition.

Nat Commun 2020 11 6;11(1):5647. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, 21702, USA.

The human Immunodeficiency Centromeric Instability Facial Anomalies (ICF) 4 syndrome is a severe disease with increased mortality caused by mutation in the LSH gene. Although LSH belongs to a family of chromatin remodeling proteins, it remains unknown how LSH mediates its function on chromatin in vivo. Here, we use chemical-induced proximity to rapidly recruit LSH to an engineered locus and find that LSH specifically induces macroH2A1.2 and macroH2A2 deposition in an ATP-dependent manner. Tethering of LSH induces transcriptional repression and silencing is dependent on macroH2A deposition. Loss of LSH decreases macroH2A enrichment at repeat sequences and results in transcriptional reactivation. Likewise, reduction of macroH2A by siRNA interference mimicks transcriptional reactivation. ChIP-seq analysis confirmed that LSH is a major regulator of genome-wide macroH2A distribution. Tethering of ICF4 mutations fails to induce macroH2A deposition and ICF4 patient cells display reduced macroH2A deposition and transcriptional reactivation supporting a pathogenic role for altered marcoH2A deposition. We propose that LSH is a major chromatin modulator of the histone variant macroH2A and that its ability to insert marcoH2A into chromatin and transcriptionally silence is disturbed in the ICF4 syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19159-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648012PMC
November 2020

Author Correction: Evaluation of Radiation dosimetry of Tc-HYNIC-PSMA and imaging in prostate cancer.

Sci Rep 2020 Oct 23;10(1):18494. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Ion-Beam Application (MOE), Fudan University, No. 220, Handan Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200433, China.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74851-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584582PMC
October 2020

The effect of vascular risk factor burden on the severity of COVID-19 illness, a retrospective cohort study.

Respir Res 2020 Sep 21;21(1):241. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities are at high risk of poor outcome from COVID-19. However, how the burden (number) of vascular risk factors influences the risk of severe COVID-19 disease remains unresolved. Our aim was to investigate the association of severe COVID-19 illness with vascular risk factor burden.

Methods: We included 164 (61.8 ± 13.6 years) patients with COVID-19 in this retrospective study. We compared the difference in clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and chest computed tomography (CT) findings between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 illness. We evaluated the association between the number of vascular risk factors and the development of severe COVID-19 disease, using a Cox regression model.

Results: Sixteen (9.8%) patients had no vascular risk factors; 38 (23.2%) had 1; 58 (35.4%) had 2; 34 (20.7%) had 3; and 18 (10.9%) had ≥4 risk factors. Twenty-nine patients (17.7%) experienced severe COVID-19 disease with a median (14 [7-27] days) duration between onset to developing severe COVID-19 disease, an event rate of 4.47 per 1000-patient days (95%CI 3.10-6.43). Kaplan-Meier curves showed a gradual increase in the risk of severe COVID-19 illness (log-rank P < 0.001) stratified by the number of vascular risk factors. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities as potential confounders, vascular risk factor burden remained associated with an increasing risk of severe COVID-19 illness.

Conclusions: Patients with increasing vascular risk factor burden have an increasing risk of severe COVID-19 disease, and this population might benefit from specific COVID-19 prevention (e.g., self-isolation) and early hospital treatment measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01510-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503438PMC
September 2020

Clinical course and risk factors for recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA: a retrospective cohort study from Wuhan, China.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 Sep 10;12(17):16675-16689. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Naval Medical Center of PLA, Shanghai 200052, People’s Republic of China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The objective of this study was to determine the clinical course and risk factors for patients showing recurrent SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity. A total of 1087 COVID-19 patients confirmed by RT-PCR from February 24, 2020 to March 31, 2020 were retrospectively enrolled. Advanced age was significantly associated with mortality. In addition, 81 (7.6%) of the discharged patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA during the isolation period. For patients with recurrent RT-PCR positivity, the median duration from illness onset to recurrence was 50 days. Multivariate regression analysis identified elevated serum IL-6, increased lymphocyte counts and CT imaging features of lung consolidation during hospitalization as the independent risk factors of recurrence. We hypothesized that the balance between immune response and virus toxicity may be the underlying mechanism of this phenomenon. For patients with a high risk of recurrence, a prolonged observation and additional preventative measures should be implemented for at least 50 days after illness onset to prevent future outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7521537PMC
September 2020

The superiority of [Ga]-FAPI-04 over [F]-FDG PET/CT in imaging metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 04 28;48(4):1248-1249. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-04997-3DOI Listing
April 2021
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