Publications by authors named "Xiaoming Li"

1,305 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hair Zidovudine Concentrations Predict Virologic Outcomes Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in China.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2022 3;16:1885-1896. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Unit of AIDS Prevention and Control, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Nanning, People's Republic of China.

Background: Hair antiretroviral concentrations are an objective and non-invasive measure of adherence to long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) and can further predict virologic outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH). Zidovudine, one of the mainstream antiretrovirals in China, has been verified to have high reliability in adherence assessment, especially for its hair concentrations. However, data are limited in its predicting virologic outcomes. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize whether hair zidovudine concentrations can predict virologic suppression among Chinese PLWH compared with hair lamivudine concentrations and two self-reported measures, the overall frequency of adherence behaviors and percentage adherence.

Methods: This cross-sectional study randomly recruited 564 PLWH currently treated with zidovudine, lamivudine, and other ART agents (efavirenz, nevirapine, or lopinavir/ritonavir) in Guangxi, China. Hair antiretroviral concentrations were determined using the LC-ESI-MS/MS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to estimate the optimal classification thresholds of hair concentrations of zidovudine and lamivudine, and the two self-reported measures. Based on those optimal classification thresholds, logistic regression was used to examine whether those four adherence measures can predict virologic suppression (HIV-1 RNA <200 copies/mL).

Results: ROC curves demonstrated good classification performance for association with virologic suppression of zidovudine with the optimal threshold at 58 pg/mg and lamivudine at 255 pg/mg but no self-reported measures. PLWH with hair zidovudine concentrations >58 pg/mg had an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 43.191 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.171‒183.418, < 0.001) for virologic suppression. Hair lamivudine concentrations were also associated with virologic suppression (aOR = 10.656, 95% CI = 3.670‒30.943, < 0.001). However, two self-reported measures did not predict virologic suppression (aORs = 1.157 and 2.488, s >0.149).

Conclusion: Hair zidovudine concentrations can be served as an alternative tool for clinically predicting virologic suppression among PLWH in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S371623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9357394PMC
August 2022

Progress in Behavioral Health Interventions for Children and Adolescents.

Pediatr Clin North Am 2022 Aug;69(4):xv-xvi

Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, 1512 Pendleton Street, Barnwell College, Suite #220, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2022.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9349664PMC
August 2022

Resilience-Based Intervention to Promote Mental and Behavioral Health in Children.

Pediatr Clin North Am 2022 Aug;69(4):795-805

South Carolina SmartState Center for Healthcare Quality, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA; Department of Health Promotion, Education, & Behavior, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

The resilience framework offers a powerful tool to study how individuals respond to adversity. Intervention efforts building on 40 years of resilience research show promise in promoting mental and behavioral health of children in the context of adversity. This paper provides an overview of resilience and resilience-based interventions on mental and behavioral health in children. The importance of understanding resilience through the lens of the socioecological systems theory is highlighted, and the potential benefit of multilevel interventions in promoting mental and behavioral health is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2022.04.009DOI Listing
August 2022

Integrated Analysis of Gene Expression and Methylation Data to Identify Potential Biomarkers Related to Atherosclerosis Onset.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 22;2022:5493051. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 250012 Shandong, China.

Atherosclerosis is a kind of chronic inflammatory cardiovascular disease. Epigenetic regulation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis. Our study was aimed at finding potential biomarkers associated with the occurrence of atherosclerosis. Two datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) analysis was performed on methylation data using CpGassoc package. The differential expression analysis was conducted on mRNA data using limma package. The GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) functional enrichment was done in clusterProfiler package. Finally, the logistic regression model was constructed using generalized linear model (glm) function. Between atherosclerotic vs. nonatherosclerotic samples, totally 4980 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites (annotated to 2860 genes) and 132 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to atherosclerosis were identified. The annotated 2860 genes and 132 DEGs were significantly enriched in 9 and 4 KEGG pathways and 289 and 132 GO terms, respectively. After cross-analysis, 6 crucial CpG sites were screened to build the model, including cg01187920, cg03422911, cg08018825, cg10967350, cg14473924, and cg25313204. The diagnostic model could reliably separate the atherosclerosis samples from nonatherosclerotic samples. In conclusion, the 6 CpG sites are probably potential diagnostic biomarkers for atherosclerosis, including cg01187920, cg03422911, cg08018825, cg10967350, cg14473924, and cg25313204.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5493051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338736PMC
August 2022

The Effect of Social Exclusion on Trust Among Youth Orphaned by HIV/AIDS: Evidence From an Event-Related Potentials Study.

Front Psychiatry 2022 14;13:898535. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Grounded in a follow-up study among children who lost one or both parents to HIV in central China in the early 2000s, we conducted an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment to explore the effect of social exclusion on trust and the corresponding neurophysiological mechanism among youth orphaned by HIV/AIDS ("AIDS orphans"). A sample of 31 AIDS orphans (26.16 ± 3.34 years old; 15 female) and 32 age and development status matched controls (25.02 ± 3.45 years old; 14 female) participated in the study. They were all assigned to play Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game that reliably induced social exclusion (15 orphans, 16 controls) and inclusion (16 orphans, 16 controls). Then, they played the Trust Game by taking the role of trustor with their electroencephalograms (EEGs) being recorded during the game. In the Trust Game, each participant was required to decide whether to trust their partners in over 150 trials (decision-making stage). The partner's reciprocation strategies were pre-programmed by the experimenter (with an overall reciprocating rate of 50%). All participants were provided with post-decision feedback about the outcome of their decisions (gain or loss of game points) in each trial (outcome evaluation stage). We analyzed their behavioral responses at the decision-making stage and ERP components at the outcome evaluation stage. Behavioral results showed that the proportion of orphans choosing trust was significantly higher than the controls, and the trust ratio of the orphan exclusion (OE) group was significantly higher than that of the orphan inclusion (OI) group, control exclusion (CE) group, and control inclusion (CI) group. Furthermore, the response time of the OE group was significantly shorter than that of other groups. ERP results indicated that the amplitude of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) in the OI group was significantly more negative than that in the CI group with loss feedback, while there was no significant difference between the OE and OI groups. Similarly, the P300 amplitudes following outcome feedback were larger in the CI group than that in the OI group with gain feedback and had no significant difference between OE and OI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.898535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329561PMC
July 2022

Apolipoprotein A4 Restricts Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis via SREBF1-Mediated Lipogenesis and Enhances IRS-PI3K-Akt Signaling.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2022 Jul 31:e2101034. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Biodiagnosis and Biotherapy, Precision Medical Institute, Institute of Digestive Diseases. The Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Western China Science & Technology Innovation Harbour, Xi'an, 710100, China.

Scope: Hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance (IR) are risk factors for many metabolic syndromes such as NAFLD and T2DM. ApoA4 improves glucose hemostasis by increasing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucose uptake via PI3K-Akt activation in adipocytes. However, whether ApoA4 has an effect on hepatic steatosis or IR remains unclear.

Methods And Results: ApoA4-knockout (KO) aggravates diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and IR in mice promoted by increased hepatic lipogenesis gene expression based on RNA-seq data. Conversely, liver-specific overexpression of ApoA4 via AAV-ApoA4 transduction reverses the effect in ApoA4-KO mice, accompanied by suppressed hepatic lipogenesis, increased lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation. Short-term treatment with recombinant ApoA4 protein improves glucose clearance and liver insulin sensitivity, and reduces hepatic lipogenesis gene expression in the absence of insulin. Moreover, in primary hepatocytes and a hepatic cell line, ApoA4 improves hepatic glucose uptake via IRS-PI3K-Akt signaling and decreases fat deposition and hepatic lipogenesis gene expression by inhibiting SREBF1 activity.

Conclusion: ApoA4 restricts hepatic steatosis by inhibiting SREBF1-mediated lipogenesis and improves insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake via IRS-PI3K-Akt signaling in the liver. These findings indicate that ApoA4 may serve as a therapeutic target for obesity-associated NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.202101034DOI Listing
July 2022

Comparing standard versus enhanced implementation of an evidence-based HIV prevention program among Bahamian sixth grade students: findings from nationwide implementation trials.

BMC Public Health 2022 07 29;22(1):1442. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Hackensack Meridian School of Medicine, 340 Kingsland, St., Nutley, NJ, 07110, USA.

Background: Effective implementation strategies are needed to address the challenges encountered by teachers in implementation of evidence-based HV prevention programs in schools. The current study: 1) compares implementation fidelity of Focus on Youth in the Caribbean (FOYC) plus Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together (CImPACT) intervention using enhanced implementation strategies (including biweekly monitoring/feedback and site-based mentoring) to those using more traditional approach (teacher training only); and 2) evaluates the impact of school coordinators' and mentors' performance on teachers' implementation fidelity and student outcomes.

Methods: Data from an enhanced implementation trial in 2019-2020, involving 24 government primary schools, 79 teachers, and 2252 students, were compared to data from a standard implementation trial in 2011-2012, involving 35 government primary schools, 110 teachers and 2811 students using mixed-effects modeling and structural equation modeling.

Findings: Teachers in the 2019-2020 trial taught more core activities (28.3 vs. 16.3, t = 10.80, P < 0.001) and sessions (7.2 vs. 4.4, t = 9.14, P < 0.001) than those participating in the 2011-2012 trial. Teachers taught > 80% of the intervention curriculum in 2019-2020 compared to 50% curriculum delivery in 2011-2012. Teachers who had a "very good" or "excellent" school coordinator in their schools taught more core activities than those who had a "satisfactory" school coordinator (30.4 vs. 29.6 vs. 22.3, F = 18.54, P < 0.001). Teachers who worked in a school which had a "very good" mentor, taught more core activities than those teachers who did not have a mentor or had only a "satisfactory" mentor (30.4 vs. 27.6; t = 2.96; p = 0.004). Teachers' confidence in implementing core activities, comfort level with the curriculum, attitudes towards sex education in schools, and perceived principal support were significantly related to increased self-efficacy, which in turn was related to teachers' implementation fidelity. The degree of implementation was significantly associated with improved student outcomes.

Implications/conclusion: An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention can achieve a high degree of implementation when delivered with enhanced implementation strategies and implementation monitoring. Future program implementers should consider the purposeful selection and training of school coordinators and mentors to support low-implementing teachers as a potentially important strategy when attempting to achieve high-quality implementation of school-based interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-13848-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334549PMC
July 2022

Rapamycin inhibits the progression of human acute myeloid leukemia by regulating the circ_0094100/miR-217/ATP1B1 axis.

Exp Hematol 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou Sichuan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2022.07.298DOI Listing
July 2022

Efficacy and Safety of Apatinib plus Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cancer: A Phase II Trial.

Biomed Res Int 2022 18;2022:4727407. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Anyang Tumor Hospital, The Affiliated Anyang Tumor Hospital of Henan University of Science and Technology, Henan Medical Key Laboratory of Precise Prevention and Treatment of Esophageal Cancer, Anyang, 455000, China.

Evidence for neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with targeted therapy for locally advanced esophageal squamous cancer (ESCC) is inadequate. We conducted a single-arm phase II trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apatinib combined with taxol and cisplatin (ATP) for locally advanced ESCC. All patients were cT3-4aN0-3 M0 (IIIb-IVa) stage, which were confirmed by histopathology. Apatinib was taken orally (425 mg/d) for two cycles, followed by one cycle of rest. Taxol was administered at 135 mg/m intravenously on day 1, and cisplatin was administered at 20 mg/m intravenously on day 1 to day 3. Radical ESCC resection was performed 4 weeks after ATP. The primary endpoint was pathological response rate (pCR). Secondary endpoints were pathologic response rate (MPR), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), R0 resection rate, and safety profile. This trial was registered. We evaluated 41 patients for screening from Oct 2018 to July 2020, of whom 39 were enrolled in the study, with a median age of 65 years (range 49-75 years), and 29 (74.4%) were male. Among the 39 patients, 1 was considered unresectable by the multidisciplinary team due to tumor progression, and 38 patients underwent surgery eventually. The median follow-up was 22 months (range 5-29 months), and the follow-up rate was 100%. The 1-year and 2-year OS was 95% and 95%, and the 1-year and 2-year DFS was 85% and 82%, respectively. Thirty-eight (97.3%) successfully underwent R0 resection. Of the 38 evaluable patients, 9 (23.6%) were pCR, and 15 (39.5%) were MPR. The most common ATP-related AEs were nausea (76.9%), leucopenia (53.8%), neutropenia (51.2%) and vomit (51.2%), anemia (41.0%), and hypertension (25.6%). The most frequent grade 3-4 events included leucopenia (15.3%), neutropenia (15.3%), nausea (12.8%), vomit (12.8%), and hypertension (10.2%). No treatment-related death occurred. Neoadjuvant apatinib combined with taxol and cisplatin for locally advanced ESCC showed favorable activity and manageable safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/4727407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9313985PMC
July 2022

Social Life of Females with Persistent COVID-19 Symptoms: A Qualitative Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 26;19(15). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Department of Health Promotion Education and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

Persistent COVID-19 symptoms (long COVID) may bring challenges to long haulers' social lives. Females may endure more profound impacts given their special social roles and existing structural inequality. This study explores the effects of long COVID on the social life of female long haulers. We conducted semi-structured interviews via Zoom between April and June 2021 with 15 female long haulers in the United States, purposely recruited from Facebook and Slack groups and organization websites related to long COVID. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim with consent. The interview data were managed using MAXQDA and examined by thematic analysis. Long COVID negatively affected female long haulers' social lives by causing physical limitations, economic issues, altered social relationships, social roles' conflicts, and social stigma. Long COVID prevented female long haulers' recovery process. Physical limitations altered their perceptions on body, and family-work conflicts caused tremendous stress. They also experienced internalized stigma and job insecurities. This study provides insights into challenges that COVID-19 female long haulers could face in their return to normal social life, underscoring the vulnerability of females affected by long COVID due to significant alterations in their social lives. Shifting to new methods of communication, especially social media, diminished the adverse effects of long COVID (e.g., social isolation).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19159076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9331983PMC
July 2022

Listening to Voices from African American Communities in the Southern States about COVID-19 Vaccine Information and Communication: A Qualitative Study.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Health Promotion Education and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, South Carolina SmartState Center for Healthcare Quality, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

The high uptake of COVID-19 vaccines is one of the most promising measures to control the pandemic. However, some African American (AA) communities exhibit vaccination hesitancy due to mis- or disinformation. It is important to understand the challenges in accessing reliable COVID-19 vaccine information and to develop feasible health communication interventions based on voices from AA communities. We conducted 2 focus group discussions (FGDs) among 18 community stakeholders recruited from 3 counties in South Carolina on 8 October and 29 October 2021. The FGDs were conducted online via Zoom meetings. The FGD data were managed and thematically analyzed using NVivo 12. Participants worked primarily in colleges, churches, and health agencies. We found that the challenges of accessing reliable vaccine information in AA communities primarily included structural barriers, information barriers, and a lack of trust. Community stakeholders recommended recruiting trusted messengers, using social events to reach target populations, and conducting health communication campaigns through open dialogue among stakeholders. Health communication interventions directed at COVID-19 vaccine uptake should be grounded in ongoing community engagement, trust-building activities, and transparent communication about vaccine development. Tailoring health communication interventions to different groups may help reduce misinformation spread and thus promote vaccination in AA communities in the southern states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10071046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9319640PMC
June 2022

Future Orientation Among Children Affected by Parental HIV in China: An Exploratory Analysis of Complex Interactions.

Front Sociol 2022 7;7:899537. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

South Carolina SmartState Center for Healthcare Quality, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

We utilized an exploratory analytic approach to examine predictors of children's future beliefs, an internal asset associated with resilience among children affected by HIV, with emphasis on complex interactions among multisystem factors. Children ( = 1221) affected by parental HIV in China reported on psychosocial functioning, as well as internal, familial, and community resilience assets. Exploratory data analysis was conducted using a binary segmentation program. Six binary splits on predictors accounted for 22.78% of the variance in future expectation, suggesting interactions between children's perceived control of their future, loneliness, caregiver trust, and social support. Four binary splits accounted for 23.15% of the variance in future orientation, suggesting multiway interactions between control of the future, loneliness, social support, and perceived stigma. Findings suggest combinations of resilience factors are associated with children's positive future beliefs. Implications for screening, prevention, and intervention among Chinese children affected by parental HIV are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2022.899537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9300854PMC
July 2022

Caspase-8 Blocks Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase-1 Kinase-Independent Necroptosis during Embryogenesis.

Immunohorizons 2022 Jul 20;6(7):465-475. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

CAS Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China;

Caspase-8 (Casp8) suppresses receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3)/mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-dependent necroptosis, demonstrated by the genetic evidence that deletion of or prevented embryonic lethality of -deficient mice. However, the detailed mechanisms by which deficiency triggers necroptosis during embryonic development remain unclear. In this article, we show that deletion caused formation of the RIPK1-RIPK3 necrosome in the yolk sac, leading to vascularization defects, prevented by MLKL and RIPK3 deficiency, or RIPK3 RHIM mutant (RIPK3 V448P), but not by the RIPK1 kinase-dead mutant (RIPK1 K45A). In addition, mice died on embryonic day 14.5, which was delayed to embryonic day 17.5 by ablation of one allele in and was completely rescued by ablation of Our results revealed an in vivo role of RIPK3 RHIM and RIPK1 scaffold-mediated necroptosis in deficiency embryonic development and suggested that the Casp8-deficient yolk sac might be implicated in identifying novel regulators as an in vivo necroptotic model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/immunohorizons.2200021DOI Listing
July 2022

The diverse life-course cohort (DLCC): protocol of a large-scale prospective study in China.

Eur J Epidemiol 2022 Jul 19. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

The Diverse Life-Course Cohort (DLCC) is a large-scale prospective study including around 130,000 participants in mainland China. The primary aims of DLCC include contributing to knowledge on noncommunicable chronic disease determinants, particularly cardiometabolic diseases, and exploring the long-term effect of ambient air pollutants or other environmental risk factors on health among all-age populations. The cohort consists of several sub-populations that cover the whole life-course and diverse resources: from premarital to adolescents, adults from workplace and communities ranged from 18 to 93 years old. Baseline assessment (2017-2021) included face-to-face standardized questionnaire interview and measurements to assess social and biological factors of health. Blood samples were collected from each participant (except for children younger than 6) to establish the biobank. DLCC consists of two visits. Visit 1 was conducted from 2017, and 114850 individuals from one of the world-class urban agglomerations: Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei area were recruited. By the end of 2021, at least one follow-up was carried out, with an overall follow-up rate of 92.33%. In 2021, we initiated Visit 2, newly recruited 9,866 adults from Guangdong province (South China) and Hebei province (Central China), with research focuses on the comparations on ambient pollution hazards and other unique dietary or environmental risks for health. The baseline survey of Visit 2 was finished in July 2021. DLCC is still ongoing with a long-term follow-up design, and not limited by the current funding period. With reliable data and the well-established biobank which consists of over 120,000 individuals' blood samples, DLCC will provide invaluable resources for scientific research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-022-00894-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9294835PMC
July 2022

Integrated gradient tissue-engineered osteochondral scaffolds: Challenges, current efforts and future perspectives.

Bioact Mater 2023 Feb 1;20:574-597. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Key Laboratory for Biomechanics and Mechanobiology of Ministry of Education, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100083, China.

The osteochondral defect repair has been most extensively studied due to the rising demand for new therapies to diseases such as osteoarthritis. Tissue engineering has been proposed as a promising strategy to meet the demand of simultaneous regeneration of both cartilage and subchondral bone by constructing integrated gradient tissue-engineered osteochondral scaffold (IGTEOS). This review brought forward the main challenges of establishing a satisfactory IGTEOS from the perspectives of the complexity of physiology and microenvironment of osteochondral tissue, and the limitations of obtaining the desired and required scaffold. Then, we comprehensively discussed and summarized the current tissue-engineered efforts to resolve the above challenges, including architecture strategies, fabrication techniques and / evaluation methods of the IGTEOS. Especially, we highlighted the advantages and limitations of various fabrication techniques of IGTEOS, and common cases of IGTEOS application. Finally, based on the above challenges and current research progress, we analyzed in details the future perspectives of tissue-engineered osteochondral construct, so as to achieve the perfect reconstruction of the cartilaginous and osseous layers of osteochondral tissue simultaneously. This comprehensive and instructive review could provide deep insights into our current understanding of IGTEOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2022.06.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9254262PMC
February 2023

EEG Evidence of Altered Functional Connectivity and Microstate in Children Orphaned by HIV/AIDS.

Front Psychiatry 2022 29;13:898716. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Children orphaned by HIV/AIDS ("AIDS orphans") suffer numerous early-life adverse events which have a long-lasting effect on brain function. Although previous studies found altered electroencephalography (EEG) oscillation during resting state in children orphaned by HIV/AIDS, data are limited regarding the alterations in connectivity and microstate. The current study aimed to investigate the functional connectivity (FC) and microstate in children orphaned by HIV/AIDS with resting-state EEG data. Data were recorded from 63 children orphaned by HIV/AIDS and 65 non-orphan controls during a close-eyes resting state. The differences in phase-locking value (PLV) of global average FC and temporal dynamics of microstate were compared between groups. For functional connectivity, children orphaned by HIV/AIDS showed decreased connectivity in alpha, beta, theta, and delta band compared with non-orphan controls. For microstate, EEG results demonstrated that children orphaned by HIV/AIDS show increased duration and coverage of microstate C, decreased occurrence and coverage of microstate B, and decreased occurrence of microstate D than non-orphan controls. These findings suggest that the microstate and functional connectivity has altered in children orphaned by HIV/AIDS compared with non-orphan controls and provide additional evidence that early life stress (ELS) would alter the structure and function of the brain and increase the risk of psychiatric disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.898716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9277056PMC
June 2022

Three dimensions of COVID-19 risk perceptions and their socioeconomic correlates in the United States: A social media analysis.

Risk Anal 2022 Jul 13. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Department of Health Promotion Education and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Social media analysis provides an alternate approach to monitoring and understanding risk perceptions regarding COVID-19 over time. Our current understandings of risk perceptions regarding COVID-19 do not disentangle the three dimensions of risk perceptions (perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and negative emotion) as the pandemic has evolved. Data are also limited regarding the impact of social determinants of health (SDOH) on COVID-19-related risk perceptions over time. To address these knowledge gaps, we extracted tweets regarding COVID-19-related risk perceptions and developed indicators for the three dimensions of risk perceptions based on over 502 million geotagged tweets posted by over 4.9 million Twitter users from January 2020 to December 2021 in the United States. We examined correlations between risk perception indicator scores and county-level SDOH. The three dimensions of risk perceptions demonstrate different trajectories. Perceived severity maintained a high level throughout the study period. Perceived susceptibility and negative emotion peaked on March 11, 2020 (COVID-19 declared global pandemic by WHO) and then declined and remained stable at lower levels until increasing once again with the Omicron period. Relative frequency of tweet posts on risk perceptions did not closely follow epidemic trends of COVID-19 (cases, deaths). Users from socioeconomically vulnerable counties showed lower attention to perceived severity and susceptibility of COVID-19 than those from wealthier counties. Examining trends in tweets regarding the multiple dimensions of risk perceptions throughout the COVID-19 pandemic can help policymakers frame in-time, tailored, and appropriate responses to prevent viral spread and encourage preventive behavior uptake in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/risa.13993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9350290PMC
July 2022

Does HIV-Related Stigma Depress Social Well-Being of Youths Affected by Parental HIV/AIDS?

Front Psychiatry 2022 23;13:898543. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Parental illness or death due to HIV/AIDS has long-term impacts on children's social well-being, potentially challenging the children's basic developmental needs and future. Based on the theoretical model of social well-being, the present study tested a moderated mediation model that HIV-related stigma moderated the mediating role of social trust on the relationship between perceived social support (PSS) and social well-being. A sample of 297 youths aged 20-30 years affected by parental HIV/AIDS (57.2% male), including 129 (43.40%) AIDS orphans and 168 vulnerable youths (56.60%) completed questionnaires of perceived social support, social well-being, social trust, and HIV-related stigma. IBM SPSS 25.0 was used to conduct descriptive statistics and multiple regressions. Results showed that the mean score of PSS was 61.34 (SD = 13.99), social well-being was 57.33 (SD = 10.15), social trust was 56.21 (SD = 11.55), perceived stigma was 64.44 (SD = 16.72), and enacted stigma was 21.91 (SD = 9.73) among youths affected by parental HIV/AIDS and the PSS could predict increasing social well-being via increasing social trust. Moreover, the positive influence of PSS on social trust was moderated by the enacted stigma ( = 0.03), in which the positive influence was stronger among youths affected by parental HIV/AIDS who perceived or experienced low enacted stigma than those who perceived or experienced high enacted stigma. The positive impact of social trust on social well-being was moderated by perceived stigma ( = 0.04), in which the positive impact was more significant among youths affected by parental HIV/AIDS who perceived or experienced high perceived stigma than those who perceived or experienced low perceived stigma. These findings explained how and when the PSS affected social well-being and contributed toward an understanding of the experiences and perceptions of HIV-related stigma among youths affected by parental HIV/AIDS. This understanding may inform future research and policies toward improving the social well-being of youths affected by parental HIV/AIDS. The study also highlighted the importance of strengthening interventions on social relations and reducing HIV-related stigma for them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.898543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9260187PMC
June 2022

Event-Related Brain Potential Correlates of Event-Based Prospective Memory in Children With Learning Disability.

Front Psychiatry 2022 22;13:898536. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Prospective memory (PM) has been reported to be impaired in children with learning disabilities (LD), but few studies have examined the underlying neural mechanism of this impairment. To address this issue, the present study applied ERP technique to explore the difference of event-based prospective memory (EBPM) in 21 children with LD and 20 non-LD children with double task paradigm. Results from behavioral data showed that LD children exhibited lower accuracy than non-LD children. The ERP results showed that the two groups displayed significant difference in the ERP components, with longer N300 latency in LD group, but there was no obvious difference found in the prospective positivity component. The present findings seem to indicate that the poor performance of LD children on PM task might be result from deficits in PM cues detection. These results provided evidence for the existence of altered PM processing in LD children, which was characterized by a selective deficit in cues detection of PM. Therefore, these findings shed new light on the neurophysiological processes underlying PM in children with LD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.898536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9256924PMC
June 2022

Inhibitory Control of Emotional Interference in Deaf Children: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials and Event-Related Spectral Perturbation Analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2022 24;13:897595. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Background: Impairment of interference control ability may reflect a more general deficit in executive functioning, and lead to an increase in internal-externalized problems such as impulsivity, which has been reported in deaf children. However, few researches have examined the neural mechanism of this impairment.

Methods: This study applied the electroencephalogram (EEG) technique to investigate the interference control ability in 31 deaf children and 28 hearing controls with emotional face-word stroop task.

Results: Results from behavioral task showed that deaf children exhibited lower accuracy compared to hearing controls. As for EEG analysis, reduced activation of ERP components in N1 and enhanced activation of ERP components in N450 have been found in deaf children. Besides, incongruent condition elicited larger N450 than congruent condition. Furthermore, for brain oscillation, alpha band (600-800 ms) revealed a reduced desynchronization in deaf children, while theta band (200-400 ms) revealed an enhanced synchronization in deaf children and incongruent condition, which were in line with ERP components.

Conclusion: The present findings seem to indicate that the deficit during emotional interference control ability among deaf children might be due to the impaired attention allocation ability and emotional cognitive monitoring function during emotional conflict detection process. Consequently, reduced N1 and enhanced N450 might be due to early attention impairment causing more effort of deaf children later in emotional cognitive monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.897595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263210PMC
June 2022

How Different Pre-existing Mental Disorders and Their Co-occurrence Affects COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes? A Real-World Data Study in the Southern United States.

Front Public Health 2022 16;10:831189. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Health Promotion Education and Behavior, South Carolina StateSmart Center for Healthcare Quality, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States.

Background: Although a psychiatric history might be an independent risk factor for COVID-19 infection and mortality, no studies have systematically investigated how different clusters of pre-existing mental disorders may affect COVID-19 clinical outcomes or showed how the coexistence of mental disorder clusters is related to COVID-19 clinical outcomes.

Methods: Using a retrospective cohort study design, a total of 476,775 adult patients with lab-confirmed and probable COVID-19 between March 06, 2020 and April 14, 2021 in South Carolina, United States were included in the current study. The electronic health record data of COVID-19 patients were linked to all payer-based claims data through the SC Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office. Pre-existing mental disorder diagnoses from Jan 2, 2019 to Jan 14, 2021 were extracted from the patients' healthcare utilization data via ICD-10 codes.

Results: There is an elevated risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death among participants with pre-existing mental disorders adjusting for key socio-demographic and comorbidity covariates. Co-occurrence of any two clusters was positively associated with COVID-19-related hospitalization and death. The odds ratio of being hospitalized was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.151, 1.383) for patients with internalizing and externalizing disorders, 1.65 (95% CI: 1.298, 2.092) for internalizing and thought disorders, 1.76 (95% CI: 1.217, 2.542) for externalizing and thought disorders, and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.274, 2.118) for three clusters of mental disorders.

Conclusions: Pre-existing internalizing disorders and thought disorders are positively related to COVID-19 hospitalization and death. Co-occurrence of any two clusters of mental disorders have elevated risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death compared to those with a single cluster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.831189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9244141PMC
June 2022

Dissolved organic matters with low molecular weight fractions exhibit high photochemical potential for reactive oxygen formation.

Chemosphere 2022 Oct 28;305:135542. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Key Laboratory of Comprehensive and Highly Efficient Utilization of Salt Lake Resources, Qinghai Technology Research and Development Center of Comprehensive Utilization of Salt Lakes Resources, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, China. Electronic address:

The photochemical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were highly related to the molecular weight (MW) and organic compositions. In this study, the bulk algae- and macrophyte-derived DOM (ADOM and MDOM, respectively) and Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) were applied and fractionated into low MW- (LMW, <1 kDa) and high MW-(HMW-, 1 kDã0.45 μm) fractions. The formation and mechanisms of photochemically produced reactive intermediates (e.g., HO•, O, and CDOM*) for these bulk and MW-fractionated samples were compared via the irradiation experiment, fluorescence and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Results showed that humic-/fulvic-like substances were mainly distributed in the LMW fraction which occupied about 44-60% of total organic carbon for ADOM and MDOM and 13% for SRHA. Photochemical experiments showed that the autochthonous DOMs (e.g., ADOM and MDOM) were characterized with comparable formation rates and quantum yields of reactive oxygens with the allochthonous SRHA, suggesting the high photochemical formation potential. Further analysis showed obvious MW-dependent heterogeneities that, irrespective of DOM types, the LMW-fraction exhibited higher formation rates and quantum yields, followed by the bulk- and then the HMW-fractions. The fluorescence and FT-ICR-MS results indicated that the unique biochemical classes, i.e., humic-/fulvic-like moieties and protein-/lipid-derived compounds in the LMW fractions may be responsible for the high apparent quantum yields. This study highlighted the importance of simultaneous characterization of MW and organic compositions for evaluating the photochemical potential and other behaviors and effects of aquatic DOMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135542DOI Listing
October 2022

Diffusion-weighted MR is useful to assess peripheral nerve invasion of soft tissue tumor.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Jul 1;101(26):e29779. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

To investigate the feasibility of readout-segmented diffusion-weighted (rsDW) magnetic resonance (MR) in assessing nerve invasion of soft tissue tumor. Forty-four patients with soft tissue mass in upper leg suspected of nerve invasion underwent rsDW MR. Nerve invasion by tumor was rated by 2 radiologists, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of rsDW MR in identifying nerve invasion were calculated, with operation findings as reference of standard. Apparent diffusion coefficient and fraction of anisotropy of nerve were obtained using DW MR, and then were compared between invaded nerves and noninvasion cases. Inter-reader agreement in using rsDW MR to rate nerve invasion was excellent (kappa = 0.891 ± 0.043, P < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of rsDW MR in identifying nerve invasion were 89% and 88%, respectively. Apparent diffusion coefficient was significantly higher in invaded nerves versus normal nerves (1.45 ± 0.67 × 10-3 mm2/s vs 1.39 ± 0.46 × 10-3 mm2/s, P < 0.05). Fraction of anisotropy was significantly lower in invaded nerves versus normal nerves (0.22 ± 0.11 vs 0.37 ± 0.13, P < .05). Readout-segmented DW MR was feasible in assessing sciatic nerve invasion by soft tissue tumor in selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000029779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9239600PMC
July 2022

COVID-19 lockdown introduces human mobility pattern changes for both Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao greater bay area and the San Francisco bay area.

Int J Appl Earth Obs Geoinf 2022 Aug 20;112:102848. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Guangdong Key Laboratory of Urban Informatics, and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Spatial Smart Sensing and Service, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, various countries have sought to control COVID-19 transmission by introducing non-pharmaceutical interventions. Restricting population mobility, by introducing social distancing, is one of the most widely used non-pharmaceutical interventions. Although similar population mobility restriction interventions were introduced, their impacts on COVID-19 transmission are often inconsistent across different regions and different time periods. These differences may provide critical information for tailoring COVID-19 control strategies. In this paper, anonymized high spatiotemporal resolution mobile-phone location data were employed to empirically analyze and quantify the impact of lockdowns on population mobility. Both the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) in China and the San Francisco Bay Area (SBA) in the United States were studied. In response to the lockdowns, a general reduction in population mobility was observed, but the structural changes in mobility are very different between the two bays: 1) GBA mobility decreased by approximately 74.0-80.1% while the decrease of SBA was about 25.0-42.1%; 2) compared to SBA, the GBA had smoother volatility in daily volume during the lockdown. The volatility change indexes for GBA and SBA were 2.55% and 7.52%, respectively; 3) the effect of lockdown on short- to long-distance mobility was similar in GBA while the medium- and long-distance impact was more pronounced in SBA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2022.102848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9212878PMC
August 2022

From surviving to thriving: integrating mental health care into HIV, community, and family services for adolescents living with HIV.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2022 08 22;6(8):582-592. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Information Systems, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa.

Adolescents are a crucial generation, with the potential to bring future social and economic success for themselves and their countries. More than 90% of adolescents living with HIV reside in sub-Saharan Africa, where their mental health is set against a background of poverty, familial stress, service gaps, and an HIV epidemic that is now intertwined with the COVID-19 pandemic. In this Series paper, we review systematic reviews, randomised trials, and cohort studies of adolescents living with and affected by HIV. We provide a detailed overview of mental health provision and collate evidence for future approaches. We find that the mental health burden for adolescents living with HIV is high, contributing to low quality of life and challenges with adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Mental health provision is scarce, infrastructure and skilled providers are missing, and leadership is needed. Evidence of effective interventions is emerging, including specific provisions for mental health (eg, cognitive behavioural therapy, problem-solving, mindfulness, and parenting programmes) and broader provisions to prevent drivers of poor mental health (eg, social protection and violence prevention). We provide evidence of longitudinal associations between unconditional government grants and improved mental health. Combinations of economic and social interventions (known as cash plus care) could increase mental health benefits. Scalable delivery models include task sharing, primary care integration, strengthening families, and a pyramid of provision that differentiates between levels of need, from prevention to the care of severe disorders. A turning point has now been reached, from which complacency cannot persist. We conclude that there is substantial need, available frameworks, and a growing evidence base for action while infrastructure and skill acquisition is built.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(22)00101-8DOI Listing
August 2022

Fabrication and Characterization of Antifungal Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin/Pyrimethanil Inclusion Compound Nanofibers Based on Electrospinning.

J Agric Food Chem 2022 Jul 24;70(26):7911-7920. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Department of Chemistry, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Pyrimethanil (PMT) is an anilinopyrimidine bactericide with poor water solubility, which limits its applications. To improve the physical and chemical properties of PMT, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin/pyrimethanil inclusion compound nanofibers (HPβCD/PMT-IC-NFs) were fabricated via electrospinning. A variety of analytical techniques were used to confirm the formation of the inclusion compound. Scanning electron microscopy image displayed that HPβCD/PMT-IC-NF was homogeneous without particles. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the formation of the inclusion compound improved the thermostability of PMT. In addition, the phase solubility test illustrated that the inclusion compound formed by PMT and HPβCD had a stronger water solubility. The antifungal effect test exhibited that HPβCD/PMT-IC-NF had better antifungal properties. The release experiment confirmed that HPβCD/PMT-IC-NF had a sustained-release effect, and the release curve conformed to the first-order kinetic model equation. In short, the fabrication HPβCD/PMT-IC-NF inhibited improved solubility and thermostability of PMT, thus promoting the development of pesticide dosage form to water-based and low-pollution direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.2c01866DOI Listing
July 2022

The Effect of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation on the Downregulation of Negative Emotions: A Meta-Analysis.

Brain Sci 2022 Jun 15;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

The School of Mental Health and Psychological Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China.

(1) Background: Emotion regulation (ER) is regarded as a core treatment target for depression and other mental illnesses. In recent years, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been extensively used as an intervention for mental illnesses, but there has been no systematic review conducted regarding its effect on emotion regulation. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of NIBS for emotion regulation; (2) Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, and Cochrane Library. We analyzed the effects of NIBS on tasks assessing emotion regulation using a random-effects model, and further explored the moderating role of the following factors on transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies by conducting subgroup analyses and meta-regression: target electrode placement, return electrode placement, current intensity, target electrode size, and duration of intervention; (3) Results: A total of 17 studies were included. Our meta-analysis indicated a small but significant effect of NIBS on the downregulation of negative emotions. Separate analyses indicated that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) had a medium and significant effect on the downregulation of negative emotions, whereas tDCS had no significant effect. Subgroup analyses showed that the effect of tDCS was moderated by target and return electrode placemen; (4) Conclusions: These results indicate that NIBS had a positive effect on the downregulation of negative emotions. The stimulation protocols should be carefully considered and the underlying mechanisms should be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12060786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9221395PMC
June 2022

Achieving high-performance electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate by N-rich carbon-encapsulated Ni-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles supported nickel foam electrode.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Aug 31;436:129253. Epub 2022 May 31.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, PR China. Electronic address:

The cathode with low-energy consumption and long-term stability is pivotal to achieve the conversion of nitrate (NO) to nitrogen (N) by electrocatalytic denitrification. Herein, a binder-free electrode was synthesized by directly immobilizing N-doped graphitized carbon layer-encapsulated NiCu bimetallic nanoparticles on nickel foam (NF) ([email protected]/NF) and served as the cathode for electrocatalytic NO reduction. Morphological characterization indicated that Ni and Cu nanoparticles were encapsulated by the N-doped graphitized carbon layer and well-dispersed on the surface of NF. Compared with monometallic composite cathode ([email protected]/NF and [email protected]/NF), [email protected]/NF exhibited better NO removal performance (98.63 %) and lower energy consumption (0.007 kW·h mmol), which should be attributed to its strong adsorption ability to NO and excellent electron transfer property. Meanwhile, its electrocatalytic performance could be maintained in wide initial NO concentration (1.79-7.14 mM) and solution pH (3-11). With the assistance of electrochlorination, the N selectivity of electrochemical system was up to 99.89 % in the presence of 0.028 M Cl. More importantly, [email protected]/NF electrode displayed an ultra-high stability during ten recycling experiments. This study indicated that the binderless composite cathode [email protected]/NF had great potential in electrocatalytic NO removal from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129253DOI Listing
August 2022

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Postpartum Care in the Greater Boston Area During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 06 1;5(6):e2216355. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Center for Anesthesia Innovation and Quality, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Racial and ethnic disparities in postpartum care access have been well identified in the United States. Such disparities could be exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic because of amplified economic distress and compromised social capital among pregnant women who belong to racial or ethnic minority groups.

Objective: To examine whether the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with an increase in the existing racial and ethnic disparity in postpartum care access.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records data. Multinomial logistic regressions in an interrupted time series approach were used to assess monthly changes in postpartum care access across Asian, Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black (hereafter, Black), non-Hispanic White (hereafter, White) women, and women of other racial groups, controlling for maternal demographic and clinical characteristics. Eligible participants were women who gave live birth at 8 hospitals in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area from January 1, 2019, to November 30, 2021, allowing for tracking 90-day postpartum access until March 1, 2022.

Exposures: Delivery period: prepandemic (January to December 2019), early pandemic (January to March 2020), and late pandemic (April 2020 to November 2021).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Postpartum care within 90 days after childbirth was categorized into 3 groups: attended, canceled, and nonscheduled.

Results: A total of 45 588 women were included. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse (4735 [10.4%] Asian women, 3399 [7.5%] Black women, 6950 [15.2%] Hispanic women, 28 529 [62.6%] White women, and 1269 [2.8%] women of other race or ethnicity). The majority were between 25 and 34 years of age and married and had a full-term pregnancy, vaginal delivery, and no clinical conditions. In the prepandemic period, the overall postpartum care attendance rate was 75.2%, dropping to 41.7% during the early pandemic period, and rebounding back to 60.9% in the late pandemic period. During the months in the late pandemic, the probability of not scheduling postpartum care among Black (average marginal effect [AME], 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-1.6) and Hispanic women (AME, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9-1.6) increased more than among their White counterparts.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this cohort study of postpartum care access before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, racial and ethnic disparities in postpartum care were exacerbated following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, when postpartum care access recovered more slowly among Black and Hispanic women than White women. These disparities require swift attention and amelioration to address barriers for these women to obtain much needed postpartum care during this pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.16355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9226999PMC
June 2022

An asymmetric wettable PCL/chitosan composite scaffold loaded with IGF-2 for wound dressing.

J Biomater Appl 2022 Jun 22:8853282221110315. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

66307Department of Military Traffic Injury Prevention, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

An effective dressing is essential for wound healing. In fact, the wettability performance is one of the most important factors of a wound dressing. The fundamental functions of a wound dressing involve the absorption of excess exudates and maintenance of optimal moisture at the wound by controlling water evaporation. Here, we designed a type of chitosan (CS) sponge and PCL nanofibrous membrane composite dressing with asymmetric wettability surfaces as wound healing materials for biomedical applications. The hydrophobic surfaces of the composite dressing were waterproof and could efficiently control the water vapor transmission rate, whereas the hydrophilic surface of the CS sponge had good cytocompatibility and water-absorbing capability. Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) was added to the CS sponge, and exhibited a stimulatory effect on fibroblasts migration and proliferation. Therefore, the fabricated CS sponge and PCL membrane composite dressing had excellent cytocompatibility, vapor transmission rate, and liquid absorption and asymmetric wettability, suggesting its potential as a promising alternative to traditional wound dressing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08853282221110315DOI Listing
June 2022
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