Publications by authors named "Xiaoping Diao"

48 Publications

Relationships between above- and below-ground carbon stocks in mangrove forests facilitate better estimation of total mangrove blue carbon.

Carbon Balance Manag 2021 Mar 17;16(1). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Ministry of Education, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084,, China.

Background: Although great efforts have been made to quantify mangrove carbon stocks, accurate estimations of below-ground carbon stocks remain unreliable. In this study, we examined the distribution patterns of mangrove carbon stocks in China and other countries using our own field survey data and datasets from published literature. Based on these data, we investigated the possible relationships between above-ground carbon stock (AGC) and below-ground carbon stock (BGC) for mangrove forests, aiming to provide a scientific basis for estimation of total mangrove carbon stocks.

Results: The average above-ground carbon stock in each region was sizeable (ranging from 12.0 to 150.2 Mg/ha), but average below-ground carbon stock was dominant (ranging from 46.6 to 388.6 Mg/ha), accounting for 69-91% of total carbon stock at the sites studied in China. Significant positive relationships were found between above-ground and below-ground mangrove carbon stocks, with the best fitting equation as BGC = 1.58 * AGC + 81.06 (Mg/ha, R = 0.62, p < 0.01, n = 122) for China. Such linear relationships vary for mangrove forests of different types and locations, from different geographical regions in China to other countries worldwide.

Conclusion: The positive relationship we found between above- and below-ground carbon stocks of mangrove forests in China and worldwide can facilitate more accurate assessments of mangrove blue carbon stocks at regional or global scales using modern techniques including remote sensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13021-021-00172-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972349PMC
March 2021

Diverse and abundant antibiotic resistance genes in mangrove area and their relationship with bacterial communities - A study in Hainan Island, China.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 8;276:116704. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

College of Life Science, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants in the environment and have been highlighted as a worldwide environmental and health concern. As important participants in the biogeochemical cycles, mangrove ecosystems are subject to various anthropogenic disturbances, and its microbiota may be affected by various contaminants such as ARGs. This study selected 13 transects of mangrove-covered areas in Hainan, China for sediment sample collection. The abundance and diversity of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were investigated using high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (HT-qPCR), and high-throughput sequencing was used to study microbial structure and diversity. A total of 179 ARGs belonging to 9 ARG types were detected in the study area, and the detection rates of vanXD and vatE-01 were 100%. The abundance of ARGs was 8.30 × 10-6.88 × 10 copies per g sediment (1.27 × 10-3.39 × 10 copies per 16S rRNA gene), which was higher than similar studies, and there were differences in the abundance of ARGs in these sampling transects. The multidrug resistance genes (MRGs) accounted for the highest proportion (69.0%), which indicates that the contamination of ARGs in the study area was very complicated. The ARGs significantly positively correlated with MGEs, which showed that the high level of ARGs was related to its self-enhancement. The dominant bacteria at the genus level were Desulfococcus, Clostridium, Rhodoplanes, Bacillus, Vibrio, Enterococcus, Sedimentibacter, Pseudoalteromonas, Paracoccus, Oscillospira, Mariprofundus, Sulfurimonas, Aminobacterium, and Novosphingobium. There was a significant positive correlation between 133 bacterial genera and some ARGs. Chthoniobacter, Flavisolibacter, Formivibrio, Kaistia, Moryella, MSBL3, Perlucidibaca, and Zhouia were the main potential hosts of ARGs in the sediments of Hainan mangrove area, and many of these bacteria are important participants in biogeochemical cycles. The results contribute to our understanding of the distribution and potential hosts of ARGs and provide a scientific basis for the protection and management of Hainan mangrove ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116704DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparison of three palm tree peroxidases expressed by Escherichia coli: Uniqueness of African oil palm peroxidase.

Protein Expr Purif 2021 Mar 7;179:105806. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, 96822, USA. Electronic address:

Palm tree peroxidase has greater catalytic activity, stability and broad application prospects in comparison with horseradish peroxidase. However, slow growth, ecological destruction and high costs prohibit isolation of native peroxidases directly from palm trees. Bioreactor production of palm tree peroxidases would therefore be preferred to overcome such production limitations. Comparison of different recombinant glycan-free palm tree peroxidases would allow understanding the criticality of total glycans to the functions and characteristics. In the present study, African oil palm tree peroxidase expressed by Escherichia coli showed similar stability and 30-100-fold greater activity than that of recombinant royal palm tree peroxidases, but both of their comprehensive indexes were superior to the commercial, native horseradish peroxidase. Recombinant Chamaerops excelsa peroxidase showed no activity possibly due to incorrect protein folding. The results confirmed that recombinant expression by E. coli is potentially an effective means to obtain a mass of palm peroxidases with high activity and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2020.105806DOI Listing
March 2021

Both environmental and spatial variables affect bacterial functional diversity in mangrove sediments at an island scale.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 31;753:142054. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, People's Republic of China; School of Biology, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Sediment microorganisms are influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. However, information concerning the spatial factors that determine the functional diversity of sediment bacterial communities at an island scale is limited. Here, we conducted an island-scale study to assess the driving forces governing the functional diversity of sediment bacterial communities in different mangroves around the coast of Hainan Island, southern China. For mangrove sediments in Hainan Island, differences in the metabolic activity and functional diversity among four sites were context dependent, while that showed a trend of East > North > West > South. Furthermore, total carbon, nitrite nitrogen, and salinity are important environmental factors that determine the metabolic functional diversity of bacterial communities. This study also provided important insights for explaining the metabolic functional diversity of bacterial communities in tropical mangrove sediments. The metabolic activity had a significantly response to environmental variables (13.2% of pure variance was explained) and spatial variables (12.4%). More importantly, given that spatial variables may contribute to the bacterial functional as important as environmental variables, this spatial variety of bacterial functional provides new insight into studying bacterial functional biogeographic patterns and impacts on sediment-associated function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142054DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparative study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) in corals, sediments and seawater from coral reefs of Hainan, China.

Environ Pollut 2020 Sep 8;264:114719. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Environmental Resources and Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Taiwan, China.

This work investigated levels of PAHs and HMs in fourteen species from seven genera of scleractinian corals, adjacent sediments, and surface seawater in Hainan, China. The sources of contaminations were analyzed as well. The results showed that scleractinian corals had a relatively higher bioaccumulation capacity for PAHs from sediments than for HMs. There were inter-species differences for these contaminants enriched in corals. Pavona varians and Porites lutea could accumulate PAHs more readily. While higher concentrations of Cr, Mn and Pb occurred in Favites flexuosa, other metal levels, such as for Ni, Cu, Zn and As, were found to be elevated in Pocillopora damicornis, as well as for Cd in Acropora echinata. It was found that PAHs originated from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources, and were mainly linked to onshore and on-sea activities, such as motorboats. Mn, Ni, As and Cd were from crustal materials or natural weathering, while Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb were non-crustal origin connecting with the use of anti-fouling boat paint and agricultural and/or aquacultural chemicals. This study suggested that corals could serve as good bioindicators for two types of chemical pollution in the reef system, especially for the two species P. varians and P. lutea for PAHs contaminants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114719DOI Listing
September 2020

Organ-differential responses to ethanol and kynurenic acid, a component of alcoholic beverages in gene transcription.

Gene 2020 May 1;737:144434. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. Electronic address:

Excessive alcohol (ethanol) use has long been known to affect human health negatively. However, the underlying molecular basis is incompletely understood. Moreover, consumption of alcohol is often mixed with kynurenic acid (KYNA), an abundant tryptophan metabolite produced during fermentation. The combined effect of ethanol and KYNA on host gene expression has not been investigated. The current study used mice as the model to interrogate the impact of ethanol and/or KYNA on global gene transcription. Adult male mice were administered with 2 g/kg ethanol and/or 0.1 mg/kg KYNA by gavage once a day for a week. Three organs: brain, kidney, and liver were collected and their total RNAs extracted for transcriptome sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR. Gene ontology, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes, and genomes pathway analyses revealed that alcohol affects the three organs differentially. Furthermore, the gene expression profile from alcohol and KYNA co-administration was significantly different from that of alcohol or KYNA administration alone. Strikingly, Indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan metabolism, was significantly increased in the brain after a combined exposure of alcohol and KYNA, suggesting that Trp metabolism was skewed towards the kynurenine pathway in the brain. Our systemic analysis provides new insights into the mechanism whereby alcohol and KYNA affects organ functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.144434DOI Listing
May 2020

Occurrence and potential health risks assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different tissues of bivalves from Hainan Island, China.

Food Chem Toxicol 2020 Feb 31;136:111108. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

College of Ecology and Environment, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China; State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China; School of Biology, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China. Electronic address:

The levels of 16 PAHs were determined in the adductor, gills, gonads, hepatopancreas and mantles of the pearl oyster (Pinctada martensii) and the mussel (Perna viridis) collected from coasts of Li'an and Xincun Bays. The levels of ΣPAHs ranged from 597.1 to 2332 ng g d w in the various tissues of bivalves. The pyrolytic source played an important role in the local coastal environment. Significantly higher levels of M-PAHs and H-PAHs were observed in Pinctada martensii than in Perna viridis. The ΣPAHs at different tissues showed the following order from high to low: mantles > hepatopancreas > gonads > gills > adductor. When levels of individual PAHs in the five bivalve tissues have been compared with each other, high correlations have been found (r = 0.793-0.975). A general trend was observed that log transformed BSAFs declined with increase of K values. The estimated amount of ΣPAHs via ingestion of oyster and mussel varied from 1.35 × 10-1.70 × 10 and 2.15 × 10-1.91 × 10 μg kg body weight day, respectively. The THQs and CRs calculated for regular consumption of raw bivalves were in the acceptable ranges and may not pose health risk concerns. But for certain population with higher consumption rate for PAHs contaminated bivalves, cautions should be taken for their higher cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.111108DOI Listing
February 2020

Unusual tin organics, DDX and PAHs as specific pollutants from dockyard work in an industrialized port area in China.

Chemosphere 2020 Mar 16;243:125284. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstrasse 4-20, Aachen, 52056, Germany. Electronic address:

In order to recognize organic contaminants responsible for ecological stresses from intensive shipping traffic and dockyard works, this study aimed at characterizing the sediment contamination of a large industrialized port located in Hainan Island, China. Surface sediment samples were collected from 17 stations including the main docks, the dockyards and the major industrial wastewater outlets. Organotin compounds, the pesticide DDT (bis(chlorophenyl)trichloroethane) and its metabolites and polycyclic aromatic compounds were identified as main pollutant groups by GC/MS applying a non-target screening approach. The pesticide DDT and its metabolites were found in the same samples as the organotin derivatives pointing to similar emission sources. The concurrent presence of these compounds in the dockyard samples suggests a combined usage of organotin compounds and DDT as active ingredients in antifouling paints in Yangpu. As highly specific molecular indicators for dockyard activities, butyltin and phenyltin compounds were identified. Noteworthy, also tributylmethyltin and triphenylmethyltin were detected, likely resulting from microbial assisted biomethylation of synthetic organotin compounds in the sediments. The concentrations of PAHs, DDX and TBT in sediments from dockyards exceeded global sediment quality guidelines and the toxicity thresholds, and potentially have adverse biological effects on marine organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125284DOI Listing
March 2020

The impact of acute benzo(a)pyrene on antioxidant enzyme and stress-related genes in tropical stony corals (Acropora spp.).

Sci Total Environ 2019 Dec 25;694:133474. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

State Key Laboratory of South China Sea Marine Resource Utilisation, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; College of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; College of Life Science, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158, China. Electronic address:

Coral reefs have extremely high ecological value in tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. However, they have been subjected to the most extensive and prolonged damage in recent decades. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous hazardous pollutants and are highly resistant to degradation in marine environments. Among these compounds, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) has exerted pressure on corals due to water discharges, oil spills and coastal tourism. In the present study, the physiological response, oxidative stress and stress-related genetic expressions of two Acropora spp. (Acropora formosa and Acropora nasuta) were analysed. These two coral species were exposed to 10 and 40 μg·L BaP for 24 hand 72 h, respectively. The results show that (1) BaP affects the health of the zooxanthellae in coral symbiosis after BaP exposure for 72 h due to a significant decline in chlorophyll a concentrations in Acropora spp. during this period. (2) An exposure of 10 μg·L BaP for 24 h induced serious oxidative damage to Acropora spp., with a significant decline and increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in A. formosa and A. nasuta. (3) The P-gp gene is more sensitive in A. formosa, while the Hsp70 gene is more sensitive in A. nasuta. (4) A. formosa showed a lower ability to resist organic pollutants in coral reefs. Overall, further ecotoxicological studies are needed to investigate the impact of chemical pollutants on corals and to compare their different response mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.07.280DOI Listing
December 2019

Transcriptomic responses of regenerating earthworms (Eisenia foetida) to retinoic acid reveals the role of pluripotency genes.

Chemosphere 2019 Jul 20;226:47-59. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China; College of Life Science, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China. Electronic address:

Exogenous retinoic acid (RA) delays and disturbs the regeneration of Eisenia foetida and inhibits the expression of pluripotent gene Sox2. However, studies of E. foetida conducted at the molecular level have been unable to elucidate its regeneration and mechanisms of RA effects on its regeneration. We merged existing transcriptomic data for E. foetida to generate a high-confidence set of transcriptomes. The de novo assembly of transcriptomes was performed by using the Trinity method, and functional annotations were analysed. We performed RNA-seq on four samples of regenerating tail fragments, three across a time-course (0, 3 and 7 days post amputation) and the fourth sample exposed to RA (7 days post amputation). E. foetida regeneration genes underwent significant upregulation and downregulation over the examined time periods, which may have been caused by a shared regulatory programme controlled by multiple gene families. The inhibition of RA against earthworm regeneration is likely related to the expression of these genes. Using annotation data and clustering, we also identified specific transcripts of 6 gene superfamilies enriched among genes exhibiting differential expression during regeneration periods and exhibiting the same expression patterns as those of the Sox2 gene. The regeneration transcriptome of tail fragment regeneration serves as a strong resource for investigating global expression changes that occur during regeneration and the toxicity of RA. This study offers insight for better understanding the regeneration of lower animals and molecular mechanisms of RA toxicity in invertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.111DOI Listing
July 2019

Effects of earthworms and effective microorganisms on the composting of sewage sludge with cassava dregs in the tropics.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2019 06 20;69(6):710-716. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

a Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University , Haikou , People's Republic of China.

The present study revealed the role of earthworm-effective microorganisms (EM) in converting sewage sludge and cassava dregs into a valuable product. Sewage sludge was toxic to earthworm, therefore it was mixed with cassava dregs in 80:20 proportions (dry weight). Treatments included mixed substrate inoculated versus not inoculated with EM and treated with or without earthworms. The pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and C:N ratio decreased from the initial measurements in the range of 17.43-18.46%, 25.48-33.82%, 19.60-25.37%, and 6.68-14.05% respectively; but electrical conductivity and available phosphorus increased in the range of 113.47-158.16% and 42.42-57.58%, respectively. In addition, they interactively increased total phosphorus from 19.84-63.01% and potassium from 16.41-50.78%, and decreased the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content of substrate from 21.17% to 32.14% with an increase in earthworms from 51.71 to 57.69, respectively. Earthworms and EM could be used together as an efficient method for co-composting sewage sludge plus cassava dregs in the tropics. This could be expected to result in stabilization of waste, increase in nutrients, and reduction of pollutant content. : The first reports of interaction of earthworms and effective microorganisms in the treatment of sewage sludge and cassava dregs in the tropics. Co-composting was an efficient technology for treating sewage sludge and cassava dregs at the same time, in the tropics. The survival rate of the earthworms both> 95%, the highest number of cocoons (640.33) and hatchlings (4694.33) both in EW+EM (Earthworms added and EM inoculated) treatment. Earthworms and EM (Only EM inoculated) interactively increased total phosphorus and potassium content, and decreased the PAH content of substrate with increase in earthworms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2018.1552215DOI Listing
June 2019

Comparative study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) in corals, surrounding sediments and surface water at the Dazhou Island, China.

Chemosphere 2019 Mar 16;218:157-168. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China; Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in corals (Acropora sp.), surficial sediments, and surface seawater, and heavy metals (HMs) contents in corals and sediments from Dazhou Island, Hainan, China. Concentrations of PAHs in seawater and sediment seasonally ranged from 191.5 ng L to 587.7 ng L, and from 37.9 ng g to 233 ng g, while levels in corals were higher (185.2-545.0 ng g) compared to those found in sediments, demonstrating bioaccumulation of PAHs by corals. A similar seasonally variation of PAHs was observed in water/sediments and corals, and the proportions of low molecular weight PAHs (LPAHs) in seawater and corals were higher. Pyrolytic and petrogenic contaminations were identified to be the main sources of PAHs. Lower HMs concentrations were detected in corals (9.8-39.4 μg g) than in sediments (65.0-83.3 μg g), but HMs bioaccumulation still occurs in corals. Higher concentrations of HMs in sediment and corals were detected in March and December, especially Mn and Zn. Application of an enrichment factor showed that Cu in corals was delivered from non-crustal materials, and anthropogenic inputs were possibly the main sources. According to Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor, corals could strongly bioaccumulate LPAHs and Cd, and PAHs at a higher (p < 0.05) rate than HMs. There was a lack of correlation between the accumulation of PAHs and HMs in corals based on the cluster analysis. Dual hierarchical clustering analysis result revealed that feeding, instead of symbiosis, might be the main process responsible for the bioaccumulation of PAHs and HMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.063DOI Listing
March 2019

Phylogenetic diversity and antioxidant activities of culturable fungal endophytes associated with the mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa and R. mucronata in the South China Sea.

PLoS One 2018 13;13(6):e0197359. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, College of Material and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou, P. R. China.

Mangrove endophytic fungi can produce impressive quantities of metabolites with promising antioxidant activities that may be useful to humans as novel physiological agents. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity and antioxidant potential of 46 fungal endophytes derived from the mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa and R. mucronata from the South China Sea. The fungal isolates were identified using a combination of morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Seventeen genera belonging to 8 taxonomic orders of Ascomycota were discovered, specifically, Botryosphaeriales, Capnodiales, Diaporthales, Eurotiales, Glomerellales, Hypocreales, Pleosporales, and Xylariales. The most abundant fungal orders included Xylariales (35.49%) and Diaporthales (27.61%), which were predominantly represented by the culturable species Pestalotiopsis sp. (34.54%) and Diaporthe sp. (18.62%). The stems showed more frequent colonization and species diversity than the roots, leaves, hypocotyls, and flower tissues of the host plant. The antioxidant activities of all the isolated fungal extracts on four different culture media were assessed using improved 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) methods. A relatively high proportion (84.8%) of the isolates displayed antioxidant capacity (%RSA > 50%). Further research also provided the first evidence that HQD-6 could produce flufuran as a significant radical scavenger with IC50 values of 34.85±1.56 and 9.75±0.58 μg/mL, respectively. Our findings suggest that the utilization of a biotope such as that of the endophytic fungal community thriving on the mangrove plants R. stylosa and R. mucronata may be suitable for use as a sustainable resource for natural antioxidants.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0197359PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5999087PMC
December 2018

Tissue-specific metabolic responses of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Jun 7;131(Pt A):17-21. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is well known for its teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In this study, we applied metabolomics to investigate the tissue-specific metabolic responses of the Pinctada martensii digestive glands and gills after a short-duration exposure to BaP (1 μg/L and 10 μg/L). After 72 h of exposure to BaP, the majority of metabolite changes were related to osmolytes, energy metabolites, and amino acids. BaP (1 μg/L) accelerated energy deterioration and decreased osmotic regulation, while BaP (10 μg/L) disturbed energy metabolism and increased osmotic stress in the digestive glands. Both BaP doses disturbed osmotic regulation and energy metabolism in the gills. BaP also induced neurotoxicity in both tissues. These findings demonstrated that BaP exhibited tissue-specific metabolic responses in P. martensii. The difference in these metabolite responses between the digestive glands and gills might prove to be suitable biomarkers for indicating exposure to specific marine pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.03.057DOI Listing
June 2018

Transcriptional responses of Acropora hyacinthus embryo under the benzo(a)pyrene stress by deep sequencing.

Chemosphere 2018 Sep 24;206:387-397. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Tropical Island Ecology, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China. Electronic address:

Coral embryos are a critical and sensitive period for the early growth and development of coral. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is widely distributed in the ocean and has strong toxicity, but there is little information on the toxic effects to coral embryos exposed to this widespread environmental contaminant. Thus, in this study, we utilized the Illumina Hiseq™ 4000 platform to explore the gene response of Acropora hyacinthus embryos under the BaP stress. A total of 130,042 Unigenes were obtained and analyzed, and approximately 37.67% of those matched with sequences from four different species. In total, 2606 Unigenes were up-regulated, and 3872 Unigenes were down-regulated. After Gene Ontology (GO) annotation, the results show that the "cellular process" and "metabolic process" were leading in the category of biological processes, which the "binding" and "catalytic activity" were the most abundant subcategories in molecular function. Based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, the most differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were enriched, as well as down-regulated in the pathways of oxidative phosphorylation, metabolism of xenobiotics, immune-related genes, apoptosis and human disease genes. At the same time, 388,197 of Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and 6164 of Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were obtained, which can be served as the richer and more valuable SSRs molecular markers in the future. The results of this study can help to better understand the toxicological mechanism of coral embryo exposed to BaP, and it is also essential for the protection and restoration of coral reef ecosystem in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.04.149DOI Listing
September 2018

Changes of Ammonia-Metabolizing Enzyme Activity and Gene Expression of Two Strains in Shrimp Under Ammonia Stress.

Front Physiol 2018 23;9:211. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

Ammonia stress can inhibit the survival and growth, and even cause mortality of shrimp. In this study, ammonia-metabolizing enzyme activities and gene expression were compared between two strains of under different ammonia-N ([Formula: see text]) concentrations (3.4, 13.8, and 24.6 mg/L). The results showed that elevated ammonia concentrations mainly increased glutamine synthetase (GSase) activities while inhibiting transglutaminase (TGase) activities in the muscle of both strains. Thus, we concluded that could accelerate the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and [Formula: see text] to alleviate ammonia stress. Compared with the muscle, the hepatopancreas plays a major role in ammonia stress and might be a target tissue to respond to the ammonia stress. Compared to the control group, the treatment of high ammonia concentrations reduced the hepatopancreas TGase () gene expression and increased the gene expression rates of glutamate dehydrogenase-β (-β) and GSase () in both the muscle and the hepatopancreas of the two strains ( < 0.05). These genes (-β and ) in strain B were not only expressed earlier but also at levels higher than the expression range of strain A. At the gene level, strain B showed a more rapid and positive response than strain A. These data might help reveal the physiological responses mechanisms of shrimp adapt to ammonia stress and speed up the selective breeding process in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.00211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876294PMC
March 2018

An integrated metabolomic and proteomic study of toxic effects of Benzo[a]pyrene on gills of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Jul 21;156:330-336. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the most important polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are widely present in the marine environment. Because of its teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects on various organisms, the toxicity of BaP is of great concern. In this study, we focused on the toxic effects of BaP (1 µg/L and 10 µg/L) on gills of the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii using combined metabolomic and proteomic approaches. At the metabolome level, the high concentration of BaP mainly caused abnormal energy metabolism, osmotic regulation and immune response marked by significantly altered metabolites in gills. At the proteome level, both concentrations of BaP mainly induced signal transduction, transcription regulation, cell growth, stress response, and energy metabolism. Overall, the research demonstrated that the combination of proteomic and metabolomic approaches could provide a significant way to elucidate toxic effects of BaP on P. martensii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.03.040DOI Listing
July 2018

Comparative evaluation of five protocols for protein extraction from stony corals (Scleractinia) for proteomics.

Electrophoresis 2018 04 12;39(8):1062-1070. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

State Key Laboratory of South China Sea Marine Resource Utilization, Hainan University, Haikou, P. R. China.

Corals especially the reef-building species are very important to marine ecosystems. Proteomics has been used for researches on coral diseases, bleaching and responses to the environment change. A robust and versatile protein extraction protocol is required for coral proteomics. However, a comparative evaluation of different protein extraction protocols is still not available for proteomic analysis of stony corals. In the present study, five protocols were compared for protein extraction from stony corals. The five protocols were TRIzol, phenol-based extraction (PBE), trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone, glass bead-assisted extraction (GBAE) and a commercially available kit. PBE, TRIzol and the commercial kit were more robust for extracting proteins from stony corals. The protein extraction efficiency and repeatability, two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) were employed to evaluate the protocols. The results indicated that PBE protocol had the better protein extraction efficiency than the others. Protein extraction coverage varied among the procedures. Each protocol favored for certain proteins. Therefore, it is very important for coral proteomic analysis to select a suitable protein protocol upon the experimental design. In general, PBE protocol can be the first choice for extracting proteins from stony corals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201700436DOI Listing
April 2018

Occurrence and distribution of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater, sediments and corals from Hainan Island, China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 May 4;152:8-15. Epub 2018 Feb 4.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:

The levels of 16 US EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in corals, ambient seawater and sediments of Hainan Island, China, using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAHs (∑PAHs) concentrations ranged from 273.79 to 407.82ng/L in seawater. Besides, the concentrations of ∑PAHs in corals 333.88-727.03ng/g dw) were markedly (P < 0.05) higher than ambient sediments 67.29-196.99ng/g dw), demonstrating the bioaccumulation ability of PAHs by corals. The highest concentration of ∑PAHs was detected at site S2 in Pavona decussate, which also bore the highest ∑PAHs levels in both seawater and sediments. The massive corals were more enriched with PAHs than the branching corals. Although 2 and 3-ring PAHs were predominant and accounted for 69.27-80.46% of the ∑PAHs in corals and ambient environment, the levels of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4-6 ring) in corals also demonstrated their potential dangers for corals and organisms around coral reefs. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) refers to an index of the pollutant absorbed by aquatic organisms from the surrounding sediments. The poor correlation between log BSAF and log K (hydrophobicity) indicated that PAHs in corals maybe not bioaccumulate from the ambient sediments but through pathways like absorbing from seawater, symbiosis, and feeding. Based on our data, long-term ecological monitoring in typical coral reef ecosystems combined with ecotoxicological tests of PAHs on corals is necessary to determine the impacts of PAHs on coral reefs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.01.006DOI Listing
May 2018

Toxic responses of Sox2 gene in the regeneration of the earthworm Eisenia foetida exposed to Retnoic acid.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Jan 8;204:106-112. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:

Exogenous retinoic acid delays and disturbs the regeneration of Eisenia foetida. The stem cell pluripotency factor, Sox2, can play a crucial role in cell reprogramming and dedifferentiation. In this study, we compared the regeneration of Eisenia foetida in different segments after amputation and the effects of retinoic acid on the regeneration of different segments. The results showed that the regeneration speed of the head and tail was slightly faster than the middle part, and retinoic acid disrupted and delayed the regeneration of the earthworm. The qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that the expression of the Sox2 gene and Sox2 protein was highest on the seventh day in different segments (p<0.05). After treatment with retinoic acid, the expression level of the Sox2 gene and Sox2 protein was significantly reduced (p<0.05). The results indicated that the regeneration of earthworms and the formation of blastema are related to the expression of the Sox2 gene and protein. Retinoic acid delays and interferes with the regeneration of the earthworm by affecting the expression levels of the Sox2 gene and protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2017.12.001DOI Listing
January 2018

Kynurenine aminotransferase 3/glutamine transaminase L/cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2 is a major glutamine transaminase in the mouse kidney.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2016 Dec 21;8:234-241. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

Background: Kynurenine aminotransferase 3 (KAT3) catalyzes the transamination of Kynurenine to kynurenic acid, and is identical to cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 2 (CCBL2) and glutamine transaminase L (GTL). GTL was previously purified from the rat liver and considered as a liver type glutamine transaminase. However, because of the substrate overlap and high sequence similarity of KAT3 and KAT1, it was difficult to assay the specific activity of each KAT and to study the enzyme localization in animals.

Methods: KAT3 transcript and protein levels as well as enzyme activity in the liver and kidney were analyzed by regular reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real time RT-PCR, biochemical activity assays combined with a specific inhibition assay, and western blotting using a purified and a highly specific antibody, respectively.

Results: This study concerns the comparative biochemical characterization and localization of KAT 3 in the mouse. The results showed that KAT3 was present in both liver and kidney of the mouse, but was much more abundant in the kidney than in the liver. The mouse KAT3 is more efficient in transamination of glutamine with indo-3-pyruvate or oxaloacetate as amino group acceptor than the mouse KAT1.

Conclusions: Mouse KAT3 is a major glutamine transaminase in the kidney although it was named a liver type transaminase.

General Significance: Our data highlights KAT3 as a key enzyme for studying the nephrotoxic mechanism of some xenobiotics and the formation of chemopreventive compounds in the mouse kidney. This suggests tissue localizations of KAT3/GTL/CCBL2 in other animals may be carefully checked.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2016.09.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5613967PMC
December 2016

Toxic responses of Perna viridis hepatopancreas exposed to DDT, benzo(a)pyrene and their mixture uncovered by iTRAQ-based proteomics and NMR-based metabolomics.

Aquat Toxicol 2017 Nov 11;192:48-57. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China.

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are environmental estrogens (EEs) that are ubiquitous in the marine environment. In the present study, we integrated isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approaches to explore the toxic responses of green mussel hepatopancreas exposed to DDT (10μg/L), BaP (10μg/L) and their mixture. The metabolic responses indicated that BaP primarily disturbed energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in the hepatopancreas of the male green mussel P. viridis. Both DDT and the mixture of DDT and BaP perturbed the energy metabolism and osmotic regulation in P. viridis. The proteomic responses revealed that BaP affected the proteins involved in energy metabolism, material transformation, cytoskeleton, stress responses, reproduction and development in green mussels. DDT exposure could change the proteins involved in primary metabolism, stress responses, cytoskeleton and signal transduction. However, the mixture of DDT and BaP altered proteins associated with material and energy metabolism, stress responses, signal transduction, reproduction and development, cytoskeleton and apoptosis. This study showed that iTRAQ-based proteomic and NMR-based metabolomic approaches could effectively elucidate the essential molecular mechanism of disturbances in hepatopancreas function of green mussels exposed to environmental estrogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.09.010DOI Listing
November 2017

Dynamic responses of antioxidant enzymes in pearl oyster Pinctada martensii exposed to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP).

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Sep 20;54:184-190. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is recognized as one of the most ubiquitous contaminants in marine environments and causes adverse effects on the health of marine organisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of DEHP on the pearl oyster Pinctada martensii. The Pinctada martensii was exposed to 0.0, 0.5, 2, 8, or 32mgL DEHP for 7 and 10days using parameters of antioxidant. Antioxidant indicators included levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), peroxidase (POD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the gills and hepatopancreas of Pinctada martensii for 7 and 10days. Besides, we used the lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) of five enzyme activities in different tissues of Pinctada martensii for 7 and 10days to compare sensitivity. The results showed that the gills were more sensitive than the hepatopancreas of Pinctada martensii and that GSH activity in the gills and CAT activity in the hepatopancreas might be suitable biomarkers after 7days of DEHP exposure. After 10days of DEHP exposure, the GSH activity and CAT activity in the gills and SOD activity in the hepatopancreas could be regarded as biomarkers. Compared to the LOEC, GSH activity in the gills and CAT activity in the hepatopancreas after 7days of DEHP exposure were more sensitive than any other biomarkers. In addition, after 10days of DEHP exposure, GSH activity in the gills and hepatopancreas were much more sensitive than other activities. In conclusion, GSH activity demonstrated its potential to be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of DEHP pollution in the marine environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.07.009DOI Listing
September 2017

Differential gene responses in the embryo of the green mussel exposed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT).

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2017 Jul 18;6(4):477-486. Epub 2017 Apr 18.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea , Hainan University , Haikou 570228 , China.

The green-lipped mussel, , is considered to be an ideal indicator for marine environmental pollution. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), a typical persistent organic pollutant, is extensively distributed in marine environments. However, little is known about the toxic effects of DDT on the embryo of marine animals, particularly in marine bivalves. Using next-generation sequencing technology, we studied embryo after DDT stress at the transcriptome level. A total of 99 202 unigenes were obtained based on the 2383 bp of unigene N50. These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) participated in the various molecular pathways of biological effects, including oxidative stress, detoxification, innate immunity and neurobehavioral disease. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the mRNA expression of several genes identified by differential gene expression (DGE) analysis. The results indicated that DDT was in induced a dose-dependent manner in the embryo of , and most genes involved in oxidative stress and detoxification were up-regulated by DDT exposure; however, the immunity-related genes were down-regulated, except the genes involved in phagocytosis. Gene expression changes in embryo from provide a preliminary basis to better understand the molecular toxic response mechanisms of embryo to DDT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7tx00087aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6062083PMC
July 2017

Effects of pyrene exposure on immune response and oxidative stress in the pearl oyster, Pinctada martensii.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2017 Apr 20;63:237-244. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

State Key Laboratory of South China Sea Marine Resource Utilisation, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:

Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) commonly observed in aquatic ecosystems, which originates primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and the use of petroleum compounds. Pyrene can cause the immune disturbance and oxidative stress, result in immunotoxicity, DNA damage, reduce reproduction significantly, and induce behavioral changes. Marine bivalves are commonly used as bioindicators for marine pollution, and hemolymph is a metabolite transfer medium for PAH pollutant. However, the vital immune indicator responses of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii hemolymph exposed to pyrene is still unclear. Thus, the immunotoxic responses of pyrene on the hemolymph of the Pinctada martensii were investigated in this study. After exposure to pyrene for 7 days, the total number of hemocytes (THC), cell membrane stability (CMS), phagocytic activity (PA) and total glutathione (GSH) all decreased significantly. Pyrene also caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Median effective concentrations (EC) of pyrene on THC (4.5 μg L) and LPO (5.2 μg L) were lower than those for CMS (13.8 μg L), PA (12.1 μg L) and GSH (7.2 μg L), which indicates that THC and LPO were more sensitive. Additionally, a clear dose-effect relationship indicated that pyrene stimulated a marked immune response, as well as oxidative stress in P. martensii, which demonstrates the subtle effects of pyrene exposure on marine invertebrates and the potential associated risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2017.02.032DOI Listing
April 2017

Comparative Studies on the Toxicokinetics of Benzo[a]pyrene in Pinctada martensii and Perna viridis.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2017 May 11;98(5):649-655. Epub 2017 Feb 11.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Research on the kinetics of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) bioaccumulation in the clam Pinctada martensii and mussel Perna viridis showed that the initial rate of uptake was directly related to the PAH concentrations in the ambient environment. The uptake and depuration rate constants were different at the four B[a]P exposure levels, which indicated that the toxicokinetic rate constants mainly depended on the exposure levels of pollutants to the environment. In addition, the uptake rate constants of B[a]P were higher than the depuration rate constants in the entire experiment. The comparison demonstrated that mussels release B[a]P more rapidly than clams. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of B[a]P varied from 3335 to 12892 in the clam and 2373-6235 in the mussel. These findings on the bioaccumulation kinetics for petroleum hydrocarbons, in association with the critical body residue, will be valuable when choosing sensitive organisms to assess the potential ecotoxicological risk to the marine environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-016-2015-0DOI Listing
May 2017

Transcriptomic responses of Perna viridis embryo to Benzo(a)pyrene exposure elucidated by RNA sequencing.

Chemosphere 2016 Nov 11;163:125-132. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of South China Sea Marine Resource Utilization, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China; College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China; College of Environment and Plant Protection, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:

The green mussel Perna viridis is an ideal biomonitor to evaluate marine environmental pollution. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which is well known for the mutagenic and carcinogenic characteristics. However, the toxicological effects of BaP on Perna viridis embryo are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the embryo transcriptomic profile of Perna viridis treated with BaP via digital gene expression analysis. A total of 92,362,742 reads were produced from two groups (control and BaP exposure) by whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were used on all genes to determine the biological functions and processes. Genes involved in various molecular pathways of toxicological effects were enriched further. The differential expression genes (DEGs) were related to stress response, infectious disease and innate immunity. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) measured expressional levels of six genes confirmed through the DGE analysis. This study reveals that RNA-seq for transcriptome profiling of P. viridis embryo can better understand the embryo toxic effects of BaP. Furthermore, it also suggests that RNA-seq is a superior tool for generating novel and valuable information for revealing the toxic effects caused by BaP at transcriptional level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.07.091DOI Listing
November 2016

Comparative studies of hemolymph physiology response and HIF-1 expression in different strains of Litopenaeus vannamei under acute hypoxia.

Chemosphere 2016 Jun 24;153:198-204. Epub 2016 Mar 24.

College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Haikou Key Laboratory of Environment Toxicology, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:

Litopenaeus vannamei has a high commercial value and is the primary cultured shellfish species globally. In this study, we have compared the hemolymph physiological responses between two L. vannamei strains under acute hypoxia. The results showed that hemocyanin concentration (HC) of strain A6410 was significantly higher than strain Zhengda; Total hemocyte counts (THC) decreased significantly in both strains under hypoxic stress (p < 0.05). We also investigated the temporal and spatial variations of hypoxia inducible factors 1 (HIF-1) by qRT-PCR. The results showed that hypoxia for 12 h increased the expression levels of HIF-1α in tissues of muscle and gill from the two strains (p < 0.05). In the hepatopancreas, the expression levels of HIF-1 increased significantly in strain Zhengda and decreased significantly in strain A6410 (p < 0.05). No significant changes of HIF-1 expression were detected in the same tissues between the two strains under hypoxia for 6 h (p > 0.05), but in the gills and hepatopancreas under hypoxia for 12 h (p < 0.05). Additionally, the expression level of HIF-1 was higher in the strain Zhengda than A6410 in the same tissue under hypoxia for 12 h. It was indicated that the hypoxic tolerance of Litopenaeus vannamei was closely correlated with the expression level of HIF-1, and the higher expression level of HIF-1 to hypoxia, the lower tolerance to hypoxia in the early stage of hypoxia. These results can help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance and speed up the selective breeding process of hypoxia tolerance in L. vannamei.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.064DOI Listing
June 2016

Proteomic and metabolomic analysis on the toxicological effects of Benzo[a]pyrene in pearl oyster Pinctada martensii.

Aquat Toxicol 2016 Jun 11;175:81-9. Epub 2016 Mar 11.

College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Haikou Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is one of the typical toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are widely present in marine environment. BaP has diverse toxic effects, including teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic effects and so on, in various organisms. In this work, we focused on the differential proteomic and metabolomic responses in the digestive gland of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii exposed to two doses of BaP (1 and 10μg/L). Metabolic responses revealed that the high dose of BaP (10μg/L) mainly caused disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism in the digestive gland. Proteomic responses indicated that both doses of BaP induced disturbances in energy metabolism, cytoskeleton, cell injury, oxidative stress and signal transduction based on the differential proteomic biomarkers. Overall, these results demonstrated a number of potential biomarkers that were characterized by an integrated proteomic and metabolomic approach and provided a useful insight into the toxicological effects on pearl oyster P. martensii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.03.012DOI Listing
June 2016

Toxic effects of male Perna viridis gonad exposed to BaP, DDT and their mixture: A metabolomic and proteomic study of the underlying mechanism.

Toxicol Lett 2016 Jan 4;240(1):185-95. Epub 2015 Nov 4.

College of Agriculture, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, China; Haikou Key Laboratory of Environment Toxicology, Haikou 570228, China. Electronic address:

Benzo(a)pyrene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are typical persistent organic pollutants, and also the widespread environmental estrogens with known toxicity towards green mussels Perna viridis. In this study, the toxicological effects of BaP and DDT and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gonads using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy revealed that BaP did not show obvious metabolite changes in the gonad of male green mussel. DDT mainly caused some disturbance of osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by changing BCAAs, alanine, threonine, arginine, etc., unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, homarine and ATP at different levels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT mainly caused some disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differentially altering branched chain amino acids, glutamate, alanine, arginine, unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, 4-aminobutyrate, dimethylglycine, homarine and ATP. The results suggest that DDT alone may cause most of metabolites changes in the mixture exposed male mussel gonad, and the results also show that the male P. viridis gonad was more sensitive to DDT than BaP exposures. Proteomic study showed that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced signal transduction, oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, etc. in the male green mussel gonad; whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with signal transduction, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, cellular organization, energy metabolism, etc. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to cytoskeleton and cell structure, oxidative stress, cellular organization, etc. This research demonstrated that metabolomic and proteomic approaches could better elucidate the underlying mechanism of environmental pollutants gonad toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2015.10.031DOI Listing
January 2016