Publications by authors named "Xiaolong Yu"

92 Publications

Enhanced bioremediation of 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorodiphenyl by consortium GYB1 immobilized on sodium alginate-biochar.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 15;788:147774. Epub 2021 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Wastes Pollution Control and Recycling, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China.

2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorodiphenyl (PCB 118), a dioxin-like PCB, is often detected in the environment and is difficult to be aerobically biodegraded. In this study, a novel polychlorinated biphenyl degrading consortium GYB1 that can metabolize PCB 118 was successfully obtained by acclimatization process. To enhance the application performance of free bacterial cells, consortium GYB1 was immobilized with sodium alginate and biochar to prepare SC-GYB1 beads. Orthogonal experiments indicated that the optimal composition of the beads (0.2 g) was 2.0% sodium alginate (SA) content, 2.0% wet weight of cells and 1.5% biochar content, which can degrade 50.50% PCB 118 in 5 d. Immobilization shortened the degradation half-life of 1 mg/L PCB 118 by consortium GYB1 from 8.14 d to 3.79 d and made the beads more robust to respond to environmental stress. The SC-GYB1 beads could even keep considerable PCB degradation ability under 200 mg/L Cd stress. According to 16S rRNA gene analysis, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas played the dominant role in consortium GYB1. And embedding obviously altered the community structure and the key bacterial genera during the PCB removal process. Therefore, the immobilization of bacteria consortium by sodium alginate-biochar enhanced the biodegradation of PCB 118, which will provide new insights into functional microorganisms' actual application for PCB restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147774DOI Listing
September 2021

Bioremediation of triphenyl phosphate by Pycnoporus sanguineus: Metabolic pathway, proteomic mechanism and biotoxicity assessment.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 4;417:125983. Epub 2021 May 4.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology, Guilin University of Technology, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China.

So far, no information about the biodegradability of TPhP by white rot fungi has previously been made available, herein, Pycnoporus sanguineus was used as the representative to investigate the potential of white rot fungi in TPhP bioremediation. The results suggested that the biodegradation efficiency of 5 mg/L TPhP by P. sanguineus was 62.84% when pH was adjusted to 6 and initial glucose concentration was 5 g/L. Seven biodegradation products were identified, indicating that TPhP was biotransformed through oxidative cleavage, hydroxylation and methylation. The proteomic analysis revealed that cytochrome P450s, aromatic compound dioxygenase, oxidizing species-generating enzymes, methyltransferases and MFS general substrate transporters might occupy important roles in TPhP biotransformation. Carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase were induced to resist TPhP stress. The biotreatment by P. sanguineus contributed to a remarkable decrease of TPhP biotoxicity. Bioaugmentation with P. sanguineus could efficiently promote TPhP biodegradation in the water-sediment system due to the cooperation between P. sanguineus and some putative indigenous degraders, including Sphingobium, Burkholderia, Mycobacterium and Methylobacterium. Overall, this study provided the first insights into the degradation pathway, mechanism and security risk assessment of TPhP biodegradation by P. sanguineus and verified the feasibility of utilizing this fungus for TPhP bioremediation applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125983DOI Listing
May 2021

Systemic inflammatory response index as an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a retrospective study based on propensity score matching.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Science and Education Section, Wujin Hospital Affiliated with Jiangsu University, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the relationship between systemic inflammatory response index (SIRI) and ischemic stroke (IS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.

Methods: Fifty-two RA patients with IS, who were admitted to Wujin Hospital Affiliated with Jiangsu University between 2015 and 2019, were selected as the study group, and 236 RA patients without IS were selected as the control group. Propensity score matching (PSM) function of SPSS 26.0 was used to carry out 1:1 propensity score matching for gender, age, blood pressure, blood glucose, blood lipid, and smoking history of patients in the two groups, and the caliper value was set as 0.02 to obtain covariate balanced samples between groups. When performing blood tests, the following are determined: rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), mean platelet volume (MPV), calculated SIRI = (neutrophil × monocyte)/lymphocyte, and completed 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28-CRP). The differences in inflammatory markers between the two groups were compared, the independent risk factors were analyzed by logistic regression, and the auxiliary diagnostic value was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

Results: A total of 48 pairs of patients were successfully matched. SIRI in the study group was higher than that in the control group (p < 0.05), and the mean platelet volume (MPV) was lower in the study group than in the control group (p < 0.05). SIRI, DAS28-CRP (r = 0.508, p < 0.01), ESR (r = 0.359, p < 0.05), and CRP (r = 0.473, p < 0.01) were positively correlated. Logistic regression analysis showed that SIRI was an independent IS risk factor in RA patients (odds ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, approximately 1.008-1.678). The optimal threshold for SIRI-assisted diagnosis of patients with RA and IS was 1.62, the area under the ROC curve was 0.721 (p < 0.01), sensitivity was 54.17%, and specificity was 83.33%.

Conclusion: SIRI was independently associated with the occurrence of ischemic stroke in patients with RA. Thus, RA patients with elevated SIRI should be closely monitored. Key points • RA patients with IS had fewer traditional risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes, while inflammatory indicators were significantly increased. • The SIRI have drawn attention in recent years as novel non-specific inflammatory markers. However, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate their value in RA. • This study completes the gaps in the research on the relationship between SIRI and the risk of IS occurrence in RA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-021-05762-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of a low-cost and highly efficient passivator synthesized by alkali-fused fly ash and swine manure on the leachability of heavy metals in a multi-metal contaminated soil.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 12;279:130558. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Pollution Processes and Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming, Guangdong, 525000, China. Electronic address:

Soil pollution, caused by heavy metals, is an environmental problem that requires an urgent solution in China. Chemical passivation is a technology that uses various passivators to reduce the availability of heavy metals in soil and realize the remediation of contaminated soil. In this study, we examined the effects of fly ash (FA), alkali-fused fly ash (AFFA), swine manure biochar (SB), and modifying biochar (MB) on the leachability of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd via soil culture experiments. The results showed that the addition of AFFA, SB, and MB significantly reduced the extractable contents of Cu, Pb, and Cd in the soil. AFFA and MB had the best passivation effect, followed by SB and FA. The passivation effect on Pb was the best, followed by that on Cu and Cd. AFFA modification significantly improved the passivation effect of MB on Cu, Pb, and Cd in composite contaminated soil. With the addition of 3% MB, the Pb, Cu, and Cd extracted by TCLP decreased by 95.7, 74.1, and 59.1%, respectively. Correlation analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that the passivation mechanism is mainly due to an increase in the soil pH, silicate content, and cohesiveness. The soil culture experiments in this study proved that MB is a low-cost and highly efficient organic-inorganic composite passivator for multi-metal contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130558DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of aging on surface properties and endogenous copper and zinc leachability of swine manure biochar and its composite with alkali-fused fly ash.

Waste Manag 2021 May 6;126:400-410. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Pollution Processes and Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming, Guangdong 525000, PR China. Electronic address:

Biochar aging is a key factor leading to the decline of biochar stability and the release of endogenous pollutants. This study investigated the effects of five artificial and simulated aging processes on the surface properties and endogenous copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) leachability of swine manure biochar and its composite with alkali-fused fly ash. Aging obviously reduced carbon (C) content on the surface of swine manure biochar and increased oxygen (O) content. Among all the aging treatments, high-temperature aging had the greatest effect on C content. Following the aging treatments, the C-C bond contents on the surfaces of swine manure biochar decreased significantly, whereas the C-O bonds increased significantly; however, there were less changes in the amounts of C-C and C-O bonds on the surfaces of modified biochar than on swine manure biochar. Aging significantly enhanced the leaching toxicity of Cu and Zn, and Zn availability and bioaccessibility in swine manure biochar and modified biochar. However, it minimized Cu availability and bioaccessibility, especially under high-temperature aging. Greater amounts of Zn than Cu were extracted from swine manure biochar and modified biochar. However, under all the aging treatments, the leaching toxicity, availability, and bioaccessibility of Cu and Zn in modified biochar were significantly lower than in swine manure biochar. This implies that modified biochar application poses lower environmental risks than swine manure biochar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.03.042DOI Listing
May 2021

Simultaneous adsorption of Cd and photocatalytic degradation of tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) by mesoporous TiO.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 7;267:129238. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Solid Wastes Pollution Control and Recycling, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

In this work, the prepared mesoporous TiO was employed to eliminate the environmental risk induced by the combined pollution (tris-(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) and Cd). The prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS), Raman imaging spectrometer (Raman), N adsorption/desorption isotherm and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the combined pollution system, the prepared TiO simultaneously exhibited a higher adsorption and photocatalytic activity for Cd and TCPP at neutral condition, respectively. The adsorption of Cd and photo-degradation of TCPP by mesoporous TiO followed pseudo-second-order and pseudo-first-order kinetics model, respectively. The removal efficiency of TCPP was improved from 67% to 100% when the concentration of co-existed Cd increased from 0.5 mg L to 2 mg L, due to the fact that the adsorbed Cd on the surface of TiO scavenged electron and thus inhibited the photo-generated electron-hole pairs recombination. In addition, six degradation intermediates were determined by high resolution mass spectrum (HRMS) and potential transformation pathways of TCPP under the co-existence of Cd were proposed. The results suggested that rapid and high-efficient simultaneous removal of Cd and TCPP was feasible, which laid the basis for the remediation of other combined pollution in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.129238DOI Listing
March 2021

Development of a novel phosphorus recovery system using incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and phosphorus-selective adsorbent.

Waste Manag 2021 Feb 4;120:41-49. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Ehime University, Tarumi 3-5-7, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient but faces foreseeable resource depletion. The incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) is a promising source for recovering phosphorus. In this study, we proposed a new system for recovering phosphorus from ISSA. This innovative system uses phosphorus-selective adsorbent to purify phosphorus from the ISSA acid leachate. Laboratory scale batch and column tests were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system. Note that >70% of phosphorus in ISSA can be recovered as a high-purity recovery product. The product showed a structure similar to hydroxyapatite (Ca(PO)OH). The total amount of Ca, P, and O in the product was above 90 wt%. The content of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in the product was below the fertilizer limits, suggesting that the health and environmental risks of using fertilizer in agriculture are negligible. The expected costs of the system were estimated. The reusability of the adsorbent can reduce the operational costs to a satisfactory level. This study provides a practical alternative for recovering phosphorus from ISSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2020.11.017DOI Listing
February 2021

Transcriptome profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa YH reveals mechanisms of 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether tolerance and biotransformation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 02 18;403:124038. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, China.

Aerobic degradation of 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47) by Pseudomonas aeruginosa YH (P. aeruginosa YH) were investigated in this study. BDE-47 degradation was mainly through the biological action of intracellular enzymes, and the metabolites included debrominated metabolites (BDE-28 and BDE-7), hydroxylated metabolites (6-OH-BDE-47, 5-OH-BDE-47, 2'-OH-BDE-28 and 4'-OH-BDE-17), and brominated phenols (2,4-DBP and 4-BP). P. aeruginosa YH also exhibited exceptional ability to degrade intermediates, and the degradation rates of 50 μg/L BDE-28, BDE-7, and 2,4-DBP were 68.4%, 82.3% and 92.7% on the 5th day, separately. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that 991 genes were up-regulated, and 923 genes were down-regulated in P. aeruginosa YH after exposure to 0.5 mg/L BDE-47 (FDR ≤ 0.001, |logRatio| ≥ 1). The differentially expressed genes were related to transport, metabolism and stress response. Harf inhibitory concentration (IC) of BDE-47 decreased from 167.5 mg/L to 68.4 mg/L when multidrug efflux pump was inactivated by 20 mg/L andrographolide, indicating that it helped the bacterial tolerance against BDE-47. Moreover, efflux pump inhibition would accelerate the adsorption of BDE-47. The adsorption rate obtained equilibrium at approximately 70% in 2 days, while 5 days in the control group. Degradation efficiency of 2 mg/L BDE-47 decreased from 26.8% to 13.9% when multidrug efflux was suppressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124038DOI Listing
February 2021

Perchlorate adsorption onto epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan hydrogel beads.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 26;761:143236. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Integrated Surface Water-Groundwater Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Perchlorate (ClO) in water is an emerging contaminant that threatens human health by inhibiting the uptake of iodine in the thyroid gland. Biopolymer adsorbents including chitosan hydrogel beads (CSBs) have attracted increasing attentions in water treatment for their low costs, ease in preparation, and environmental friendliness. However, the adsorption capacity for ClO by several crosslinked CSBs has been shown to be low. To overcome this, epichlorohydrin (ECH) crosslinked CSBs (ECH-CSBs) that preserved -NH functional groups as potential sites for adsorption are synthesized and characterized, followed by batch adsorption experiments to evaluate adsorption and desorption reactions. The point of zero charge is determined to be 5.1 ± 0.1. Both XPS spectra and DFT calculations support that electrostatic interaction between ClO and protonated -NH functional groups is responsible for adsorption that reaches a capacity of 63.4 to 76.3 mg/g between pH of 4.0-10.0 at 303.15 K that follows Langmuir isotherm. ECH crosslinking also enhances hydrophilicity of CSBs to allow for increased adsorption for ClO. Adsorption of ClO (10 and 100 mg/L) follows a pseudo-first order kinetics with equilibrium time of 2-6 h but is limited by intra-particle diffusion. Anions common in natural waters exhibit interference effects due to similar electrostatic attraction mechanism, thus HCO and SO with high abundance in natural waters need pre-treatment. Regeneration of the adsorbents to 100% of its adsorption capacity by rinsing with 0.1 M NaOH is demonstrated for 12 cycles due to complete desorption of ClO via electrostatic repulsion, assuring reusability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143236DOI Listing
March 2021

TGR5 Attenuated Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating the Keap1-Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in Mice.

Inflammation 2021 Jun 10;44(3):859-872. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of General Surgery, Wujin Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University and The Wujin Clinical College of Xuzhou Medical University, Changzhou, 213000, China.

Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) still remains an unavoidable problem in hepatectomy. The inflammatory response plays an important role in its pathogenesis. The plasma membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5), as one of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) families, has been proved to serve a protective role in several liver diseases. However, the exact function of TGR5 in modulating IRI remains obscure. We injected wild mice with a small interfering RNA of TGR5 (si-TGR5) or TGR5 agonist (INT-777) and established liver partial warm ischemia/reperfusion model. The results showed that knockdown of TGR5 significantly aggravated hepatic tissue injury, but treatment with INT-777 could reverse it, as evidenced by serum ALT and AST tests, liver histological injury, cytokines expressions, liver immunohistochemical analysis, and TUNEL staining. The apoptosis-associated proteins were evaluated after reperfusion. Moreover, we used primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) to establish hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) model to verify the anti-inflammation effect of TGR5. In in vivo experiments, we used TGR5-siRNA and TGR5 agonist (INT-777) to determine that TGR5 significantly attenuated liver damage after IRI through activating the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. In addition, we found that overexpression of INT-777-activated TGR5 could reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory response in H/R-induced BMDMs through regulation of Keap1-Nef2 pathway during in vitro experiment. Importantly, these results were completely reversed in si-TGR5 BMDMs. In conclusion, the results indicated that TGR5 could effectively alleviated inflammation response via accelerating the activation of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway during hepatic IRI, which may be meaningful in reducing related inflammatory molecules and adjusting inherent immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-020-01382-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluation of forward reflectance models and empirical algorithms for chlorophyll concentration of stratified waters.

Appl Opt 2020 Oct;59(30):9340-9352

For waters with stratified chlorophyll concentration (Chl), numerical simulations were carried out to gain insight into the forward models of subsurface reflectance and empirical algorithms for Chl from the ocean color. It is found that the Gordon and Clark (1980) forward model for reflectance using an equivalent homogeneous water with a weighted average Chl (⟨⟩) as the input works well, but depending on the contribution of gelbstoff, the difference in reflectance between stratified and the equivalent homogeneous water can be more than 10%. Further, the attenuation of upward light is better approximated as ∼1.5 that of the diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance. On the other hand, although the forward model for reflectance developed in Zaneveld et al. [Opt. Express13, 9052 (2005)] using equivalent homogeneous water with a weighted average of the backscattering to absorption ratio as the input also works well, this model cannot be used to obtain equivalent ⟨⟩ for reflectance. Further, for empirical Chl algorithms designed for "Case 1" waters, it has been discovered that, for surface Chl in a range of ∼0.06-22.0/, the predictability of surface Chl is basically the same as that of ⟨⟩ from the blue-green band ratio or the band difference of reflectance. Because ⟨⟩ is wavelength and weighting-formula dependent, and it is required to have profiles of both Chl and the optical properties, these results emphasize that for empirical Chl algorithms, it is easier, less ambiguous, and certainly more straightforward and simple to use surface Chl for algorithm development and then its evaluation, rather than to use ⟨⟩, regardless of whether or not the water is stratified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.400070DOI Listing
October 2020

Iron-Catalyzed Regioselective Alkenylboration of Olefins.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jan 24;60(4):2104-2109. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 12 Science Drive 2, 117549, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

The first examples of an iron-catalyzed three-component synthesis of homoallylic boronates from regioselective union of bis(pinacolato)diboron, an alkenyl halide (bromide, chloride or fluoride), and an olefin are disclosed. Products that bear tertiary or quaternary carbon centers could be generated in up to 87 % yield as single regioisomers with complete retention of the olefin stereochemistry. With cyclopropylidene-containing substrates, ring cleavage leading to trisubstituted E-alkenylboronates were selectively obtained. Mechanistic studies revealed reaction attributes that are distinct from previously reported alkene carboboration pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202012607DOI Listing
January 2021

Deltamethrin transformation by Bacillus thuringiensis and the associated metabolic pathways.

Environ Int 2020 12 6;145:106167. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Institute of Orthopedic Diseases and Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, China. Electronic address:

The biological toxicity of deltamethrin at molecular level has been investigated, whereas, the proteome responsive mechanisms of cells under deltamethrin stress at the phylogenetic level are not clear. The proteome expression, transformation-related pathway and regulatory network of Bacillus thuringiensis during the process of deltamethrin transformation were explored using proteomics and metabolomics approaches in the present study. The results showed that deltamethrin was effectively removed by B. thuringiensis within 48 h. The stress responses of B. thuringiensis were activated to resist deltamethrin stress, with significant differential expression of proteins that were primarily involved in the synthesis of DNA and shock proteins, endospore formation, carbon metabolism. The expression patterns of ribosomal proteins confirmed that the transcription and translation of DNA, and biosynthesis of heat shock proteins were inhibited as deltamethrin transformation. The synthesis of oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA were also hindered, resulting in downregulated expression of carbohydrate metabolism, TCA cycle and energy metabolism. Meanwhile, endospore formation and germination were promoted to resist oxidative stress induced by deltamethrin. These findings imparted novel insight to elucidate underlying stress response mechanisms of the organism under target contaminants stress, and the interaction between deltamethrin transformation and cellular metabolism at the pathway and network levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106167DOI Listing
December 2020

The effects and safety of activators of glucokinase versus placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Endocr J 2021 Feb 1;68(2):189-194. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects and safety of activators of glucokinase (GKAs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). 11 RCTs, including 2,429 participants, are enrolled in our study. According to different doses, we divided the studies into 3 groups: low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group for subgroup analysis. There were decreases of HbA1c in all dose group (WMD = -0.27, 95%CI (-0.51~ -0.03), Z = 2.17, p = 0.03; WMD = -0.37, 95%CI (-0.58~ -0.16), Z = 3.41, p = 0.0006; WMD = -0.60, 95%CI (-0.86~ -0.33), Z = 4.43, p < 0.00001). Though the total risk of hypoglycemia is absolutely low, in the high-dose group higher hypoglycemia than the placebo can be observed (RR = 0.03, 95%CI (0.00~0.06), Z = 2.27, p = 0.02). In addition, the study found that the drug was less likely to have adverse reactions such as diarrhea, headache and dizziness, nasopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infection (RR = 0.76, 95%CI (0.36~1.60), Z = 0.73, p = 0.47; RR = 1.26, 95%CI (0.73~2.17), Z = 0.83, p = 0.41; RR = 0.71, 95%CI (0.41~1.22), Z = 1.25, p = 0.21; RR = 1.61, 95%CI (0.77~3.36), Z = 1.26, p = 0.21). It concludes that GKAs are relatively effective and safe in the treatment of patients with T2DM, but in consideration of the potential risk of hypoglycemia in the high-dose group, the low-dose and medium-dose group, in the clinical practice, can be an excellent choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ20-0286DOI Listing
February 2021

Iron-Catalyzed Tunable and Site-Selective Olefin Transposition.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 10 9;142(42):18223-18230. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 12 Science Drive 2, Republic of Singapore 117549.

The catalytic isomerization of C-C double bonds is an indispensable chemical transformation used to deliver higher-value analogues and has important utility in the chemical industry. Notwithstanding the advances reported in this field, there is compelling demand for a general catalytic solution that enables precise control of the C═C bond migration position, in both cyclic and acyclic systems, to furnish disubstituted and trisubstituted alkenes. Here, we show that catalytic amounts of an appropriate earth-abundant iron-based complex, a base and a boryl compound, promote efficient and controllable alkene transposition. Mechanistic investigations reveal that these processes likely involve in situ formation of an iron-hydride species which promotes olefin isomerization through sequential olefin insertion/β-hydride elimination. Through this strategy, regiodivergent access to different products from one substrate can be facilitated, isomeric olefin mixtures commonly found in petroleum-derived feedstock can be transformed to a single alkene product, and unsaturated moieties embedded within linear and heterocyclic biologically active entities can be obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c08631DOI Listing
October 2020

The value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio as complementary diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis: A multicenter retrospective study.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Jan 19;35(1):e23569. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Science and Education Section, Wujin Hospital Affiliated with Jiangsu University, Changzhou City, China.

Background: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have drawn attention in recent years as novel non-specific inflammatory markers; however, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate their value in RA.

Objective: To investigate the value of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as complementary diagnostic tools in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Method: This study included 1009 patients with RA, 170 patients with other rheumatic diseases, and 245 healthy individuals from four medical centers. The patients' general data, including complete blood count, C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and rheumatoid factor (RF), were retrospectively analyzed, and the NLR and PLR were calculated. Potential effective indicators were screened by logistic regression analysis, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to evaluate their diagnostic value for RA.

Results: (a) The NLR and PLR were significantly higher in the RA group than in the non-RA group and the control group (P < .05). (b) Spearman's Rho showed that the NLR was positively correlated with the PLR (r = .584, P < .05), RF (r = .167, P < .01), and CRP (r = .280, P < .01) but was not significantly correlated with ESR (r = .100, P > .05). The PLR was positively correlated with RF (r = .139, P < .01), CRP (r = .297, P < .01), and ESR (r = .262, P < .05). (c) Logistic analysis showed that RF, CRP, ESR, and the NLR had diagnostic value for RA. (d) For the NLR, the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve was 0.831; at the cutoff value of 2.13, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and Youden index were 76.7%, 75.9%, 76.4%, and 0.5424, respectively.

Conclusion: The NLR was less effective than CRP and RF but was superior to ESR in the diagnosis of RA. The NLR can thus be used as a complementary diagnostic indicator in the diagnosis of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843258PMC
January 2021

Anammox reactor exposure to thiocyanate: Long-term performance and microbial community dynamics.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Dec 5;317:123960. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, C1, Kyoto daigaku-Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan.

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is an autotrophic denitrification process that has broad application potential for treating coking wastewaters. The present study estimated the effects of thiocyanate (SCN), a common pollutant in coking wastewaters, on anammox processes and microbial communities in anammox reactors for over two years of continuous exposure. The addition of SCN (from 50 to 200 mg L) showed negative effects on the denitrification performance of the anammox reactors. In SCN-dosed reactors, increased effluent ammonium concentrations indicated the occurrence of SCN-based biodegradation processes. Microbial analysis revealed that the anammox species almost disappeared in the reactor dosed with SCN at over 100 mg L. Instead, an abundance of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria belonging to the Thiobacillus genus demonstrated a linear increase with SCN addition. The competition between anammox species and SCN-degrading microorganisms was expected to dominate the inhibition effects of SCN addition on the performance of anammox reactors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123960DOI Listing
December 2020

Distal transradial access: a review of the feasibility and safety in cardiovascular angiography and intervention.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 08 5;20(1):356. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Cardiology, Wujin Hospital Affiliated with Jiangsu University, the Wujin Clinical College of Xuzhou Medical University, Changzhou City, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Transradial access (TRA) has been considered as the default choice in cardiac catheterization. Although infrequent, vascular complications of this approach remain. Recently, the distal transradial approach (dTRA) in cardiac catheterization was reported by interventionalists.

Methods: We retrieved the relevant literatures and reviewed the safety and feasibility of this novel approach in cardiac catheterization.

Results: The dTRA for cardiac intervention has superior safety and satisfaction. As a novel approach for cardiac catheterization, access related complications should also be considered by operators, such as RAO, radial spasm, bleeding and haematoma, and injury of the superficial branch of the radial nerve.

Conclusions: The dTRA in cardiovascular angiography and intervention was safe and feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01625-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409500PMC
August 2020

Enoxacin inhibits proliferation and invasion of human osteosarcoma cells and reduces bone tumour volume in a murine xenograft model.

Oncol Lett 2020 Aug 21;20(2):1400-1408. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Artificial Joints Engineering and Technology Research Centre of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, P.R. China.

Osteosarcoma is the most prevalent primary bone malignancy in children and adolescents. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with surgical resection, the current standard treatment of osteosarcoma, is associated with a 5-year survival rate of only ~70%. Therefore, it is necessary to identify new, more effective treatment strategies for patients with this lethal disease. Enoxacin is a highly effective broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic with low toxicity. The drug inhibits the growth and metastasis of numerous tumour types, but its efficacy has not been studied in osteosarcoma. This study assessed the antitumour effects of enoxacin in osteosarcoma 143B cells and in a murine tumour xenograft model. Enoxacin inhibited the proliferation, invasion and migration of 143B cells, as well as inducing their apoptosis. These effects were thought to be mediated by downregulation of Bcl-xL, Bxl-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2 and MMP9 expression. Enoxacin also significantly impaired the growth of bone tumours in nude mice without affecting their liver or kidney function, or blood cell count. Collectively, these results indicate that enoxacin is a promising new drug for osteosarcoma that warrants further evaluation in clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377056PMC
August 2020

Analysis of land use change and its influence on runoff in the Puhe River Basin.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

College of Water Conservancy, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, 110866, China.

This article aims to evaluate the impact of urbanization on land use changes and the effects of land use changes on catchment's runoff. The maximum likelihood method was used to interpret the seven remote sensing images of the Puhe River Basin from 1985 to 2015. The Mann-Kendall test, sliding T test, and double accumulation method are adopted to analyze the impact of land use changes on watershed runoff. The results show that with the development of urbanization, a large amount of cultivated land was replaced by urban construction land. By 2015, the construction land area accounted for 72.16% of the total area. The year 1995 was a turning point in the urbanization development. The change of land use type has substantial influence on runoff and results in the increase of runoff coefficient. Human activities become the main factor affecting runoff change in the Puhe River Basin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09798-7DOI Listing
June 2020

Experimental evaluation of the self-shadow and its correction for on-water measurements of water-leaving radiance.

Appl Opt 2020 Jun;59(17):5325-5334

Accurate determination of the water-leaving radiance () is key to correctly interpret in-water optical properties and to validate the atmospheric correction schemes in ocean color studies. Among the various approaches adopted to measure in the field, the skylight-blocked approach (SBA) is the only scheme that can potentially measure directly. However, the apparatus associated with an SBA system will introduce self-shading effects to the measured , which is required to be corrected for an accurate determination. In this study, we experimentally evaluate several factors that could contribute to the self-shading effects of the SBA-measured , including solar zenith angle (∼18-64), water's optical properties, and cone size (radius of 22 mm and 45 mm). For waters with the total absorption coefficient at 440 nm as high as ∼6.0, the normalized root-mean-square difference between the SBA-measured after shade correction and the "true" is generally between ∼5 and ∼10 for wavelengths in the range of 400-750 nm. These results suggest that SBA can obtain highly accurate and precise in nearly all natural aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.391633DOI Listing
June 2020

and Variants Confer Susceptibility to Thyroid Dysgenesis and Gland- With Congenital Hypothyroidism.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 21;11:237. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Medical Genetic Department, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Thyroid dysgenesis (TD), which is caused by gland developmental abnormalities, is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). In addition, advances in diagnostic techniques have facilitated the identification of mild CH patients with a gland- (GIS) with normal thyroid morphology. Therefore, TD and GIS account for the vast majority of CH cases. Sixteen known genes to be related to CH were sequenced and screened for variations by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a cohort of 377 CH cases, including 288 TD cases and 89 GIS cases. In our CH cohort, we found that (21.22%) was the most commonly variant pathogenic gene, while was prominent in TD (18.75%) and was prominent in GIS (34.83%). Both biallelic and triple variants of were found to be most common in children with TD and children with GIS. The most frequent combination was with among the 61 patients who carried digenic variants. We also found for the first time that biallelic , and variants participate in the pathogenesis of TD. In addition, the variant p.Y246X in was the most common variant hotspot, with 58 novel variants identified in our study. We meticulously described the types and characteristics of variants from sixteen known gene in children with TD and GIS in the Chinese population, suggesting that and variants may confer susceptibility to TD and GIS via polygenic inheritance and multiple factors, which further expands the genotype-phenotype spectrum of CH in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212429PMC
May 2021

Effects of different chemical groups on behaviors of bladder cancer cells.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2020 12 12;108(12):2484-2490. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

State Key Lab of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, College of Materials Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

Chemical groups of microenvironment play an important role in the adhesion, proliferation, and apoptosis of tumor cells. The different chemical groups (CH , OH, COOH) were grafted on the surfaces with the same density by self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique to introduce the influence of different microenvironments of the human bladder cancer (5637) cells. The results indicated that the 5637 cells on COOH surface exhibited the lowest proliferation rate and the highest apoptosis rate on the first and fifth day because of negative charge and polarity of the COOH group, which might help optimize biomedicine materials and find new methods to treat bladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36999DOI Listing
December 2020

Contamination of pyrethroids in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta, China.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 4;731:139181. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.

This study focused on contamination levels and spatial distributions of four common pyrethroids found in agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Pyrethroids were detected in 241 soil samples (88.8% detection rate) with total concentrations ranging from  cypermethrin (1.10 ng/g) > deltamethrin (0.89 ng/g) > cyhalothrin (0.20 ng/g). The highest concentration of fenpropathrin was recorded as 37.6 ng/g. The highest detection rate of 63.9% was found for cyhalothrin. A distinct pattern of spatial distribution was observed where high concentrations of pyrethroids were detected in sites around Taihu Lake. Potential sources of pyrethroids in agricultural soils from the YRD region include pyrethroids used for pest control and wastewater irrigation in the region. Redundancy and correlation analyses show that the soil TOC values have played a significant role in the behavior of pyrethroids in agricultural soils of the YRD region. Potential ecological risks of pyrethroids in agricultural soils of the YRD region are low. Cypermethrin and cyhalothrin showed potential toxic effects on the ecological conditions of agricultural soils in 4.6% and 2.9% of the sampling sites, respectively. Further studies should pay more attention to the potential human health risks posed by pyrethroids in agricultural soils for the protection of soil quality and food safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139181DOI Listing
August 2020

Hyperspectral polarimetric imaging of the water surface and retrieval of water optical parameters from multi-angular polarimetric data.

Appl Opt 2020 Apr;59(10):C8-C20

Total and polarized radiances from above the ocean surface are measured by a state-of-the-art snapshot hyperspectral imager. A computer-controlled filter wheel is installed in front of the imager allowing for recording of division-of-time Stokes vector images from the ocean surface. This system, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time provided a capability of hyperspectral polarimetric multi-angular measurements of radiances from above the water surface. Several sets of measurements used in the analysis were acquired from ocean platforms and from shipborne observations. Measurements made by the imager are compared with simulations using a vector radiative transfer (VRT) code showing reasonable agreement. Analysis of pixel-to-pixel variability of the total and polarized above-water radiance for the viewing angles of 20°-60° in different wind conditions enable the estimation of uncertainties in measurements of these radiances in the polarized mode for the spectral range of 450-750 nm, thus setting requirements for the quality of polarized measurements. It is shown that there is a noticeable increase of above-water degree of linear polarization (DoLP) as a function of the viewing angle, which is due both to the larger DoLP of the light from the water body and the light reflected from the ocean surface. Results of measurements and VRT simulations are applied for the multi-angular retrieval of the ratio of beam attenuation coefficient () to absorption coefficient () in addition to the other parameters such as absorption and backscattering coefficients retrieved from traditional unpolarized methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.59.0000C8DOI Listing
April 2020

Graphene quantum dots: efficient mechanosynthesis, white-light and broad linear excitation-dependent photoluminescence and growth inhibition of bladder cancer cells.

Dalton Trans 2020 Feb 4;49(7):2308-2316. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

School of Enviromental and Chemical Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528000, China.

Heteroatom-doped graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications as luminescent materials and in biology. In this work, we developed a solvent-free gram-scale mechanochemical method for the preparation of nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) with the highest solubility (31 mg mL) in water reported to date. Commercial graphite was sheared and cut through grinding with solid melamine and then ground with solid KOH to get sub-5 nm-sized, 1-3-layered N-GQDs. Notably, these N-GQDs exhibit white-light emission and broad excitation-dependent full-color photoluminescence from 463 nm to 672 nm. When the excitation light ranged from 325 nm to 485 nm, these mechanochemically obtained N-GQDs exhibited bright white-light emission. Intriguingly, the change in the emission wavelength has two-stage linear relationships with the change in the excitation wavelength, and the inflection point is at 580 nm (excited at 550 nm). The difference between the emission and excitation wavelengths decreases from 138 to 12 nm, which also shows two-stage linear relationships with the change in the excitation wavelength. It is notable that their PL quantum yields are high, up to 26.6%. Furthermore, we studied the inhibitory effect of as-obtained N-GQDs on bladder cancer cells (UMUC-3); as a result, with the increase of the concentration of N-GQDs, the proliferation of cancer cells was obviously prohibited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9dt04575aDOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of irisin on osteoblast apoptosis and osteoporosis in postmenopausal osteoporosis rats through upregulating Nrf2 and inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Feb 10;19(2):1084-1090. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, P.R. China.

The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/NLR family, pyrin domain containing protein 3 (NLRP3) plays an important role in osteoporosis (OP), so the effects of irisin on postmenopausal OP rats and osteoblast apoptosis through Nrf2/NLRP3 were explored in the present study. A total of 45 specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats were selected and divided into OP model group (OP group, n=15), 1 mmol/l irisin treatment group (irisin group, n=15) and normal control group (control group, n=15). After the trial period, the content of serum ALP was detected, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the serum and bone tissues were observed via ELISA, and the bone microstructure was observed via CT. Osteoblast apoptosis was determined through TUNEL assay, the content of apoptosis genes caspase-3 and Bcl-2, and key genes in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteocalcin (OC), Nrf2 and NLRP3 was detected via RT-PCR. The protein expression of Bcl-2, Nrf2 and NLRP3 was determined via western blotting. The serum ALP level was increased in OP group compared with that in control group (P<0.05), while it declined in the irisin group. The content of TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was significantly higher in OP group, while the content in the irisin group was close to that in the control group. The trabecular thickness, number and bone mineral density in the irisin group were all obviously larger and higher, respectively, than those in the OP group. The mRNA expression of Runx2, OC, Bcl-2 and Nrf2 in the irisin group were obviously higher (P<0.05), while that of caspase-3 and NLRP3 showed the opposite trends. The protein expression of Bcl-2 and Nrf2 in the irisin group was remarkably higher than those in the OP group, while that of NLRP3 was the opposite. irisin can upregulate Nrf2, inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome and lower the content of inflammatory factors, thereby suppressing osteoblast apoptosis in postmenopausal OP rats and reducing the incidence of postmenopausal OP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2019.8313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966163PMC
February 2020

Removal of triphenyl phosphate by nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) activated bisulfite: Performance, surface reaction mechanism and sulfate radical-mediated degradation pathway.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 14;260:113983. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education on Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, China.

Recently, sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) have been studied extensively for the removal of pollutants, however, few researches focused on the activation of bisulfite by nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI), especially, surface reaction mechanism and sulfate radical-mediated degradation pathway have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, influencing factors, the kinetics, transformation pathway and mechanism of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) degradation in the nZVI/bisulfite system were systematically discussed. Compared with Fe, nZVI was found to be a more efficient and long-lasting activator of bisulfite via gradual generation of iron ions. The optimal degradation efficiency of TPHP (98.2%) and pseudo-first-order kinetics rate constant (k = 0.2784 min) were obtained by using 0.5 mM nZVI and 2.0 mM bisulfite at the initial pH 3.0. Both Cl and NO inhibited the degradation of TPHP and the inhibitory effect of Cl was stronger than that of NO due to the higher reaction rate of Cl with •SO. Furthermore, SEM, XRD and XPS characterization revealed that a thin passivation layer (FeO, FeO, FeOOH) deposited on the surface of fresh nZVI and a few iron corrosion products generated and assembled on the surface of reacted nZVI. Radical quenching tests identified that •SO was the dominant reactive oxidative species (ROS) for TPHP removal. Based on HRMS analysis, six degradation products were determined and a sulfate radical-mediated degradation pathway was proposed. In a word, this study revealed that the nZVI/bisulfite system had a great potential for the TPHP elimination in waterbody.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.113983DOI Listing
May 2020