Publications by authors named "Xiaomin Liu"

325 Publications

A near-infrared light triggered fluormetric biosensor for sensitive detection of acetylcholinesterase activity based on NaErF: 0.5 % [email protected] upconversion nano-probe.

Talanta 2021 Dec 5;235:122784. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Jilin Key Laboratory on Advanced Gas Sensor, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), as an important neurotransmitter, is widely present in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The aberrant expression of AChE could cause diverse neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we developed a facile and interference-free fluorimetric biosensing platform for highly sensitive AChE activity determination based on a NaErF: 0.5 % [email protected] nano-probe. This nano-probe exhibits a unique property of emitting bright monochromic red (650 nm) upconversion (UC) emission under multiband (~808, ~980, and ~1530 nm) near-infrared (NIR) excitations. The principle of this detection relies on the quenching of the strong monochromic red UC emission by oxidization products of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine generated through AChE-modulated cascade reactions. This system shows a great sensing performance with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.0019 mU mL for AChE, as well as good specificity and stability. Furthermore, we validated the potential of the nano-probe in biological samples by determination of AChE in whole blood with a LOD of 0.0027 mU mL, indicating the potential application of our proposed platform for monitoring the progression of AChE-related disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122784DOI Listing
December 2021

Efficient and Stable CsPbI Inorganic Perovskite Photovoltaics Enabled by Crystal Secondary Growth.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 13:e2103688. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Defect-triggered phase degradation is generally considered as the main issue that causes phase instability and limited device performance for CsPbI inorganic perovskites. Here, a defect compensation in CsPbI perovskite through crystal secondary growth of inorganic perovskites is demonstrated, and highly efficient inorganic photovoltaics are realized. This secondary growth is achieved by a solid-state reaction between a bromine salt and defective CsPbI perovskite. Upon solid-state reaction, the Br ions can diffuse over the entire CsPbI perovskite layer to heal the undercoordinated Pb and conduct certain solid-state I/Br ion exchange reaction, while the organic cations can potentially heal the Cs cation vacancies through coupling with [PbI ] octahedra. The carrier dynamics confirm that this crystal secondary growth can realize defect compensation in CsPbI . The as-achieved defect-compensated CsPbI not only improves the charge dynamics but also enhances the photoactive phase stability. Finally, the CsPbI -based solar cell delivers 20.04% efficiency with excellent operational stability. Overall, this work proposes a novel concept of defect compensation in inorganic perovskites through crystal secondary growth induced by solid-state reaction that is promising for various optoelectronic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103688DOI Listing
September 2021

MA Cation-Induced Diffusional Growth of Low-Bandgap FA-Cs Perovskites Driven by Natural Gradient Annealing.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 18;2021:9765106. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Shanghai 200240, China.

Low-bandgap formamidinium-cesium (FA-Cs) perovskites of FA Cs PbI ( < 0.1) are promising candidates for efficient and robust perovskite solar cells, but their black-phase crystallization is very sensitive to annealing temperature. Unfortunately, the low heat conductivity of the glass substrate builds up a temperature gradient within from bottom to top and makes the initial annealing temperature of the perovskite film lower than the black-phase crystallization point (~150°C). Herein, we take advantage of such temperature gradient for the diffusional growth of high-quality FA-Cs perovskites by introducing a thermally unstable MA cation, which would firstly form -phase FA-MA-Cs mixed perovskites with low formation energy at the hot bottom of the perovskite films in the early annealing stage. The natural gradient annealing temperature and the thermally unstable MA cation then lead to the bottom-to-top diffusional growth of highly orientated -phase FA-Cs perovskite, which exhibits 10-fold of enhanced crystallinity and reduced trap density (~3.85 × 10 cm). Eventually, such FA-Cs perovskite films were fabricated into stable solar cell devices with champion efficiency up to 23.11%, among the highest efficiency of MA-free perovskite solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2021/9765106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391048PMC
August 2021

Background-free sensing platform for on-site detection of carbamate pesticide through upconversion nanoparticles-based hydrogel suit.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Aug 28;194:113598. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, People's Republic of China.

On-site monitoring of carbamate pesticide in complex matrix remians as a challenge in terms of the real-time control of food safety and supervision of environmental quality. Herein, we fabricated robust upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPS)/polydopamine (PDA)-based hydrogel portable suit that precisely quantified carbaryl in complex tea samples with smartphone detector. UCNPS/PDA nanoprobe was developed by polymerization of dopamine monomers on the surface of NaErF: 0.5% [email protected] through electrostatic interaction, leading to efficient red luminescence quenching of UCNPS under near-infrared excitation, which circumvented autofluorescence and background interference in complicated environment. Such a luminescence quenching could be suppressed by thiocholine that was produced by acetylcholinesterase-mediated catalytic reaction, thus enabling carbaryl bioassay by inhibiting the activity of enzyme. Bestowed with the feasibility analysis of fluorescent output, portable platform was designed by integrating UCNPS-embedded sodium alginate hydrogel with 3D-printed smartphone device for quantitatively on-site monitoring of carbaryl in the range of 0.5-200 ng mL in tea sample, accompanied by a detection limit of 0.5 ng mL. Owing to specific UCNPS signatures and hydrogel immobilization, this modular platform displayed sensitive response, portability and anti-interference capability in complex matrix analysis, thus holding great potential in point-of-care application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113598DOI Listing
August 2021

Organic Matrix Assisted Low-temperature Crystallization of Black Phase Inorganic Perovskites.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Environmental Science and Engineering, 800 Dongchuan Road, 44106, Shanghai, CHINA.

All-inorganic perovskites with comparable optoelectronic properties but improved intrinsic stability to organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have attracted increasing amount of attention over years for applicational advances in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and various optoelectronics including light-emitting devices (LEDs). Cesium lead halide perovskites of tunable I/Br ratio that possess bandgap aligning with the sunlight region are promising candidates for PSC. As impressive progress has been made on fabrication methods with device efficiency improved from the initial 2.9% with low phase stability to over 20% with high stability, there still are many on-going discussions regarding the perovskite crystal growth mechanism, especially at low temperatures with the assistance of external factors. In this review, we summary recent developments of using organic matrix, including the addition and usage of organic ions, polymers and solvent molecules to achieve the crystallization of black phase inorganic perovskites at temperatures lower than the phase transition point. Secondly, we discuss the possible mechanisms of this low-temperature crystallization and their effects on the stability of black phase perovskites. In the end, we outlook and perspective a more comprehensive understanding that can help with further development of fabricating large-scale inorganic perovskite for optoelectronic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202110603DOI Listing
September 2021

Seed dressing with mefenpyr-diethyl as a safener for mesosulfuron-methyl application in wheat: The evaluation and mechanisms.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(8):e0256884. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences/IPM Centre of Hebei Province/Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in Northern Region of North China, Plant Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Baoding, Hebei, China.

Mesosulfuron-methyl is always applied by foliar spraying in combination with the safener mefenpyr-diethyl to avoid phytotoxicity on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. However, it was observed that the tolerance of Tausch's goatgrass (Aegilops tauschii Coss.) to mesosulfuron-methyl significantly increased in the presence of mefenpyr-diethyl by performing bioassay. This confirmed phenomenon may lead to overuse of mesosulfuron-methyl and weed resistance evolution in field conditions. Therefore, we tested the effect of wheat seed dressing with mefenpyr-diethyl as a possible alternative and disclosed the underlying mechanisms by herbicide dissipation study, enzymatic analysis and transcriptome profiling. The results suggest that increase of ALS activity, enhancement of metabolic processes, and other stress responses are crucial for the regulation of herbicide detoxification induced by mefenpyr-diethyl. Additionally, transcription factors such as AP2/ERF-ERF, bHLH, NAC, and MYB, and protein kinase such as RLK-Pelle_DLSV might play vital regulatory roles. The current study has important implications for mesosulfuron-methyl application in wheat field to control Tausch's goatgrass and provides a comprehensive understanding of the protective effect of mefenpyr-diethyl.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256884PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405001PMC
August 2021

Highly Stable Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskite toward Efficient Photovoltaics.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Sep 24;54(17):3452-3461. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

ConspectusOwing to the remarkable progress achieved over the past decade with research efforts from the perspectives of material synthesis, device configuration, and theoretical investigation, metal halide perovskites have emerged as a revolutionary class of light-absorbing semiconductors. The perovskite photovoltaic devices have demonstrated an impressive increase in power conversion efficiency. For single-junction perovskite solar cells, the value has risen from the initial one-digit maximum to the state-of-art record of 25.5%. Among various chemical and structural variations of perovskites, inorganic lead halides possess a more favorable operational stability and hold greater potential for perovskite/silicon tandem photovoltaics' top cells. At the initial stage of exploring all-inorganic perovskites for optoelectronic applications, many concepts, technical routes, and modification strategies were directly adopted from research on the more-developed field of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite (OIHP). However, as understandings on inorganic perovskite deepen with research experience gained from both experimental and theoretical progression, it has been found that the difference between the asymmetric, volatile organic cations and the spherical, stable inorganic cations can lead to drastic changes on overall material properties and the subsequent device performances. In detail, the disparities reflect the crystalline and phase profiles of the material, the fabrication and passivation rationales of perovskite thin films, and the photophysics in the assembled optoelectronic devices. Therefore, the discussions of all-inorganic perovskites have their own exclusivity and are worthy of a specialized scrutinization.Here in this Account, the latest progress on the stabilization of inorganic lead halide perovskites for efficient photovoltaic applications is highlighted. A library of chemical compositions will be discussed with a focus on notable works about CsPbI, which possesses a more favorable bandgap as a tandem to commercialized silicon solar cells. To underscore the influence of the crystal phase on the stability of inorganic perovskites, fundamental investigations regarding the chemical and physical properties, including experimental and theoretical studies, will be summarized as a means of phase control. The stability of inorganic lead halide perovskites can also be improved by the strategic introduction of external components to the light-absorbing layer, such as the incorporation of inorganic halides, organic cations, OIHPs with low dimension, etc. These strategies can synergistically improve the stability and efficiency of the fabricated devices from the perspectives of compositional tuning, dimensional engineering, surface termination, and low-dimension capping. On the basis of a careful examination and an analysis of works achieved in these categories from our group and others, we will then discuss some promising approaches toward achieving more stable and efficient photovoltaics using inorganic lead halide perovskites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.1c00343DOI Listing
September 2021

Decline in neutralising antibody responses, but sustained T-cell immunity, in COVID-19 patients at 7 months post-infection.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 26;10(7):e1319. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center Fudan University Shanghai China.

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific humoral responses and T-cell responses in patients who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to understand the natural protective immune responses and to facilitate the development of vaccines.

Methods: We conducted a combined assessment of the changes in neutralising antibody levels and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses over time in 27 patients up to 7 months after infection.

Results: The neutralising antibody remained detectable in 96.3% of the patients at their second visit at about 7 months post-onset of symptoms. However, their humoral responses, including titres of the spike receptor-binding domain IgG and neutralising antibody, decreased significantly compared with those at first clinic visit. By contrast, the proportions of spike-specific CD4 T cells, but not CD8 T cells, in COVID-19 patients after recovery were persistently higher than those in healthy controls. No significant change was observed in the proportion of spike-specific CD4 T cells in patients who had recovered from COVID-19 within 7 months.

Conclusion: The SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immune responses persisted, while the neutralising antibodies decayed. Further studies are needed to extend the longevity of neutralising antibodies and to evaluate whether these T cells are sufficient to protect patients from reinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cti2.1319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313961PMC
July 2021

HPDL deficiency causes a neuromuscular disease by impairing the mitochondrial respiration.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Genetics, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Shanghai 200092, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Mitochondrial diseases are caused by variants in both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. A nuclear gene HPDL (4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-like), which encodes an intermembrane mitochondrial protein, has been recently implicated in causing a neurodegenerative disease characterized by pediatric-onset spastic movement phenotypes. Here, we report six Chinese patients with bi-allelic HPDL pathogenic variants from four unrelated families showing neuropathic symptoms of variable severity, including developmental delay/intellectual disability, spasm, and hypertonia. Seven different pathogenic variants are identified, of which five are novel. Both fibroblasts and immortalized lymphocytes derived from patients show impaired mitochondrial respiratory function, which is also observed in HPDL-knockdown (KD) HeLa cells. In these HeLa cells, overexpression of a wild-type HPDL gene can rescue the respiratory phenotype of oxygen consumption rate. In addition, a decreased activity of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex II is observed in patient-derived lymphocytes and HPDL-KD HeLa cells, further supporting an essential role of HPDL in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Collectively, our data expand the clinical and mutational spectra of this mitochondrial neuropathy and further delineate the possible disease mechanism involving the impairment of the OXPHOS complex II activity due to the bi-allelic inactivations of HPDL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2021.01.009DOI Listing
June 2021

RNA Methylation in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:696559. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Nephrology, First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Nephrology Institute of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Diseases, Beijing Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease Research, Beijing, China.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with complicated clinical manifestations. Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE has greatly improved, the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of SLE is still limited by disease heterogeneity, and targeted therapy is still unavailable. Substantial evidence shows that RNA methylation plays a vital role in the mechanisms of the immune response, prompting speculation that it might also be related to the occurrence and development of SLE. RNA methylation has been a hot topic in the field of epigenetics in recent years. In addition to revealing the modification process, relevant studies have tried to explore the relationship between RNA methylation and the occurrence and development of various diseases. At present, some studies have provided evidence of a relationship between RNA methylation and SLE pathogenesis, but in-depth research and analysis are lacking. This review will start by describing the specific mechanism of RNA methylation and its relationship with the immune response to propose an association between RNA methylation and SLE pathogenesis based on existing studies and then discuss the future direction of this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.696559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292951PMC
July 2021

Expression characteristics of interferon-stimulated genes and possible regulatory mechanisms in lupus patients using transcriptomics analyses.

EBioMedicine 2021 Aug 17;70:103477. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Nephrology, First Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Nephrology Institute of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Diseases, Beijing Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease Research, 28 Fuxing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100853, China. Electronic address:

Background: Type I interferon signature is one of the most important features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which indicates an active immune response to antigen invasion. Characteristics of type I interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in SLE patients have not been well described thus far.

Methods: We analyzed 35,842 cells of PBMC single-cell RNA sequencing data of five SLE patients and three healthy controls. Thereafter, 178 type I ISGs among DEGs of all cell clusters were screened based on the Interferome Database and AUCell package was used for ISGs activity calculation. To determine whether common ISG features exist in PBMCs and kidneys of patients with SLE, we analyzed kidney transcriptomic data from patients with lupus nephritis (LN) from the GEO database. MRL/lpr mice model were used to verify our findings.

Findings: We found that monocytes, B cells, dendritic cells, and granulocytes were significantly increased in SLE patients, while subsets of T cells were significantly decreased. Neutrophils and low-density granulocytes (LDGs) exhibited the highest ISG activity. GO and pathway enrichment analyses showed that DEGs focused on leukocyte activation, cell secretion, and pathogen infection. Thirty-one common ISGs were found expressed in both PBMCs and kidneys; these ISGs were also most active in neutrophils and LDGs. Transcription factors including PLSCR1, TCF4, IRF9 and STAT1 were found to be associated to ISGs expression. Consistently, we found granulocyte infiltration in the kidneys of MRL/lpr mice. Granulocyte inhibitor Avacopan reduced granulocyte infiltration and reversed renal conditions in MRL/lpr mice.

Interpretation: This study shows for the first time, the use of the AUCell method to describe ISG activity of granulocytes in SLE patients. Moreover, Avacopan may serve as a granulocyte inhibitor for treatment of lupus patients in the future.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318865PMC
August 2021

Incorporation of Two-Dimensional WSe into MAPbI Perovskite for Efficient and Stable Photovoltaics.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 19;12(29):6883-6888. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Achieving reduced defect density and efficient charge carrier extraction plays a vital role for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Over the course of technical development, it is desired to use one single material or approach to synergistically passivate defects and enhance the charge extraction. In this work, we developed an effective strategy for obtaining efficient and stable PSCs via incorporating quasi-monolayer two-dimensional WSe into the MAPbI perovskite layer. The addition of WSe helps with the formation of perovskite film with higher quality and also passivates the Pb-related defects through Pb-Se coordination bonding. MAPbI/WSe shows a more matched energy-level alignment between the perovskite layer and hole transport layer for accelerated hole extraction. Consequently, the performances of PSCs significantly improved with power conversion efficiency increase from 19.2% to 21.2% after the incorporation of WSe. Accordingly, the MAPbI/WSe-based PSCs exhibit well-improved photostability with suppression of Pb defect formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c02012DOI Listing
July 2021

Hypercholesterolemia risk associated Abca6 does not regulate lipoprotein metabolism in mice or hamster.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Nov 16;1866(11):159006. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Cell Homeostasis, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Hypercholesterolemia has strong heritability and about 40-60% of hypercholesterolemia is caused by genetic risk factors. A number of monogenic genes have been identified so far for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, in the general population, more than 90% of individuals with LDL cholesterol over 190 mg/dL do not carry known FH mutations. Large scale whole-exome sequencing has identified thousands of variants that are predicted to be loss-of-function (LoF) and each individual has a median of about twenty rare LoF variants and several hundreds more common LoF variants. However, majority of those variants have not been characterized and their functional consequence remains largely unknown. Rs77542162 is a common missense variant in ABCA6 and is strongly associated with hypercholesterolemia in different populations. ABCA6 is a cholesterol responsive gene and has been suggested to play a role in lipid metabolism. However, whether and how rs77542162 and ABCA6 regulate lipoprotein metabolism remain unknown. In current study, we systemically characterized the function of rs77542162 and ABCA6 in cultured cells and in vivo of rodents. We found that Abca6 is specifically expressed on the basolateral surface of hepatocytes in mouse liver. The rs77542162 variant disrupts ABCA6 protein stability and results in loss of functional protein. However, we found no evidence that Abca6 plays a role in lipoprotein metabolism in either normal mice or hypercholesterolemia mice or hamsters. Thus, our results suggest that Abca6 does not regulate lipoprotein metabolism in rodents and highlight the challenge and importance of functional characterization of disease-associated variants in animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2021.159006DOI Listing
November 2021

Transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib versus transarterial chemoembolization plus sorafenib as first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus: A prospective randomized study.

Cancer 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Cancer Center, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: The efficacy and safety of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus lenvatinib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) have not been evaluated.

Methods: In this open-label, single-center, randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04127396), participants with previously untreated HCC and type I-IV PVTT were randomized 1:1 to receive TACE plus lenvatinib (arm L; orally once daily, 12 mg for body weight ≥60 kg or 8 mg for body weight <60 kg) or TACE plus sorafenib (arm S; 400 mg orally twice daily in 28-day cycles). The primary end point was time-to-progression (TTP; time from randomization to disease progression) and secondary end points included objective response rate and toxicity. Prognostic factors were evaluated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: Between December 30, 2018 and May 31, 2020, 64 patients were randomized (arm L, n = 32; arm S, n = 32); most patients had type I/II PVTT (71.9%), and the median target tumor diameter was 9.8 cm (range, 3.8-21.8). After a median follow-up of 16.1 months, patients in arm L had a higher median TTP (4.7 vs 3.1 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.95; P = .029) and objective response rate (53.1% vs 25.0%, P = .039) versus arm S. Multivariable analysis showed that TACE plus lenvatinib was significantly associated with higher TTP versus TACE plus sorafenib (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.90; P = .021). Comparable safety profiles were observed in arms L and S.

Conclusions: TACE plus lenvatinib was safe, well tolerated, and had favorable efficacy versus TACE plus sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC with PVTT and large tumor burden.

Lay Summary: Hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus has a poor prognosis. In addition, most phase 3 trials of drugs for hepatocellular carcinoma exclude patients with major portal vein invasion, and treatment options for these patients are limited. Transarterial chemoembolization has shown promising efficacy in these patients, especially in combination with systemic treatment or radiotherapy. However, transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib has not been investigated in this setting. This open-label, single-center, randomized trial showed that transarterial chemoembolization plus lenvatinib is safe, well tolerated, and has favorable efficacy versus transarterial chemoembolization plus sorafenib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33677DOI Listing
July 2021

A Highly Luminescent Nitrogen-Doped Nanographene as an Acid- and Metal-Sensitive Fluorophore for Optical Imaging.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 5;143(27):10403-10412. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz 55128, Germany.

Dibenzo[,]ovalene (DBOV) has excellent photophysical properties, including strong fluorescence and high ambient stability. Moreover, the optical blinking properties of DBOV have enabled optical super-resolution single-molecule localization microscopy with an imaging resolution beyond the diffraction limit. Various organic and inorganic fluorescent probes have been developed for super-resolution imaging, but those sensitive to pH and/or metal ions have remained elusive. Here, we report a diaza-derivative of DBOV (N-DBOV), synthesized in eight steps with a total yield of 15%. Nitrogen (N)-bearing zigzag edges were formed through oxidative cyclization of amino groups in the last step. UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy of N-DBOV revealed its promising optical properties comparable to those of the parent DBOV, while cyclic voltammetry and density functional theory calculations highlighted its lower orbital energy levels and potential -type semiconductor character. Notably, in contrast to that of the parent DBOV, the strong luminescence of N-DBOV is dependent on pH and the presence of heavy metal ions, indicating the potential of N-DBOV in sensing applications. N-DBOV also exhibited pH-responsive blinking, which enables pH-sensitive super-resolution imaging. Therefore, N-DBOV appears to be a highly promising candidate for fluorescence sensing in biology and environmental analytics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c04880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283754PMC
July 2021

[Research progress on the fragmentation mechanisms of mass spectrometry soft ionization and screening of chemical hazardous substances in food].

Se Pu 2020 Jul;38(7):750-758

Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100176, China.

Hazardous chemicals in food are an important cause of food safety problems. Mass spectrometry is an effective tool for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these substances. In this paper, the fragmentation mechanisms for several chemical hazardous substances, including pesticides, veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, and other chemical pollutants classified by structural analogs, are reviewed. For each class of compounds, we summarize the characteristic fragments and neutral loss generated by cleavage in the mass spectrometry analysis. We also summarize the mechanisms applied to screen and discover new structural analogs in food. This review can help researchers analyze and confirm the structure of compounds and provide a theoretical basis for the discovery of new structural analogs in food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2020.03002DOI Listing
July 2020

[Determination of 15 lipid regulators in fish meat by QuEChERS-ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/ electrostatic field orbitrap mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2020 Jun;38(6):655-662

Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection&Quarantine, Beijing 100176, China.

An analytical method was established for the determination of 15 lipid regulators in fish meat by QuEChERS combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/electrostatic field orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/Orbitrap-MS). The samples were purified by optimized QuEChERS methods. The amounts of the adsorbent materials (primary secondary amine (PSA) (20, 60, 100, 140 and 180 mg), C18 (40, 100, 160, 220 and 280 mg) and sodium acetate (0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 1.4 and 1.8 g)) were optimized by the response surface method to obtain the best purification effect. The target compounds were separated on an XBridge-C18 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution (containing 1.5 mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phases by a gradient elution program. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the target compounds were performed in the full scan and secondary mass spectrometry scan (dd-MS) modes with positive and negative ionization. The target compounds showed good linear relationships in their respective ranges, with correlation coefficients () greater than 0.99. The limits of detection (LOD, =3) and limits of quantification (LOQ, =10) were in the range of 0.2-1.0 μg/kg and 0.3-3.1 μg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries were 76.4%-116.0% at LOQ, 2-fold LOQ, and 10-fold LOQ levels. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.0%-7.9%, and the inter-day RSDs were 1.7%-18.4%. The method is simple, sensitive and accurate, and it is suitable for the determination and quantification of lipid regulators in fish meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2019.10011DOI Listing
June 2020

New genetic variants associated with major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes and treated with clopidogrel and aspirin.

Pharmacogenomics J 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Although a few studies have reported the effects of several polymorphisms on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), these genotypes account for only a small fraction of the variation and evidence is insufficient. This study aims to identify new genetic variants associated with MACE end point during the 18-month follow-up period by a two-stage large-scale sequencing data, including high-depth whole exome sequencing of 168 patients in the discovery cohort and high-depth targeted sequencing of 1793 patients in the replication cohort. We discovered eight new genotypes and their genes associated with MACE in patients with ACS, including MYOM2 (rs17064642), WDR24 (rs11640115), NECAB1 (rs74569896), EFR3A (rs4736529), AGAP3 (rs75750968), ZDHHC3 (rs3749187), ECHS1 (rs140410716), and KRTAP10-4 (rs201441480). Notably, the expressions of MYOM2 and ECHS1 are downregulated in both animal models and patients with phenotypes related to MACE. Importantly, we developed the first superior classifier for predicting 18-month MACE and achieved high predictive performance (AUC ranged between 0.92 and 0.94 for three machine-learning methods). Our findings shed light on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular outcomes and may help the clinician to make a decision on the therapeutic intervention for ACS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41397-021-00245-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Silencing Cardiac Troponin I-Interacting Kinase Reduces Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Sepsis-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction in Rat by Regulating Apoptosis-Related Proteins.

Biomed Res Int 2021 27;2021:5520051. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Anatomy, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050017, China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cardiac troponin I-interacting kinase () on sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) and further explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced myocardial injury model was used. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expression of . Western blot was conducted to quantitatively detect the expression of and apoptosis-related proteins (Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3). ELISA was performed to detect the content of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK). TUNEL assay was used to detect the apoptosis of H9C2 cells. In LPS-induced H9C2 cells, was up regulated. Besides, the CK activity, the content of LDH, and the apoptosis of H9C2 cells were significantly increased after treatment with LPS. Silencing TNNI3K decreased the LDH release activity and CK activity and inhibited apoptosis of H9C2 cell. Further research illustrated that si-TNNI3K promoted the protein expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the protein expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. The study concluded that TNNI3K was upregulated in LPS-induced H9C2 cells. Importantly, functional research findings indicated that silencing TNNI3K alleviated LPS-induced H9C2 cell injury by regulating apoptosis-related proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5520051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175134PMC
May 2021

Ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in untreated saliva using SERS-based biosensor.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Oct 9;190:113421. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Jilin Key Laboratory on Advanced Gas Sensor, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China. Electronic address:

Early diagnosis and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 virus is essential to control COVID-19 outbreak. In this study, we propose a promising surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based COVID-19 biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus in untreated saliva. The SERS-immune substrate was fabricated by a novel oil/water/oil (O/W/O) three-phase liquid-liquid interfaces self-assembly method, forming two layers of dense and uniform gold nanoparticle films to ensure the reproducibility and sensitivity of SERS immunoassay. The detection was performed by an immunoreaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody modified SERS-immune substrate, spike antigen protein and Raman reporter-labeled immuno-Ag nanoparticles. This SERS-based biosensor was able to detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein at concentrations of 0.77 fg mL in phosphate-buffered saline and 6.07 fg mL in untreated saliva. The designed SERS-based biosensor exhibited excellent specificity and sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 virus without any sample pretreatment, providing a potential choice for the early diagnosis of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186945PMC
October 2021

Visualizing the Integrity of Chloroplast Envelope by Rhodamine and Nile Red Staining.

Front Plant Sci 2021 26;12:668414. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

Chloroplasts are essential organelles in plant cells with many important functions. Chloroplasts isolated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation are widely used in the study of chloroplasts. The intactness of isolated chloroplasts is necessary for many of the experiments. In the past, those isolated chloroplasts were either simply believed to be intact or had to be analyzed by indirect biochemical methods. Here we show a new method to check the intactness of isolated chloroplasts by staining their envelope with fluorescent dyes, Rhodamine or Nile red, and then observing them with a fluorescence microscope. With this method, broken chloroplasts and intact chloroplasts can be distinguished easily and their integrity can be checked in a few minutes. Results of this method agreed well with those of biochemical methods. Moreover, we have also found that sometimes the middle layer chloroplasts from the Percoll gradient centrifugation could be mostly broken, which could cause mistakes in the experiment. With our method, this problem can be easily found. This chloroplast envelope staining method can be used in the preparation of isolated chloroplasts to ensure the intactness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.668414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107281PMC
April 2021

Mental health after paediatric concussion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Sep 29;55(18):1048-1058. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Brain and Mind Research, Clinical Sciences Theme, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to rigorously examine mental health outcomes following paediatric concussion. To date, heterogeneous findings and methodologies have limited clinicians' and researchers' ability to meaningfully synthesise existing literature. In this context, there is a need to clarify mental health outcomes in a homogeneous sample, controlling for key methodological differences and applying a consistent definition of concussion across studies.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data Sources: We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SportDiscus, Scopus and PubMed.

Eligibility: Peer-reviewed studies published between 1980 and June 2020 that prospectively examined mental health outcomes after paediatric concussion, defined as per the Berlin Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport.

Results: Sixty-nine articles characterising 60 unique samples met inclusion criteria, representing 89 114 children with concussion. Forty articles (33 studies) contributed to a random effects meta-analysis of internalising (withdrawal, anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress), externalising (conduct problems, aggression, attention, hyperactivity) and total mental health difficulties across three time points post-injury (acute, persisting and chronic). Overall, children with concussion (n=6819) experienced significantly higher levels of internalising (g=0.41-0.46), externalising (g=0.25-0.46) and overall mental health difficulties compared with controls (g=0.18-0.49; n=56 271), with effects decreasing over time.

Summary/conclusions: Our review highlights that mental health is central to concussion recovery. Assessment, prevention and intervention of mental health status should be integrated into standard follow-up procedures. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying observed relationships between mental health, post-concussion symptoms and other psychosocial factors. Results suggest that concussion may both precipitate and exacerbate mental health difficulties, thus impacting delayed recovery and psychosocial outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-103548DOI Listing
September 2021

Effect of probiotics on the nutritional status of severe stroke patients with nasal feeding that receive enteral nutrition: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25657

School of Rehabilitation Medicine.

Background: Malnutrition is commonly observed after stroke and is closely associated with poor clinical outcomes. So, early nutrition support is particularly crucial for severe stroke patients. However, a significant number of critically ill patients are intolerant to enteral nutrition (EN). Probiotics have been widely used in malnutrition by various diseases and have a low incidence of enteral intolerance. So, we aim to elucidate the efficacy of probiotics in EN in improving the nutritional status and clinical prognosis of severe stroke patients with nasal feeding.

Method: Embase, PubMed, Sinomed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database, and Vip Journal Integration Platform were searched from inception to March 31, 2021. Randomized controlled trials that applied probiotics in patients with severe stroke were included. The data were extracted and the risk of bias was assessed independently by 2 evaluators.

Results: Twenty-four studies comprising 2003 participants of randomized controlled trials were included. The result of pooled analyses showed that probiotics in EN were associated with better outcomes than EN alone on Glasgow Coma Scale score (mean difference [MD] = 1.03, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.78-1.27; P < .00001), infection events (odds ratio [OR] = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.15-0.43; P < .00001), rate of intestinal flora dysbiosis (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.12-0.48; P < .0001), gastrointestinal complications (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.16-0.37, P < .00001), time to reach target nutrition (MD = -1.80, 95% CI: -2.42 to 1.18, P < .00001), prealbumin content (MD = 25.83, 95% CI: 13.68-37.99, P < .0001).

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that probiotics supplementation might be an effective intervention for improving the clinical prognosis in severe stroke patients with nasal feeding, but no significant effect on increasing muscle circumference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084017PMC
April 2021

Ultrasound-guided needle-knife for De Quervain's disease: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e24877

Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Background: De Quervain's disease is a kind of aseptic inflammation caused by repeated frictions of tendons in the tendon sheath of the styloid process of the radius. The main symptoms are protuberance and pain of the styloid process of the radius, accompanied by aggravation of pain during the movement of the wrist and thumb. The advantages of needle-knife are simple operation, obvious therapeutic effect and high safety. It can also be used to treat De Quervain's disease. Ultrasound gives a precise visualization of the thickness. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided needle-knife in the treatment of De Quervain's disease and to provide the latest basis for clinical application.

Methods: The computer will be used to search all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about ultrasound-guided needle-knife treatment of De Quervain's disease in the following database: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central controlled Trials Registry (CENTER), EMBASE, China National knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP Database (VIP). The effectiveness and safety of ultrasound-guided needle-knife in the treatment of De Quervain's disease were evaluated with pain intensity, wrist function as the main index and wrist range of motion, adverse events and quality of life as the secondary index. Revman5.3 software was used for data processing.

Results: This study will provide the latest evidence for the Ultrasound-guided needle-knife for De Quervain's disease.

Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ultrasound-guided needle-knife in the treatment of De Quervain's disease.

Unique Inplasy Number: INPLASY202110094.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036120PMC
April 2021

Decreased Muscular Perfusion in Dermatomyositis: Initial Results Detected by Inflow-Based Vascular-Space-Occupancy MRI.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2021 06 31;216(6):1588-1595. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Medical Imaging, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No. 1838 Guangzhou Ave N, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, PR China.

This study aimed to determine whether inflow-based vascular-space-occupancy (iVASO) MRI could reproducibly quantify skeletal muscle perfusion and differentiate patients with dermatomyositis (DM) from healthy subjects. A total of 25 patients with DM and 22 healthy volunteers underwent iVASO MRI in a 3-T MRI scanner. Maximum and mean arteriolar muscle blood volume (MBV) values of four subgroups of muscles (normal muscles, morphologically normal-appearing muscles, edematous muscles, and atrophic or fat-infiltrated muscles) were obtained. Maximum and mean arteriolar MBV values were compared among the different subgroups, and repeat testing was performed in 20 subjects to assess reproducibility. Compared with normal muscles in healthy subjects, morphologically normal-appearing muscles, edematous muscles, and atrophic or fat-infiltrated muscles in patients with DM showed a significant decrease of both maximum and mean arteriolar MBV ( < .001). Both parameters were significantly lower in atrophic or fat-infiltrated muscles than in morphologically normal-appearing and edematous muscles ( < .001). ROC AUCs for discriminating patients with DM from healthy volunteers were 0.842 and 0.812 for maximum and mean arteriolar MBV values, respectively. As a measure of test-retest studies, the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were 0.990 (95% CI, 0.986-0.993) and 0.990 (95% CI, 0.987-0.993) for maximum and mean arteriolar MBV, respectively. For interobserver reproducibility, the ICCs were 0.989 (95% CI, 0.986-0.991) and 0.980 (95% CI, 0.975-0.983), respectively. iVASO MRI can reproducibly quantify arteriolar MBV in the thigh and discriminate between healthy volunteers and patients with DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.20.23045DOI Listing
June 2021

Organic Tetrabutylammonium Cation Intercalation to Heal Inorganic CsPbI Perovskite.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 28;60(22):12351-12355. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

The in situ formation of reduced dimensional perovskite layer via post-synthesis ion exchange has been an effective way of passivating organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites. In contrast, cesium ions in Cs-based inorganic perovskite with strong ionic binding energy cannot exchange with those well-known organic cations to form reduced dimensional perovskite. Herein, we demonstrate that tetrabutylammonium (TBA ) cation can intercalate into CsPbI to effectively substitute the Cs cation and to form one-dimensional (1D) TBAPbI layer in the post-synthesis TBAI treatment. Such TBA cation intercalation leads to in situ formation of TBAPbI protective layer to heal defects at the surface of inorganic CsPbI perovskite. The TBAPbI -CsPbI perovskite exhibited enhanced stability and lower defect density, and the corresponding perovskite solar cell devices achieved an improved efficiency up to 18.32 % compared to 15.85 % of the control one.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202102538DOI Listing
May 2021

The efficacy of therapeutic apheresis in patients with refractory neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: a single-center retrospective study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar 18;10(3):3105-3114. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Blood Transfusion Medicine, the First Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are associated with recurrent episodes of optic neuritis and transverse myelitis, often resulting in high attack-related disability. Therapeutic apheresis has been recommended as a second-line treatment for steroid-refractory NMOSD. To assess the efficacy and safety of two apheresis techniques, lymphoplasmapheresis (LPE) and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), in refractory NMOSD and to provide a new treatment option for patients with refractory NMOSD.

Methods: This retrospective study examined NMOSD patients who had undergone either LPE or TPE treatment between January 2015 and January 2018. The patients were monitored for improvements in disabilities, incidences of adverse reactions, and safety of the procedure over a one-year follow-up period. The primary outcome measures included changes in the visual outcome scale (VOS) score, the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), and the annualized relapse rate (ARR).

Results: Neurological function and objective response rates were significantly improved in 76.5% of patients treated with LPE and 83.3% of patients treated with TPE. There were no significant differences in the two treatment groups (P=0.392). Similarly, there were no differences in the reduction in the relative relapse rate between the two groups (P=0.494). Adverse reactions, mostly of mild or moderate intensity, were recorded in 9.3% of procedures in 38% of patients. The most commonly observed adverse events (AEs) were similar between the two treatment cohorts.

Conclusions: Patients treated with LPE showed improved neurological function comparable to that reported with TPE treatment. No superiority was shown for either of the apheresis techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-177DOI Listing
March 2021

Er self-sensitized nanoprobes with enhanced 1525 nm downshifting emission for NIR-IIb in vivo bio-imaging.

J Mater Chem B 2021 03 16;9(12):2899-2908. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, FineMechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130033, China.

Traditional sensitizer (Yb or Nd) and activator (Er) co-doped lanthanide-based nanoprobes possessing emission of Er at 1525 nm have attracted much attention in NIR-IIb bio-imaging. However, the 1525 nm fluorescence efficiency was not high enough in such co-doped systems due to the serious back energy transfer from the activator to the sensitizer, resulting in a lot of excitation energy loss. Herein, we have designed an efficient NIR-IIb nanoprobe Er self-sensitized NaErF:0.5%[email protected], where substantially all the excitation energy could contribute to Er ions and most energy transfer processes were confined among Er ions, avoiding the energy dissipation by heterogeneous sensitizer ions. The influence of the types of epitaxial heterogeneous shells, the doping effect and optimal doping concentration of Tm ions, as well as the critical shell thickness for obtaining the surface quenching-assisted downshifting emission are systematically investigated to acquire the most efficient 1525 nm luminescence under 800 nm excitation. The quantum yield in the 1500-1700 nm region reached 13.92%, enabling high-resolution through-skull cerebrovascular microscopy imaging and large-depth in vivo physiological dynamic imaging with an extremely low excitation powder density of 35 mW cm. The designed nanoprobe can be potentially used for brain science research and clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb02728fDOI Listing
March 2021
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